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Sample records for concrete shaft liner

  1. Waste Handling Shaft concrete liner degradation conclusions and recommendations

    1992-10-01

    The primary function of the Waste Handling Shaft (WHS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to permit the transfer of radioactive waste from the surface waste handling building to the underground storage area. It also serves as an intake shaft for small volumes of air during normal storage operations and as an emergency escape route. Part of the construction was the placement of a concrete liner and steel reinforced key in 1984. During a routine shaft inspection in May 1990, some degradation of the WHS concrete liner was observed between the depths of 800 and 900 feet below the ground surface. Detailed investigations of the liner had been carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) through Lankard Materials Laboratory. Observations, reports, and data support the conclusion that the concrete degradation, resulting from attack by chemically aggressive brine, is a localized phenomena. It is the opinion of the WID that the degradation is not considered an immediate or near term concern; this is supported by technical experts. WID recommendations have been made which, when implemented, will ensure an extended liner life. Based on the current assessment of available data and the proposed shaft liner monitoring program described in this report, it is reasonable to assume that the operational life of the concrete shaft liner can safely support the 25-year life of the WIPP. Analysis of data indicates that degradation of the shaft's concrete liner is attributed to chemically aggressive brine seeping through construction joints and shrinkage cracks from behind the liner in and around the 834-foot depth. Chemical and mechanical components of concrete degradation have been identified. Chemical attack is comprised of several stages of concrete alteration. The other component, mechanical degradation, results from the expansive forces of crystals forming in the concrete pore space

  2. Deteriorated Concrete from Liner of WIPP Waste Shaft

    1992-06-01

    for US Department of Energy. Bensted, J. 1989. "Novel Cements - Sorel and Related Chemical Cements," il Cemento , Vol 86, No. 4, pp 217-228. Ben-Yair, M...Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Massazza, F. 1985. "Concrete Resistance to Sea Water and Marine Environment," il Cemento , Vol 82, No. 1, pp 3-26. Mather

  3. Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate

    Duncan, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    Eklund, James D.; Halter, Joseph M.; Rasmussen, Donald E.; Sullivan, Robert G.; Moffat, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  5. Simulation of LOCA and ageing effect with containment liner mockup for analysis of liner-concrete interaction

    Wienand, B.; Fila, A.; Hermann, N.; Mueller, M.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the pre-stressed concrete wall behavior including the liner during LOCA conditions is important for the assessment of the structural integrity of the structure and the leak tightness of the liner. In the frame of the NUGENIA ACCEPPT project WP1 G4 'Structural interaction of liner with the concrete', a load test on a reactor containment liner mockup was carried out. The pre-stressed mockup represents a cylindrical part of the liner, embedded in the concrete wall, but without the wall curvature which is not test relevant. It correlates in material and geometrical properties to the EPR containment. The purpose of the test was to check the liners structural behavior and its integrity for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) load combination considering pre-stressing forces and ageing effects due to creep and shrinkage including liner buckling. The test was carried out at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in September 2013. This article presents the measurement technology, the results and the development of a calculation method for the embedded liner structure. It appears that the liner deformation results are exemplarily shown at the locations of the imperfections, where the liner buckling is anticipated. The measured liner surface strains ranged between +2 and -10 per thousand. The compressive strains are higher than the tensile strains due to the compressive membrane strains caused by pre-stressing and heating. Although the liner got plastic deformations, the liner strains are still far below the elongation at rupture, which indicates that the liner integrity is ensured. We can conclude that the liner mockup test proceeded as planned. The evaluation results show that the purpose of the liner mockup to simulate LOCA + ageing conditions and liner buckling has fully been achieved

  6. A three-dimensional rupture analysis of steel liners anchored to concrete pressure and containment vessels

    Bangash, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Steel liners or plates are anchored to concrete pressure and containment vessels for nuclear and offshore facilities. Due to extreme loading conditions a liner may buckle due to the pull-out or shearing of anchors from the base metal and concrete. Under certain conditions attributed to loadings, liner metal deterioration and cracking of concrete behind the liner, the liner may fail by rupture. This paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of steel-concrete elements, using finite elements analysis in which a provision is made for liner instability, anchor strength and stiffness, concrete cracking and finally liner rupture. The analysis is tested first on an octagonal slab with and without an anchored steel liner. It is then extended to concrete pressure and containment vessels. The analytical results obtained are compared well with those available from the experimental tests and other sources. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  8. A realistic structural analysis of the integrity of the liner of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments

    Buchhardt, F.; Brandl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The BWR Gundremmingen II is the first German nuclear power plant with a concrete containment having a thin steel plate liner directly attached to the interior concrete surface to provide an air-tight seal. Due to this monolithic way of anchorage a bonded system of concrete and metal liner membrane is obtained so that the same deformations of the loading or strain conditions are induced to the very stiff concrete hull as well as to the liner. Because of the complex structural behaviour of the bonded system the evaluation is carried out by the finite element method. The overall system is decoupled in several steps. Due to its considerable stiffness the concrete structure can be regarded as the liner supporting basis. The liner system itself might be subdivided into perfect and imperfect sections discretized by plain or curved elements which are supported by point-wise spring elements representing the stud anchors. (orig.)

  9. Modeling geochemical stability of cement formulations for use as shaft liner and sealing components at Yucca Mountain

    Gardiner, M.A.; Myers, J.; Hinkebein, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemical modeling codes EQ3NR/EQ6 were used to model the interaction of cementitious materials with ground water from the Yucca Mountain proposed nuclear waste repository site in Nevada. This paper presents a preliminary estimate of the compositional changes caused by these interactions in the ground water and in the cement-based compounds proposed for use as sealing and shaft liner materials at the Yucca Mountain site. The geochemical speciation/solubility/reaction path codes EQ3NR/EQ6 were used to model the interaction of cementitious materials and water. Interaction of water with a cementitious material will result in dissolution of certain cement phases and changes in the water chemistry. These changes in the water chemistry may further lead to the precipitation of minerals either in the concrete or in the surrounding tuff at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). As part of a larger scoping study, a range of water, cement, and tuff compositions, temperatures, and reaction path modes were used. This paper presents a subset of that study by considering the interaction of three different cement formulations at 25 degree C with J-13 water using the ''closed'' reaction path mode. This subset was chosen as a base case to answer important questions in selecting the compositions of cementitious materials for use in the proposed repository. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Evaluation Of Liner Back-pressure Due To Concrete Pore Pressure At Elevated Temperatures

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Liu, A.S.; Gou, B.

    2006-01-01

    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. These passive systems used for emergency cooling also mean that the primary containment system will experience elevated temperatures with longer durations than conventional plants in the event of design basis accidents. During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the drywell in the primary containment structure for the ESBWR will be exposed to saturated steam conditions for up to 72 hours following the accident. A containment spray system may be activated that sprays the drywell area with water to condense the steam as part of the recovery operations. The liner back-pressure will build up gradually over the 72 hours as the concrete temperatures increase, and a sudden cool down could cause excessive differential pressure on the liner to develop. For this analysis, it is assumed that the containment spray is activated at the end of the 72-hour period. A back-pressure, acting between the liner and the concrete wall of the containment, can occur as a result of elevated temperatures in the concrete causing steam and saturated vapor pressures to develop from the free water remaining in the pores of the concrete. Additional pore pressure also develops under the elevated temperatures from the non-condensable gases trapped in the concrete pores during the concrete curing process. Any buildup of this pore pressure next to the liner, in excess of the drywell internal pressure, will act to push the liner away from the concrete with a potential for tearing at the liner anchorages. This paper describes the methods and analyses used to quantify this liner back-pressure so that appropriate measures are included in the design of the liner and anchorage system. A pore pressure model is developed that calculates the pressure distribution across the concrete

  11. Current state of knowledge on the behavior of steel liners in concrete containments subjected to overpressurization loads

    von Riesemann, W.A.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the United States, concrete containment buildings for commercial nuclear power plants have steel liners that act as the intemal pressure boundary. The liner abuts the concrete, acting as the interior concrete form. The liner is attached to the concrete by either studs or by a continuous structural shape (such as a T-section or channel) that is either continuously or intermittently welded to the liner. Studs are commonly used in reinforced concrete containments, while prestressed containments utilize a structural element as the anchorage. The practice in some countries follows the US practice, while in other countries the containment does not have a steel liner. In this latter case, there is a true double containment, and the annular region between the two containments is vented. This paper will review the practice of design of the liner system prior to the consideration of severe accident loads (overpressurization loads beyond the design conditions)

  12. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    Seni, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mills, R H [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    Seni, C.; Mills, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs

  14. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito; Koike, Masashi; Matsubara, Makoto; Sugawara, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  15. Development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants

    Ishida, H.; Kurozumi, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated, Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Kaneshima, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants. Integrity of containment liners on nuclear power plants can be secured by suitable present operation and maintenance. Furthermore, non-destructive testing technique to inspect embedded liners will ensure the integrity of the containment further. In order to develop the non-destructive testing technique, ultrasonic transducers were made newly and ultrasonic testing data acquisition and evaluation were carried out by using a mock-up. We adopted the surface shear horizontal (SH) wave, low frequency (0.3-0.5MHz), to be able to detect an echo from a defect against attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to long propagation in the liners and dispersion into concrete. We made transducers with three large active elements (40mm x 40mm) in a line which were equivalent to a 120mm width active element. Artificial hollows, {phi}200mm - 19mm depth (1/2thickness) and {phi}200mm - 9.5mm depth (1/4thickness), were made on a surface of a mock-up: carbon steel plate, 38mm thickness, 2,000mm length, 1000mm width. The surfaces of the plate were covered with concrete in order to simulate liners embedded in concrete. As a result of the examinations, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows at a distance of 1500mm. We evaluate that the newly made surface SH transducers with three elements have ability of detection of defects such as corrosion on the liners embedded in concrete. (author)

  16. A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete

    Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft 3 . A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry

  17. The instrumentation of the prestressed concrete vessel with hot liner at Seibersdorf Research Centre

    Zemann, H.

    1975-11-01

    The joint project ''Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel with Hot Liner'' at Seibersdorf Research Centre now is in the process of testing the PCPV both in construction and operation from the safety point of view. The physical state of the PCPV (modulus of elasticity, humidity of concrete, creeping, etc.) is brought to stable conditions by ''pre-aging''. In order to control this process of stabilisation, an extensive knowledge of the concrete and an elaborated instrumentation is a necessity. This paper presents a survey about the philosophy and the realisation of the instrumentation of the PCPV and the investigations we performed to interpret the measurements. (author)

  18. Stress analysis of liners for prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner material and of anchor-characteristics

    Oberpichler, R.; Schnellenbach, G.

    1975-01-01

    The thin liner attached by anchors like a membrane to the interior wall of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel (PCRV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. Furthermore the liner may serve as internal shuttering for placing of concrete as well as a support for the cooling system. The two-dimensional behaviour of the liner is investigated with regard to non-linear anchor-characteristics and non-linear material behaviour of the liner. The analysis is based on a plane stress model under the assumption of a membrane state of the liner. Calculations are performed by the dynamic relaxation method. With the aid of available non-linear stress-strain diagrams, describing the post-buckling behaviour, individual panels are considered as buckled ones. The adjacent unbuckled panels are calculated on other non-linear diagrams. Strains and stresses in the liner and additional shear loads in the anchors can be calculated with arbitrary sizing and spacing of the anchors. With respect to the parameters they are easily controlled. Since actual loads on the liner are defined by the PCRV-behaviour, an economical and safe design is possible. Finally an extreme case is calculated to assess the maximum value of the shear-forces assuming zero post-buckling capacity for the buckled panel. (Auth.)

  19. Current state of knowledge on the behavior of steel liners in concrete containments subjected to overpressurization loads

    Riesemann, W.A. von; Parks, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, concrete containment buildings for commercial nuclear power plants have steel liners that act as the internal pressure boundary. The liner abuts the concrete, acting as the interior concrete form. The liner is attached to the concrete by either studs or by a continuous structural shape (such as a T-section or channel) that is either continuously or intermittently welded to the liner. Studs are commonly used in reinforced concrete containments, while prestressed containments utilize a structural element as the anchorage. The practice in some countries follows the US practice, while in other countries the containment does not have a steel liner. In this latter case, there is a true double containment, and the annular region between the two containments is vented.This paper will review the practice of design of the liner system prior to the consideration of severe accident loads (overpressurization loads beyond the design conditions).An overpressurization test of a 1:6 scale reinforced concrete containment at Sandia National Laboratories resulted in a failure mechanism in the liner that was not fully anticipated. Post-test analyses and experiments have been conducted to understand the failure better. This work and the activities that followed the test are reviewed. Areas in which additional research should be conducted are given. (orig.)

  20. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J. D. [Bonnard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseil, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1981-01-15

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed.

  1. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed

  2. Experimental investigations concerning the suitability of channel systems for liner leak detection and drainage of a prestressed concrete vessel

    Nickel, M.; Breitbach, G.; Altes, J.; Escherich, K.H.; Wolters, J.

    1985-02-01

    The iternal surfaces of prestressed concrete pressure vessels are fitted with a steel liner to preserve the gas tightness of the primary circuit. Because of the high quality manufacture and the loading conditions a linear failure can be practically excluded. However, if it is hypothetically assumed, that a leak develops during reactor operation, it may be difficult to determine the position of the leak, because the linear area is very large. For tightness surveillance and for venting channel systems installed in close proximity to the linear are suitable. The suitability of such channels for leak detection, localisation and venting was investigated experimentally. A concrete wall (length 2.5 m, height 2.0 m, thickness 0.5 m) was constructed, covered on one side with a steel liner. Behind the liner two different channel systems have been installed. For the simulation of leaks holes were drilled into the liner. The experimental programm contained the following measurements: determination of gas flow rates into the different leaks, distribution of leakage gas over the array of channels and determination of pressures into the concrete and immediately behind the liner. The experiments have shown, that channel arrays immediately adjacent to the liner are the most suitable systems for localisation and controlled exhaust of leakage gas. The suitability decreases, if the channels are set into the concrete somewhat distant from the liner. (orig.) [de

  3. Separate effects testing and analyses to investigate liner tearing of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building

    Spletzer, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.; Bergman, V.L.

    1995-06-01

    The overpressurization of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building demonstrated that liner tearing is a plausible failure mode in such structures under severe accident conditions. A combined experimental and analytical program was developed to determine the important parameters which affect liner tearing and to develop reasonably simple analytical methods for predicting when tearing will occur. Three sets of test specimens were designed to allow individual control over and investigation of the mechanisms believed to be important in causing failure of the liner plate. The series of tests investigated the effect on liner tearing produced by the anchorage system, the loading conditions, and the transition in thickness from the liner to the insert plate. Before testing, the specimens were analyzed using two- and three-dimensional finite element models. Based on the analysis, the failure mode and corresponding load conditions were predicted for each specimen. Test data and post-test examination of test specimens show mixed agreement with the analytical predictions with regard to failure mode and specimen response for most tests. Many similarities were also observed between the response of the liner in the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model and the response of the test specimens. This work illustrates the fact that the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete containment building can be greatly influenced by details of liner and anchorage system design. Further, it significantly increases the understanding of containment building response under severe conditions

  4. Advances in the analysis and design of concrete structures, metal containments and liner plate for extreme loads

    Stevenson, J.D.; Eibl, J.; Curbach, M.; Johnson, T.E.; Daye, M.A.; Riera, J.D.; Nemet, J.; Iyengar, K.T.S.

    1992-01-01

    The material presented in this paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the analysis, design, and testing of concrete structures. The material is summarized in the following documents: Part I: Containment Design Criteria and Loading Combinations; Part II: Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Behavior; Part III: Concrete Containment Analysis, Design and Related Testing; Part IV: Impact and Impulse Loading and Response Prediction; Part V: Metal Containments and Liner Plate Systems; Part VI: Prestressed Reactor Vessel Design, Testing and Analysis. (orig.)

  5. Concrete protection from sodium spills by intentionally defected liners, small-scale tests S9 and S10

    Hilliard, R.K.; Boehmer, W.D.

    1975-07-01

    Two small scale tests were performed to determine the protection against sodium attack afforded to a concrete surface by a defected steel liner. An inert atmosphere was maintained over the sodium pool, which was heated electrically to 1600 0 F for 2--6 hrs in one test, to 1380 0 F for 19 hrs in the other. The 10 inch diameter vertical concrete surface was separated from the sodium by a liner plate in which small defects had been drilled. The plates provided significant protection against direct chemical attack, but most of the water was released from the concrete through the defects to react in the sodium pool region. The liners were corroded significantly in the defect areas. (U.S.)

  6. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): evolution of a full-sized concrete and bentonite shaft seal

    Dixon, D.A.; Priyanto, D.G.; Martino, J.B.; De Combarieu, M.; Johansson, R.; Korkeakoski, P.; Villagran, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A full-scale shaft seal was designed and installed in the 5-m-diameter access shaft at Atomic Energy of Canada's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the point where he shaft intersects an ancient water-bearing, low-angle thrust fault in granitic rock. The seal, part of the permanent closure of the URL, consists of a 6-m-thick bentonite-based component sandwiched between 3-m-thick upper and lower, 3-m-thick concrete components. The bentonite-based component spans the fracture zone and extends approximately 1 m beyond the maximum identified extent of the fracture. This design was adopted in order to limit water from the deeper, saline regions mixing with the fresher, near-surface groundwater regime. The concrete components provide the mechanical confinement and an in situ compacted 40/60 mixture of bentonite clay and quartz sand provides the sealing component. Construction of the shaft seal was done as part of Canada's Nuclear Legacies Liability Program. However, monitoring the seal evolution was not part of the decommissioning program's mandate. In addition to accomplishing the permanent closure of the URL, this seal's construction provides a unique opportunity to instrument and monitor the evolution of a full-scale shaft seal as well as the recovery of the regional groundwater regime as the facility passively floods above the seal. A jointly funded monitoring project was developed by NWMO (Canada), SKB (Sweden), Posiva (Finland) and ANDRA (France) and since mid 2009 the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical evolution of the seal has been constantly monitored. The evolution of the type of seal being monitored in the ESP is of relevance to repository closure planning, gaining confidence in the functionality of shaft seals. Although constructed in a crystalline rock medium, the results of the ESP are expected to be relevant to the performance of seals in a variety of host rock types. The shaft seal has been

  7. Concrete containment tests: Phase 2, Structural elements with liner plates: Interim report

    Hanson, N.W.; Roller, J.J.; Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Weinmann, T.L.

    1987-08-01

    The tests described in this report are part of Phase 2 of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program. The overall objective of the EPRI program is to provide a test-verified analytical method of estimating capacities of concrete reactor containment buildings under internal overpressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The Phase 2 testing included seven large-scale specimens representing structural elements from reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor containment buildings. Six of the seven test specimens were square wall elements. Of these six specimens, four were used for biaxial tension tests to determine strength, deformation, and leak-rate characteristics of full-scale wall elements representing prestressed concrete containment design. The remaining two square wall elements were used for thermal buckling tests to determine whether buckling of the steel liner plate would occur between anchorages when subjected to a sudden extreme temperature differential. The last of the seven test specimens for Phase 2 represented the region where the wall and the basemat intersect in a prestressed concrete containment building. A multi-directional loading scheme was used to produce high bending moments and shear in the wall/basemat junction region. The objective of this test was to determine if there is potential for liner plate tearing in the junction region. Results presented include observed behavior and extensive measurements of deformations and strains as a function of applied load. The data are being used to confirm analytical models for predicting strength and deformation of containment structures in a separate parallel analytical investigation sponsored by EPRI

  8. Strain measurements at high temperatures in a concrete structure representing a cylindrical section of a PCPV with hot liner

    Schittenhelm, Ch.

    1975-11-01

    In an experimental ring, representing an 1 m high section of the Austrian PCPV-Model with hot liner, different types of strain gauges were installed in the insulating concrete and the prestressed concrete. In this ring the thermal conditions were the same as in the PCPV-Model. In this report the results of measurements of the past two years are brought and comparisons with static calculations is attempted. (author)

  9. Prestressed concrete reactor vessel for the HHT-670 MW(e) demonstration plant. Pt.1. Design of the multi-cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with warm liner

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The design studies and tests described in this paper were undertaken as part of ''PROJECT HHT'', a German-Swiss joint effort for the development of high-temperature helium cooled reactors with direct-cycle turbine. The prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel encloses the core of the reactor itself, the heat exchangers (coolers and recuperators), the helium turbine, the main helium circuit, all nuclear and thermal equipment, and auxiliary reactor cooling equipment. In order to make the liner accessible for inspection, no thermal insulation is provided between the coolant and the liner. The temperature of the helium in contact with the liner is limited to 200 0 C, under all normal operation conditions of the reactor. In the HHT reactor pressure vessel, the resisting structure is protected thermally by a layer of warm concrete between the liner and the structural prestressed concrete. The main features of this pressure vessel are the marked pressure differences in the cavities during normal operation, and the use of warm liner. The objectives of the reference design were chiefly related to the sizing up of the main structure, taking into account the modifications to be expected in the material characteristics as a result of the high temperatures developed

  10. Performance of concrete backfilling materials for shafts and tunnels in rock formations

    Storer, G.; Mistry, N.; Galliara, J.

    1985-10-01

    This report (Part 2) describes the mathematical modelling studies carried out within a research project into the performance of concrete backfilling materials for shafts and tunnels comprising a hard rock geological disposal repository for High Level, Heat Generating Wastes (HLW/HGW) or Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) with long lived isotopes. A complementary volume (Part 1) describes laboratory research studies into the development, manufacture and testing of a pre-placed aggregate concrete (PAC). The ongoing objective is to demonstrate that concrete will serve as a beneficial engineered barrier, part of a multi-barrier system, in isolating potentially harmful radionuclides from the biosphere. The report recognises that the backfill cannot be considered in isolation and that there are many interactions between the primary repository elements of host rock, waste and backfill. The interactions considered include mechanical, thermal, creep and moisture movement. Analyses were carried out using the ADINA finite element system, by programmed analytical formulae and using the TEMPOR program (for thermally driven moisture migration in concrete). The emphasis has been directed at establishing basic mathematical approaches to the understanding and quantification of the phenomena involved and applying them to simplified and idealised repository scenarios. The methods devised lay foundations for future work on more defined disposal scenarios. (author)

  11. Separate effects testing to investigate liner tearing of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building

    Spletzer, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is investigating the performance of containments subject to severe accidents. This work is being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). In 1987, a 1:6-scale Reinforced Concrete Containment (RCC) model was tested to failure. The failure mode was a liner tear. As a result, a separate effects test program has been conducted to investigate liner tearing. This paper discusses the design of test specimens and the results of the testing. The post-test examination of the 1:6-scale RCC model revealed that the large tear was not an isolated event. Other small tears in similar locations were also discovered. All tears occurred near the insert-to-liner transition which is also the region of closest stud spacing. Also, all tears propagated vertically, in response to the hoop strain. Finally, all tears were adjacent to a row of studs. The tears point to a mechanism which could involve the liner/insert transition, the liner anchorage, and the material properties. The separate effects tests investigated these effects. The program included the design of three types of specimens with each simulating some features of the 1:6-scale RCC model. The specimens were instrumented using strain gages and photoelastic materials

  12. Quantitative studies on impact resistance of reinforced concrete panels with steel liners under impact loading. Part 1: Scaled model impact tests

    Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Morikawa, H.; Uchida, T.; Ohno, T.; Kogure, K.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, extensive analytical and experimental studies have been carried out to establish a rational structural design method for nuclear power plants against local damage caused by various external missiles. Through these studies, several techniques for improving die impact resistance of reinforced concrete slabs have been proposed. Of these techniques, attaching a thin steel liner onto the impacted and/or rear face of the slab is considered to be one of the most effective methods. Muto et. al. carried out full-scale impact tests using actual aircraft engines and reported that a thin corrugated steel liner attached to the rear face of a concrete panel has a significant effect in preventing scattering of scabbed concrete debris from the rear face of the target. Based on many experimental and analytical studies, UKAEA reported that a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab improves its perforation and scabbing resistance, and Walter et. al. proposed a formula for predicting the equivalent thickness of a slab with a steel liner attached. The object of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the effect of a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab in preventing local damage caused by rigid missiles. To achieve the object, extensive impact tests were carried out. This paper summarizes the results of these tests

  13. Performance of concrete backfilling materials for shafts and tunnels in rock formations. Volume 1: concrete selection and properties

    Casson, R.B.J.; Davies, I.L.

    1986-01-01

    Preplaced Aggregate Concrete (PAC) consists of graded coarse aggregate, immobilised by cementitious grout injected into the voids. PAC can be considered as a suitable backfill material for mined radioactive waste repositories. PAC is also reported to be amenable to mechanical/remote placement and have usefully improved properties when compared with conventionally placed concretes. In particular reduced shrinkage and heat cycle during cement hydration, higher densities and improved plant economics are claimed. This study attempts to establish the validity of these claims both from reported experience and by practical demonstration through experimentation. A literature study supported the claims made for the PAC system but all reported experiences recorded the use of organic admixtures (workability aids, retarders etc). Because of the lack of long term durability data on such admixtures, especially in a radiation environnement, it was decided to prepare a sample of PAC without organic admixtures. Considerable experimental difficulties were encountered in obtaining a satisfactory quality for test specimens. The necessary grout fluidity was only achieved by the inclusion of bentonite. The test data collected indicates that the PAC system employed did not improve mechanical properties compared with conventional concretes. This is attributed to the non-usage of organic admixtures to achieve the expected performance. Further research on low permeability concretes would require the use of organic admixtures. The effect of radiation on these materials, and their leaching rate needs to be quantified

  14. Experimental evaluation of cell liners

    Wierman, R.W.; Simmons, L.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    Cell liners may be used in breeder reactor sodium pipe ways, sodium cells, and lower cavity region to provide a leak-tight cell and to protect the concrete from sodium in the unlikely event of a sodium spill. The objectives of the HEDL liner verification test program are to evaluate the integrity of liner concepts under postulated accident conditions and to develop the experimental data base which will demonstrate that liners will not fail. Two specific tests are reported; a high temperature liner feature test, and a large-scale liner sodium spill test. In both tests no failures of the liners or tendencies toward failure were detected. The discussed liner designs appeared to be conservative, and the liner strength appeared to be more than adequate

  15. Rock mass and shaft concrete lining temperature measurement procedure: Final draft

    1986-10-01

    This procedure document describes the equipment and procedures which will be used to obtain temperature data from within rock-mass and shaft linings at the Deaf Smith Exploratory Shaft Facility. Temperature measurement methods for instrument temperature correction, fluid temperature correction, heated surface monitoring and air temperature monitoring are outside the scope of this procedure, and are covered in the appropriate individual test procedures. Calibration, acceptance testing and the assignment of transducer reference numbers are outside the scope of this procedure. Section 2.0 provides a summary of the temperature measurement methods which will be employed, together with the measurement locations, environmental considerations and measurement requirements. Test layouts, including detailed descriptions of instruments, support requirements and detailed installation procedures are also presented. Section 3.0 describes the requirements for data recording, ADAS monitoring, and data reporting. Section 4.0 defines personnel responsibilities and qualifications. In addition a measurement and installation schedule is provided, and safety and contingency plans are described. Section 5.0 discusses management and quality assurance requirements. Cited references are listed in Section 6.0. 7 refs., 9 figs

  16. Performance of concrete backfilling materials for shafts and tunnels in rock formations

    Casson, R.B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Preplaced Aggregate Concrete (PAC) consists of graded coarse aggregate, placed and packed into position, and then immobilised by cementitious grout injected into the voids between the aggregate pieces. PAC is also reported to be amenable to mechanical/ remote placement and have usefully improved properties when compared with conventionally placed concretes. This study attempts to establish the validity of these claims both from reported experience and by practical demonstration through experimentation. A literature study supported the claims made for the PAC system but all reported experiences recorded the use of organic admixtures in order to obtain the improved concrete properties. Because of the lack of long term durability data on such admixtures especially in a radiation environment, it was decided to prepare a sample of PAC without organic admixtures. Considerable experimental difficulties were encountered in obtaining a satisfactory quality 1m cube of PAC from which test specimens could be cut. The necessary grout fluidity was only achieved by the inclusion of bentonite. The test data collected indicates that the PAC system employed on this occasion did not improve either the short term or longer term mechanical properties compared with conventional concretes. (author)

  17. Study of waterline corrosion on the carbon steel liner cast in concrete at the condensation pool. I. Literature review II. Study of the risk for waterline corrosion on the steel liner cast in concrete at the cylinder wall at Barsebaeck 1

    Sederholm, Bror; Kalinowski, Mariusz; Eistrat, Kaija

    2009-02-01

    The reactor containment in Swedish BWR-type nuclear power plants consists of an inner cylinder-shaped container of stainless steel, with an outer liner of carbon steel about 300 mm from the stainless steel container, both cast in concrete. If water leaks from the inner stainless steel container into the concrete, the risk of corrosion on the carbon steel liner may be increased by the presence of a waterline, and voids in the concrete at the metal surface. The first part of the report is a survey of published information regarding waterline corrosion and the effect of wholly or partly liquid-filled voids at a steel surface cast in concrete. The second part is a report on the investigations of the corrosion status of the steel liner on the inside of the reactor containment at the Barsebaeckverket 1 plant and of the laboratory investigations of the concrete samples that were taken from the reactor containment wall. The waterline corrosion effect is caused by local differences in environmental factors at the water/air border, primarily the supply of oxygen (air), which allows corrosion cells similar to galvanic cells to be set up. On a vertical, partly immersed steel structure the corrosion rate largely varies with the supply of oxygen, with the highest corrosion rate at or immediately above the waterline, where the supply of both oxygen (air) and electrolyte is good. The relative corrosion rates around the waterline may be modified by the action of various concentration cells. Waterline effects due to aeration cells or other concentration cells have been shown to increase the risk for corrosion damage locally, even when the overall corrosion rate does not increase, since corrosion is concentrated to a smaller area and may have a more localised character. Waterline conditions can also develop at a cast-in metal surface inside partly water-filled voids in the concrete. Voids as such at a concrete/metal interface, leaving metal without adhering concrete, have also been

  18. Long-term behaviors of phosphate-based rapid repairing material for concrete shafts in coal mines.

    Lei, Feng; Zhen-Ya, Zhang; Xiao-Dong, Wen; Chao, Xin; Dong-Yuan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Concrete structures in shaft linings are apt to deteriorate prematurely and therefore prompt restoration is required. In considering this, desulphurization fly ash and machine-made tuff sand are employed to fabricate a phosphate-based rapid repairing material. The long-term efficiency of the material is evaluated based on combined factors, so drying shrinkage, interfacial bonding strength, corrosion resistance, and combustibility of the specimens are tested and researched in this paper. Experimental results showed that, under a dry circumstance, the material goes through a minor expansion at an early stage. It goes into a stage of rapid contraction after one day and a stable contraction after seven days. After 28 days, the total deformation is 67 micro-strains. On the other hand, the fabricated material manifests an excellent mechanical property. The one hour bending strength and compressive strength were 9.2 MPa and 32.6 MPa, respectively. A long-term mine water flushing simulation demonstrates that only 10% bending strength is lost and the corrosion resistance coefficient stays above 0.8, so a very good corrosion resistance is thus achieved. What is more, this repairing material retains its stability even at a high temperature of 1000°C, revealing its good thermo-stability. All these prominent properties make it a good prospective material for real restoration applications.

  19. Large shaft development test plan

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of shaft liner tests as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop techniques for measuring liner alignment (straightness), both construction assembly alignment and downhole cumulative alignment, and to assess the alignment information as a real time feedback to aid the installation procedure. The test plan is based upon installing a 16 foot ID shaft liner into a 20 foot diameter shaft to a depth of 1000 feet. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs

  20. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code

    St John, C.M.

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs

  1. A study on the behaviour of concrete lining and rock mass during shaft excavation at the Horonobe URL project. Part 2

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Koike, Masashi; Ijiri, Yuji; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated concrete lining stress caused by excavation of a 6.5 m diameter access shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. They analyzed lining stress distribution by three-dimensional analysis. The stress distribution was also measured with ten stress meters installed in each section in the direction of maximum and minimum initial stresses. As a result, it was clarified that the maximum and minimum lining stresses occurred in the inner bottom in the direction of the minimum initial stress and in the inner top in the direction of the maximum initial stress, respectively, and the more than 10 MPa stress inclination between them occurred in 60 cm thick and 2 m high concrete lining. (author)

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for an LHC access shaft

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of 33 prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2714/ST/LHC) was sent on 22 May 2000 to seven firms and one consortium consisting of four firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from four firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium JOINT VENTURE CCC (CH-DE-AT), the lowest bidder after realignment, for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft for a total amount of 988 915 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE-89%; CH-6%; AT-5%.

  3. Development of liner cutting method for stainless steel liner

    Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakmaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in cells and fuel storage pools of nuclear facilities. The effects of basic laser cutting parameters such as cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied applying a 1 kW Nd:YAG laser to mock up concrete specimens lined with 3 mm thick stainless steel sheets. These initial studies were followed by studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on methods of confining contamination during the cutting process. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. In addition to the above results, this paper describes the design outline of a laser cutting system for cutting stainless liners at site and evaluates its merit and cost performance. (author)

  4. Study on dynamic behavior of a shaft excavation through a faulted crystalline rock mass

    Hashizume, Shigeru; Matsui, Hiroya; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Hata, Koji; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Sato, Shin; Shibata, Chihoko; Niunoya, Sumio; Noda, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The 'Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory' has been studying and developing engineering technology for deep underground applications. These applications are multifaceted and are categorized as development of design and construction planning technology, development construction technology, development of countermeasure technology, and development of technology for construction and operation security. In this report, the dynamic behavior of shaft and the surrounding rock mass has been studied with respect to rock mass displacement and stress, the effect of using a concrete liner and excavating through faulted crystalline rock. (author)

  5. On decisive factors of liner anchorage behaviour

    Bucchardt, F.; Weber, M.; Yazdi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Design of reinforced and prestressed containments for nuclear power plants in the FRG shall be guided by DIN 25459; this also includes the structural behaviour of the liner. While the containment safety analysis is a more global matter, the liner and especially the liner anchorage behaviour concentrates on local effects which need a more refined local area description. Due to the predominant stiffness of the concrete structure liner failure analysis are performed by decoupling the steel membrane which is then only supported by anchorage springs. A comprehensive nonlinear analytical study is carried out to examine the anchorage behaviour. (Author) [pt

  6. Shaft adjuster

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  7. Shaft Boring Machine: A method of mechanized vertical shaft excavation

    Goodell, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) is a vertical application of proven rock boring technology. The machine applies a rotating cutter wheel with disk cutters for shaft excavation. The wheel is thrust against the rock by hydraulic cylinders and slews about the shaft bottom as it rotates. Cuttings are removed by a clam shell device similar to conventional shaft mucking and the muck is hoisted by buckets. The entire machine moves down (and up) the shaft through the use of a system of grippers thrust against the shaft wall. These grippers and their associated cylinders also provide the means to maintain verticality and stability of the machine. The machine applies the same principles as tunnel boring machines but in a vertical mode. Other shaft construction activities such as rock bolting, utility installation and shaft concrete lining can be accomplished concurrent with shaft boring. The method is comparable in cost to conventional sinking to a depth of about 460 meters (1500 feet) beyond which the SBM has a clear host advantage. The SBM has a greater advantage in productivity in that it can excavate significantly faster than drill and blast methods

  8. Construction experience on PCRV liners at Fort St. Vrain

    Cliff, J.O.; Wunderlich, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of the steel liners for the Fort St. Vrain prestressed concrete reactor vessel presented many unique problems for which techniques were developed to satisfy the rigid specification requirements. The PCRV cavity liner was fabricated from 1.9cm carbon steel plate. The liners were partially fabricated by Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company at their Pittsburgh manufacturing facility. The liners were then shipped by rail to within approximately five miles of the jobsite and then trucked the remaining distance. The construction techniques, dimensional control, concrete support and testing utilized on the Fort St. Vrain project are presented in detail and demonstrate the flexibility of the PCRV for field construction. (author)

  9. Degradation tests for C 32/40 concrete used for perimetral wall, reactor base and components of Cernavoda NPP containment, under thermal stress conditions and liner degradation

    Carlan, P.; Paraschiv, I.; Dinu, A.; Stanciulescu, M.; Olteanu, A. M.; Voica, I.; Stelian, R.; Buc, G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of thermal degradation on C 32/40 concrete used in nuclear constructions at Cernavoda NPP, continuous thermal stress tests were performed at 65, 80 and 100°C and cyclic thermal stress tests at 65°C in dry conditions. This paper presents the macroscopic properties of concrete, obtained after these treatments and also the microstructural changes that occur in the cement paste from the concrete composition, which has been tested in the same conditions as the concrete samples. Determinations performed for macroscopic properties of concrete included: compressive strength, loss of density, permeability and modulus of elasticity. Cement paste samples were analysed by XRD (for mineralogical composition) and SEM (for morphology). The obtained results shown an appropriate behaviour of the concrete used in this study; changes are insignificant and follow the normal evolution process of concrete, proving that concrete will preserve its safety functions, as part of the containment structure. (authors)

  10. Concrete

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities. Through tangible experiments the project...... specific for this to happen. And the knowledge and intention behind the drawing becomes specialised through the understanding of the fabrication processes and their affect on the materials.The structure Concrete is a result of a multi-angled kerf series in ash wood and a concrete base. The ash wood is cut...... using a 5-axis CNC router with a thin saw blade attached. The programming of the machining results in variations of kerfs that lets the ash wood twist into unique shapes.The shapes of the revolving ash ribbons continue into the concrete creating a cohesive shape. The form for the concrete itself is made...

  11. Concrete

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities.Through tangible experiments the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect’s digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect th...

  12. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    St.John, C.M. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Fatigue Model for the Structural Integrity Evaluation Applied to a Wind Turbine Concrete Shaft, Considering Corrosion and Freeze and Thaw Degradation

    Saucedo-Mora, Luis; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the principal damage mechanisms in a slender concrete structure under cyclic loads. And needs to be calculated locally through all the structure, considering the lading conditions and the particularities of concrete. The model presented here is capable to account for the fatigue...

  14. Sanitary landfill liners

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  15. Design of steel-liners and their anchorage with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner-material and anchorage

    Oberpichler, R.

    1979-01-01

    The thin steel liner attached by studs or rib-type anchors to the interior wall of a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Pressure Vessel (PCRV) or a Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. The liner also may serve as internal shuttering for placing concrete as well as a support for the cooling system or thermal isolation. Mainly strained by self-limited loads imposed on the liner by deformations of the vessel-wall or by heatup inside the vessel the liner predominantly will function in a compressive biaxially strained state like a membrane. The vessel-wall is assumed to be a rigid boundary without reactions caused by the liner-anchor-restraints. Furthermore it is assumed that the liner supported in a close-spaced pattern to the concrete with respect to self-limited loads and all effects of non-linear behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor-characteristics will not fail by instability, especially not by an effect of snapthrough. Only one essential mode of failure, the shear connector failure is assumed to be basis for all liner investigations. Design of the liner and its anchorage therefore is based on the analysis of large deformations with regard to elastic-plastic behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor characteristics. By this method both economical and safe sizing and spacing of the anchors can be calculated. (orig.)

  16. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report

    Subramanian, C.V.; King, J.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Mudd, R.W.; Richardson, A.M.; Calovini, J.C.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Emerson, D.O.

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts' structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Liner mounting assembly

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  18. Calculation of anchor forces on penetration liners for the reactor vessel Schmehausen (Germany)

    Roennert, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Penetrations through the walls of the single cavity PCPV Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel for the 300 MW(e) reactor are lined with steel penetration liners welded to the liner of the cavity. For gas-tightness of the system the penetrations are closed by covers. To secure their integration with the concrete, the liners are anchored to it by means of shear studs and/or angles. Being embedded in concrete, over the full width of the walls, the liners are exposed to lateral and longitudinal concrete deformations causing forces on the anchors. The axial blow-out force due to the pressure of the coolant on the closures must also be transferred through the anchors to the concrete. In the design of anchored penetration liners stress analyses are performed to determine anchor forces under different loading conditions and at several ages of the PCPV. The present paper deals with the mathematical estimation of the anchor forces on the basis of given concrete deformations, temperature of liners, and pressure in the vessel by the method of replacing the penetration liners and their anchors by a spring model with linear stiffness characteristics for both the liner and the anchors. An example of the computations on a digital computer is shown. (author)

  19. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  20. Containers, particularly prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactor plants

    Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.; Mitterbacher, P.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure and temperature changes act on the liner, which cause differential expansion between the liner and the prestressed concrete. So that there will be no overload or damage to the liner, its anchoring or the concrete structure, cutouts are provided in the concrete at deflection positions of the steel cladding, connections and penetrations. These cut-outs are filled with inserts made of elastic or plastic material. (DG) [de

  1. Use of wet concrete spraying in building technology of reinforced-concrete fiber slabs according to «Monofant» system

    BUGAYEVSKIY S.

    2016-01-01

    Technology of cementation of reinforced-concrete slabs with non-extractable-liners for the «Monofant» system, using wet concrete spraying is implemented. A compression test for obtained columns made of fiber concrete is carried out.

  2. Optimization in liner shipping

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  3. USSR imploding liner program

    Shearer, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of the history and rationale of the USSR program to implode metallic liners for the fusion program. The explosive driven, magnetic drive, and compressed gas driven research is reviewed. (MOW)

  4. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    Renshaw, Jeremy B., E-mail: jrenshaw@epri.com; Muthu, Nathan [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West WT Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Lhota, James R.; Shepard, Steven M., E-mail: sshepard@thermalwave.com [Thermal Wave Imaging, 845 Livernois St., Ferndale, MI 48220 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  5. Development of laser cutting method for stainless steel liner

    Ishihara, Satoshi; Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities. The effect of basic laser cutting parameters such as energy, cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied through cutting experiments on mock-up concrete specimens lined with 3mm thick stainless steel sheets using a 1kW Nd:YAG laser. These initial studies were followed by further studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on a new method of confining contamination during the cutting process using a sliding evacuation hood attached to the laser cutting head. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the structural integrity of LMFBR equipment cell liners: results of preliminary investigations

    McAfee, W.J.; Sartory, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of a plane wall segment of a prototype liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) cell under conditions of a postulated massive sodium spill was studied. Sodium-concrete reaction calculations were performed assuming an initial flaw existed in the liner such that high-temperature sodium could penetrate to the concrete underneath. Based on existing sodium-concrete reaction rate data, bounding values were established for the maximum energy release per unit volume of concrete. The potential effect of this energy release on the deformation of the liner material was determined. The temperature buildup in the liner and the pressure differential across the flaw in the liner were also studied. The transient thermal and structural responses of the steel liner and backup concrete were analyzed in detail using the inelastic computer code ANSYS. The literature on the mechanical, physical, and general behavior properties of concrete at high temperature was reviewed. This review emphasized the structural behavior of concrete and did not cover the sodium-concrete reaction

  7. The basic design of the Krupp heat-insulating system with hot liner for PCPVs of HTRs

    Spandick, W.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is the design of a heat-insulating system incorporating a so called ''hot'' liner for use with high temperature reactors. The liner is in direct contact with the coolant, has a thickness of between 10 and 15 mm and is arc welded to anchors embedded in the concrete. Thermal cyclic tests were performed and incipient cracks were detected after about 5000 cycles; the liner is to be designed for between 800 and 1400 cycles. The liner design allows for internal inspection and, if necessary, repair at all times. Tests have shown the advantages of the design provided liner temperatures do not rise above 300 0 C

  8. Plasma-driven liners

    Kilic, H.; Linhart, J.G.; Bortolotti, A.; Nardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of thermal energy by laser or ion beams in an ablator is capable of producing a very large acceleration of the adjacent pusher - for power densities of 100 Terrawatts/cm 2 , ablator pressure in the range of 10 Mbar is attainable. In the case of a plasma drive such driving pressures and accelerations are not directly possible. When a snowplough (SP) is used to accelerate a thin liner, the driving pressure is that of the magnetic piston pushing the SP, i.e. at most 0.1 Mbar. However, the initial radius r 0 of the liner can be a few centimeters, instead of 1 (mm) as in the case in direct pellet implosions. In order to compete with the performance of the beam-driven liners, the plasma drive must demonstrate that a) thin liner retains a high density during the implosion (lasting a fraction of a μsec); b) radial compression ratio r 0 /r min of the order of 100 can be attained. It is also attractive to consider the staging of two or more liners in order to get sharpening and amplifications of the pressure and/or radiation pulse. If a) and b) are verified then the final pressures produced will be comparable with those of the beam-driven implosions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  9. Nuclear containment steel liner corrosion workshop : final summary and recommendation report.

    Erler, Bryan A. (Erler Engineering Ltd., Chicago, IL); Weyers, Richard E. (Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA); Sagues, Alberto (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL); Petti, Jason P.; Berke, Neal Steven (Tourney Consulting Group, LLC, Kalamazoo, MI); Naus, Dan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the proceedings of an expert panel workshop conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of corrosion for the steel liner in nuclear containment buildings. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored this work which was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. A workshop was conducted at the NRC Headquarters in Rockville, Maryland on September 2 and 3, 2010. Due to the safety function performed by the liner, the expert panel was assembled in order to address the full range of issues that may contribute to liner corrosion. This report is focused on corrosion that initiates from the outer surface of the liner, the surface that is in contact with the concrete containment building wall. Liner corrosion initiating on the outer diameter (OD) surface has been identified at several nuclear power plants, always associated with foreign material left embedded in the concrete. The potential contributing factors to liner corrosion were broken into five areas for discussion during the workshop. Those include nuclear power plant design and operation, corrosion of steel in contact with concrete, concrete aging and degradation, concrete/steel non-destructive examination (NDE), and concrete repair and corrosion mitigation. This report also includes the expert panel member's recommendations for future research.

  10. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  11. Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines

    Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.

  12. Liner used in tailings ponds

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  13. Circumferential shaft seal

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  14. Mining a coal seam with caving in a protective pillar of a mine shaft. [Poland

    Szymura, G; Dilling, R; Kowalski, A

    1984-01-01

    Mining the 620 seam is evaluated (from 1.5 to 1.7 m thick at a depth of 468 m in the protective pillar of the upcast mine shaft used for ventilation, manriding and transport of materials in the Pstrowski mine in Upper Silesia). The shaft is 496 m deep, has a diameter of 3.5 m and its liners are made of bricks. Ground subsidence caused by underground mining influenced: the head frame above the shaft, residential buildings, a church, railway tracks and a river bed. A system of shortwall mining with caving was used. Deformation of shaft liners was reduced by advanced cutting of a coal block 30x30 m around the shaft. A system of timber cribbings and yielding elements was used. Design of support systems used around the shaft is shown in 3 schemes. Shaft deformation was within permissible limits. The maximum ground subsidence (0.95 m) occurred in the river area. Ground subsidence in the area of the church ranged from 0.75 to 0.81 m and in the head frame area 0.84 m. Accuracy of ground subsidence and shaft deformation forecasting was high. 4 references.

  15. Rotary shaft seal

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing

  16. Experimental plans for LMFBR cavity liner sodium spill test LT-1

    Hilliard, R.K.; Newell, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is an important material of construction in LMFBR cavities and cells. Steel liners are often installed on the concrete surfaces to provide a gastight seal for minimizing air inleakage to inerted cell atmospheres and to protect the concrete from direct contact with sodium in the event of a sodium spill. In making safety assessment analyses, it is of interest to determine the adequacy of the liners to maintain their leaktightness during postulated accidents involving large sodium spills. However, data for basing analytical assessments of cell liners are very meager and an experimental program is underway at HEDL to provide some of the needed information. The HEDL cell liner evaluation program consists of both bench-scale feature tests and large-scale sodium spill demonstration tests. The plans for the first large-scale sodium spill test (LT-1) are the subject of this paper

  17. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    Whyatt, G.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a flexible membrane liner that has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation would be different that those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  18. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    Whyatt, G.; Farnsworth, R.

    1990-01-01

    A flexible membrane liner has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation should be different than those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  19. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment--horizontal shaft pump test

    Iijima, T.; Abe, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The current seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump is 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (1.6 g), which was decided from previous vibration tests and we believe that it must have sufficient margin. The purpose of fragility capacity test is to obtain realistic seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump by vibration tests. Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water (RCW) Pump was tested as a typical horizontal shaft pump, and then bearings and liner rings were tested as important parts to evaluate critical acceleration and dispersion. Regarding RCW pump test, no damage was found, though maximum input acceleration level was 6 x 9.8 m/s 2 (6 g). Some kinds of bearings and liner rings were tested on the element test. Input load was based on seismic motion which was same with the RCW pump test, and maximum load was equivalent to over 20 times of design seismic acceleration. There was not significant damage that caused emergency stop of pump but degradation of surface roughness was found on some kinds of bearings. It would cause reduction of pump life, but such damage on bearings occurred under large seismic load condition that was equivalent to over 10 to 20 g force. Test results show that realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as higher as current value which has been used for our seismic PSA. (authors)

  20. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  1. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  2. Pile/shaft designs using artificial neural networks (i.e., genetic programming) with spatial variability considerations.

    2014-03-01

    The work focused on the improvement of FB-DEEPs prediction of skin and tip resistance of concrete : piles and drilled shafts in Florida. For the work, data from 19 concrete pile sites and 18 drilled shaft sites were : collected. This included 458 ...

  3. Liner Service Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    . The research field of liner shipping network design is relatively young and many open research questions exists. Among others, a unified and rich mathematical model formulating the main characteristics of the business domain has not been clearly described and exact methods for such mathematical models...... management is of great concern to liner shippers as 70-80% of vessel round trips experience delays in at least one port. A novel mathematical model for handling a disruption using a series of recovery techniques is presented as the The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem. The model has been applied to four real...... is based upon improving the constructed solution by applying an IP model as a large scale neighbourhood to each service in the network. The IP is based on estimating the benefit of inserting and removing port calls within a predefined neighborhood of candidate ports. Furthermore, the heuristic applies...

  4. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  5. Fast liner proposal

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10 6 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  6. Comprehensive review of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner

    Shankar, M. Uma; Muthukumar, M.

    2017-11-01

    Human activity inevitably produces waste materials that must be managed. Some waste can be reused. However many wastes that cannot be used beneficially must be disposed of ensuring environmental safety. One of the common methods of disposal is landfilling. The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Liner in a landfill is an important component which prevent leachate migration and prevent groundwater contamination. Earthen liners have been widely used to contain waste materials in landfill. Liners and covers for municipal and hazardous waste containment facilities are often constructed with the use of fine-grained, low plasticity soils. Because of low permeability geosynthetic clay liners and compacted clay liners are the main materials used in waste disposal landfills. This paper summaries the important geotechnical characteristics such as hydraulic conductivity, liquid limit and free swell index of geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on research findings. This paper also compares geosynthetic clay liner and compacted clay liner based on certain criteria such as thickness, availability of materials, vulnerability to damage etc.

  7. A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals

    Ehgartner, B.

    1991-06-01

    Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Preparations to ship EPICOR liners

    Queen, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of the hydrogen rich atmosphere of the 49 EPICOR II ion-exchange prefilter liners generated in the decontamination of radioactive water at TMI-2 will provide data to ensure safe storage and shipment of highly loaded ion-exchange media. This report discusses the prototype gas sampling tool used to breech the containment of the liners, the tool support equipment for sampling and inerting the liners, and the characterization program used for determining the radiolytic hydrogen generation rates in the liners

  9. Liner system design

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the most important regulatory and design decisions which is determining the type of liner system. The liner system includes a combination of low hydraulic conductivity and leakage control materials to be provided beneath a mine waste management unit to avoid seepage losses, which could result in an unacceptable threat to beneficial uses of ground water. This is more difficult for mine wastes than for other types of waste disposal because: The physical and chemical properties of mine wastes vary widely; The sizes )volume and areal extent) of mine waste management units is often very large so that the costs of liners can impact economic feasibility of some operations. The U.S. Congress considered the differences between mine wastes and other types of wastes when it passed the Bevill amendment to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1980. That amendment exempted most mine wastes from hazardous waste regulation until the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a study to determine the appropriate degree of regulation for mine wastes. In 1986, the EPA issued a report recognizing that, with a few exceptions for certain processed materials, mine wastes do not present the same level of threat as other wastes and therefore should be regulated differently. An additional important factor which differentiates mine waste disposal management units form other solid waste disposal units is that, except in unusual circumstances, mine and process facilities are located where the mineral resource is being extracted. Therefore, the location of the mine waste disposal facilities cannot solely be based upon a site selection study. as a result, some mines are located where the distance or depth to a valuable water resource is relatively small, while others are located in remote desert areas with no contiguous surface water resources, and deep ground water of limited quantity and/or quality

  10. Shaft siting decision

    1987-08-01

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  11. High pressure shaft seal

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  12. Femoral shaft fractures

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C. II

    1985-01-01

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  13. Stabilized imploding liner fusion systems

    Book, D.L.; Cooper, A.L.; Ford, R.; Gerber, K.A.; Hammer, D.A.; Jenkins, D.J.; Robson, A.E.; Turchi, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept in imploding liner plasma compression is described in which a liquid metal liner is imploded by pistons driven by high-pressure gas, and stability of the inner surface against Rayleigh-Taylor modes is achieved by rotation. The principle has been demonstrated by using a water liner to compress air. This 'captive liner' offers the possibility of stable, reversible implosion-expansion cycles in which the plasma energy is recovered into the driving system, leading to reactor cycles with low Q and, hence, small size. A new method of setting up closed-field confinement geometries inside a liner using a rotating electron beam is described. Plasma currents induced by the beam provide initial plasma heating and generate the containment geometry. Persistence of plasma currents 100 times longer than the beam duration has been observed. Development of these methods could lead to a very compact thermonuclear reactor operating in the manner of a reciprocating engine. (author)

  14. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  15. Extension of the Consolidation 3 shaft

    Bohnenkamp, G [Gesteins- und Tiefbau G.m.b.H., Recklinghausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The conversion of a mine shaft into a central winning shaft is described, in particular planning principles, problems to be solved, preliminary work, timber drawing, extension work, shaft deepening, and the installation of shaft internals.

  16. Composite liners protect ground water

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  17. Explosion-proof conservation of the Lohberg shaft 1 and 2; Explosionsfeste Konservierung der Schaechte Lohberg 1 und 2

    Hachmann, Andreas [AHA - Andreas Hachmann, Recklinghausen (Germany). Pruefung und Abnahme

    2010-03-15

    In the course of closure of the former Lohberg/Osterfeld colliery backfilling of shafts 1 and 2 with concrete was envisaged according to the original plans. On the basis of a modified plan, however, the two shafts will now be maintained for drainage. Hence a suspended pack was constructed on the 3{sup rd} level for each of the two shafts. Both shafts must be explosion-proof until the water is raised. The structural steel solution described in more detail in this contribution was applied in both shafts. (orig.)

  18. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures

  19. Construction features of the Exploratory Shaft at Yucca Mountain

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1,480-foot-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 feet, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 feet from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2,300 feet from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1,480 feet and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1,200 feet consists of the equivalent of 1,150 feet of 15- by 15-foot drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Such techniques generally classified as ''smooth blasting'' are commonly used for excavation in the construction industry

  20. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Compound Lining in Complex Underground Surge-Shaft Structure

    Juntao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of lining structure of deep-embedded cylinder surge shaft with multifork tunnel is analyzed using three-dimensional nonlinear FEM. With the elastic-plastic constitutive relations of rock mass imported and the implicit bolt element and distributed concrete cracking model adopted, a computing method of complex surge shaft is presented for the simulation of underground excavations and concrete lining cracks. In order to reflect the interaction and initial gap between rock mass and concrete lining, a three-dimensional nonlinear interface element is adopted, which can take into account both the normal and tangential characteristics. By an actual engineering computation, the distortion characteristics and stress distribution rules of the dimensional multifork surge-shaft lining structure under different behavior are revealed. The results verify the rationality and feasibility of this computation model and method and provide a new idea and reference for the complex surge-shaft design and construction.

  1. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  2. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  3. Instability behavior of stiffened dome liners under construction condition

    Jefts, A.R.; Guha-Majumdar, S.; Wanchoo, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present techniques related to stability analysis, design concepts and behavior of dome liners. Various stiffening systems are examined from economy, schedule and constructablity point of view. The various failure modes can be classified as either buckling due to local instability or to an overall instability of the shell. Local instability may occur due to buckling of liner panel between a pair of rings and stringers or torsional and lateral buckling of the stiffeners. Methods are developed for proportioning stiffening system to preclude local buckling. Overall stability is a function of concrete pour height and thickness, loading distribution, time elapse between successive placements, rate of concrete placement, arrangement of stiffeners and other external supports. A computer program based on system energy minimization is used to study the overall instability of stiffened domes. Modelling techniques, effect of temperature and lack of bond, and their influence on results are discussed. Results for a self-standing stiffened hemispherical dome are presented in the form of mode shapes and buckling loads. Based on the results, a pouring scheme is recommended for an economical stiffening system. Recommendations are made to select the stiffening system and predict the buckling loads for preliminary analysis and design of the dome liner. Existing methods and code provisions related to tolerance, design criteria etc. are examined and recommendations made from practical considerations

  4. Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites

    Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and

  5. A study on rock mass behaviour induced by shaft sinking in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Ijiri, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed rock mass behaviour induced by a 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted geological mapping in an excavation face and boreholes digged around the shaft wall, field measurements such as convergence measurements and monitoring of rock displacements using multi-interval borehole extensometers around a shaft at around 160 m and 220 m in depths, and three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that remarkably large compressive strains occurred within about 1 m into the shaft wall in a radial direction since the rock mass behaviour was controlled by the concrete lining and that the behaviour would predominantly be induced by the fractures closing which opened significantly and propagated during excavation steps before the installation of a concrete lining and the directions where the strains occurred heavily depended on the fracture orientation around the shaft. (author)

  6. Liner failure around a tunnel or a storage cell in Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    Damjanac, Branko; Radakovic-Guzina, Zorica; Billaux, Daniel; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the feasibility studies for the storage of radioactive waste in a deep geological layer, the post-failure behaviour of the concrete liner of the galleries and storage cells may have a direct effect on long term safety. In fact, the failure of the liner will result in new loads on the canisters placed inside the works, and in the de-stressing of the Callovo-Oxfordian clays, which may lead to a change in the Excavation Damage Zone. These phenomenons are studied via numerical modelling, using properties derived from ANDRA's underground laboratory (CMHM) project. Two types of gallery geometries are analyzed: one with a thinner concrete liner and filled interior (the standard gallery); and another with a thick concrete liner filled with concrete canisters (the MAVL disposal cell). The Standard Gallery is filled with a Cam-Clay material after 100 years of creep, while the MAVL disposal cell is filled with 16 concrete canisters immediately after installation of the concrete liner. Progressive failure of the concrete liner due to time-dependent deformation of the surrounding rock (Callovo-Oxfordian clay) over a long period of time is analyzed. The analyses are carried out in two steps. In the initial simulations, the concrete liner is represented as a continuum strain-softening Mohr-Coulomb material. The locations of stress-induced fractures in the concrete are determined from this continuum model. The stress-induced fractures are then specified as pre-defined discontinuities in the concrete liner in subsequent dis-continuum simulations. In a dis-continuum model, the large deformations and movements of the concrete blocks as the liner disintegrates can be simulated without numerical problems. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay is represented as an elastic-plastic-viscous material using the Lemaitre constitutive relation. The majority of the simulations are carried out over 5,000 years of creep time, with a

  7. Development of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    Yuji, Hideo; Kuniyoshi, Mutsumu; Nagata, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of evaluations for the selection of the structural and prestressing system type to be employed for the first domestic Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) in Japan. This paper also discusses characteristic features in the design of the liner plate system provided on the PCCV inner surface to assure its leak-tight integrity. Prestressed concrete containment vessels so far constructed in foreign countries are to a considerable extent of different structural types, depending on differences in dome shapes, prestressing systems and number of buttresses. These differences are caused not only by differences in design philosophy and construction practices, but also by difference in the level of technology of the times when the individual containment vessels are being constructed. In the investigation reported herein, the most suitable types of PCCV and Prestressing Systems were determined as the results of an overall comparative evaluation of data and information obtained from PCCV's so far constructed from the design, construction and cost aspects, taking into consideration the seismic criteria, available technology, construction practices, regulations and technical standards in Japan. The function of the liner plate system requires the liner to have enough deformability so that the liner deformation can be consistent with the PCCV concrete deformation. Therefore, in the design of the liner plate system a method for evaluating liner deformability was employed, instead of the stress evaluation method which is widely used in the design of ordinary structures. (author)

  8. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  9. Large scale sodium interactions. Part 2. Preliminary test results for limestone concrete

    Smaardyk, J.E.; Sutherland, H.J.; King, D.L.; Dahlgren, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Any sodium cooled reactor system must consider the interaction of hot sodium with cell liners, and given either a failed liner or a hypothetical core disruptive accident, the interaction of hot sodium with concrete. The data base available for safety assessments involving these interactions is limited, especially for the concrete and failed liner interactions. To better understand what happens when hot sodium comes in contact with concrete, a series of tests is being carried out to investigate sodium-concrete reactions under conditions which are similar to actual reactor accident conditions. Tests cover the cases of sodium spills on bare concrete and on cells with defective steel liners. Specific objectives have been to obtain a complete description of the sodium/concrete interaction including heat balance, gas evolution and flow, movement and heat generation of the reaction zone, reaction product formation, and the layering or movement of the products

  10. The construction of a PWR power station reactor building liner

    Skirving, N.; Goulding, J.S.; Gibson, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co Ltd (CBE) are constructing the Reactor Building Liner Plate containment of the Sizewell 'B' Power Station for Nuclear Electric Ltd. This has entailed extensive offsite prefabrication of components and their subsequent erection at Sizewell. It has been necessary to engineer temporary supporting mechanisms to enable manufacture and erection to proceed, yet also to withstand wet concrete forces during the progressive construction. The Reactor Building Liner Plate is a safety related system and as such, in addition to strict compliance with the ASME code, the Quality Assurance (QA) requirements of BS 5882 are applicable. A dedicated Project Team was established by CBE to control and direct the work. Equally important as satisfying the rigorous Q.A. requirements has been the need to meet programme and budget. This paper details CBE execution of the Project. (author)

  11. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft

  12. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  13. Methods of measurement on a PCPV with hot liner at Seibersdorf Research Centre

    Zemann, H.

    1975-08-01

    The distribution of stress, strain, temperature and humidity within the structural concrete of the PCPV with hot liner at Seibersdorf Research Centre is measured for safety surveillance and in order to prove the suitability as a reactor pressure vessel. The paper gives a survey of the methods of measurement at elevated temperatures. (author)

  14. Study on collapse mechanism of junction between greatly deeper shaft and horizontal drifts (Contract research)

    Kurosaki, Yukio; Yamachi, Hiroshi; Katsunuma, Yoshio; Nakata, Masao; Kuwahara, Hideki; Yamada, Fumitaka; Matsushita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Toshinori

    2008-03-01

    The Mizunami underground research laboratory is planned to consist of greatly deeper shaft and horizontal drifts. A junction space between a greatly deeper shaft and horizontal drifts forms which would take a complicated mechanical behavior during a junction excavation. However, a quantitative design method of supporting measures for a deep junction has not yet been established. This is because a conventional shaft design has been conducted based on past experience. Detail records have not been left either in what kind of collapses and deformed phenomena occurring in shaft constructions in a past. In order to examine a collapse mechanism of greatly deeper shaft junction, we have conducted literature surveys and interview studies concerned with deep shaft construction works in a past, and investigated what collapses or difficulties had been occurred in deep shaft junctions. Considering the results of investigations with reviews of intellectuals, a collapse mechanism of a super deep shaft junction depends on both a construction procedure of shaft junction and a geological condition at great depth. During a construction of a shaft junction, stress state of rock masses near junction wall would take a complicated stress path. Especially, it should be necessary to take a most careful consideration on that tangential stress acted around a shaft wall may reduce during horizontal drift excavation. On the other hand, where greatly deeper junction intersects faults and/or fractures with a large angle, a collapse called 'Take-nuke' may occur or extraordinary earth pressure acts on a concrete wall. This is the most typical difficulties during shaft construction. In order to recognize a mechanism of these phenomena and to find out a cause of collapse generation, numerical studies that can simulate a practical rock mass behavior around a shaft junction should be carry out. We demonstrate the finite difference method is most adequate for these simulations with intellectual review

  15. Construction of full-scale shaft seals in crystalline rock

    Martino, J.B.; Dixon, D.A.; Onagi, D.; Kim, C-S; Holowick, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was constructed to investigate concepts related to geological disposal of used nuclear fuel. This involved investigating the rock mass by undertaking in situ experiments using a multi disciplinary technical approach. The decision was made in 2003 to close the URL. Part of the closure process involved installing seals in the access and ventilation shafts at locations where they intersected an ancient thrust fault (Fracture Zone 2 -- FZ2). FZ2 is an active hydraulic pathway in the Lac du Bonnet batholith and this feature is the dominating structural and hydrogeological feature at the URL site. Above FZ2 the groundwater has a low salinity and is dominated by surface-related processes. With increasing depth in the batholith, surface-related effects decrease and the salinity of the groundwater increases to 90 g/L total dissolved solids. The decision to install the seals was made as part of the due diligence for the site closure to ensure that the saline groundwater located at depth down strike and below the thrust fault would not enter the closed underground openings and mix with less saline shallow groundwater. The construction of each seal involved the installation of a heavily reinforced low alkalinity concrete component keyed into the surrounding rock. The concrete supported and restrained a central clay-sand component, which was capped by an unreinforced concrete component. The clay-sand component spans the exposure of the thrust fault in each shaft. This paper describes the construction of the main shaft seal and the ventilation shaft seal. The construction of the shaft seals at the URL was part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). (author)

  16. Construction of full-scale shaft seals in crystalline rock

    Martino, J.B.; Dixon, D.A.; Onagi, D.; Kim, C-S; Holowick, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was constructed to investigate concepts related to geological disposal of used nuclear fuel. This involved investigating the rock mass by undertaking in situ experiments using a multi disciplinary technical approach. The decision was made in 2003 to close the URL. Part of the closure process involved installing seals in the access and ventilation shafts at locations where they intersected an ancient thrust fault (Fracture Zone 2 -- FZ2). FZ2 is an active hydraulic pathway in the Lac du Bonnet batholith and this feature is the dominating structural and hydrogeological feature at the URL site. Above FZ2 the groundwater has a low salinity and is dominated by surface-related processes. With increasing depth in the batholith, surface-related effects decrease and the salinity of the groundwater increases to 90 g/L total dissolved solids. The decision to install the seals was made as part of the due diligence for the site closure to ensure that the saline groundwater located at depth down strike and below the thrust fault would not enter the closed underground openings and mix with less saline shallow groundwater. The construction of each seal involved the installation of a heavily reinforced low alkalinity concrete component keyed into the surrounding rock. The concrete supported and restrained a central clay-sand component, which was capped by an unreinforced concrete component. The clay-sand component spans the exposure of the thrust fault in each shaft. This paper describes the construction of the main shaft seal and the ventilation shaft seal. The construction of the shaft seals at the URL was part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). (author)

  17. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  18. Shaft seal assembly and method

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  19. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16

    Yesso, J.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Lowry, L.

    1982-08-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner

  20. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 3

    Wynhoff, N.L.; Pasupathi, V.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 3 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner

  1. Testing of plain and fibrous concrete single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models

    Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two single-cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) models were fabricated and tested to failure to demonstrate the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of models cast from high-strength concretes. Concretes with design compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa (10,000 psi) were developed for this investigation. One model was cast from plain concrete and failed in shear at the head region. The second model was cast from fiber reinforced concrete and failed by rupturing the circumferential prestressing at the sidewall of the structure. The tests also demonstrated the capabilities of the liner system to maintain a leak-tight pressure boundary. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  3. Some considerations to the failure analysis of a pointwise attached steel liner membrane under constraint load

    Buchhardt, F.; Brandl, P.

    1981-01-01

    In the application of reinforced or prestressed concrete reactor containments, the safety enclosure will be obtained through a steel liner membrane, which is attached pointwise to the interior concrete surface. It is the objective and aim of this study to analyse the overall structural behaviour of the bonded system consisting of concrete containment, studs, and steel liner - especially under the aspect of extreme load and deformation conditions. The parametric analysis is carried out on the basis of the geometric length/depth ratio l/t = 12 of a single liner field. In order to reduce the considerable computational effort to a minimum, it is necessary to decouple the overall system in its structural components, i.e., at first an imperfect predeflected 'buckling' field and the residual 'plane' liner field are considered separately. A further reduction enables the use of stud anchor characteristics which are based on experiments. Three-dimensional analyses are performed for the single 'buckling' field to obtain specific load-displacement functions; the residual plane system is considered with two- as well as one-dimensional models. For the comprehensive parametric evalution of the overall system behaviour, a linear model is assumed to which these load-displacement functions are applied. Constraint temperatures are introduced as a unit scale - up to failure of the overall system; hereby partial structural failure might lead to temporary relief. (orig.)

  4. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  5. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Modeling of thinning process of liner due to corrosion in structural analysis

    Tsukimori, K.; Kato, T.; Furuhashi, I.; Iwata, K.; Akatsu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The lining structure of LMFBR (Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) has an important role to prohibit leaking sodium from touching a concrete floor in a sodium leakage incident. JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) experienced a sodium leakage incident in 1995 in the secondary heat transport system room of the prototype LMFBR MONJU. In this incident, a part of the liner was covered with a certain amount of high temperature leaked sodium and its compounds. Visible but small distortion and thinning of the liner were detected, which were due to heating by sodium fire and chemical corrosion, respectively. To simulate the MONJU incident, JNC conducted a series of sodium leakage tests, in one of which severer corrosion (molten salt type corrosion) than that in the MONJU incident was observed. In order to secure the conservativeness in the integrity assessment of the liner, consideration of a severest corrosion process was demanded. This means that the loss of parts of the structure with time should be considered in the structural analyses. In this study a modeling of thinning process of the liner was developed in order to realize reasonable analysis from the point of view of actual phenomena. The concept of the method is to release the stress of the lost region by using artificial creep and reducing Young's modulus. The necessity of this kind of model and the validity was verified through an application analysis of the liner in the secondary heat transport system room of MONJU. (authors)

  6. Concrete containment integrity software: Procedure manual and guidelines

    Dameron, R.A.; Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report is an executive summary describing the concrete containment analysis methodology and software that was developed in the EPRI-sponsored research to predict the overpressure behavior and leakage of concrete containments. A set of guidelines has been developed for performing reliable 2D axisymmetric concrete containment analysis with a cracking concrete constitutive model developed by ANATECH. The software package developed during this research phase is designed for use in conjunction with ABAQUS-EPGEN; it provides the concrete model and automates axisymmetric grid preparation, and rebar generation for 2D and 3D grids. The software offers the option of generating pre-programmed axisymmetric grids that can be tailored to a specific containment by input of a few geometry parameters. The goal of simplified axisymmetric analysis within the framework of the containment leakage prediction methodology is to compute global liner strain histories at various locations within the containment. A simplified approach for generating peak liner strains at structural discontinuities as function of the global liner strains has been presented in a separate leakage criteria document; the curves for strain magnification factors and liner stress triaxiality factors found in that document are intended to be applied to the global liner strain histories developed through global 2D analysis. This report summarizes the procedures for global 2D analysis and gives an overview of the constitutive model and the special purpose concrete containment analysis software developed in this research phase. 8 refs., 10 figs

  7. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  8. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Strain criterion of the liner material

    Asayama, T.; Koi, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In a postulated condition of sodium leakage and combustion in the secondary heat transfer system of the prototype Japanese fast breeder reactor Monju, thermal stresses raise in steel liners installed to prevent sodium from contacting to concrete. Excessive strain due to the thermal stresses leads to failure of the liner. This paper proposes a strain criterion below that the mechanical integrity of liner is assured. In-plane thermal expansion causes membrane strain and out-of-plane expansion causes bending strain. Therefore, failure modes to be taken into account are tensile fracture and bending fracture. The strain criterion can be determined based on tensile and bending tests. Tensile tests and three-point bending tests were performed at the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 C. Fracture elongation was measured in both tests. Uniform elongation was also measured in tensile tests. Various factors that can affect the above experimental results, multi-axiality, environmental effects, and creep were examined. Based on the above results, the strain criterion was determined. The criterion is 10% for membrane strain and 30% for membrane plus bending strain in the temperature range of 350 C to 1000 C. For the temperatures less than 350 C, the half of those values is used. (author)

  9. Experiences with the operation of a shaft-helix in connection with a special steel ring lining in the shafts Gorleben 1 and 2

    Tonscheidt, H.W.; Kahl, J.

    1991-01-01

    When sinking the Gorleben 1 shaft good reasons prevented the method of drilling and blasting to create the excavation. Considering the special conditions and after a successful test, the application of a modified helix was given preference to an impact-ripper, tested on an other freeze shaft project. A report is given on the experiences gained with respect to the following criteria: Assembly, dismantling and transport of the machine in the shaft - conveyance of electric energy - dust problems when cutting the concrete plug and the means engaged to overcome those problems - performance in the different types of rock formation - cutting the circular shape of the excavation with sufficient accuracy - matters of safety in connection with cutting, loading and lining the excavation - consumption and costs of cutters - total costs. A final assessment of the excavation system is made with respect to its possible application with for shaft-sinking projects. (orig.) [de

  10. How Concrete Is Concrete?

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, "manipulatives", in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own,…

  11. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  12. Containment liner plate anchors and steel embedments test results

    Chang-Lo, P.L.; Johnson, T.E.; Pfeifer, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes test data on shear load and deformation capabilities for liner plate line anchors and structural steel embedments in reinforced and prestressed concrete nuclear containments. Reinforced and prestressed nuclear containments designed and constructed in the United States are lined with a minimum of 0.64 cm steel plate. The liner plates are anchored by the use of either studs or structural members (line anchors) which usually run in the vertical direction. This paper will only address line anchors. Static load versus displacement test data is necessary to assure that the design is adequate for the maximum loads. The test program for the liner anchors had the following major objectives: determine load versus displacement data for a variety of anchors considering structural tees and small beams with different weld configurations, from the preceding tests, determine which anchors would lead to an economical and extremely safe design and test these anchors for cyclic loads resulting from thermal fluctuations. Various concrete embeds in the containment and other structures are subjected to loads such as pipe rupture which results in shear. Since many of the loads are transient by nature, it is necessary to know the load-displacement relationship so that the energy absorption can be determined. The test program for the embeds had the following objectives: determine load-displacement relationship for various size anchors from 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 with maximum capacities of approximately 650 kN; determine the effect of various anchor width-to-thickness ratios for the same shear area

  13. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  16. Fracture-dissociation of ceramic liner.

    Hwang, Sung Kwan; Oh, Jin-Rok; Her, Man Seung; Shim, Young Jun; Cho, Tae Yeun; Kwon, Sung Min

    2008-08-01

    The use of BIOLOX delta ceramic (CeramTec AG, Plochingen, Germany) has been increasing. This ceramic prevents cracking by restraining the phase transformation due to the insertion of nano-sized, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia into the alumina matrix. This restrains the progress of cracking through the formation of platelet-like crystal or whiskers due to the addition of an oxide additive. We observed a case of BIOLOX delta ceramic liner (CeramTec AG) rim fracture 4 months postoperatively. Radiographs showed that the ceramic liner was subluxated from the acetabular cup. Scratches on the acetabular cup and femoral neck were seen, and the fracture was visible on the rim of the liner. Under electron microscope, metal particle coatings from the ceramic liner were identified. The ceramic liner, fracture fragments, and adjacent tissues were removed and replaced with a ceramic liner and femoral head of the same size and design. We believe the mechanism of the fracture-dissociation of the ceramic liner in this case is similar to a case of separation of the ceramic liner from the polyethylene shell in a sandwich-type ceramic-ceramic joint. To prevent ceramic liner fracture-dissociation, the diameter of the femoral neck needs to be decreased in a new design, while the diameter of the femoral head needs to be increased to ensure an increase in range of motion.

  17. AREVA NP Liner Repair Strategy with Adhesive Technology

    Georg, Kraemer; Revoirard, Sebastien; McCann, James-E.

    2012-09-01

    inside the pools in nuclear power plants is pure water which contains no SCC promoting elements, such as Chloride. At the concrete side of the liner, all of those preconditions can be found in some areas. Therefore, the SCC starts from the concrete side and can be detected after penetrating through the liner sheet. When there are leakages known in a pool, there is either the need to locate those leaks or to carry out a prophylactic coating on all welding joints. The detection method can be carried out in 2 steps. First, a pre-detection made with cameras for the main parts of the liner (for big impacts) and ACFM sensors on each side of the welds to check for crossing cracks in the HAZ. Then, on the pre-detected areas, the leak detection equipment is placed to identify and also evaluate (if requested) the leaks. This can be achieved in air or underwater. The AREVA repair method can be roughly divided into two principles: Remote controlled application for use under water or in high radiation dose areas and manual application for use in dry and low radiation dose areas. Depending on the application area a suitable adhesive material is chosen. For dry applications and low dose areas mainly a silicone based material is applied, for underwater application, e.g. in a spent fuel pool (SFP) mainly an epoxy based material is applied. There are several advantages of this technology compared to repair by welding. The AREVA repair method is substantially faster and therefore more cost effective than a usual weld repair. Additionally the exact localization of the leakages is not necessary if all weld seams in a pool are getting covered. Neither is the base material negatively affected by the adhesive material nor is the liner exposed to additional heat stress, which may cause future leaks. Furthermore, this repair technique has been field proven for more than 20 years. (authors)

  18. Humeral Shaft Fracture: Intramedullary Nailing.

    Konda, Sanjit R; Saleh, Hesham; Fisher, Nina; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    This video demonstrates the technique of intramedullary nailing for a humeral shaft fracture. The patient is a 30-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to his right arm. The patient was indicated for humeral nailing given the comminuted nature of the diaphysis and to allow for minimal skin incisions. Other relative indications include soft-tissue compromise about the arm precluding a large surgical exposure. This video presents a case of a comminuted humeral shaft fracture treated with an intramedullary nail. Anatomic reduction and stable fixation was obtained with this technique. This case demonstrates a soft-tissue sparing technique of humeral shaft fixation using a humeral intramedullary nail. The technique is easy to perform and has significant benefits in minimizing surgical exposure, decreasing operative time, and decreasing blood loss. In the correct clinical setting, humeral nailing provides an expeditious form of fixation that restores length, alignment, and rotation of the fracture humeral diaphysis.

  19. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Aguilar H, F [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  20. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  1. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  2. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  3. Interaction between clay-based shaft seal components and crystalline host rock

    Priyanto, D.; Dixon, D.; Man, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Government of Canada has accepted the Nuclear Waste Management Organization's (NWMO) recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management (APM) as the long-term management approach for Canada's used nuclear fuel. APM ultimately involves the isolation and containment of used nuclear fuel deep in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR). On completion of waste emplacement operation and during repository closure, shaft seals, comprising clay-based shaft seal components, will be installed at strategic locations, such as where significant fracture zones (FZs) are located. The primary function of a shaft seal is to limit and prevent short-circuiting of the groundwater flow regime via the shaft. Currently, at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) a full-scale shaft seal is being constructed at the intersection of a low dipping thrust fault called FZ 2 as part of the overall URL decommissioning activities. Both crystalline rock and sedimentary rock are considered potentially suitable host rocks formations for a DGR. This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of a shaft seal installed in moderately to sparsely fractured crystalline rock (MFR). The shape and thickness of the shaft seal modelled for a DGR in this exercise are similar to the shaft seal at the URL, but in the modelling exercise it is given a larger diameter (i.e. 7.30 m) equal to the assumed diameter of a production shaft of a repository. The seal consists of a blended bentonite-sand (BS) component that is constrained between two massive concrete seals. Dense backfill (DBF) materials are installed above and below the concrete seals (CS). The concrete seals are keyed into the access shaft to better anchor the concrete units in place and in order to restrain the swelling of the bentonite-sand component of the seal as it hydrates. The reference geosphere in the proposed work is MFR similar to the rock conditions

  4. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs

  5. An Experimental Evaluation of the Weathering Effects on Mine Shaft Lining Materials

    W. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many shaft collapses are related to the deterioration and failure of the masonry shaft lining materials. In modern mine shaft, concrete is widely used to provide support. To analyse shafts stability, the properties of the lining need to be well defined. The behaviour of masonry and concrete can be considerably affected by long-term exposure to harsh mine water. This paper presents a study which focuses on the weathering effects of mine water on lining materials (brick, mortar, and concrete. To reproduce the weathering process, samples were placed into solutions of potable water, artificial mine water, and a more aggressive mine-water solution for just less than one year. Four phases of laboratory tests were conducted throughout the time period to assess the degradation of mechanical properties of the lining materials. Particular attention is given to the degradation of material strength and stiffness. Results indicate that the harsh acidic mine water has pronounced detrimental effects on the strength and stiffness of mortar. The weathering process is shown to have the most significant effect on the stiffness of concrete and mortar. It is also shown that the use of mass loss as an index for evaluation of mechanical properties may not be appropriate.

  6. Localized deformation of zirconium-liner tube

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Uchida, Masaaki

    1988-03-01

    Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes and Zircaloy-2 tubes, and, to investigate the mechanism and the extent of the effect, the behavior of zirconium liner was examined. As the result of examination, stress was concentrated especially at the edge of the deformed region, where zirconium liner was highly deformed. Even after high stress was applied, the deformation of Zircaloy part was small, since almost the concentrated stress was mitigated by the deformation of zirconium liner. In addition, stress and strain distributions in the cross section of specimen were calculated with a computer code FEMAXI-III. The results also showed that zirconium liner mitigated the localized stress in Zircaloy, although the affected zone was restricted to the region near the boundary between zirconium liner and Zircaloy. (author)

  7. Prestressed concrete pressure vessels for boiling water reactors

    Menon, S.

    1979-12-01

    Following a general description of the Scandinavian cooperative project on prestressed concrete pressure vessels for boiling water reactors, detailed discussion is given in four appendices of the following aspects: the verification programme of tests and studies, the development and testing of a liner venting system, a preliminary safety philosophy and comparative assessment of cold and hot liners. Vessel failure probability is briefly discussed and some figures presented. The pressure gradients in the vessel wall resulting from various stipulated linear cracks, with a liner venting system are presented graphically. (JIW)

  8. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); González-Martin, Omaira [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia (Mexico); Hernández-Garcia, Lorena [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Pović, Mirjana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute and Entoto Observatory and Research Center, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del, E-mail: isabel@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-11-16

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L{sub X}(2–10 keV) > 10{sup 41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison

  9. The AGN nature of LINER nuclear sources

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-11-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2-10 keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN towards lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L_X(2-10 keV) > 10^{41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with both

  10. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del

    2017-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L X (2–10 keV) > 10 41 erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with

  11. Repairing liner of the reactor

    Aguilar H, F.

    2001-07-01

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  12. Characterization of four prestressed concrete reactor vessel liner steels

    Nanstad, R.K.

    1980-12-01

    A program of fracture toughness testing and analysis is being performed with PCRV steels for HTGRs. This report focuses on background information for the base materials and results of characterization testing, such as tensile and impact properties, chemical composition, and microstructural examination. The steels tested were an SA-508 class 1 forging, two plates of SA-537 class 1, and one plate of SA-537 class 2. Tensile requirements in effect at the time of procurement are met by all four steels. However, the SA-537 class 2 plate would not meet the minimum requirement for yield strength. Drop-weight and Charpy impact tests verified that the RT/sub NDT/ is equal to the NDT for each steel. Charpy impact energies at the NDT range from 40 J (30 ft-lb) for one heat of SA-537 class 1 to 100 J (74 ft-lb) for the SA-537 class 2 plate; upper-shelf energies range from 170 to 310 J (125 to 228 ft-lb) for the same two steels, respectively. The onset of upper-shelf energy occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 50 0 C

  13. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  14. Control rod drive shaft latch

    Thorp, A.G. II.

    1976-01-01

    A latch mechanism is operated by differential pressure on a piston to engage the drive shaft for a control rod in a nuclear reactor, thereby preventing the control rod from being ejected from the reactor in case of failure of the control rod drive mechanism housing which is subjected to the internal pressure in the reactor vessel. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  15. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  16. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  17. Update of 1972 status report on deep shaft studies

    1976-09-01

    The following aspects of shaft sinking are considered: the effects of geology, factors affecting shaft size, the conventional shaft sinking techniques and the newer mechanized methods, several representative or difficult shafts, and certain long-term problems and solutions

  18. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material. ...

  20. A study on mechanical behavior of support elements induced by shaft sinking

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Ijiri, Yuji; Shimada, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed change in stress and the stress distribution in a concrete lining and steel arch ribs induced by the 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted not only field measurements of stress in support elements at a depth of around 220 m but also three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that more than 10 MPa difference in circumferential stress occurred in a 2 m high and 400 mm thick concrete lining due to anisotropy of initial stress and three-dimensional effect of an excavation face. It was also found that a concrete lining gradually deformed from an original cylindrical form to a shape of an ellipsis with the long axis pallarel to the direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress after a concrete form was removed. (author)

  1. A STUDY ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SUPPORT ELEMENTS INDUCED BY SHAFT SINKING

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ijiri, Yuji

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed change in stress and the stress distribution in a concrete lining and steel arch ribs induced by the 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted not only field measurements of stress in support elements at a depth of around 220 m but also three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that more than 10 MPa difference in circumferential stress occurred in a 2 m high and 400 mm thick concrete lining due to anisotropy of initial stress and three-dimensional effect of an excavation face. It was also found that a concrete lining gradually deformed from an original cylindrical form to a shape of an ellipsis with the long axis pallarel to the direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress after a concrete form was removed.

  2. How Concrete is Concrete

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two diff...

  3. LINER galaxy properties and the local environment

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Alonso, Sol; Duplancic, Fernanda; Mesa, Valeria

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the properties of a sample of 5560 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR12 at low red shift, for a complete range of local density environments. The host LINER galaxies were studied and compared with a well-defined control sample of 5553 non-LINER galaxies matched in red shift, luminosity, morphology and local density. By studying the distributions of galaxy colours and the stellar age population, we find that LINERs are redder and older than the control sample over a wide range of densities. In addition, LINERs are older than the control sample, at a given galaxy colour, indicating that some external process could have accelerated the evolution of the stellar population. The analysis of the host properties shows that the control sample exhibits a strong relation between colours, ages and the local density, while more than 90 per cent of the LINERs are redder and older than the mean values, independently of the neighbourhood density. Furthermore, a detailed study in three local density ranges shows that, while control sample galaxies are redder and older as a function of stellar mass and density, LINER galaxies mismatch the known morphology-density relation of galaxies without low-ionization features. The results support the contribution of hot and old stars to the low-ionization emission although the contribution of nuclear activity is not discarded.

  4. Dynamic stabilization of imploding liquid metal liner

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1979-01-01

    The rotational stabilization has been proposed against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the imploding liquid metal liner. In this paper, the discussion is made on the possibility of the dynamic stabilization by applying the oscillating azimuthal magnetic field in addition to the axial field. In contrast to the rotational stabilization, the required (field) energy for this stabilization is also used for the liner driving or the plasma confinement. In the analysis, the liner subjected to the acceleration is assumed to be infinitely long, at rest and have the situation at the start of the implosion or turnaround. At turnaround, the existence of the plasma is taken into account. The perturbed motion of the liner is discussed with a linear stability analysis. Results are as follows: (1) The dynamic stabilization at the start of the implosion is possible if the distance from the conducting wall to the liner outer surface is comparable with or less than the liner thickness. (2) At turnaround, the stability is improved with decreasing the ratio of the plasma radius to that of the liner inner surface however the kink mode (m = 1) cannot be suppressed. (author)

  5. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  6. Method for the construction of a nuclear reactor with a prestressed concrete pressure vessel

    Schoening, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    Method for the construction of nuclear reactors with prestressed concrete pressure vessel, providing during the initial stage of construction of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel a support structure around the liner. This enables an early mounting of core components in clean conditions as well as load reductions for final concreting in layers of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel. By applying the support structure, the overall assembly time of these nuclear power plant is considerably reduced without extra cost. (orig.) [de

  7. Variable volume combustor with a conical liner support

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Chrisophter Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-06-27

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a conical liner support supporting the liner.

  8. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  9. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  10. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  11. How Concrete is Concrete

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics

  12. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-02-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation

  13. Pre-cementation of deep shaft

    Heinz, W. F.

    1988-12-01

    Pre-cementation or pre-grouting of deep shafts in South Africa is an established technique to improve safety and reduce water ingress during shaft sinking. The recent completion of several pre-cementation projects for shafts deeper than 1000m has once again highlighted the effectiveness of pre-grouting of shafts utilizing deep slimline boreholes and incorporating wireline technique for drilling and conventional deep borehole grouting techniques for pre-cementation. Pre-cementation of deep shaft will: (i) Increase the safety of shaft sinking operation (ii) Minimize water and gas inflow during shaft sinking (iii) Minimize the time lost due to additional grouting operations during sinking of the shaft and hence minimize costly delays and standing time of shaft sinking crews and equipment. (iv) Provide detailed information of the geology of the proposed shaft site. Informations on anomalies, dykes, faults as well as reef (gold bearing conglomerates) intersections can be obtained from the evaluation of cores of the pre-cementation boreholes. (v) Provide improved rock strength for excavations in the immediate vicinity of the shaft area. The paper describes pre-cementation techniques recently applied successfully from surface and some conclusions drawn for further considerations.

  14. Mine-shaft conveyance monitoring

    Beus, M.J.; Ruff, T.M.; Iverson, S.; McCoy, W.G. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane, WA (USA). Spokane Research Laboratory

    2000-10-01

    Monitoring conveyance position and wire rope load directly from the skip or cage top offers several significant safety and production advantages. The Spokane Research Laboratory (SRL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a shaft conveyance monitoring system (SCMS). This system consists of position and guide-displacement sensors, a maintenance-free battery power supply and a new sensor, which is mounted on the wire rope with a Crosby Clip, to measure hoist-rope tension. A radio data link transmits sensor output to the hoist room. A state-of-the-art automated hoisting test facility was also constructed to test the concept in a controlled laboratory setting. Field tests are now underway at the SRL hoisting research facility and in deep mine shafts in northern Idaho. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Large shaft development test plan

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of a large shaft development test at the Hanford site in support of the repository development program. The purpose and objective of the test plan is to obtain the information necessary to establish feasibility and to predict the performance of the drilling system used to drill large diameter shafts. The test plan is based upon drilling a 20 ft diameter shaft to a depth of 1,000 feet. The test plan specifies series of tests to evaluate the performance of the downhole assembly, the performance of the rig, and the ability of the system to cope with geologic hazards. The quality of the hole produced will also be determined. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  17. HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description

    Schultz, D.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.

  18. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

    2007-01-31

    This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

  19. Fusion power from fast imploding liners

    Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.; Miller, R.L.; Germwin, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An approach to fusion power is described which proposes magnetically driving a thin metal shell at high velocity (approximately 10 4 m/s) onto a warm (200 to 500 eV), dense (10 24 to 10 25 m -3 ) plasma. A description of the plasma/liner interaction by several analytic and numerical models is given. On the basis of theoretical scaling predictions, the advantages, disadvantages and uncertainties associated with a high-efficiency (recirculating power fraction less than or equal to 0.2) Fast-Liner Reactor (FLR) are described, quantified when possible, and summarized. The FLR approach is characterized by (1) a thin cylindrical nonrotating liner that would be magnetically accelerated by axial currents driven through the liner (no external coils or magnets), (2) axial and radial energy confinement would be provided by an azimuthal magnetic field associated either with axial currents driven through a hard core or through the plasma, (3) the plasma particle pressure would be supported directly by the liner surface and material end plugs, and (4) the liner and a portion of associated support structure would be destroyed at each implosion. A preliminary assessment of the technological implications of blast confinement, materials destruction and loss, energy transfer and storage requirements, and possible modes of FLR operation is presented

  20. Conceptual design of imploding liner fusion reactors

    Turchi, P.J.; Robson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The basic new ingredient is the concept of rotationally stabilized liquid metal liners accelerated with free pistons. The liner motion is constrained on its outer surface by the pistons, laterally by channel walls, during acceleration, and on its inner surface, where megagauss field levels are attained by the centrifugal motion of the liner material. In this way, stable, reversible motion of the liner should be possible, permitting repetitive, pulsed operation at interior pressures far greater than can be allowed in static conductor systems. Such higher operating pressures permit the use of simple plasma geometries, such as theta pinches, with greatly reduced dimensions. Furthermore, the implosion of thick, lithium-bearing liners with large radial compression ratios inherently provides the plasma with a surrounding blanket of neutron absorbing liquid metal, thereby substantially reducing the problems of induced radioactivity and first wall damage that haunt conventional fusion reactor designs. The following article discusses the basic operation of liner reactors and several important features influencing their design

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Retrieved Glenoid Liners

    Katelyn Childs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Revision of orthopedic surgeries is often expensive and involves higher risk from complications. Since most total joint replacement devices use a polyethylene bearing, which serves as a weak link, the assessment of damage to the liner due to in vivo exposure is very important. The failures often are due to excessive polyethylene wear. The glenoid liners are complex and hemispherical in shape and present challenges while assessing the damage. Therefore, the study on the analysis of glenoid liners retrieved from revision surgery may lend insight into common wear patterns and improve future product designs. The purpose of this pilot study is to further develop the methods of segmenting a liner into four quadrants to quantify the damage in the liner. Different damage modes are identified and statistically analyzed. Multiple analysts were recruited to conduct the damage assessments. In this paper, four analysts evaluated nine glenoid liners, retrieved from revision surgery, two of whom had an engineering background and two of whom had a non-engineering background. Associated human factor mechanisms are reported in this paper. The wear patterns were quantified using the Hood/Gunther, Wasielewski, Brandt, and Lombardi methods. The quantitative assessments made by several observers were analyzed. A new, composite damage parameter was developed and applied to assess damage. Inter-observer reliability was assessed using a paired t-test. Data reported by four analysts showed a high standard deviation; however, only two analysts performed the tests in a significantly similar way and they had engineering backgrounds.

  2. Influence of the shaft rotation on the stability of magnetic fluid shaft seal characteristics

    Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.

    2008-12-01

    Distribution of the magnetic particles concentration in a magnetic fluid shaft seal is studied numerically for a rotating shaft. It is revealed that the shaft rotation causes not only an azimuthal flow of the magnetic fluid, but a meridional flow as well. This meridional flow prevents the growth of magnetic particle concentration in the gap of the magnetic fluid shaft seal. As a result, the burst pressure of the magnetic fluid shaft seal for the rotating shaft is stable and does not change with time. Figs 6, Refs 7.

  3. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  4. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  5. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  6. Temporary abandonment cement plug on the liner top; Tampao de abandono temporario na boca do liner

    Hiss Filho, Paulo Henrique; Costa Junior, Pedro Americo da; Viana, Jose Luis Rodrigues [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Distrito de Pefuracao do Sudeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1994-07-01

    In many instances wells are temporary abandoned just after cementing liner to be completed later or to have the BOP removed to change rams. In these cases, an additional volume of slurry is designed in order to bring the top of cement plug over the liner top, thus saving the time required for all full plugging operation. (author)

  7. Shaft placement in a bedded salt repository

    Klasi, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m 2 . The model assumes isotropic material properties, plane strain and linear elastic behavior. Various shaft locations were analyzed over a 25 year period. The thermal results show that for this time span, the stratigraphy is unimportant except for the region immediately adjacent to the repository. The thermomechanical results show that for the given repository depth of 610 m, a minimum central shaft pillar radius of 244 m is required to equal the material strength in the barrier pillar. An assumed constant stress and constant temperature distribution creep model of the central shaft region adjacent to the repository conservatively overestimates a creep closure of 310 mm in a 6.1 m diameter centrally-located shaft

  8. The SSC access shafts calculational study

    Baishev, I.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Toohig, T.E.

    1991-06-01

    The SSC generic shaft requirements and access spacing are considered elsewhere. The shafts connecting the ground surface with the underground accelerator tunnel deliver to the surface some portion of the radiation created in the tunnel. The radiation safety problem of access shafts consists of two major questions: Does the dose equivalent at the ground surface exceed permissible limits? If it exceeds those limits, what additional shielding measures are required? A few works deal with this problem for high energy machines. This work is an attempt to answer these questions for the basic types of shafts specific to the SSC magnet delivery, utility and personnel shafts using full-scale Monte-Carlo calculations of the entire process from hadronic cascades in the lattice elements to particles scattered in the tunnel, niches, alcoves, shafts and surface bunkers and buildings. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  9. Placement of pre-compacted and in situ compacted dense backfill materials in shaft seals

    Martino, J.; Dixon, D.; Kim, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) and ultimately to decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), an ongoing program of work is being undertaken to decommission and deal with facilities that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations. The URL is included in these facilities. Part of this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access and ventilation shafts and an ancient thrust fault, Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2), approximately 275 m below surface. These seals are being installed in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower, less saline groundwater. The seal design in each shaft is similar with a heavily reinforced lower concrete component, a central bentonite clay-sand component and an upper un-reinforced concrete component. The main shaft at the URL at the location of the seal is circular (∼5-m diameter), and was excavated using careful drill and blast techniques. The seal itself consists of two keyed, conical sectioned, 3-m-thick by 5 to 6-m diameter concrete segments that confine a 6-m-thick swelling clay section. The ventilation shaft at the URL is 1.8 m in diameter and was excavated using raise-boring. The ventilation shaft will consist of two keyed, conical sectioned, 2-m-thick concrete by 1.8 to 2.8 m diameter concrete segments confining a 5-m-thick assembly of pre-compacted clay-sand blocks. The concrete is a low pH concrete designed for repository use, which can develop a 70 MPa unconfined compressive strength after 28 days. It has a pH of less than 11 achieved by substitution of 75% of the cement powder with silica fume and ground silica so the likelihood of free calcium and an alkaline plume is

  10. Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring

    Alok Kumar Verma, Somnath Sarangi and M.H. Kolekar

    2013-01-01

    This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition...

  11. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  12. How Concrete is Concrete?

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics.Key words:  Conceret Learning Materials, School Math, Common Sense, Scaffolding, Communication DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.780.1-14

  13. Experimental study o the sodium-concrete reaction

    Goncalves, A.C.; Torres, A.R.; Brito Aghina, L.O. de; Messere e Castro, P.

    1986-01-01

    Effects and aspects of security are verified during a sodium leakage in high temperatures on liners of contention cells and directly on the concrete. As this kinetic process involves reactions between materials in solid state (such as oxides and carbonates) vapors and gases (such as water and CO 2 )) with liquid sodium, effects of each phase of the heterogeneous mixture are separately analysed. Are still analysed produced products and briefly discussed the kinetic of the sodium-concrete reaction. (Author) [pt

  14. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  15. Replica scaling studies of hard missile impacts on reinforced concrete

    Barr, P.; Carter, P.G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Missile and target combinations at three different liners scales have been used in an experimental assessment of the applicability of replica scaling to the dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by rigid missiles. Experimental results are presented for models with relative linear scales of 1, 0.37 and 0.12. (orig.) [de

  16. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol.2

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-01-01

    Shaft sealing by use of highly compacted bentonite was investigated in a 14 m long shaft in which two plugs were constructed with a central sand-filled central space for injecting water. A first reference test with concrete plugs was followed by a main test in which the plug material consisted of blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite powder. In the latter test, the outflow from the injection chamber was only a few percent of that with the concrete plugs, which demonstrates the excellent sealing properties of the clay. The main effect was that practically no water flow took place along the rock/clay interface. The longevity of smectite clay in crystalline rock is sufficient to make bentonite plugs operative for several thousand years. (authors)

  17. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  18. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  19. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Schreiner, T. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  20. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Schreiner, T [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  1. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Skidmore, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  2. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-14

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  3. Acoustic Panel Liner for an Engine Nacelle

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ayle, Earl (Inventor); Ichihashi, Fumitaka (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic panel liner includes a face sheet, back plate, and liner core positioned there-between, which may be used in an engine nacelle. Elongated chambers contain variable amounts of septa at a calibrated depth or depths. The septa may have varying DC flow resistance. The chambers may have a hexagonal or other polygonal cross sections. The septa, such as mesh caps, may be bonded to an inner wall of a corresponding chamber. The insertion depths may be the same or different. If different, the pattern of distribution of the depths may be randomized.

  4. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  5. The critical thickness of liners of Cu interconnects

    Jiang, Q; Zhang, S H; Li, J C

    2004-01-01

    A model for the size-dependence of activation energy is developed. With the model and Fick's second law, relationships among the liner thickness, the working life and the working temperature of a TaN liner for Cu interconnects are predicted. The predicted results of the TaN liner are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the critical thicknesses of liners of some elements are calculated

  6. The EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) containment - concept, testing of leakage behaviour, FRP liner

    Touret, J.P. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Liersch, G. [Bayernwerk Kerenergie GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Danisch, R. [Siemens AG, KWU NAD, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Basic Design of the EPR has now been completed. The containment plays a major safety-related role with respect to protection of the environment against radioactive releases. The EPR features a double (steel-reinforced concrete/prestressed concrete) containment design, with the inner containment coated additionally with a fibreglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) liner in certain areas. This means that containment leaktightness is provided mainly by the prestressed concrete and the FRP liner in the event of a postulated accident. The numerous findings of the tests carried out so far in both France and Germany are summarized. (orig.) [German] Das Basic Design fuer den EPR ist fertiggestellt. Entscheidend fuer eine Realisierung wird neben der politischen Akzeptanz vor allem die Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit mit anderen Energietraegern sein. Im EPR-Projekt wird der hohe Sicherheitsstandard der heutigen Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland und Frankreich ergaenzt, indem zusaetzlich technische Massnahmen ergriffen werden, um die Konsequenzen beim unterstellten Versagen aller sicherheitstechnischen Einrichtungen mit der Folge eines postulierten Niederschmelzen des Kerns technisch zu beherrschen. (orig.)

  7. Pervious Concrete

    Torsvik, Øyvind André Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a material with a high degree of permeability but generally low strength. The material is primarily used for paving applications but has shown promise in many other areas of usage. This thesis investigates the properties of pervious concrete using normal Norwegian aggregates and practices. An overview of important factors when it comes to designing and producing pervious concrete is the result of this investigation. Several experiments have been performed in the concrete ...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a...

  9. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  10. Sodium-concrete reactions experiments and code development

    Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.; Dufresne, J.; Bolvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Hypothesis of hot sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor implies, for the safety organism to consider spillage of sodium on concrete. This safety analysis involves the understanding of sodium-concrete reactions, the knowledge of their consequences and to test the choiced preventive solutions. In association with EDF, the nuclear safety department had carried out an extensive experimental program, the different parts of which are connected with each aspect of this problem: - firstly, interaction between sodium and bare surface of usual concrete; - secondly, the case of a sodium spillage on a concrete surface covered with a defected liner; - thirdly, special concrete tests for a comparison with usual concrete behavior, in direct contact with hot sodium; - at last, a test which concerns a new design with a layer of the selected concrete protected with a defected liner. On the same time, theoretical work leads to elaborate a physical model to describe temporal evolution of thermal and chemical decomposition of a concrete slab under hot sodium action. SORBET-REBUS system will use quoted above test results to its validation

  11. Glazed Concrete

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  12. Diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment

    Lynn, A. G.; Merritt, E.; Gilmore, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical ''plasma liners'' via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n i ∼10 16 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n i >10 19 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  13. Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment.

    Lynn, A G; Merritt, E; Gilmore, M; Hsu, S C; Witherspoon, F D; Cassibry, J T

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical "plasma liners" via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n(i)∼10(16) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n(i)>10(19) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  14. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  15. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  17. Using combined system of shaft guides for buckets during shaft deepening

    Durov, E.M.; Ivenskii, N.S.; Alekhin, P.I.

    1981-06-01

    This paper discusses a system of shaft guides used in the Krasnopol'evsk underground coal mine. The existing skip shaft 514 m deep is deepened to a depth of 700 m. Shaft design is adapted to a system of two pairs of skips, however, only one pair of skips is in operation and the other has been removed. The free space can be used to remove rock material from shaft bottom. It is noted that a system of buckets moving along elastic shaft guides made of rope or along rigid shaft guides can be used. Both solutions have numerous advantages. If rope guides are used time consuming installation of shaft guides is unnecessary in the zone close to the bottom. If rigid guides are used capacity of the bucket can be significantly increased. A system which combines advantages of both solutions is used: in the lower part of the shaft being deepened, buckets are guided by rope, and in the upper zone in which rigid shaft guides have been installed the bucket moves along rigid guides and rope guides simultaneously. Design of the element guiding the bucket is shown in two diagrams. It is noted that using the combined system of shaft guides increases capacity of the hoisting system by 1.5 times.

  18. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure.

  19. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  20. Concrete Hinges

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research...... in concrete hinges was more common different designs were proposed for the geometry and reinforcement. Previous research focused on fatigue, multi-axial stresses around the hinge throat, and the relation between rotation- and moment. But many different test-setups were proposed by different researchers...

  1. Concrete structures

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  2. Analysis of the sodium concrete interactions with the NABE code

    Soule, N.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies have been performed in France to investigate sodium-concrete interactions: thermal decomposition of concrete, specific chemical reactions, experimentation in liquid and vapour phase, sodium-concrete interaction without liner protection. Simultaneously computer codes have been developed in order to study the response of the containment building of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor to a sodium pool fire worsened by a sodium-concrete interaction: the NABE code. This code takes into account: a) sodium combustion; b) thermal decomposition of concrete with associated chemical reactions: (liquid sodium-vapour water reaction, liquid sodium-carbon dioxide reaction, liquid sodium-solid compounds of concrete, hydrogen combustion); c) chemical reactions in vapour phase; d) decay heat; e) gas aerosol inlets/outlets; f) aerosol behaviour (sedimentation, diffusion, leak); g) thermal exchanges. An example of a situation, typical of assessment of beyond design basis situations in LMFBR, is given. (author)

  3. Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report

    Langstaff, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Design Basis Study is a scoping/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages and disadvantages of a larger second shaft. Recommendations are proposed concerning water and methane inflow values, facility layout, second shaft size, ventilation, and gassy mine requirements. 75 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Production of iron-serpentinite concrete and mortar for Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 nuclear power plant

    Valenta, D.; Oravec, J.

    1982-01-01

    The ideas behind the research and the results of the research of serpentinite concrete with a discontinuous granulometric curve are given. Concrete mixes were experimentally tested; a formula is given for the manufacture of 1 m 3 of fresh concrete. Serpentinite concrete of a density of 2,240 kg/m 3 is satisfactory as shielding material. Time dependence of workability was also tested. It was found that the concrete was well workable as late as 2 hours after manufacture. Serpentinite concrete and mortar were made and used for the biological shielding construction in the shaft of Unit I of the V-2 nuclear power plant. (J.P.)

  5. Cylindrical reinforced-concrete pressure vessel for nuclear reactors

    Vaessen, F.

    1975-01-01

    The cylindrical pressure vessel has got a wall and an isolating layer composed of blocks of heat-resistant concrete or of ceramic material. The side of the isolating layer facing the interior of the presssure vessel is coated by a liner made of metallic material. In cold state and without internal pressure, the radius of this liner is smaller by a differential amount than that of the isolating layer. By means of radially displaceable fixing elements consisting of an anchoring tube and a holding tube inserted in it, the liner can be made to rest against the isolating layer. This occurs if the pressure vessel is brought to operational temperature. The anchoring tube is attached to the isolating layer whereas the displaceable holding tube is connected with the liner. The possible relative travelling distance of these two elements is equal to the difference of length of the two radii. In addition, the liner may consist of single parts connected with each other through compensating flanges. There may also be additional springs arranged between the isolating layer and the liner. (DG/PB) [de

  6. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Polybore : an innovative casing liner and patch technology

    Hayward, C. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided several images on how to install a polybore tight fitting wellbore liner developed by Trican Well Service. The high density polyethylene liner is spooled and rolled into a reducer well where weights are maintained until the liner is in place. The liner offers corrosion protection, corrosion control, chemical resistance, and wear resistance. The liner helps to optimize water injection, well disposal, as well as carbon dioxide injection. It can be placed at depths up to 2,000 m and is well suited to repair pin hole leaks or plug off existing perforations that were previously cemented. The liner can be used to repair and control wellbore corrosion at specific intervals. This presentation provides a brief history of the development of the wellbore liner along with some installation case studies. The thermal velocity liner developed by Trican insulates fluids from heat loss. It prevents liquid dropout and paraffin formation in gas wells. The liner can be used as a replacement for tubing or a loose fit liner. Erosion rates were illustrated. The system, however, is limited because the wellbore casing must be round and scraped and it cannot be used in highly deviated wells. The economic benefits of injection and disposal well applications include power savings, quick payback, corrosion resistance, and lower repair costs. The liners are more cost effective than conventional steel patch. 1 tab., 14 figs.

  8. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  9. Liner Stability Experiments at Pegasus: Diagnostics and Experimental Results

    Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Rodriguez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments to compare imploding liner performance with magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling has been performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus II pulse power machine. Liner instability growth originating from initial perturbations machined into the liner has been observed with high resolution. Three major diagnostics were used: radiography, Velocity Interferometer for a Surface of Any Reflector (VISAR), and fiber optic impact pins. For radiography, three flash x-ray units were mounted radially to observe liner shape at three different times during the implosion. Liner velocity was measured continuously with the VISAR for the entire distance traveled in two experiments. Optical impact pins provide a high-resolution measure of liner symmetry and shape near the end of travel. Liner performance has compared well with predictions

  10. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  11. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties

  12. FIXTURING DEVICE FOR DRILLING A STRAIGHT SHAFT

    SUSAC, Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a fixturing device used for machining by drilling a straight shaft. The shaft was manufactured on EMCO CONCEPT TURN 55 CNC. The blank used was a bar with circular cross-section. The orientation and fixing scheme of the part and the orientation elements for fixturing device are presented as they were drawn in Autodesk Inventor and AutoCAD software.

  13. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  15. Concrete Fibrations

    Pagnan, Ruggero

    2017-01-01

    As far as we know, no notion of concrete fibration is available. We provide one such notion in adherence to the foundational attitude that characterizes the adoption of the fibrational perspective in approaching fundamental subjects in category theory and discuss it in connection with the notion of concrete category and the notions of locally small and small fibrations. We also discuss the appropriateness of our notion of concrete fibration for fibrations of small maps, which is relevant to a...

  16. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  17. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  18. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CENTRELESS-LUNETTE TURNING OF HEAVY SHAFT

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of huge renovated lathe is simulated. Turning scheme concerns to heavy rotor shaft finishing. Lofty parts and milling head may create dynamic problems. Static, modal and harmonic frequency response function simulations were provided. Bearing system consists of bed, support, tool, lunettes, tailstock. Headstock didn’t take part in shaft holding. Static and dynamic rigidities founded 3–4 times less for support than for shaft. Tool rigidity lessens from 186.5 to 11.9 N/µm for speeding from slow to near resonance turning. Twelve lathe eigenmodes were evaluated. Two eigenmodes are most dangerous. It is “shaft swinging on lunettes” (M1, 26.7 Hz and “support pecking” (M3, 54.4 Hz. Bed has excessive flexibility due to through holes and lack of inner ribbing. Polymer concrete filling is moderately effective. Changing two-lunette (2L scheme to three-lunette (3L increases rigidity of shaft at 2.09 times at statics but gives limited action in dynamics. Resonant peaks on frequency response function are lowered only at 1.32 times for M1, M3. Effect of dynamic damping is revealed under condition of proximity middle lunette to lofty support. Support serves as tuned mass damper. Measures of machine tool reinforcement are simulated. Shaft swinging according to M1 may hardly be blocked by passive means. It would be better to bypass it. “Support pecking” resonance (M3 succumbs to only full set of measures. Small effect of partial reinforcement is predicted. Three frequency intervals are recommended for turn-milling at huge lathe: pre-resonant (<20 Hz, inter-resonant (35–45 Hz and post-resonant (>65 Hz. The last one is more suited. Next design step is to create triangle inner ribbing system or caissons inside of bed.

  19. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Blahetová M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241 was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides, which caused a severe pitting corrosion, which led up to the perforation of the liner material. Simultaneous reduction of the thickness of the used sheets was due to by the general corrosion, which was caused by the sulfur in the solid fuel. The condensation then led to acid environment and therefore the corrosion below the dew point of the sulfuric acid has occurred. All is documented by metallographic analysis and microanalysis of the corrosion products.

  20. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Dean Leonard Biron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner notes. Rather than merely an attempt at describing or translating musical experience, liner notes contribute to the dialogue between composer and listener and are a significant part of the culture of contemporary music.

  1. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment

  2. NANOMODIFIED CONCRETE

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions in construction material science is the development of  next generation concrete that is ultra-dense, high-strength, ultra-porous, high heat efficient, extra corrosion-resistant. Selection of such direction is caused by extreme operational impacts on the concrete, namely: continuously increasing load on the concrete and various dynamics of such loads; the necessity in operation of concrete products in a wide temperature range and their exposure to various chemical and physical effects.The next generation concrete represents high-tech concrete mixtures with additives that takes on and retain the required properties when hardening and being used under any operational conditions. A differential characteristic of the next generation concrete is its complexity that presumes usage of various mineral dispersed components, two- and three fractional fine and coarse aggregates, complex chemical additives, combinations of polymer and iron reinforcement.Design strength and performance properties level of the next generation concrete is achieved by high-quality selection of the composition, proper selection of manufacturing techniques, concrete curing, bringing the quality of concrete items to the required level of technical condition during the operational phase. However, directed formation of its structure is necessary in order to obtain high-tech concrete.Along with the traditional methods for regulation of the next generation concrete structure, modification of concrete while using silica nanoparticles is also considered as a perspective one because the concrete patterning occurs due to introduction of a binder in a mineral matrix. Due to this it is possible to obtain nano-modified materials with completely new properties.The main problem with the creation of nano-modified concrete is a uniform distribution of nano-materials in the volume of the cement matrix which is particularly important in the cases of adding a modifier in

  3. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTH vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4 m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined. The liner is constructed of Inconel 625 and has a geometry which alternates sections of thin walled bellows with rigid ribs. These composite sections span between pairs of the 16 diagnostic stations to complete the torus. The thin bellows sections maximize the liner toroidal resistance and the ribs provide support and positional accuracy for the armour in relation to the conducting shell. Heat transfer from the vessel is controlled by a blanket wrap of ceramic fiber insulation and the heat flux is dissipated to a water cooling jacket in the conducting shell

  4. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    Prince, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTH vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at 2 MA in 1990 and at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined. The liner is constructed of Inconel 625 and has a geometry which alternates sections of thin walled bellows with rigid ribs. These composite sections span between pairs of the 16 diagnostic stations to complete the torus. The thin bellows sections maximize the liner toroidal resistance and the ribs provide support and positional accuracy for the armour in relation to the conducting shell. Heat transfer from the vessel is controlled by a blanket wrap of ceramic fiber insulation and the heat flux is dissipated to a water cooling jacket in the conducting shell. 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. System design for shaft safety and productivity

    Owen, D.; Parsons, R.; Ward, R.

    1988-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process of designing a system to improve safety and productivity in shafts. The objectives and constraints for the design were set out in official reports following a shaft accident at Markham Colliery in 1973. The problems to be solved were: to enable the shaftsmen to transfer the existing statutory code of signals efficiently from, or on top of, a conveyance anywhere in the shaft to the winding engineman and banksman at the surface: to detect the existence of slack rope or to detect that conditions have arisen that slack rope could be created and transmit this information to where action can be taken; and to allow conversations between winding engineman, banksman and shaftsman making allowances for the high level of acoustic noise in shafts. The approach adopted for slack rope monitoring was to monitor the tension in the cage suspension gear, thus measuring a first order effect. The three problems have a common element: information must be transferred through the shaft. This particular problem was solved with guided radio, using the winding rope as the transmission medium. The radio signal is coupled into the winding rope by means of fixed toroid encircling it at the cage and fixed magnetic antennas at the surface. The design of a digital transmission system for signalling and tension data is discussed. The 'top down' modular approach used in the design enabled full advantage to be taken of the opportunities for building a more reliable, safer and flexible system presented by technologies new to the shaft environment. The resultant system, the Safecom Shaft Signalling Communication and Winder Safety Monitoring System type S100, is in regular use at over 20 installations. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study of imploding liner-electrode wall interaction

    Chernyshev, V K; Zharinov, E I; Mokhov, V N [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Acceleration of solid aluminium liners and their interaction with electrodes is studied experimentally. One of the main goal of the experiments is to find the method of improving the contact between the liner and the electrode during the acceleration process. Two independent liners connected in series in one discharge circuit are used. This arrangement makes it possible to record two different liner positions simultaneously at one discharge current. As an energy source, a helical explosive magnetic generator of the length of 0.7 m and 100 mm in diameter is used. The shape of liners at various stages of acceleration is recorded by using a flash radiographic facility. The measured liner flight velocity and the compression radius are compared with the results of MHD model calculations. (J.U.). 21 figs., 7 refs.

  7. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing

  8. ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.

    SULLIVAN,T.M.

    2003-08-23

    The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

  9. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  10. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  11. Design and modeling of precision solid liner experiments on Pegasus

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.; McLenithan, K.D.; Scannapieco, A.J.; Shanahan, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed power driven solid liners may be used for a variety of physics experiments involving materials at high stresses. These include shock formation and propagation, material strain-rate effects, material melt, instability growth, and ejecta from shocked surfaces. We describe the design and performance of a cylindrical solid liner that can attain velocities in the several mm/μs regime, and that can be used to drive high-stress experiments. An approximate theoretical analysis of solid liner implosions is used to establish the basic parameters (mass, materials, and initial radius) of the driver. We then present one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of magnetically driven, liner implosions which include resistive heating and elastic endash plastic behavior. The two-dimensional models are used to study the effects of electrode glide planes on the liner close-quote s performance, to examine sources of perturbations of the liner, and to assess possible effects of instability growth during the implosion. Finally, simulations are compared with experimental data to show that the solid liner performed as predicted computationally. Experimental data indicate that the liner imploded from an initial radius of 2.4 cm to a target radius of 1.5 cm, and that it was concentric and cylindrical to better than the experimental resolution (60 μm) at the target. The results demonstrate that a precision solid liner can be produced for high-stress, pulsed power applications experiments. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] shaft seals: Topical report RSI-0324

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1987-10-01

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses provided information on the behavior and stability of concrete seals emplaced in a circular shaft. The two types of concrete considered were an expansive salt-saturated concrete for seals located in rock salt or other rock and an expansive freshwater concrete for seals located in nonsalt rock. Thermal analyses determined the temperature rise in the concrete and surrounding rock as a result of the exothermic hydration of the cement in the concretes. The thermomechanical analyses considered time-dependent elastic modulus, thermoelastic expansion, time-dependent chemically induced expansion, and creep of the concrete; thermoelastic behavior of the nonsalt rocks; and thermoelastic and creep behavior of the rock salt. Supplementary analyses determined the effects of pressure loading on a face of the seal as might result from a static brine head or the swelling of a bentonite backfill; the influence of using a reduced elastic modulus for the rock salt; and the effect of eliminating the chemical expansivity of the concrete. Results of interest were the development of radial stress in the seal, the magnitudes of tensile and shear stresses induced in the seal and rock, and the effect of bonding or lack of bonding between the seal and the surrounding rock. The chemical expansivity of the concrete was shown to be important for the development of radial stresses in the seal and at the contact between the seal and the surrounding rock. The shear stresses induced in the seal by the swelling pressure of bentonite become a concern if the radial stresses are not developed. 20 refs., 58 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Concept study for a combined reinforced concrete containment

    Liersch, G.; Peter, U.; Danisch, R.; Freiman, M.; Hummer, M.; Roettinger, H.; Hansen, H.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of different steel and concrete containment types had been designed and constructed in the past. Most of the concrete containments had been prestressed offering the advantage of small displacements and certain leak tightness of the concrete itself. However, considerable stresses in concrete as well as in the tendons have to be maintained during the whole lifetime of the plant in order to guarantee the required prestressing. The long-time behaviour and the ductility in case of beyond design load cases must be verified. In contrary to a prestressed containment a reinforced containment will only significantly be loaded during test conditions or when needed in case of accidents. It offers additional margins which can be used especially for dynamic loads like impacts or for beyond design considerations. The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of a so-called combined containment which means capable to resist both - severe internal accidents and external hazards mainly the aircraft crash impact as considered in the design of nuclear power plants in Germany. The concept is a lined reinforced containment without prestressing. The mechanical resistance function is provided by the reinforced concrete and the leak tightness function will be taken by a so called composite liner made of non-metallic materials. Some results of tests performed at SIEMENS laboratories and at the University of Karlsruhe which show the capability of a composite liner to bridge over cracks at the concrete surface will be presented in the paper. The study shows that the combined reinforced concrete containment with a composite liner offers a robust concept with high flexibility with respect to load requirements, beyond design considerations and geometrical shaping (arrangement of openings, integration with adjacent structures). The concept may be further optimized by partial prestressing at areas of high concentration of stresses such as at transition zones or at disturbances around

  14. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Knyazev, I. A.; Lifanov, F. A.; Polkanov, M. A.; Shvetsov, S. Yu; Savkin, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Shaft siting decision report: Final report

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and establish relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors which impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 49 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  17. Ipsilateral humeral neck and shaft fractures

    Zhu Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fractures of the proximal humerus or shaft are common, however, ipsilateral neck and shaft humerus fracture is a rare phenomenon. This combination injury is challenging for orthopaedic surgeons because of its complex treatment options at present. The purpose of this study was to review a series of ipsilateral humeral neck and shaft fractures to study the fracture pattern, complications and treatment outcomes of each treatment options used. Methods. A total of six patients (four female and two male with the average age of 42.8 years (range: 36–49 years was collected and reviewed retrospectively. Two of them were treated with double plates and four with antegrade intramedullary nail. According to the Neer’s classification, all proximal fractures were two-part surgical neck fractures. All humeral shaft fractures were located at the middle of one third. Five fractures were simple transverse (A3, one fragmented wedge fracture (B3. One patient had associated radial nerve palsy. Results. All surgical neck fractures except one united uneventfully in the average time span of 8.7 weeks. Four humeral shaft fractures healed in near anatomic alignment. The remaining two patients had the nonunion with no radiological signs of fracture healing. The average University of California, Los Angeles End-Results (UCLA score was 23.1. On the contrary, the average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon's (ASES score was 73.3. The patients treated with antegrade intramedullary nails presented 70.5 points. The ASES scores were 79 in the double plates group. Conclusions. Ipsilateral humeral shaft and neck fracture is extremely rare. Both antegrade intramedullar nailing and double plates result in healing of fractures. However the risk of complication is lower in the double plating group.

  18. Strain measurements of temperatures up to 3000C in a concrete structure

    Schittenhelm, Ch.

    1975-10-01

    Strain measurements in a concrete structure representing a cylindrical section of a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel with hot liner, were made. In order to interpret these values in terms of strain and stress in a three dimensional structure, the gauge characteristics as well as the material date of the concrete have to be known in great detail. The paper deals with the performance of different gauges embedded in small concrete blocks and others of the same type embedded in the test ring. Temperature resistance, long-time performance, electrical drift and hysteresis of the gauges were investigated. (author)

  19. Investigations for determining temperature, pressure and moisture distributions in concrete at high temperatures

    Weber, A.; Kamp, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper gives a report on the test program. The main objective of the tests was the determination of the temperature and moisture fields decisive for the corrosion conditions, which are built up behind the liner in the range of the heated concrete. The determination of transport characteristics of the concrete are another objective. Small concrete specimens are used to determine the following data: Thermal conductivity, heat capacity, diffusion coefficient for liquid water, steam and air, steam sorption therms. The chemical shrinkage of the concrete as a function of moisture and temperature is being evaluated by means of tests and calculations. (orig./HP)

  20. Design of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel for gas-cooled heating reactors

    Becker, G.; Notheisen, C.; Steffen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The GHR pebble bed reactor offers a simple, safe and economic possibility of heat generation. An essential component of this concept is the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. A system of cooling pipes welded to the outer surface of the liner is used to transfer the heat from the reactor to the intermediate circuit. The high safety of this vessel concept results from the clear separation of the functions of the individual components and from the design principle of the prestressed conncrete. The prestressed concrete structure is so designed that failure can be reliably ruled out under all operating and accident conditions. Even in the extremely improbable event of failure of all decay heat removal systems when decay heat and accumulated heat are transferred passively by natural convection only, the integrity of the vessel remains intact. For reasons of plant availability the liner and the liner cooling system shall be designed so as to ensure safe elimination of failure over the total operating life. The calculations which were peformed partly on the basis of extremely adverse assumption, also resulted in very low loads. The prestressed concrete vessel is prefabricated to the greatest possible extent. Thus a high quality and optimized fabrication technology can be achieved especially for the liner and the liner cooling system. (orig./HP)

  1. Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag for Liner Applications in Aircraft

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jasinski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    A parameter that is gaining significance in the evaluation of acoustic liner performance is the skin friction drag induced by air flow over the liner surface. Estimates vary widely regarding the amount of drag the liner induces relative to a smooth wall, from less than a 20% increase to nearly 100%, and parameters such as face sheet perforate hole diameter, percent open area, and sheet thickness are expected to figure prominently in the skin friction drag. Even a small increase in liner drag can impose an economic penalty, and current research is focused on developing 'low drag' liner concepts, with the goal being to approach the skin friction drag of a smooth wall. The issue of skin friction drag takes on greater significance as airframe designers investigate the feasibility of putting sound absorbing liners on the non-lifting surfaces of the wings and fuselage, for the purpose of reducing engine noise reflected and scattered toward observers on the ground. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have embarked on investigations of liner skin friction drag with the aims of: developing a systematic drag measurement capability, establishing the drag of current liners, and developing liners that produce reduced drag without compromising acoustic performance. This paper discusses the experimental procedures that have been developed to calculate the drag coefficient based on the change in momentum thickness and the companion research program being carried out to measure the drag directly using a force balance. Liner samples that are evaluated include a solid wall with known roughness and conventional liners with perforated facesheets of varying hole diameter and percent open area.

  2. Concrete domains

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies on water and gas release from heated concrete

    McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures currently used in licensing of nuclear facilities require analysis of postulated accidents which are more severe than ''design basis'' events. For breeder program reactors, some accidents in this severe category involve spillage of sodium coolant onto concrete protected by a steel liner. Heat transfer through the liner heats the concrete, causing a part of the mixing water and other gases to be driven off. These gases would add to pressure in the containment atmosphere, and the water vapor can form hydrogen if it contacts sodium. Evaluations of containment integrity for such postulated accidents will be aided by knowledge of how much water and other gases are released from heated concrete. The report presents results of a research effort at Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory designed to improve understanding of the release of water and gases from heated concrete

  4. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Biron, Dean Leonard

    2011-01-01

    A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner...

  5. Construction of blind shafts with the PVS 3500 planetary full shaft drilling machine

    Glogowski, P.; Kolditz, H.

    1992-01-01

    The PVS 3500 planetary full shaft drilling machine has proved as a prototype in the construction of two blind shafts. The drilling rate of 8 m/shift or 25.6 m 3 /MS is outstanding for the initial use of this drilling machine. Blind shafts were cut from the solid by a dry drilling method for the first time. It opens up the possibility of making available storage boreholes for larger quantities of radioactive waste with low activity and for toxic waste materials. (orig.)

  6. Photocatalyticpaving concrete

    Lyapidevskaya Ol'ga Borisovna; Fraynt Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Today bituminous concrete is a conventional paving material. Among its advantages one can name dustlessness and noiselessness, fine wear (up to 1 mm a year) and fine maintainability. As the main disadvantages of this material one can name high slipperiness under humidification, low durability and weather resistance. Besides that, during placement of the bituminous concrete a lot of different air pollutants are emitted, which are harmful for environment and human’s health (they are listed in t...

  7. Photocatalyticpaving concrete

    Lyapidevskaya Ol'ga Borisovna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today bituminous concrete is a conventional paving material. Among its advantages one can name dustlessness and noiselessness, fine wear (up to 1 mm a year and fine maintainability. As the main disadvantages of this material one can name high slipperiness under humidification, low durability and weather resistance. Besides that, during placement of the bituminous concrete a lot of different air pollutants are emitted, which are harmful for environment and human’s health (they are listed in the paper according to the US Environmental Protection Agency materials. As an alternative, one can use cement-concrete pavement, which is in many ways more efficient than the bituminous concrete. It is proposed to enhance environmental performance of the cement-concrete pavement via usage of photocatalysis. The mechanism of different photocatalytic reactions is described in the paper, namely heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis, photo-induces, photoactivated catalysis and catalytical photoreactions. It is pro-posed to use heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst. The mechanism of photo oxidation of air contaminants, with the usage of titanium dioxide is2described. The paper sets problems, connected with the sensibilization of TiOto thevisible light (it is proposed to use titanium dioxide, doped with the atoms of certain elements to increase its sensibility to the visible light and with the development of a new photocatalytic paving concrete, which will meet the requirements, specified for paving in the climatic and traffic conditions of the Russian Federation.

  8. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): design, construction and monitoring of a full-scale shaft seal

    Dixon, D.; Martino, J.; Kim, C.S.; Holowick, B.; Kwong, G.; Jonsson, E.; Palonen, E.; DeCombarieu, M.

    2010-01-01

    a result of this opportunity, these four organizations have partnered to support a package of work managed by AECL that will see the NRCan-funded construction of the shaft seal enhanced through the installation of a suite of monitoring instruments in the main shaft seal. However, the ventilation raise seal will not be instrumented. Each of the participants have provided technical input to the design of the seal and the sensor suite installed, providing this construction with a very well defined scope and focus, as well as an opportunity to test a variety of sensors under repository-like conditions. A challenge not previously dealt with in an underground laboratory is the issue of dealing with very long cable lengths (> 300 m) necessary to reach from the sensor installation point to a location where a logger can be installed and monitored. This has been dealt with by using a combination of three data logging techniques, including a watertight pressure-resistant logger, a sacrificial logger that is required to last only until water reaches it and selection of sensors that are capable of tolerating long cable lengths. The main shaft of the URL at the location of the seal is circular, having been excavated using careful drill and blast techniques. The seal itself consists of two keyed, conical sectioned, concrete sections 3-m-thick by 5- to 6-m diameter that confine a 6-m-thick swelling clay section. The lower concrete section, based approximately 279 m below the ground surface consists of reinforced low-heat, low-pH, high performance concrete that is intended to have minimal chemical influence on its surroundings. The clay segment of the seal consists of a mixture of Wyoming bentonite and sand-sized aggregate that is densely compacted using conventional compaction techniques. This bentonite-sand material provides a substantial self-sealing capacity to the installation and will minimize mass transport into the fracture zone. The upper concrete segment consists of a

  9. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank...

  10. Development of a Multifidelity Approach to Acoustic Liner Impedance Eduction

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The use of acoustic liners has proven to be extremely effective in reducing aircraft engine fan noise transmission/radiation. However, the introduction of advanced fan designs and shorter engine nacelles has highlighted a need for novel acoustic liner designs that provide increased fan noise reduction over a broader frequency range. To achieve aggressive noise reduction goals, advanced broadband liner designs, such as zone liners and variable impedance liners, will likely depart from conventional uniform impedance configurations. Therefore, educing the impedance of these axial- and/or spanwise-variable impedance liners will require models that account for three-dimensional effects, thereby increasing computational expense. Thus, it would seem advantageous to investigate the use of multifidelity modeling approaches to impedance eduction for these advanced designs. This paper describes an extension of the use of the CDUCT-LaRC code to acoustic liner impedance eduction. The proposed approach is applied to a hardwall insert and conventional liner using simulated data. Educed values compare well with those educed using two extensively tested and validated approaches. The results are very promising and provide justification to further pursue the complementary use of CDUCT-LaRC with the currently used finite element codes to increase the efficiency of the eduction process for configurations involving three-dimensional effects.

  11. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  12. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  13. Pining for home: Studying crew homesickness aboard a cruise liner ...

    Research in Hospitality Management ... Crew homesickness should be seen as important by both shipboard and liner company management because it can ultimately impact on customer service experiences, and can be ameliorated by ... Keywords: homesickness, cruise-liner, crewmembers, shipboard hotel services ...

  14. Liquid metal liner implosion systems with blade lattice for fusion

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the liquid liner implosion systems with the blade lattice is proposed for the rotational stabilization of the liner inner surface which is facing a plasma in a fusion reactor. The blades are electrically conducting and inclined to the radial direction. Its major function is either acceleration or deceleration of the liner in the azimuthal direction. This system enables us to exclude the rotary mechanism for the liner rotation. In this system, the liner is formed as an annular flow of a liquid metal (the waterfall concept). Results show that there is no significant difference of the energy cost for the stabilization compared with the earlier proposed system where a liner is rotated rigidly before implosion. Furthermore, the application of the rotating blade lattice makes it possible to reduce the rotational kinetic energy required for the stabilization at turnaround, where the lattice acts as an impeller in the initial liner rotation. There is an optimum blade angle to maximize the compressed magnetic field energy inside the liner for a given driving energy. (author)

  15. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  16. Self-Placing Concrete

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Certain concrete pours have areas where the congestion of reinforcing bars make placement of concrete almost impossible. Using conventional placing and vibration techniques, the resulting concrete can have considerable honeycombing due to the development of voids. Self-placing concrete is a possible solution to the problem. Also known as self-compactable concrete, self-consolidating concrete, flowable concrete, and non-vibration concrete. These concretes eliminate the need for vibration in a ...

  17. Recent quality of ultra large rotor shafts

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Morita, Kikuo; Kikuchi, Hideo; Takada, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    Large size and high quality are required for rotor shafts accompanying recent trend of thermal and nuclear power generation toward large capacity. As for the low pressure rotor shafts for large capacity turbines, the disks and a shaft tend to be made into one body instead of conventional shrink fit construction, because of the experience of rotor accidents and the improvement of reliability. Therefore the ingots required become more and more large, and excellent production techniques are required for steel making, forging and heat treatment. Kobe Steel Ltd. have made about 20 large generator shafts from 420 t and 500 t ingots, and confirmed their stable high quality. Also a one-body low pressure rotor of 2600 mm diameter was made for trial, and its quality was examined. It was confirmed that the effect of forging and heat treatment was given sufficiently, and the production techniques for super-large one-body rotors were established. In steel making, vacuum degassing was applied twice to decrease hydrogen content, and VV restriction forging and pre-stage treatment were carried out. The properties of large rotors are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large....... The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  19. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Permian Basin

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Permian Basin locatd in the western part of Texas. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  20. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Paradox Basin

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Paradox Basin located in the southeastern part of Utah. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Permian Basin in Texas and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  1. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  2. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  3. TEMP-STRESS analysis of a reinforced concrete vessel under internal pressure

    Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.; Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The TEMP-STRESS FEM represents an axisymmetric simulation of the reinforced concrete vessel to internal pressurization. The information shows the global deformation, the state of strain/stress within the containment vessel with respect to the imposed pressures. Thus, the location and progress of concrete cracking, the stretching of the liner and the reinforcing bars and final failure are indicated through the entire loading range. Equilibrium of the entire system is assured at definite loading increments. With the progress of concrete cracking, the resisting load is continuously transferred to the reinforcing bars and the liner. Thus, after the tensile strength is exceeded and the concrete stress is set to zero, the internal pressures are entirely resisted by the liner and the reserve strength of the reinforcing bars. The reinforcing bars are mechanically connected to each other by splices, the ultimate strength of which is less than that of the rebars themselves. The corresponding strain at this limiting stress is lower than the ultimate strain of the liner. Therefore, the specified ultimate strength of the splices limits the pressurization of the vessel. Furthermore, once any of the splices fail, then load is transferred to the adjacent members, causing their failure and general failure of the vessel. (orig./HP)

  4. State-of-the-art and prospets for designing and constraction of prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Short review of reports submitted to the symposium on pressure vessels, which was conducted in Calgary (Canada), has been presented. New tendencies of designing of prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPV) for nuclear for nuclear reactors are noted. Construction of hot vessel liner is studied. A conclusion is drawn on prospects of PCPV creation

  5. Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts

    Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

    1969-01-01

    Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and... connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the...

  7. Procedure for determining the optimum rate of increasing shaft depth

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Presented is an economic analysis of increasing shaft depth during mine modernization. Investigations carried out by the Yuzhgiproshakht Institute are analyzed. The investigations are aimed at determining the optimum shaft sinking rate (the rate which reduces investment to the minimum). The following factors are considered: coal output of a mine (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mt/year), depth at which the new mining level is situated (600, 800, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m), four schemes of increasing depth of 2 central shafts (rock hoisting to ground surface, rock hoisting to the existing level, rock haulage to the developed level, rock haulage to the level being developed using a large diameter borehole drilled from the new level to the shaft bottom and enlarged from shaft bottom to the new level), shaft sinking rate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/month), range of increasing shaft depth (the difference between depth of the shaft before and after increasing its depth by 100, 200, 300 and 400 m). Comparative evaluations show that the optimum shaft sinking rate depends on the scheme for rock hoisting (one of 4 analyzed), range of increasing shaft depth and gas content in coal seams. The optimum shaft sinking rate ranges from 20 to 40 m/month in coal mines with low methane content and from 20 to 30 m/month in gassy coal mines. The planned coal output of a mine does not influence the optimum shaft sinking rate.

  8. Finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures - Workshop proceedings

    1999-09-01

    This workshop is related to the finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures. It is composed of three sessions. The first session (which title is: the use of finite element analysis in safety assessments) comprises six papers which titles are: Historical Development of Concrete Finite Element Modeling for Safety Evaluation of Accident-Challenged and Aging Concrete Structures; Experience with Finite Element Methods for Safety Assessments in Switzerland; Stress State Analysis of the Ignalina NPP Confinement System; Prestressed Containment: Behaviour when Concrete Cracking is Modelled; Application of FEA for Design and Support of NPP Containment in Russia; Verification Problems of Nuclear Installations Safety Software of Strength Analysis (NISS SA). The second session (title: concrete containment structures under accident loads) comprises seven papers which titles are: Two Application Examples of Concrete Containment Structures under Accident Load Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis; What Kind of Prediction for Leak rates for Nuclear Power Plant Containments in Accidental Conditions; Influence of Different Hypotheses Used in Numerical Models for Concrete At Elevated Temperatures on the Predicted Behaviour of NPP Core Catchers Under Severe Accident Conditions; Observations on the Constitutive Modeling of Concrete Under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperatures; Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage; Program of Containment Concrete Control During Operation for the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant; Static Limit Load of a Deteriorated Hyperbolic Cooling Tower. The third session (concrete structures under extreme environmental load) comprised five papers which titles are: Shear Transfer Mechanism of RC Plates After Cracking; Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland; Seismic Behaviour of Slightly Reinforced Shear Wall Structures; FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete

  9. Results from the geological surveys carried out in the Bure laboratory's shafts

    Rebours, Herve; Righini, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the government's authorization to build and operate an underground laboratory, Andra started the investigation works in November 99 on the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL site. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is located at the border of the Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine regions, on the township of Bure in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rich rock. On the URL site, the layer is about 135 m-thick and lies at a depth of 417 m to 552 m. The laboratory consists of two levels of experimental drifts at depths of 445 m and 490 m, respectively, with two vertical shafts crossing the 505 m-thick sedimentary cover of Kimeridgian (about 100 meters of marls and limestones), Oxfordian (about 300 meters of limestones) and Callovo-Oxfordian formations. The construction of the underground installations started in August 2000 with the sinking of the main shaft and was completed on the 27 April 2006 when it linked up with the southern drift of the laboratory. The two access shafts are sunk with a drill and blast method with steps of 2.4 to 3.1 m. A temporary support with grouted bolts and wire mesh is set immediately after the blasting and removal of the muck. The definitive concrete lining is installed about 12 to 20 m behind the face. The excavated diameter of the main shaft where the geological surveys and experiments have been undertaken is of 6 m (5 m after lining). The second shaft (auxiliary shaft for the ventilation of the URL) is sunk in a smaller diameter (5 m). The aims of the geological surveys carried out during the shaft sinking are to describe the vertical and lateral (between the two shafts) variations of the lithology, to confirm the absence of fault and the geometry of the argillaceous rocks formation. These surveys allow to characterize the natural or inducted fracturing by a sedimentary and structural follow-up of the excavation face. This follow-up was carried out every 2.4 to 3.0 meters in the shafts. During the shaft

  10. Nonlinear analysis of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels

    Berg, S.; Loeseth, S.; Holand, I.

    1977-01-01

    A computational model for circular symmetric reinforced concrete shell problems is described. The model is based on the Finite Element Method. Non-linear stress-strain constitutive relations are used for the concrete, the reinforcement and for the liner. The reinforcement layers may be of different steel qualities. Each layer may be given a specified prestressing. This can be done at the beginning of the computations or the specific reinforcement layer can be considered inactive until a specified level of loading is reached. Thus, the prestressing procedure may also be analyzed in detail. Bond-slip effects are not accounted for. However, no bond may be assumed for prestressing cables by inserting special reinforcement elements. Several models of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels which have been tested up to rupture have been analysed. Analytical (numerical) models for reinforced concrete are also discussed on a more general basis. (Auth.)

  11. Concrete durability

    Gaspar Tébar, Demetrio

    1991-01-01

    The evidence that the concrete is not a material for ever was noticed from the beginning of its industrial use. In the present work, the author describes the studies carried out during the last century and the early ages of the present one, mainly devoted to the study of the durability in sea water. At the present days, and in spite of the numerous papers published from then, the study of the concrete durability continues focusing the research priorities and economical resources of rese...

  12. Effect of shape and surface texture of aggregates during high intensity vertical shaft impact autogeneous crushing

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli

    2002-01-01

    The demand for quarry industry to produce high quality aggregates is increasing parallel with the demand of high strength concrete. Focus on the high quality aggregates production is very essential as 70% of the concrete consist of aggregates. High quality aggregate is characterised according to its shape, surface texture and its size distribution. The cubical and more equidimensional aggregates are characterised as high quality aggregates. Besides photomicrograph of aggregates, Flakiness and Elongation indices are important empirical measurements to determine the quality of the aggregates. The Barmac Rock On Rock Vertical Shaft Impactor proved that the shape of the aggregates can be improved by various crushing mechanisms as the EI and FI values were low and 75% of the cubical particles were observed in the crushed aggregates. (Author)

  13. Generation of a rotating liquid liner by tangential injection

    Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Lanham, R.E.; Cameron, J.; Cooper, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient compression of low mass-density payloads by the implosion of higher mass-density liquid cylinders or liners, as in the NRL LINUS concept for controlled thermonuclear fusion, requires rotation of the liner material to avoid Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities at the liner-payload interface. Experimentally, such implosions have been demonstrated with liners formed within rotating implosion chambers. The present work uses a scale-model experimental apparatus to investigate the possibility of creating liner rotation by tangential injection of the liquid liner material. Different modes of behavior are obtained depending on the fluid exhaust procedures. Right-circular, cylindrical free surfaces are achieved with axial exhaust of fluid at radii interior to the injection nozzles, for which the liner exhibits a combination of solid-body and free vortex flows in different regions. Measurements allow estimates of power losses to viscous shear, turbulence, etc. A simple model based on open-channel flow is then derived, which is in good agreement with experiment, and is used to extrapolate results to the scale of a possible LINUS fusion reactor

  14. Historic Concrete : From Concrete Repair to Concrete Conservation

    Heinemann, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete like materials were already applied during the Roman Empire. After the decline of the Roman Empire, a wide scale application of concrete only reappeared in the 19th century. Here lies also the origin of modern (reinforced) concrete. Since then, both concrete application and composition have

  15. An Improved Lubrication Model between Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners with Consideration of Liner Dynamic Deformations

    Guoxing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction pair of piston rings and cylinder liner is one of the most important friction couplings in an internal combustion engine. It influences engine efficiency and service life. Under the excitation of piston slaps, the dynamic deformation of cylinder liner is close to the surface roughness magnitudes, which can affect the friction and lubrication performance between the piston rings and cylinder assemblies. To investigate the potential influences of structural deformations to tribological behaviours of cylinder assemblies, the dynamic deformation of the inner surface due to pistons slaps is obtained by dynamic simulations, and then coupled into an improved lubrication model. Different from the traditional lubrication model which takes the pressure stress factor and shear stress factor to be constant, the model proposed in this paper calculated these factors in real time using numerical integration to achieve a more realistic simulation. Based on the improved piston rings and cylinder liner lubrication model, the minimum oil film thickness and friction force curves are obtained for an entire work cycle. It shows that the friction force obtained from the improved model manifests clear oscillations in each stoke, which is different from the smoothed profiles predicted traditionally. Moreover, the average amplitude of the friction forces also shows clear reduction.

  16. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  17. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTh vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined

  18. Concepts for backfilling and sealing of shafts

    Pierau, B.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal site is situated at a depth of 1000 to 1200 meters. It is covered by very thick cretatious mudstone layers forming the main barrier against the spread of radioactively contaminated water into the biosphere. Because of the excavation works and the resulting stress redistributions, the material surrounding the shafts is probably broken up, which leads to increased permeability in comparison with the intact rock. It is planned to backfill the shafts with an insoluble mineral mixture including a fine fraction necessary to achieve the sealing required. The joints and cracks in the brocken-up surrounding material are believed to be sealed by themselves due to swelling of the mudstone. Some strata of the mudstone contain more than 20% of smektite, a swelling clay mineral. Those regions, where the broken-up zone cannot be considered sure to self-seal due to swelling, are planned to be sealed by pressure grouting using clay suspension. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  20. Corrosion failure of a BWR embedded reactor containment liner

    Wegemar, B.

    2006-01-01

    Following sixteen fuel cycles, leakage through a BWR embedded reactor containment liner (carbon steel) was discovered. Leakage was located at a penetration for electrical conductors as a result of penetrating corrosion attack. During construction, porous cement structures and air pockets/cavities were formed due to erroneous injection of grout. Corrosion attacks on the CS steel liner were located at the relatively small, active surfaces in contact with the porous cement structure. The corrosion mechanism was supposed to be anodic dissolution of the steel liner in areas with insufficient passivation. The penetrations were restored according to original design requirements. (author)

  1. Work on a transfer tunnel access shaft

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Civil engineers work on one of the access shafts from the SPS to the LHC transfer tunnel, which will allow components and equipment to be lowered directly so that minimal transport is required. The transfer tunnel will take a proton beam from the SPS pre-accelerator and inject it into the clockwise circulating ring in the LHC where the beam will be accelerated to a final energy of 7 TeV.

  2. The magnetically driven imploding liner parameter space of the ATLAS capacitor bank

    Lindemuth, I R; Faehl, R J; Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The Atlas capacitor bank (23 MJ, 30 MA) is now operational at Los Alamos. Atlas was designed primarily to magnetically drive imploding liners for use as impactors in shock and hydrodynamic experiments. We have conducted a computational "mapping" of the high-performance imploding liner parameter space accessible to Atlas. The effect of charge voltage, transmission inductance, liner thickness, liner initial radius, and liner length has been investigated. One conclusion is that Atlas is ideally suited to be a liner driver for liner-on-plasma experiments in a magnetized target fusion (MTF) context . The parameter space of possible Atlas reconfigurations has also been investigated.

  3. ADMISSIBLE SPEEDS OF THE FIRST HEATING OF DESIGNS OF LINING FROM HEAT RESISTING CONCRETE WITH THE CHAMOTTE SEALER ON THE BASIS OF LOCAL SHALES

    Z. A. Manturov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In work results of complex researches by definition of change of temperatures and thermal diffusivity factor on a thickness liner from a refractory concrete on a carborundum-chamotte-silicate- sodium composite knitting are resulted at single-sided heating depending on heating time. Results of definition of admissible speeds of heating liner in a temperature range 200-1000°С are resulted also.

  4. Can the liner be landed on the well bottom?; Posso apoiar o liner no fundo do poco?

    Fonseca, Carlos Fernando Humbert [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Perfuracao. Div. de Suporte Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    During the 7 in.liner run-in operation in well 1-BSS-65 with the shoe depth at 2400 m, the setting string broke and, as a result, the whole array fell from 2800 m high. Through a fishing operation, the liner (setting tool) was recovered and later a casing string sticking was detected. Full fluid circulation was obtained and the possibility was considered of cementing the liner in that position. At this point three questions were asked to assess the feasibility of such a cementing operation: were there significant damages inflicted on the liner string as a result of the fall?; if no damages resulted from the fall, would liner bucking prevent the running in of completion tools?; would the casing withstand the strains caused by buckling? This paper addresses the two latter questions through the theory of helical bucking of the tubing confined within a cylinder. Equations are introduced to calculate the helical pitch and the axial strain due to bending. A user-friendly computer program was developed to apply this theory to instances such as the above-mentioned one or to eliminate the use of hangers with short liners. The results of the analysis carried out on this particular well are presented and an assessment of the main parameters bearing on the issue is undertaken. These parameters are: well diameter and liner length. (author)

  5. Design analysis report: high-integrity container for disposal of EPICOR-II prefilter liners

    Chapman, R.L.; Reno, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    A high-integrity container has been developed to (a) immobilize the EPIROC-II prefilter liners from Unit-2 of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station, and (b) protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The container is designed for disposal depths to 90 feet in either wet or dry subsurface conditions. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas and function as a water barrier at pressures reaching 45 psig. The container has outside dimensions of 62.5 inches diameter by 84 inches high, and is designed to ensure a 300-year functional life. Its design features multiple barriers that prevent corrosives from penetrating container walls. The multiple-barrier approach provides a 1204-year mean time to total failure, based on an assumed single-event-failure probability of 20%. The multiple-corrosion-barrier concept is supplemented by aluminum hydroxide, which reduces the chemical activity of corrosives potentially arising from chemical decomposition of organic resins in the EPICOR-II prefilter liner. Aluminum hydroxide, an effective amphoteric material, tends to neutralize both acids and bases. An epoxy seal between the lid and container body functions as a barrier against any loss of container contents. Two separate epoxy materials fill the space between the lid and container body; they form a seal, mechanically bonding the lid in place. After curing, this epoxy material has a greater strength than the concrete; thus, the concrete has to fail in order for the lid to loosen

  6. Strength analyses of containment steel liner at the plasticity instability

    Klyashchitskij, V.I.; Golyakov, V.I.; Kostylev, V.I.; Margolin, B.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The steel liner of NPP containment plays the important role of a leak-tight contour preventing the possible releases of radioactive substances beyond the boundaries of the reactor building. However, so far in many cases an assessment of strain-stress state of the liner having initial imperfections of the shape was made with approximate methods. A new methodology for the analysis of the liner at the plasticity instability was developed at Atomenergoproekt institute in cooperation with specialists from other agencies. The methodology is based on code 'Termit'. Assessment of the critical strain was made taking into account possible presence of one or two defects: construction undercut or crack-like defect in a weld. On the base of the real structure analyses under any combinations of quasi-static loads the algorithm was developed for the computation of the liner. (author)

  7. The photoionization mechanism of LINERs - Stellar and nonstellar

    Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1993-01-01

    We present high quality spectroscopic observations of a sample of 14 LINERs. Starlight removal is achieved by the subtraction of a suitable absorption-line 'template' galaxy, allowing accurate measurements of emission lines. We use these line fluxes to examine the possible excitation mechanisms of LINERs. We suggest that LINERs with weak forbidden O I 6300-A emission may be H II regions photoionized by unusually hot O-type stars. LINERs with forbidden O I/H-alpha approximately greater than 1/6 may be powered by photoionization from a nonstellar continuum. This is supported by the detection of broad H-alpha emission, a correlation between line width and critical density, and pointlike X-ray emission in several of these objects.

  8. Nonlinear failure analysis of a reinforced concrete containment under internal pressure

    Sharma, S.; Wang, Y.K.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear finite element model is used to investigate the failure response of the Indian Point containment building under severe accident pressures. Refined material models are used to describe the complex stress-strain behavior of the liner and rebar steels, the plain concrete and the reinforced concrete. Structural geometry of the containment is idealized by eight layers of axisymmetric finite elements through the wall thickness in order to closely model the actual placement of the rebars. Soil stiffness under the containment base mat is modeled by a series of nonlinear spring elements. Numerical results presented in the paper describe cracking and plastic deformation (in compression) of the concrete, yielding of the liner and rebar steels and eventual loss of the load carrying capacity of the containment. The results are compared with available data from the previous studies for this containment. 8 references, 9 figures

  9. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  10. Prestressed concrete reactor vessel for the HHT-670 MW(e) demonstration plant. Pt.2. Three-dimensional analysis of the temperature and stress fields in a HHT vessel, including effects of the thermal creep

    Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal rheological calculation of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel for the HHT-670 MW(e) Demonstration Plant is presented in the paper. The main aim of this calculation is to evaluate the effects of the elevated temperature and various loads on the liner as well as on the hot concrete

  11. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  12. The Logistical Challenges of the SpaceLiner Concept

    van Foreest, Arnold; Sippel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The SpaceLiner concept developed at DLR combines extremely fast transport (90 minutes from Europe to Australia) with the experience of Space flight. As such it is different from the spaceflight which focuses exclusively on space tourism but it combines space tourism with for example business travel. The SpaceLiner is designed to carry 50 passengers in suborbital flight. The conceptual technical design presents some challenges which have already been partially investigated at DLR [1]. However,...

  13. A new approach to the design of LMFBR liners

    Polentz, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    An advance in the state-of-the-art of LMFBR liners which permits notable savings in construction costs without any sacrifice of safety is described. The application of the new design concept to the rework of the upper reactor vault liner of the FFTF is discussed. Factors which affect the application of the new design approach to other LMFBRs are delineated and discussed. (author)

  14. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  15. High Performance Concrete

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  16. Analyses and testing of model prestressed concrete reactor vessels with built-in planes of weakness

    Dawson, P.; Paton, A.A.; Fleischer, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, analyses and testing of two small scale, single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models, one without planes of weakness and one with planes of weakness immediately behind the cavity liner. This work was carried out to extend a previous study which had suggested the likely feasibility of constructing regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and biological shields, which become activated, using easily removable blocks, separated by a suitable membrane. The paper describes the results obtained and concludes that the planes of weakness concept could offer a means of facilitating the dismantling of activated regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, biological shields and similar types of structure. (author)

  17. A Conventional Liner Acoustic/Drag Interaction Benchmark Database

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has become a significant topic in the design of such for aircraft noise applications. In order to evaluate the benefits of concepts designed to reduce liner drag, it is necessary to establish the baseline performance of liners employing the typical design features of conventional configurations. This paper details a set of experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of a number of perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of M=0.3 and 0.5. These conventional liners are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of the resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 Hz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 dB. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the interaction between acoustic performance and drag.

  18. Composite Liner, Multi-Megabar Shock Driver Development

    Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Lee, H.; Bowers, R.L.; Atchison, W.L.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.; Broste, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The multi-megabar shock driver development is a series of experiments in support of the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental Program. Its purpose is to develop techniques to impact a uniform, stable, composite liner upon a high Z target to produce a multi-megabar shock for EOS studies. To date, experiments have been done on the Pegasus II capacitor bank with a current of approximately12MA driving the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1cm. Data will be presented on the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1 cm. Data will be presented on the stability and uniformity of the impactor liner when it impacts the target cylinder. Three experiments have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been produced with an Al target cylinder. A Pt target cylinder should produce shock pressures in th e 5-megabar range

  19. Concrete spirituality

    Kritzinger, Johannes N.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on a number of liturgical innovations in the worship of Melodi ya Tshwane, an inner-city congregation of the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). The focus of the innovations was to implement the understanding of justice in Article 4 of the Confession of Belhar, a confessional standard of the URCSA. The basic contention of the article is that well designed liturgies that facilitate experiences of beauty can nurture a concrete spirituality to mobilise urba...

  20. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400 0 C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs

  1. Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements

    Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Russel, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Tension tests of concrete containment wall elements were conducted as part of a three-phase research program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objective of the EPRI experimental/analytical program is twofold. The first objective is to provide the utility industry with a test-verified analytical method for making realistic estimates of actual capacities of reinforced and prestressed concrete containments under internal over-pressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The second objective is to determine qualitative and quantitative leak rate characteristics of typical containment cross-sections with and without penetrations. This paper covers the experimental portion to the EPRI program. The testing program for Phase 1 included eight large-scale specimens representing elements from the wall of a containment. Each specimen was 60-in (1525-mm) square, 24-in (610-mm) thick, and had full-size reinforcing bars. Six specimens were representative of prototypical reinforced concrete containment designs. The remaining two specimens represented prototypical prestressed containment designs. Various reinforcement configurations and loading arrangements resulted in data that permit comparisons of the effects of controlled variables on cracking and subsequent concrete/reinforcement/liner interaction in containment elements. Subtle differences, due to variations in reinforcement patterns and load applications among the eight specimens, are being used to benchmark the codes being developed in the analytical portion of the EPRI program. Phases 2 and 3 of the test program will examine leak rate characteristics and failure mechanisms at penetrations and structural discontinuities. (orig.)

  2. Probabilistic evaluation of concrete containment capacity for beyond design basis internal pressures

    Tang, H.T.; Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    For beyond design basis internal pressure loading, experimental studies have demonstrated that the most probable failure mode governing the ultimate functional capacity of concrete containments is leak rather than break. Based on leak rates measured in experiments, a prediction formula for leak rate as functions of containment liner size and internal pressure has been postulated. The determination of liner tear is cast in a probabilistic framework. In calculating leakage, particular attention is paid to the evaluation of leakage versus rupture and the loading rates that may be required to leapfrog over a leakage mode. (orig.)

  3. The probability of Mark-1 liner failure

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H.; Ratnam, U.; Amarasooriya, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are proposing a probabilistic methodology, the risk-oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) as an overall systematic, disciplined approach for addressing the Mark-1 liner attack issue. The probabilistic framework encompasses the key features of the phenomenology, yet it is flexible enough to allow independent quantification of individual components as it may arise from independent research efforts. As a first step in this direction, the authors assembled, discussed, and took into consideration in the quantification proposed all relevant prior work. Furthermore, as an essential aspect of the overall methodology, most of those whose work has been referenced and/or used in this report have been asked to comment. The details of this work, the comments received, and the authors' responses are included in NUREG/CR-5423. As an even more important characteristic of the methodology, it is hoped that other quantifications (or information relevant to such) of independent components will become available in the future so that one can aim for convergence and closure

  4. GAS PERMEABILITY OF GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Helena Vučenović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL are manufactured hydraulic barriers consisting of mineral and geosynthetic components. They belong to a group of geosynthetic products whose primary purpose is to seal and they have been used in many geotechnical and hydrotechnical applications, landfi lls and liquid waste lagoons for quite a while. They are used in landfill final cover systems to prevent the infi ltration of precipitation into the landfi ll body and the penetration of gases and liquids from the landfill into the atmosphere and environment. Laboratory and fi eld research and observations on regulated landfi lls have proven the eff ectiveness of GCL as a barrier for the infi ltration of precipitation into the landfi ll body as well as the drainage of fl uid beneath the landfill. Due to the presence of high concentrations of gases in the landfill body, there is a growing interest in determining the efficiency of GCL as a gas barrier. It was not until the last twenty years that the importance of this topic was recognized. In this article, current GCL gas permeability studies, the testing methods and test results of gas permeability in laboratory conditions are described.

  5. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.

    1997-01-01

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project

  6. Liner-converter experiment on AMBIORIX

    Gasque, A M; Grua, P; Romary, P [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Centre d` Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d` Aquitaine, Le Barp (France); and others

    1997-12-31

    A new way to transform a quite large part of magnetic energy stored in a Z-pinch plasma into X-rays was first proposed by Rudakov: using an axial magnetic field B{sub z}, a large part of the energy is expected to be transferred by axial electron conductivity to a converter which is placed perpendicularly to the axis of the plasma in order to produce a bright soft X-ray source. In this paper, experimental results obtained on the `AMBIORIX` generator are presented. A hollow cylindrical liner of helium was driven by a current reaching 2 MA in 50 ns. The implosion was studied with and without axial magnetic field, a steady regime of implosion is observed using B{sub z} = 0.3 T. The plasma parameters and the heating of an aluminium converter were measured using various diagnostics. The experimental data were analyzed in detail and compared with the results of numerical simulation. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Luo Jun; Wang Zhiqian; Shen Chengwu; Wen Zhuoman; Liu Shaojin; Cai Sheng; Li Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendic...

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  9. Research and development of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel

    Shiozawa, Shoji; Omata, Ippei; Nakamura, Norio

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the steel reactor vessel, the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) is said to be superior in safety and economy. One of the characteristics of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is the adoption of the PCRV instead of the steel reactor vessel to ensure safety. In order to improve safety characteristics, it is necessary for the PCRV to be provided with more reliable functions. When the multi-purpose HTGR or the gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) are realized in future, more severe conditions of technology will be imposed on the PCRV, and accordingly, technical developments are now increasingly required. IHI is now proceeding with the technical research and development on the PCRV, in which a basic study of its liner cooling system has already been completed. In this study applying a large cylindrical PCRV model, comparison was made between experimental data and analyses concerning the liner cooling system, and the results of analytical technique have been evaluated. The analytical technique established this time is applicable to the estimation of temperature distribution in the concrete of a large PCRV and also to the evaluation of the liner cooling system. (auth.)

  10. Sensitivity analysis of numerical model of prestressed concrete containment

    Bílý, Petr, E-mail: petr.bily@fsv.cvut.cz; Kohoutková, Alena, E-mail: akohout@fsv.cvut.cz

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FEM model of prestressed concrete containment with steel liner was created. • Sensitivity analysis of changes in geometry and loads was conducted. • Steel liner and temperature effects are the most important factors. • Creep and shrinkage parameters are essential for the long time analysis. • Prestressing schedule is a key factor in the early stages. - Abstract: Safety is always the main consideration in the design of containment of nuclear power plant. However, efficiency of the design process should be also taken into consideration. Despite the advances in computational abilities in recent years, simplified analyses may be found useful for preliminary scoping or trade studies. In the paper, a study on sensitivity of finite element model of prestressed concrete containment to changes in geometry, loads and other factors is presented. Importance of steel liner, reinforcement, prestressing process, temperature changes, nonlinearity of materials as well as density of finite elements mesh is assessed in the main stages of life cycle of the containment. Although the modeling adjustments have not produced any significant changes in computation time, it was found that in some cases simplified modeling process can lead to significant reduction of work time without degradation of the results.

  11. Grouting of nuclear waste vault shafts

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating ground water. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing materials its long-term durability and stability and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present grouting technology and grout material are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of shaft grouting. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  12. Residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings

    Sevkat, Ercan; Tumer, Hikmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact loading reduces the torsional strength of composite shaft. • Impact energy level determines the severity of torsional strength reduction. • Hybrid composite shafts can be manufactured by mixing two types of filament. • Maximum torque capacity of shafts can be estimated using finite element method. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings. E-glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and E-glass–carbon/epoxy hybrid composite shafts were manufactured by filament winding method. Composite shafts were impacted at 5, 10, 20 and 40 J energy levels. Force–time and energy–time histories of impact tests were recorded. One composite shaft with no impact, and four composite shafts with impact damage, five in total, were tested under torsion. Torque-twisting angle relations for each test were obtained. Reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle induced by impact loadings were calculated. While 5 J impact did not cause significant reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle, remaining impact loadings caused 34–67% reduction at maximum torque, and 30–61% reduction at maximum twisting angle. Reductions increased with increasing energy levels and varied depending on the material of composite shafts. The 3-D finite element (FE) software, Abaqus, incorporated with an elastic orthotropic model, was then used to simulate the torsion tests. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was achieved

  13. Increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the surface. [USSR

    Durov, E.M.

    1982-06-01

    Schemes of shaft construction with increasing shaft depth depend on: shaft depth, shaft diameter, types of hoisting systems, schemes of shaft reinforcement. Investigations carried out in underground coal mines in the USSR show that waste rock haulage to the surface by an independent hoisting system is most economical. Installation of this system depends on the existing hoisting scheme. When one of the operating cages or skips can be removed without a negative influence on mine operation the system of rock waste hoisting is used. The hoisting bucket used for rock removal from the shaft bottom moves in the shaft section from which one of the cages or skips has been removed. Examples of using this scheme in Donbass, Kuzbass and other coal basins are given. Economic aspects of waste material hoisting to the surface are analyzed. The system is economical when the remaining hoisting system can accept additional loads after removal of a cage or skip from the shaft. Investigations show that use of a bucket with a capacity from 2.5 to 3.0 m/sup 3/ for waste rock removal from the shaft being modernized and deepened is most economical.

  14. Degradation behavior of limestone concrete under limited time sodium exposure

    Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Ramesh, S.S.; Parida, F.C.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate safety measures are taken during design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). However, possibility of sodium leak from secondary heat transport circuits of FBR has not been completely ruled out. In the areas housing sodium pipelines such as Steam Generator Building (SGB), spilled liquid sodium not only reacts with air causing fire but also interacts with structural concrete resulting in its degradation. The structural concrete can be protected from sodium attack using sodium resistant sacrificial concrete layer or steel/refractory liners. Moreover, design and construction of sloping floor with sodium collection pit helps in minimizing the mass of sodium accumulated on the floor and exposure period. Sacrificial concrete layer on the structural concrete should meet key factors like economy, castability, easy removal of affected concrete in the event of a sodium fire and disposability of debris apart from its good resistance against hot burning sodium. Present study is directed towards testing of limestone concrete blocks (made out of 13% ordinary portland cement, 8% water, 48% coarse limestone and 31 % fine limestone aggregates)

  15. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  16. Refractory concretes

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Novel concrete compositions comprise particles of aggregate material embedded in a cement matrix, said cement matrix produced by contacting an oxide selected from the group of Y 2 O 3 , La 2 O 3 , Nd 2 O 3 , Sm 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 with an aqueous solution of a salt selected from the group of NH 4 HO 3 , NH 4 Cl, YCl 3 and Mg(NO 3 ) 2 to form a fluid mixture; and allowing the fluid mixture to harden

  17. Removable control rod drive shaft guide

    Ales, M.W.; Brown, S.K.; Dixon, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    A removable control rod drive shaft guide is described for a control rod ''guide'' structure card, comprising: a. a substantially annular shaped main body portion having a central axial bore for receiving a control rod drive shaft and an upper exterior groove for receiving removal tooling; b. the main body portion having a reduced outer diameter at its lower section; c. a shoulder portion integral with the main body portion for supporting the main body portion on the guide structure card; d. the shoulder portion having a substantially radial bore and the reduced outer diameter lower section having a slot in alignment with the radial bore; e. a locking arm ''pivotaly'' mounted in the radial bore which protrudes into the slot and is movable between a first normal locking position for engaging the guide structure card and a second release position; f. a spring received within a second axial bore in the main body portion and biased against the locking arm for urging and locking arm into the first normal locking position; and g. a release tab at one end of the locking arm for moving the locking arm into the second release position

  18. Requirements for thermal insulation on prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    Neylan, A.J.; Wistrom, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    During the past decade, extensive design, construction, and operating experience on concrete pressure vessels for gas-cooled reactor applications has accumulated. Excellent experience has been obtained to date on the structural components (concrete, prestressing systems, liners, penetrations, and closures) and the thermal insulation. Three fundamentally different types of insulation systems have been employed to ensure the satisfactory performance of this component, which is critical to the overall success of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Although general design criteria have been published, the requirements for design, materials, and construction are not rigorously addressed in any national or international code. With the more onerous design conditions being imposed by advanced reactor systems, much greater attention has been directed to advance the state of the art of insulation systems for PCRVs. This paper addresses some of the more recent developments in this field being performed by General Atomic Company and others. (author)

  19. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  20. A probabilistic capacity spectrum strategy for the reliability analysis of bridge pile shafts considering soil structure interaction

    Dookie Kim

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic capacity spectrum strategy for the reliability analysis of a bridge pile shaft, accounting for uncertainties in design factors in the analysis and the soil-structure interaction (SSI. Monte Carlo simulation method (MCS is adopted to determine the probabilities of failure by comparing the responses with defined limit states. The analysis considers the soil structure interaction together with the probabilistic application of the capacity spectrum method for different types of limit states. A cast-in-drilledhole (CIDH extended reinforced concrete pile shaft of a bridge is analysed using the proposed strategy. The results of the analysis show that the SSI can lead to increase or decrease of the structure's probability of failure depending on the definition of the limit states.

  1. Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques for Nacelle Liner Performance Evaluation

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.; Nark, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed to investigate sound propagation through a duct of size comparable to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The axial dimension of the bypass duct is often curved and this geometric characteristic is captured in the CDTR. The semiannular bypass duct is simulated by a rectangular test section in which the height corresponds to the circumferential dimension and the width corresponds to the radial dimension. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core and are installed on the side walls of the test section. The top and bottom surfaces of the test section are acoustically rigid to simulate a hard wall bifurcation or pylon. A unique feature of the CDTR is the control system that generates sound incident on the liner test section in specific modes. Uniform air flow, at ambient temperature and flow speed Mach 0.275, is introduced through the duct. Experiments to investigate configuration effects such as curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a sample liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Combinations of treated and acoustically rigid side walls are investigated. The scattering of modes of the incident wave, both by the curvature and by the asymmetry of wall treatment, is demonstrated in the experimental results. The effect that mode scattering has on total acoustic effectiveness of the liner treatment is also shown. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation are reported. The spectra of attenuation produced by the analytic model are similar to experimental results for both walls treated, straight and curved flow path, with plane wave and higher order modes incident. The numerical model is used to define the optimized resistance and reactance of a liner that significantly improves liner attenuation in the frequency range 1900-2400 Hz. A

  2. Investigation and development of an effective, economical and efficient concrete pile splice.

    2015-06-01

    Structures such as bridges or tall buildings often require deep foundations in order to reach soil or rock strata capable of resisting the associated high loads. In Florida, concrete elements such as driven piles, drilled shafts or other cast-in-plac...

  3. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  4. Generation of rotation and shear flow in an imploding liner

    Hammer, J H; Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    There exist several techniques that can set the liner into rotation and/or excite an embedded shear flow at any desired depth of the liner material. A common element of all these techniques is the use of properly used left-right asymmetric structures, situated either on the liner surface or embedded in the shell. Both rotation and shear flow get enhanced in the course of the liner implosion because of the angular momentum conservation. While fast enough rotation should stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the turn-around point, the shear flow can also have a stabilizing effect on the interface. The specific model presented in the paper shows that a strong enough shear causes stabilization of a broad class of Rayleigh-Taylor perturbations. Thus, the use of left-right asymmetric structure for generation of rotation and shear flow is an interesting new option for improvement of the quality of the liner implosions. (J.U.). 4 figs., 12 refs.

  5. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  6. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Liana Iureş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  7. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Iureş, Liana; Bob, Corneliu

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  8. Fractures of the shafts of the tibia and fibula

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractures of the shafts of the tibia and fibula are the most common long bone fractures. This chapter discusses tibial and fibular shaft fractures. Treatment of tibial and fibular fractures is similar and, therefore, reference is primarily made to the tibia. Diagnostic techniques are also evaluated

  9. Boundary integral method for torsion of composite shafts

    Chou, S.I.; Mohr, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Saint-Venant torsion problem for homogeneous shafts with simply or multiply-connected regions has received a great deal of attention in the past. However, because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in the problem, very few problems of torsion of shafts with composite cross sections have been solved analytically. Muskhelishvili (1963) studied the torsion problem for shafts with cross sections having several solid inclusions surrounded by an elastic material. The problem of a circular shaft reinforced by a non-concentric round inclusion, a rectangular shaft composed of two rectangular parts made of different materials were solved. In this paper, a boundary integral equation method, which can be used to solve problems more complex than those considered by Katsikadelis et. al., is developed. Square shaft with two dissimilar rectangular parts, square shaft with a square inclusion are solved and the results compared with those given in the reference cited above. Finally, a square shaft composed of two rectangular parts with circular inclusion is solved. (orig./GL)

  10. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft ...

    Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be ...

  11. New endoscope shaft for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Lindert, E.J. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new endoscope shaft developed for suction-aspiration during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: A custom-made shaft for a Wolf endoscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was developed with a height of 10 mm and a width of 5 mm, allowing an

  12. Proceedings of the conference on shaft drilling technology

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following topics, Market analysis, World-wide operations, Innovative drilling and boring, Raise boring, Shaft lining and fittings, Entry considerations for the Yucca Mountain exploratory shaft facility for potential Radioactive Waste Disposal, Drilling rigs in the coal industry

  13. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and... passengers on an international voyage. (b) The watertight seal in the bulkhead between the stern tube space...

  14. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  15. Performance of meta power rotor shaft torque meter

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2002-01-01

    The present report describes the novel experimental facility in detecting shaft torque in the transmission system (main rotor shaft, exit stage of gearbox) of a wind turbine, the results and the perspectives in using this concept. The measurements arecompared with measurements, based on existing ...

  16. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  17. Computational experiences with variable modulus, elastic-plastic, and viscoelastic concrete models

    Anderson, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Six years ago the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approached the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop a comprehensive concrete structural analysis code to predict the static and dynamic behavior of Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessels (PCRVs) that serve as the containment structure of a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The PCRV is a complex concrete structure that must be modeled in three dimensions and posseses other complicating features such as a steel liner for the reactor cavity and woven cables embedded vertically in the PCRV and wound circumferentially on the outside of the PCRV. The cables, or tendons, are used for prestressing the reactor vessel. In addition to developing the computational capability to predict inelastic three dimensional concrete structural behavior, the code response was verified against documented experiments on concrete structural behavior. This code development/verification effort is described

  18. Concrete durability

    Gaspar Tébar, Demetrio

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that the concrete is not a material for ever was noticed from the beginning of its industrial use. In the present work, the author describes the studies carried out during the last century and the early ages of the present one, mainly devoted to the study of the durability in sea water. At the present days, and in spite of the numerous papers published from then, the study of the concrete durability continues focusing the research priorities and economical resources of researchers and industries related with this material. Moreover, the new laboratory techniques are allowing to understand old problems and even to open again the discussion on reaction mechanisms which were believed to be completely understood. The article finalizes with a brief description of the numerous studies carried out at the Institute Eduardo Torroja on concrete durability, mainly those related with the resistance against gypsum attack (so abundant in our country land and against sea water attack.

    La realidad de que el hormigón no es un material eterno y es susceptible de sufrir ataques por agentes químicos, fue constatada desde el comienzo mismo de su uso industrial. En el presente trabajo el autor enumera los estudios realizados el siglo pasado y a comienzos del presente sobre la durabilidad del hormigón en agua de mar. En la actualidad y a pesar de los numerosos trabajos desarrollados desde entonces, el estudio de la durabilidad del hormigón sigue centrando la atención prioritaria y los recursos económicos de los investigadores e industrias relacionadas con este material. Además las nuevas técnicas de estudio están permitiendo comprender antiguos problemas e incluso reabrir la discusión sobre mecanismos de reacción que se creían completamente explicados. Finaliza el artículo con una descripción somera de los múltiples trabajos realizados en el Instituto Eduardo Torreja sobre la materia, en especial los estudios realizados sobre

  19. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    Daffner, R.H.; Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  20. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    Daffner, R.H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG).

  1. Members of the team responsable for the strength test stand on the plug for the main CMS shaft on which 2500 tonnes of steel blocks have been placed

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The plug over the CMS shaft, which will be required to bear the weight of the various detector sub-assemblies when they are lowered into the experiment hall, has just passed a strength test. The plug, a huge 2.2-metre-thick rectangular block of reinforced concrete measuring 15 x 20 metres and weighing 2000 tonnes, underwent its first strength test on 15 May.

  2. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m 2 to 500 m 2 . Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10 -10 m 3 m -2 s -1 to 4 x 10 -8 m 3 m -2 s -1 . Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates

  3. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; hide

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  4. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  5. Imploding-liner reactor nucleonic studies: the LINUS blanket

    Dudziak, D.J.

    1977-09-01

    Scoping nucleonic studies have been performed for a small imploding-liner fusion reactor concept. Tritium breeding ratio and time-dependent energy deposition rates were the primary parameters of interest in the study. Alloys of Pb and LiPb were considered for the liquid liner (blanket), and tritium breeding was found to be more than adequate with blankets less than 1 m thick. However, neutron leakages into the solid cylinder block surrounding the liquid liner are generally quite high, so considerable effort was concentrated on minimizing these values. Time-dependent calculations reveal that 89% of the energy is deposited in the blanket within 2 μs. Thus, LINUS's blanket should remain intact for the requisite neutron and gamma-ray lifetimes

  6. Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ...

    The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ring contact in internal combustion engine. ... The surface roughness between the liner and the piston rings, plays an ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Helium High Pressure Tanks at EADS Space Transportation New Technology with Thermoplastic Liner

    Benedic, Fabien; Leard, Jean-Philippe; Lefloch, Christian

    2005-01-01

    .... In order to achieve the new target prices, a new disruptive technology has been performing for several years in using a thermoplastic liner instead the usual expensive concept of metallic forged liner...

  9. Concrete Memories

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  10. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  11. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  12. Synergistic Integration of Liner Shipping and Economic Development

    Edvard Roškar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

  13. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem.......We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...

  14. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  15. Shaping the Microstructure of Cast Iron Automobile Cylinder Liners Aimed at Providing High Service Properties

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of factors affecting the wear of cylinder liners. The effect of the graphite precipitation morphology on the cylinder liner wear mechanism is presented. Materials used to cast cylinder liners mounted in a number of engines have been examined for their conformity with requirements set out in applicable Polish industrial standard. A casting for a prototype cylinder liner has been made with a microstructure guaranteeing good service properties of the part.

  16. Mechanical properties of JPDR biological shield concrete

    Idei, Yoshio; Kamata, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Youichi; Onizawa, Kunio; Nakajima, Nobuya; Sukegawa, Takenori; Kakizaki, Masayoshi.

    1990-11-01

    Plant life of nuclear power plant will be determined by the aging degradation of main components and structures because of the difficulty and the cost of the replacement. These components are the reactor pressure vessel, concrete structures and cables. Authors have performed the investigation of JPDR biological shield which was the succeeded in first generating electricity in Japan and is now being decommissioned in JAERI. The test core samples were bored from the shield concrete and tested to obtain the mechanical properties. Test results are summarized as below, (1) Peak value of fast neutron dose was estimated as 1 x 10 18 n/cm 2 which is equivalent to the dose at the end of life for commercial power reactor. (2) Averaged compressive strength of all specimens had been increased about 20 % compared with initial design strength. (3) It was identified that the compressive strength had a little trend to increase with the increase of neutron dose within the dose range obtained in this study. (4) Tensile strength, Elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio showed little effect of neutron dose. (5) It was suggested that the inside and the mid-section liners were effective to keep the water in concrete and to avoid the reduction in strength. (author)

  17. Structure simulation of a pre-stressed concrete containment model

    Grebner, H.; Sievers, J.

    2004-01-01

    An axisymmetric Finite-Element-Model of the 1:4 pre-stressed containment model tested at SANDIA was developed. The model is loaded by the pre-stressing of the tendons and by increasing internal pressure (up to 1.3 MPa). The analyses results in terms of displacements and strains in the liner, the rebars, the tendons and the concrete of the cylindrical part agree well with measured data up to about 0.6 MPa internal pressure (i.e. 1.5 times design pressure). First circumferential micro-cracks in the concrete are found at about 0.75 MPa. With increasing pressure micro-cracks are present through the whole wall. Above about 0.9 MPa the formation of micro-cracks in radial and meridional direction is calculated. At the maximum load (1.3 MPa) almost all concrete parts of the model have micro-cracks which may cause leaks. Nevertheless the failure of the containment model is not expected for loads up to 1.3 MPa without consideration of geometric inhomogeneities due to penetrations in the wall. Although the calculated strains in liner, rebars and tendons show some plastification, the maximum values are below the critical ones. The safety margin against failure is smallest in some hoop tendons. At present parametric studies are performed to investigate the differences between calculations and measured data. Furthermore three-dimensional models are developed for a better simulation of the meridional tendons in the dome region. (orig.)

  18. Penetration of gas into concrete during a leakage rate test of reactor containments and its significance for the drop in pressure

    Nilsson L.-O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project described in the paper was to develop a simulation model that describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete in order to see if the leakage rates obtained from the Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests can be explained by the transient air pressurization of concrete pores inside the steel liner. A partial differential equation was derived which describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete pores. The model was validated against experimental results. The simulation model shows that there are significant air fluxes into the concrete structures that can explain the pressure drop during a leakage test.

  19. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  20. The effect of release liner materials on adhesive contaminants, paper recycling and recycled paper properties

    Richard Venditti; Richard Gilbert; Andy Zhang; Said Abubakr

    2000-01-01

    Release liner waste material is found in post-consumer waste streams and is also a significant component of the preconsumer waste stream generated in the manufacturing of adhesive products. To date, very little has been reported pertaining to the behavior of release liner in paper recycling. In this study, the effect of the release liner material on the behavior of...

  1. Super-fast multi-wire liner implosion physics study at Angara-5-1

    Alexandrov, V V; Branitsky, A V; Volkov, G S; Fedulov, M V; Grabovsky, E V; Nedoseev, L; Oleinik, G M; Samokhin, A N; Sasorov, F P.V.; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N; Zaitzev, V I; Zurin, M V [GSC Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Spielman, R B; Deeney, C [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The temporally dragged plasma production (TDPP) from dense substance of tungsten wire occurs during multi-wire-liner implosion. TDPP is the typical feature of wire liner implosion. In spite of plasma filling of the initial liner cavity, a narrow pulse (up to 6 ns) of X rays is radiated for an 0.3-mm inter-wire gap. (authors)

  2. Super-fast multi-wire liner implosion physics study at Angara-5-1

    Alexandrov, V.V.; Branitsky, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Fedulov, M.V.; Grabovsky, E.V.; Nedoseev, L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.N.; Sasorov, F.P.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Frolov, I.N.; Zaitzev, V.I.; Zurin, M.V.; Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.

    2000-01-01

    The temporally dragged plasma production (TDPP) from dense substance of tungsten wire occurs during multi-wire-liner implosion. TDPP is the typical feature of wire liner implosion. In spite of plasma filling of the initial liner cavity, a narrow pulse (up to 6 ns) of X rays is radiated for an 0.3-mm inter-wire gap. (authors)

  3. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  4. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  5. Self-Compacting Concrete

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  6. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  7. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  8. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  9. Dynamic analysis of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Gong Cheng; Chen, Hao; Vakakis, Alexander F.; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Cross shaft type universal joint is widely used in ground vehicles to transfer torque between two intersecting axes, and its transmission feature can make a great contribution to NVH performance of the vehicle. We looked at the assembling clearance at cross shaft neck, and presented a dynamic model of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck. Two-state model is applied to describe the contact force between the cross shaft and driving joint fork based on Hertz theorem, and lumped mass method is applied to build up the dynamic model of the universal joint. Based on this model, numerical analysis is carried out to discuss the transmission feature of the universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck, and the influence of clearance on the dynamic behavior of the system is evaluated with numerical results based on time history, power spectrum, and phase portrait. The method and conclusions presented are helpful to improvement of the transmission feature of cross shaft type universal joint.

  10. Chassis loading investigation of two-shaft shredder for construction waste management

    Vatskicheva Malina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling industry development need cracked materials with different composition and characteristics. New constructions shredders creation, their engineering design, development through adequate mechanical-mathematical models and practical realization determines the actuality of this paper. The materials crushing for recycling solves important environmental tasks related to environmental protection. The two-shaft hydraulic shredder realized the first and the second stage from the crushing (disintegration process. Disintegration as part of the recycling process can be successfully applied to the domestic and industrial waste processing, singleand multi-component materials crushing, and to secondary raw materials grinding. The paper is dedicated to the emerging loading of the two-shaft shredder chassis and the resulting calculations and verifications. In the present work has been performed a modeling study of the chassis for such type of shredder for concrete, rubber, plastic and wood crushing. The studies of the mechanical load and behaviour of the chassis have been conducted. The equations characterizing the mechanical processes in the working conditions by the finite element method are solved. For this purpose has been generated a chassis three-dimensional geometrical model, which has been discretized to a planned network of finite elements in the ANSYS MECHANICAL APDL programming environment.

  11. CFD approach to modeling of core-concrete interaction

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A large attention is given to research behavior of concrete structures at high mechanical and thermal loadings, which those suffer at the severe accidents on Nuclear Power Plants with core melting and falling of the molten corium mass into reactor shaft. There are enough programs for analysis of heat and mass transfer processes at interaction of the molten corium with concrete. Most known among them CORCON and WECHSL, which were developed more than twenty years ago, allow considering a quasi-stationary phase decomposition of concrete and the some transition regimes. In opposing to the mentioned codes a new more generalized mathematical model and software are developed for modeling of a wide range of the heat and mass transfer processes under study of the molten core-concrete interaction. The developed mathematical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with variable properties with taking into account of a density jump under melting of concrete together with a heat transfer equation. The offered numerical technique is based on modern algorithms with small scheme diffusion, whose discrete approximations are constructed with use of finite-volume methods and the fully staggered grids. The developed software corresponds to modern level of development of computers and takes into account all phenomenology, used by mentioned codes, and allows to simulate the such phenomena and processes as: multidimensional heat transfer in concrete for modeling of transients for an intermediate thermal flux to concrete; direct erosion of concrete at a quasi-stationary regime of interaction with molten fuel masses; heat and mass transfer in corium and convective intermixing in a melt of corium with taking into account of its stratification on two layers of the metal and oxide components and heat transfer by radiation in a cavity of the reactor shaft; change physical properties of corium at concrete decomposition and release in corium of its

  12. Symmetry of nonexploding cylindrical liner converging to the axis under magnetic field effects

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Grinevich, B.E.; Buzin, V.N.; Pogorelov, V.P.; Shertsov, V.A.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Demidov, V.A.; Zharinov, E.I.

    1990-01-01

    Liner acceleration, affected by magnetic pressure, is broadly used to yield megagauss magnetic fields and plasma compression. The progress of test conduction depends much on the state of liner subjected to Taylor instability while being accelerated. There is a number of methods permitting to reduce liner shape distortions, developing during its acceleration. The most simple method consists in that the aspect ratio (the ratio of liner placing radius to its thickness) is taken less than 10. To impart sufficient velocity to the liner of large thickness its density should be small. Therefore, liner is either a gas layer or explosion products of thin metal foil which passed to a vaporous state in early stage of acceleration. Acceleration of nonexploding liners may serve as the other method of asymmetry reduction. Strength and viscosity of liner will be used as stabilizing factors with respect to the development of Taylor instability. This will allow the aspect ratio increase, that is sometimes useful. Test results on acceleration of nonexploding aluminum liners 1 mm thick have been described. Aspect ratio amounted to 30-60 and the ratio of liner acceleration distance to its thickness (parameter, being of great importance when studying the development of Taylor instability) made up 20-40. Satisfactory azimuthal symmetry of liner convergence to the center was recorded. For more detailed investigation of Taylor instability influence on the symmetry of nonexploding liner, the experiments, when the ratio of liner acceleration length to its thickness would be increased up to 90-100 simultaneously with determination of azimuthal and axial symmetry of liner, are of interest. In this paper presents the results of experiments on acceleration of copper cylindrical liner 1.37 mm thick

  13. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  14. FFTF in-containment cell liner design and installation experience

    Umek, A.M.; Swenson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Design features and liner construction techniques are discussed. Cell leak-rate tests and the methods used to locate and repair leaks are described. A brief analysis of the overall experience at FFTF is provided, with recommendations for future plant designs

  15. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    , while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...

  16. Applied algorithm in the liner inspection of solid rocket motors

    Hoffmann, Luiz Felipe Simões; Bizarria, Francisco Carlos Parquet; Bizarria, José Walter Parquet

    2018-03-01

    In rocket motors, the bonding between the solid propellant and thermal insulation is accomplished by a thin adhesive layer, known as liner. The liner application method involves a complex sequence of tasks, which includes in its final stage, the surface integrity inspection. Nowadays in Brazil, an expert carries out a thorough visual inspection to detect defects on the liner surface that may compromise the propellant interface bonding. Therefore, this paper proposes an algorithm that uses the photometric stereo technique and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to assist the expert in the surface inspection. Photometric stereo allows the surface information recovery of the test images, while the KNN method enables image pixels classification into two classes: non-defect and defect. Tests performed on a computer vision based prototype validate the algorithm. The positive results suggest that the algorithm is feasible and when implemented in a real scenario, will be able to help the expert in detecting defective areas on the liner surface.

  17. The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations

    Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some...

  18. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  19. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    1982-01-01

    The risk is estimated for the shipment of radioactive zeolite liners in support of the Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program currently underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. This program will establish the feasibility of zeolite vitrification as an effective means of immobilizing high-specific-activity wastes. In this risk assessment, it is assumed that two zeolite liners, each loaded around July 1, 1981 to 60,000 Ci, will be shipped by truck around January 1, 1982. However, to provide a measure of conservatism, each liner is assumed to initially hole 70,000 Ci, with the major radioisotopes as follow: 90 Sr = 3000 Ci, 134 Cs = 7000 Ci, 137 Cs = 60,000 Ci. Should shipment take place with essentially no delay after initial loading (regardless of loading date), the shipment loading would be only 2.7% higher than that for the assumed six-month delay. This would negligibly affect the overall risk. As a result of this risk assessment, it is concluded that the transport of the radioactive zeolite liners from TMI to PNL by truck can be conducted at an insignificant level of risk to the public

  20. FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF A GENERATION OLD CIPP LINER

    There is limited information regarding the in-situ performance of rehabilitation methods used for prolonging the service life of buried municipal pipeline systems. With some CIPP liners nearly 30 years in service, municipalities are expressing a strong interest in the collection ...

  1. Critical interfaces in geosynthetic multilayer liner system of a landfill

    Qian Xuede

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to identify the critical interface in a geosynthetic multilayer liner system by examining the effects of the interface shear strength of liner components, leachate level, leachate buildup cases, and peak and residual interface strengths. According to current landfill design procedures, conducting stability analysis along the same interface at both the back slope and base may result in a non-conservative result. The critical interfaces with the minimum factor of safety are generally found at different locations along the back slope and base. The critical interface for a multilayer liner system cannot simply be assumed during stability analysis. It can shift from one interface to another with changes in the leachate level and with different leachate buildup cases. The factor of safety for an interface with a high friction angle and low apparent cohesion generally drops much more quickly than it does under inverse conditions when the leachate level increases. The failure interface in a liner system under residual conditions is usually different from the failure interface under peak conditions.

  2. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  3. The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...

  4. Creep and stress relaxation behavior of two soft denture liners.

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous investigators stated the indications of soft denture lining materials; but no one determined the indications of these materials according to their chemical structure. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of acrylic and silicon lining materials. This study investigated and compared viscoelastic properties of two resilient denture lining materials. Tested materials were laboratory processed; one of them was silicone-based liner product (Molloplast-B), and the other was plasticized acrylic resin (Vertex™ Soft). Twenty cylindrical specimens (10-20 mm in length, 11.55 mm in diameter) were fabricated in an aluminum mold from each material for creep and stress relaxation testing (the study of viscoelastic properties). Tests were performed by using the universal testing machine DY-34. Collected data were analyzed with t test statistics for statistically significant differences at the 95 % confidence level. There was a clear difference in creep and stress relaxation behavior between acrylic and silicone liners. Statistical study of Young's moduli illustrated that Vertex™ Soft was softer than Molloplast-B. On the other hand, the results explained that the recovery of silicone material was better than of acrylic one. The creep test revealed that the plasticized acrylic resin lining material exhibited considerable creep, whereas silicone-based liner exhibited elastic behavior. Besides, the stress relaxation test showed that relaxation of the plasticized acrylic resin material was bigger than of the silicone-based liner.

  5. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    Shi, Jun [Glastonbury, CT; Bombara, David [New Hartford, CT; Green, Kevin E [Broad Brook, CT; Bird, Connic [Rocky Hill, CT; Holowczak, John [South Windsor, CT

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  6. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs

  7. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 x 10 -21 m 2 was less than 3.0 m

  8. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The B106 American National Standards Committee is currently preparing a new standard for the design of transmission shafting. A design procedure, proposed for use in the new standard, for computing the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  9. Device for selectively securing an object to a shaft

    Calizano, F.; Chauvel, M.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic tape reel is secured to a reel drive motor shaft by a device including a hub secured to the shaft, a plurality of shoes, and actuating means for thrusting the shoes against the reel and for releasing them from contact with the reel. The securing device includes a cam mounted on the shaft in combination with a locking device including the cam periphery. The locking device thrusts the shoes against the object and is operated by rotation of the motor. The cam is immobilized in rotation while the shoes are locked

  10. ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF CRACK PROPAGATION FOR BULB HYDRAULIC TURBINES SHAFTS

    Mircea O. POPOVICU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hydroelectric Power Plants uses the regenerating energy of rivers. The hydraulic Bulb turbines running with low heads are excellent alternative energy sources. The shafts of these units present themselves as massive pieces, with cylindrical shape, manufactured from low-alloyed steels. The paper analyses the fatigue cracks occurring at some turbines in the neighbourhood of the connection zone between the shaft and the turbine runner flange. To obtain the tension state in this zone ANSIS and AFGROW computing programs were used. The number of running hours until the piercing of the shaft wall is established as a useful result.

  11. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    Rhodes, D.B.; Hill, R.C.; Wensel, R.G.

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries

  12. Design and Delivery of HMT Half-Shaft Prototype

    2012-11-01

    spindle welded to the outer joint output is ease of Design  and Delivery of HMT Half‐ Shaft  Prototype    24    assembly. Flange 1 contains threaded... spindle , and splined shafts . Also, the spindle of the production design is splined to match the splines of the hub internals. 2.2. Analysis The...inner-joint (Figure 33). Design  and Delivery of HMT Half‐ Shaft  Prototype    27      Figure 33: FBD of Flange/ Spindle Applying Newton’s Laws to the

  13. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    Rhodes, D B; Hill, R C; Wensel, R G

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries.

  14. Gear-shaft linkage, especially for nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Delaunois, T.; Lefevre, R.

    1990-01-01

    The pump comprises: - inlet and outlet channels for the pumped fluid - a rotating shaft - a gear wheel mounted on the shaft by an axial locking nut which can support the axial hydraulic force - a thermal barrier above the gear wheel. A hydrostatic bearing fitted to the exterior surround of the gear wheel, the gear shaft linkage is made by at least a centering and locating device having a cylindrical span and an axial stop and another independent device which can take up the torque [fr

  15. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  16. A Study of Market Structure in Liner Shipping Under the Influence of Government Policies

    Wong, Peter Chi Chung; Bamford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The peculiar operational mode and involvement of international carriers\\ud granted liner operators special exemption from Anti-trust regulations\\ud globally. The changes of policy from USA and EU in recent years forbidden\\ud liner operators to form Liner Conference (LC) which seems to possess\\ud oligopoly power in the trade. This paper use the freight rate to verified the\\ud change of Government policies cannot stop the liner operators to form in\\ud their natural formation - Liner Conference.

  17. Design and construction of the liner plate for the Arkansas and Midland containments

    Wiedner, K.; Shah, G.H.; Chang-Lo, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the design criteria and features of the containment liner plate systems utilized for the Arkansas and Midland Nuclear Power Plant. For the Arkansas project, the liner plate system was erected in circumferential rings approximately 3 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner after erection. For the Midland project, the liner plate system was erected in vertical segments approximately 6 m wide x 24 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner prior to erection. The differences between the schemes are discussed. (author)

  18. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] flexibility analysis

    Brusenback, R.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs

  19. Torsional vibrations of shafts of mechanical systems

    Gulevsky, V. A.; Belyaev, A. N.; Trishina, T. V.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the research is to compare the calculated dependencies for determining the equivalent rigidity of a mechanical system and to come to an agreement on the methods of compiling dynamic models for systems with elastic reducer couplings in applied and classical oscillation theories. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that most of the damage in the mechanisms and their details is due to the appearance of oscillations due to the dynamic impact of various factors: shock and alternating loads, unbalanced parts of machines, etc. Therefore, the designer at the design stage, and the engineer in the process of operation should provide the possibility of regulating the oscillatory processes both in details and machines by means of creating rational designs, as well as the use of special devices such as vibration dampers, various vibrators with optimal characteristics. A method is proposed for deriving a formula for determining the equivalent stiffness of a double-mass oscillating system of a multistage reducer with elastic reducer links without taking into account the internal losses and inertia of its elements, which gives a result completely coinciding with the result obtained by the classical theory of small mechanical oscillations and allows eliminating formulas for reducing the moments of inertia of the flywheel masses and the stiffness of the shafts.

  20. Warm modified Chaplygin gas shaft inflation

    Jawad, Abdul; Ilyas, Amara; Rani, Shamaila [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we examine the possible realization of a new inflation family called ''shaft inflation'' by assuming the modified Chaplygin gas model and a tachyon scalar field. We also consider the special form of the dissipative coefficient Γ = a{sub 0}(T{sup 3})/(φ{sup 2}) and calculate the various inflationary parameters in the scenario of strong and weak dissipative regimes. In order to examine the behavior of inflationary parameters, the n{sub s}-φ, n{sub s}-r, and n{sub s}-α{sub s} planes (where n{sub s}, α{sub s}, r, and φ represent the spectral index, its running, tensor-to-scalar ratio, and scalar field, respectively) are being developed, which lead to the constraints r < 0.11, n{sub s} = 0.96 ± 0.025, and α{sub s} = -0.019 ± 0.025. It is quite interesting that these results of the inflationary parameters are compatible with BICEP2, WMAP (7+9) and recent Planck data. (orig.)

  1. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MA flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    Clark, D A; Rodríguez, G; Tabaka, L J

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A flux compression generator based pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 10 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded. 1. a velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner inner surface velocity from throughout the entire range of travel. 2. Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion. 3. Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics...

  2. Drilled Shaft Foundations for Noise Barrier Walls and Slope Stabilization

    2002-12-01

    This research project is focused on two primary objectives. The first objective relates to the development of a methodology for using the SPT (Standard Penetration Test) results to design the laterally loaded drilled shafts. The second objective aims...

  3. Grinding Method and Error Analysis of Eccentric Shaft Parts

    Wang, Zhiming; Han, Qiushi; Li, Qiguang; Peng, Baoying; Li, Weihua

    2017-12-01

    RV reducer and various mechanical transmission parts are widely used in eccentric shaft parts, The demand of precision grinding technology for eccentric shaft parts now, In this paper, the model of X-C linkage relation of eccentric shaft grinding is studied; By inversion method, the contour curve of the wheel envelope is deduced, and the distance from the center of eccentric circle is constant. The simulation software of eccentric shaft grinding is developed, the correctness of the model is proved, the influence of the X-axis feed error, the C-axis feed error and the wheel radius error on the grinding process is analyzed, and the corresponding error calculation model is proposed. The simulation analysis is carried out to provide the basis for the contour error compensation.

  4. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  5. Experience in sealing water bearing strata during deep shaft sinking

    Kipko, E. Ja.; Polozov, Ju. A.; Lagunov, V. A.; Lushnikova, O. Ju.

    1984-12-01

    The paper deals with major concepts of grouting through holes drilled from the surface. The results of grouting through a single borehole at the location of two 1090 m deep shafts in Donbass are presented.

  6. Nonsynchronous vibrations observed in a supercritical power transmission shaft

    Darlow, M. S.; Zorzi, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible shaft is prone to a number of vibration phenomena which occur at frequencies other than synchronous with rotational speed. Nonsynchronous vibrations from several sources were observed while running a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a supercritical power transmission shaft. The test rig was run first with very light external damping and then with a higher level of external damping, for comparison. As a result, the effect of external damping on the nonsynchronous vibrations of the test rig was observed. All of these nonsynchronous vibrations were of significant amplitude. Their presence in the vibrations spectra for a supercritical power transmission shaft at various speeds in the operating range indicates that very careful attention to all of the vibration spectra should be made in any supercritical power transmission shafting. This paper presents a review of the analysis performed and a comparison with experimental data. A thorough discussion of the observed nonsynchronous whirl is also provided.

  7. Shaft Crack Identification Based on Vibration and AE Signals

    Wenxiu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft crack is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. However, it is difficult to locate the crack and determine the depth of the crack. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE signal and vibration response are used to diagnose the crack. The wavelet transform is applied to AE signal to decompose into a series of time-domain signals, each of which covers a specific octave frequency band. Then an improved union method based on threshold and cross-correlation method is applied to detect the location of the shaft crack. The finite element method is used to build the model of the cracked rotor, and the crack depth is identified by comparing the vibration response of experiment and simulation. The experimental results show that the AE signal is effective and convenient to locate the shaft crack, and the vibration signal is feasible to determine the depth of shaft crack.

  8. Pre-test analysis results of a PWR steel lined pre-stressed concrete containment model

    Basha, S.M.; Ghosh, Barnali; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-02-01

    Pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment serves as the ultimate barrier against the release of radioactivity to the environment. This ultimate barrier must be checked for its ultimate load carrying capacity. BARC participated in a Round Robin analysis activity which is co-sponsored by Sandia National Laboratory, USA and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Japan for the pre-test prediction of a 1:4 size Pre-stressed Concrete Containment Vessel. In house finite element code ULCA was used to make the test predictions of displacements and strains at the standard output locations. The present report focuses on the important landmarks of the pre-test results, in sequential terms of first crack appearance, loss of pre-stress, first through thickness crack, rebar and liner yielding and finally liner tearing at the ultimate load. Global and local failure modes of the containment have been obtained from the analysis. Finally sensitivity of the numerical results with respect to different types of liners and different constitutive models in terms of bond strength between concrete and steel and tension-stiffening parameters are examined. The report highlights the important features which could be observed during the test and guidelines are given for improving the prediction in the post test computation after the test data is available. (author)

  9. The detection of wind turbine shaft misalignment using temperature monitoring

    Tonks, Oliver; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a parameter increasingly monitored in wind turbine systems. This paper details a potential temperature monitoring technique for use on shaft couplings. Such condition monitoring methods aid fault detection in other areas of wind turbines. However, application to shaft couplings has not previously been widely researched. A novel temperature measurement technique is outlined, using an infra-red thermometer which can be applied to online condition monitoring. The method was va...

  10. A shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Dennis, A.W.; Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Tillerson, J.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Galbraith, D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the demonstration of compliance with federal regulations, a shaft seal system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The system completely fills the 650 m shafts with components consisting of the common engineering materials, each of which possesses low permeability, longevity, and can be constructed using available technology. Design investigations couple rock mechanics and fluid flow analysis and tests of these materials within the natural geological setting, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the design

  11. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  12. Design capability of CANDU heat transport pump shafts against cracking

    Kumar, A.N.; Sheikh, Z.B.; Padgett, A.

    1993-01-01

    During 1986 three different Light Water Reactors (LWR's) in the U.S. reported either a cracked or fractured shaft on one or more of their reactor coolant (RC) pumps. The RC pumps for all these stations were supplied by Byron Jackson (BJ) Pump Company. A majority of CANDU heat transport (HT) pumps (equivalent of RC pumps) are supplied by BJ Pump Company and are similar in design to RC pumps. Hence the failure of these RC pumps in the U.S. utilities caused concern regarding the relevance of these failures to the BJ supplied CANDU HT pumps (HTP). This paper presents the results of AECL assessment to establish the capability of the HT pump shaft against cracking. Two methods were used for assessment: (a) detailed comparative design review of the HTP and RCP shafts; (b) semi-empirical analysis of the HTP shafts. The results of the AECL assessment showed significant differences in detailed design, materials, assembly and fits of various components and the control of operating parameters between the HT and RC pumps. It was concluded that because of these differences the failures similar to RC pump shafts are not likely to appear in HT pump shafts. This conclusion is further reinforced by about 140,000 hours of operating history of the longest running HT pump of comparable size to RC Pumps, without failures

  13. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    Robert Boutin

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M and O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M and O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction

  14. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Heat and mass transfer in a concrete pressure vessel

    Zangle, K.; Sadouki, H.; Wittmann, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pressure vessels of prestressed concrete for high temperature reactors are subjected to high mechanical and thermal stresses during the reactors normal working conditions and in particular accidental conditions. According to a large temperature gradient between the inner liner and the outer side of the thickwalled vessel, physical as well as chemical processes take place in concrete. Temperature and moisture content of concrete have a big influence on these processes. During the last years different investigations have been conducted in order to determine characteristic values of concrete under these conditions. At present the authors conduct a series of experiments on model vessels of prestressed concrete and a large number of small specimens. The aims of these tests can be briefly summarized as follows: experimental determination of transport coefficients for a numerical analysis; determination of chemical reactions under hydrothermal conditions and their significance for the risk of corrosion; determination of temperature and moisture distribution as a function of time; and determination of the strength development in the zones subjected to elevated temperatures

  16. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  17. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts

  18. Fibre Concrete 2017

    2017-09-01

    9th international conference on fibre reinforced concretes (FRC), textile reinforced concretes (TRC) and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPC) Preface The Fibre Concrete Conference series is held biennially to provide a platform to share knowledge on fibre reinforced concretes, textile concretes and ultra-high performance concretes regarding material properties and behaviour, technology procedures, topics of long-term behaviour, creep, durability; sustainable aspects of concrete including utilisation of waste materials in concrete production and recycling of concrete. The tradition of Fibre Concrete Conferences started in eighties of the last century. Nowadays the conference is organized by the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The 9th International Conference Fibre Concrete 2017 had 109 participants from 27 countries all over the world. 55 papers were presented including keynote lectures of Professor Bažant, Professor Bartoš and Dr. Broukalová. The conference program covered wide range of topics from scientific research to practical applications. The presented contributions related to performance and behaviour of cement based composites, their long-term behaviour and durability, sustainable aspects, advanced analyses of structures from these composites and successful applications. This conference was organized also to honour Professor Zděnek P. Bažant on the occasion of his jubilee and to appreciate his merits and discoveries in the field of fibre reinforced composites, structural mechanics and engineering.

  19. On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)

    Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test

  20. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  1. Mechanised drivage of roads, slopes and shafts

    1977-08-01

    The variety of methods of work and the individual nature of statistics available from members makes a comparison of operational activity in this field very difficult. There is considerable variation between members drivage requirements on a ton per metre driven basis. This is primarily dictated by the natural conditions and the consequent methods of work adopted. The cost contribution to coal production from the drivage or heading activity appears to lie between 10 and 30 percent where the method is mainly longwall, and approximately 70 percent where it is mainly roof and pillar. There is therefore an opportunity for significant overall cost reduction if the drivage process itself can be made more efficient and, beyond the activity itself, it appears likely that there should be scope for increasing the tons per metre driven. On the basis of a postulated average roadway life of 5 to 6 years, the subsequent cost of maintenance may add a significant long term burden particularly in deep and highly stressed strata. The R and D work aimed at improved roadway siting, strata consolidation and provision of roof support systems which do not require repair is thus likely to have a basic effect on production costs. Data on shaft construction is limited; but this activity must have major importance to members anticipating increase in production or transfer of production sites; and the likely criteria for operational effectiveness seem likely to be speed of construction rather than purely initial construction cost. There is a relative scarcity of specific mention of debris disposal systems. On the tons/metre data quoted it would however appear that debris disposal from drivages requires some 20 percent or more of colliery haulage demand and must be a significant factor in colliery economics.

  2. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  3. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  4. Concrete aggregate durability study.

    2009-06-01

    There are many factors that affect the durability of Portland cement concrete (PCC), including the mix design and the : materials used, the quality of construction, and the environment. Durability is not an intrinsic property of the concrete, but : i...

  5. Real-time monitoring of wind turbine generator shaft alignment using laser measurement.

    Mankowski, O.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Shaft Misalignment is one of the most common sources of trouble of wind turbine drive train when rigid couplings connect the shafts. Ideal alignment of the shaft is difficult to be obtained and the couplings attached to the shaft may present angular or parallel misalignment defined also as lateral and axially misalignment. Despite misalignment is often observed in the practice, there are relatively few studies on wind turbine shaft misalignment in the literature and their results are sometime...

  6. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol. 3

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-02-01

    Like the borehole and shaft plugging tests, the tunnel test gave evidence of the very effective sealing power of Na betonite. The test arrangement consisted of a 9 m long 1.5 m diameter steel tube surrounded by sand and cast in concrete plugs at each end. These plugs contained bentonite forming 'O-ring' sealings at the concrete/rock interface. The test had the form of injecting water into the sand and measuring the leakage that took place through the adjacent rock and along the plug. It was concluded that the drop in leakage from more than 200 l at 100 kPa water pressure early in the test to 75 l at 3 MPa pressure at the end was due partly to the swelling pressure exerted by the bentonite on the rock and by penetration of bentonite into water-bearing rock fractures. The major sealing process appears to be the establishment of a very tight bentonite/rock interface. (orig./HP)

  7. Lunar concrete for construction

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  8. Estimates of durability of TMI-2 core debris canisters and cask liners

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Pednekar, S.P.

    1994-04-01

    Core debris from the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) reactor is currently stored in stainless steel canisters. The need to maintain the integrity of the TMI-2 core debris containers through the period of extended storage and possibly into disposal prompted this assessment. In the assessment, corrosion-induced degradation was estimated for two materials: type 304L stainless steel (SS) canisters that contain the core debris, and type 1020 carbon steel (CS) liners in the concrete casks planned for containing the canisters from 2000 AD until the TMI-2 core debris is placed in a repository. Three environments were considered: air-saturated water (with 2 ppM Cl - ) at 20 degree C, and air at 20 degree C with two relative humidities (RHs), 10 and 40%. Corrosion mechanisms assessed included general corrosion (failure criterion: 50% loss of wall thickness) and localized attack (failure criterion: through-wall pinhole penetration). Estimation of carbon steel corrosion after 50 y also was requested

  9. Sodium leak and combustion experiment-II report. Evaluation result of damage of mild steel liner

    Aoto, K.; Hirakawa, Y.; Kuroda, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-09-01

    Several material analyses on damage of the floor liner made of a mild steel which was in the test cell of the second sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-2) performed in OEC/PNC on June 7 in 1996 were carried out to clarify the following issues. (1) Difference of the corrosion mechanism of Test-2 liner to that of the first sodium leak and combustion experiment (Test-1) liner. (2) The vital factor which can desides corrosion mechanism and damage location. The following analyses were accomplished. (1) Microstructure observation, (2) EPMA for cross-section of vicinity of corroded area, (3) X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the interface between corrosion product-liner (mild steel). The differences between the corrosion mechanism of Test-1 liner which is seemed to be the same that of `MONJU` liner and that of Test-2 liner is discussed based on the results of these material analyses. As the result, the Na-Fe double oxidization with mechanical/chemical removal of reaction product can be occurred on the Test-1 and `MONJU` liner. On the other hand, a hot-corrosion, that is the molten salt type corrosion is subject to be thinning of the Test-2 liner. All failures of Test-2 liner surround at the halfway up a convex. Considering the above corrosion mechanism, that fact leads that significant damage is occurred at the molten salt level. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Novel Liner Concepts for Fan and Airframe Noise Reduction

    Jones, M. G.; Howerton, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of four novel liner concepts: soft vanes, over-the-rotor liners, external liners, and flap side-edge liners. A number of similarities in the design and evaluation of these concepts emerged during these investigations. Since these were the first attempts to study these particular liner concepts, there was limited information to guide the design process. In all cases, the target frequencies (or frequency range) were known, but the optimum acoustic impedance and optimum liner placement were typically not known. For these cases, the maximum available surface was used and a c-impedance was targeted based on the assumption the sound field impinges on the surface at normal incidence. This choice proved fruitful for every application. An impedance prediction model was used to design variable-depth liner configurations, and a graphical design code (ILIAD) was developed to aid in this process. The ability to build increasingly complex liner configurations via additive manufacturing was key, such that multiple designs could quickly be tested in a normal incidence impedance tube. The Two-Thickness Method was used to evaluate available bulk materials, such that bulk liners could also be considered for each application. These novel liner concepts provide sufficient noise reduction to warrant further investigations.

  11. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  12. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  13. concrete5 for developers

    Uzayr, Sufyan bin

    2014-01-01

    Whether you have had some previous experience with concrete5 or are entirely new to it, this book will help you understand all that you need to know in order to get started with concrete5 development. A background in PHP is required; some knowledge of HTML/CSS is needed in order to fully grasp the concepts underlying concrete5 theme development.

  14. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Crack analysis of multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    Gallix, R.; Liu, T.C.; Lu, S.C.H.

    1975-01-01

    A new method to perform the crack analysis of non-axisymmetric, multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRV's) subjected to hypothetical overpressure by using an axisymmetric two-dimensional finite element computer code is presented. Concrete, steel liner, bonded reinforcing steel and prestressing steel elements are modeled. The limiting tensile strain criterion is adopted for concrete cracking. The steel elements are assumed to be elastic/perfectly plastic. Von Mises yield criterion and Prandtl-Reuss flow equations define the behavior of the liner in the range of plastic deformations. An orthotropic stress-strain constitutive law is utilized for cracked concrete elements. To account for the presence of penetrations and secondary cavities in the PCRV, a modified finite element model based on the concept of effective moduli is adopted. The pressure in these cavities is simulated by equivalent axisymmetric pressure distributions. In the analysis, the pressure is applied incrementally. For a given pressure, the displacements, strains, and stresses are computed. The state of strains or stresses is then examined against the cracking or yield criteria. If cracking or yield is indicated, the stiffness and load matrices for the cracked and yielding elements are recomputed and a new equilibrium is sought. This procedure is repeated until the desired convergence of the solution is achieved. The validity of the adopted approach utilizing the two-dimensional finite element method for overpressure analyses of non-axisymmetric PCRV's is demonstrated through comparisons with two multicavity PCRV scale models. A reliable and conservative estimate of PCRV behavior under overpressure is obtained

  16. Skin friction on a flat perforated acoustic liner

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The report concerns the measurement of friction coefficients of a typical perforated acoustic liner installed in the side of a wind tunnel. The results are compared with measured friction coefficients of a smooth hard wall for the same mean flow velocities in a wind tunnel. At a velocity of 61 m/sec, an increase in the local skin coefficient of only a few percent was observed, but at the highest velocity of 213 m/sec an increase of about 20% was obtained. This velocity is a realistic velocity for turbo-machinery components utilizing such liners, so a loss in performance is to be expected. Some tests were also performed to see if changes in the mean boundary layer induced by imposed noise would result in friction increase, but only at low velocity levels was such an increase in friction noted.

  17. Investigation of a Bio-Inspired Liner Concept

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Four samples of natural reeds, Phragmites australis, were tested in the NASA Langley and Glenn Normal Incidence Impedance Tubes in order to experimentally determine the acoustic absorption coefficients as a function of frequency from 400 to 3000 Hz. Six samples that mimicked the geometry of the assemblies of natural reeds were also designed and additively manufactured from ASA thermoplastic and tested. Results indicate that structures can be manufactured of synthetic materials that mimic the geometry and the low frequency acoustic absorption of natural reeds. This accomplishment demonstrates that a new class of structures can now be considered for a wide range of industrial products that need thin, lightweight, broadband acoustic absorption effective at frequencies below 1000 Hz. Aircraft engine acoustic liners and aircraft cabin acoustic liners, in particular, are two aviation applications that might benefit from further development of this concept.

  18. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...... the available fleet of container vessels. The cargo transports make extensive use of transshipments between routes and the number of transshipments of the cargo flow is decisive for network profitability. Computational results are reported for the benchmark suite LINER-LIB 2012 following the industry standard...... of weekly departures on every schedule. The heuristic shows overall good performance and is able to find high quality solutions within competitive execution times. The matheuristic can also be applied as a decision support tool to improve an existing network by optimizing on a designated subset...

  19. Ageing of structural materials in tokamaks: TEXTOR liner study

    Weckmann, A.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Zielinski, W.; Romelczyk-Baishya, B.; Grigore, E.; Ruset, C.; Kreter, A.

    2017-12-01

    After the final shut-down of the tokamak TEXTOR, all of its machine parts became accessible for comprehensive studies. This unique opportunity enabled the study of the Inconel 625 liner by a wide range of methods. The aim was to evaluate eventual alteration of surface and bulk characteristics from recessed wall elements that may influence the machine performance. The surface was covered with stratified layers consisting mainly of boron, carbon, oxygen, and in some cases also silicon. Wall conditioning and limiter materials hence predominantly define deposition on the liner. Deposited layers on recessed wall elements reach micrometre thickness within decades, peel off and may contribute to the dust inventory in tokamaks. Deuterium content was about 4,7 at% on average most probably due to wall conditioning with deuterated gas, and very low concentration in the Inconel substrate. Inconel 625 retained its mechanical strength despite 26 years of cyclic heating, stresses and particle bombardment.

  20. Modeling and Solving the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    We address a tactical planning problem, the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem (LSSSP), facing container shipping companies. Given estimated demand between various ports, the LSSSP entails selecting the best subset of non-simple cyclic sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes...... to accurately model transshipment costs and incorporate routing policies such as maximum transit time, maritime cabotage rules, and operational alliances. Our hop-indexed arc flow model is smaller and easier to solve than path flow models. We outline a preprocessing procedure that exploits both the routing...... requirements and the hop limits to reduce problem size, and describe techniques to accelerate the solution procedure. We present computational results for realistic problem instances from the benchmark suite LINER-LIB....

  1. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  2. Long-term performance of geosynthetic clay liners in cappings

    Maubeuge, K.P. von; Fricke, A.

    1998-01-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are relatively thin composite materials combining bentonite clay and geosynthesis (usually geotextiles). GCLs have been employed by the waste industry for well over a decade now, and their level of usage is rapidly increasing world-wide. In landfill facilities, GCLs are generally used to replace or augment compacted clay liners. Until recently, the decision to do so has primarily been based on the availability of clay material on site (i.e., economic considerations). However, the advantages in using a GCL over other sealing elements such as compacted clay are not only economic but technically based, and the economic benefits extend beyond the construction phase, as a thin GCL can increase the revenue earning potential of a facility. This paper will highlight the shear behaviour of GCLs and demonstrate the long-term stability. (orig.)

  3. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1982-01-01

    The accident risk is estimated for the shipment of two zeolite liners containing radioactive cesium and strontium. Each liner, assumed to hold 68,200 Ci and sealed inside a CNS 1 to 13C, type-B shipping cask, is transported by truck over a 4200-km route. The risk to the population along the route is calculated for potential transportation accidents involving fire, impact, and puncture forces. The total risk is 5.3E-7 man-rem (50-year inhalation dose) and the maximum dose (from the least-likely accident) is 0.7 man-rem. Both estimates are less than 0.1% of comparable risk measures for natural background radiation and spent fuel shipment accidents

  4. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  5. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs

  6. NEW APPROACHES: A hot air balloon from dustbin liners

    Weaver, Nicholas

    1998-07-01

    This article describes how a simple hot air balloon, inflated by a hair dryer, can be made out of household bin liners and Sellotape. It can be used at sixth-form level as an application of the ideal gas equation, = constant, and is rather more exciting than heated pistons. It gives a taste of a simple engineering design process, although the students do have to be reasonably adept at geometry and algebra.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  8. Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Shaft and Tip Resistances of Concrete Piles

    Ehsan Momeni

    2015-01-01

    La Capacidad Axial de Soporte (ABC, en inglés de un pilote de construcción se determina usualmente a través de una Prueba de Carga Estática (SLT, inglés. Sin embargo, estas pruebas son costosas y demandan tiempo. La evaluación de las Dinámicas de Alto Esfuerzo de Pilotes (HSDPT, inglés, que la provee el programa de Análisis de Excavación (PDA, inglés, es una forma de aproximación más reciente para preveer la Capacidad Axial de Soporte. En comparación con la Prueba de Cargas Estática, la evaluación PDA es rápida y económica. La implementación de Redes Neuronales Arficiales (ANN, en inglés que permita resolver problemas geotécnicos ha ganado atención recientemente debido a su posibilidad de hallar relaciones no lineales entre los diferentes parámetros. En este estudio se propone un modelo predictivo ANN para estimar la Capacidad Axial de Soporte de pilotes y su distribución. Para fines de una red de construcción se realizaron 36 pruebas PDA en pilotes de diferentes proyectos. Los resultados de los Análisis de Excavación, las características geométricas de los pilotes, al igual que los datos de investigación del suelo se utilizaron para probar los modelos ANN. Los resultados indican la viabilidad del modelo ANN en predecir la resistencia de los pilotes. Los coeficientes de correlación, R², que alcanzaron 0.941, 09.36 y 0.951 para la evaluación de los datos, revelan que la capacidad del pilotaje en el último rodamiento, en el cojinete del eje y en la punta que se predijeron con el modelo ANN concuerda con las establecidas a través del HSDPT. A través del análisis de respuesta se determinó que la longitud y el área de los pilotes son factores dominantes en el modelo predictivo propuesto.

  9. Radioactive wear tests of four cylinder liner materials

    Sylte, G.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation on the wear properties of various liner materials, financed by a research grant from NTNF (Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), is reported. The investigation was carried out by the Division of Internal Combustion Engines, Trondheim, Univ.,Norway, on a two-stroke, turbocharged, medium speed diesel engine (Wichmann 2ACAT, 280 by 420 mm). Thin pearlitic cast iron inserts of various compositions were pressed into the upper part of a specially machined cylinder liner. These inserts were activated in a nuclear reactor, and tracer techniques employed to measure the wear rate. Gas oil was used as a fuel throughout all tests. The insert technique employed, and the handling methods devised, were satisfactory. This part of the project must be characterised as being very successful. Originally, six different liner materials were specified, but due to misunderstandings duplications resulted in only four different materials finally being received at the laboratory. The engine tests disclosed that the wear rates of all four materials were low under laboratory conditions, and therefore difficult to measure accurately. Nevertheless, the wear properties of the inserts clearly fell into two distinct classes, which may be termed good and excellent. The relative values inside each group are, however, more uncertain due to the cumulative effects of errors, instrument drift, measurement statistics, etc. (Auth.)

  10. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  11. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  12. Use of clays as liners in solar ponds

    Silva, Gerardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte, Huixquilucan, Edo. de Mexico 52786 (Mexico); Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    An alternative to synthetic materials for use in solar pond liners is to select clayey soils as hydraulic barriers. This option reduces the cost of construction and the risk of contamination of subsoil and groundwater by hot brines. This paper deals with the physical, chemical and hydraulic properties of different soils tested mainly as compacted clay liners. The underdeveloped nations have the option to use this type of liner, but before doing so several tests are recommended, including those for soil and water composition, permeability, plasticity and X-ray diffraction analysis. In this investigation the following samples are analyzed: native clayey soils with illite, montmorillonite and halloysite, treated and non-treated bentonites in powder and granulated form, a mixture of zeolite and sodium bentonite, and industrial minerals composed largely of halloysite, kaolinite and attapulgite selected clays. Neutral salt aqueous solutions (NaCl and KCl) at different concentrations and under temperature gradients were used for compatibility testing conducted on these specimens. Experiment setup and particular testing procedures are also discussed. (author)

  13. Magnetic pressure effects in a plasma-liner interface

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of magnetic pressure effects in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma is presented. In previous publications [F. García-Rubio and J. Sanz, Phys. Plasmas 24, 072710 (2017)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold unmagnetized plasma, aiming to represent the hot spot and liner, respectively, was investigated in planar geometry. The analysis was made in a double limit low Mach and high thermal to magnetic pressure ratio β. In this paper, the analysis is extended to an arbitrary pressure ratio. Nernst, Ettingshausen, and Joule effects come into play in the energy balance. The region close to the liner is governed by thermal conduction, while the Joule dissipation becomes predominant far from it when the pressure ratio is low. Mass ablation, thermal energy, and magnetic flux losses are reduced with plasma magnetization, characterized by the electron Hall parameter ω e τ e , until β values of order unity are reached. From this point forward, increasing the electron Hall parameter no longer improves the magnetic flux conservation, and mass ablation is enhanced due to the magnetic pressure gradients. A thoughtful simplification of the problem that allows to reduce the order of the system of governing equations while still retaining the finite β effects is presented and compared to the exact case.

  14. Image flows and one-liner graphical image representation.

    Makhervaks, Vadim; Barequet, Gill; Bruckstein, Alfred

    2002-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel graphical image representation consisting of a single curve-the one-liner. The first step of the algorithm involves the detection and ranking of image edges. A new edge exploration technique is used to perform both tasks simultaneously. This process is based on image flows. It uses a gradient vector field and a new operator to explore image edges. Estimation of the derivatives of the image is performed by using local Taylor expansions in conjunction with a weighted least-squares method. This process finds all the possible image edges without any pruning, and collects information that allows the edges found to be prioritized. This enables the most important edges to be selected to form a skeleton of the representation sought. The next step connects the selected edges into one continuous curve-the one-liner. It orders the selected edges and determines the curves connecting them. These two problems are solved separately. Since the abstract graph setting of the first problem is NP-complete, we reduce it to a variant of the traveling salesman problem and compute an approximate solution to it. We solve the second problem by using Dijkstra's shortest-path algorithm. The full software implementation for the entire one-liner determination process is available.

  15. Method for baking a liner in thermonuclear device

    Yamamoto, Keiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To attain effective baking for liners in a tokamak device by connecting the narrow portions and the wide portions of the liners with dielectric materials and supplying a constant current to these portions. Method: Split type liners disposed in the vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device are connected with dielectric materials at their wide portions and narrow portions and they are baked by supplying a constant current at a same density to the wide and narrow portions to rise their temperature uniformly. The wide portions are formed in such a way that the sum of their cross sectional areas is equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the narrow portions, and they form a parallel circuit. The parallel circuit consisting of the wide portions and the parallel circuit consisting of the narrow portions are connected in series to each other and connected to the constant current supply circuit, by which a constant current is supplied to the wide and the narrow portions. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  17. Elastic Plastic Fracture Analysis of an Aluminum COPV Liner

    Forth, Scott; Gregg, Bradley; Bailey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Onboard any space-launch vehicle, composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) may be utilized by propulsion or environmental control systems. The failure of a COPV has the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in the loss of vehicle, crew or mission. The latest COPV designs have reduced the wall-thickness of the metallic liner to the point where the material strains plastically during operation. At this time, the only method to determine the damage tolerance lifetime (safe-life) of a plastically responding metallic liner is through full-scale COPV testing. Conducting tests costs substantially more and can be far more time consuming than performing an analysis. As a result of this cost, there is a need to establish a qualifying process through the use of a crack growth analysis tool. This paper will discuss fracture analyses of plastically responding metallic liners in COPVs. Uni-axial strain tests have been completed on laboratory specimens to collect elastic-plastic crack growth data. This data has been modeled with the crack growth analysis tool, NASGRO 6.20 to predict the response of laboratory specimens and subsequently the complexity of a COPV.

  18. Manufacturing and testing of ITER divertor gas box liners

    Mazul, I.; Giniatulin, R.; Komarov, V.L.; Krylov, V.; Kuzmin, Ye.; Makhankov, A.; Odintsov, V.; Zhuk, A.

    1998-01-01

    Among a variety of R and D works performed by different ITER parties there are seven large projects which deal with the development, manufacturing and testing of most important complex reactor components. One of the projects is directed to produce a prototype of divertor cassette. In according with integration plan two full size liners with dummy armour are manufactured by RF Home Team. Except for liners with dummy armors the large - scale mock-up with real armour have to be manufactured in order to demonstrate the semi-industrial possibilities for joining of Be and W to CuCrZr heat - sink structure. The design of this liners, technological approaches to their manufacturing are presented. The description of brazing facility and joining technology which use a fast ohmic heating by 15 kA current is made. A mock-up of 800 mm in length and 90 mm in width was armored by 18 Be tiles (44 x 44 mm 2 in plane, 10 mm - thick) and 16 W-Cu tiles (44 x 44 mm 2 in plane, 3 mm - thick W). The preliminary results of high heat flux testing of the armored mock-ups are also presented. (author)

  19. The effect of liner hydraulic conductivity on disposal cell performance

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    Multilayered disposal cells are frequently used for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes. These disposal cells consist of materials with different permeabilities that are placed in various thicknesses at the bottom as well as in the cover of the cell. Typically, a layer of permeable material is placed above a layer with low permeability; the permeable layer functions as a drainage/leachate collection system and the low-permeability layer functions as a migration barrier/liner. This paper analyzes the effects of infiltration through unsaturated soil liners on the long-term performance of the disposal cell. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the long-term performance of a disposal cell is dependent on a well-designed cell cover. The design should emphasize a cap with less permeable material to prevent water from infiltrating the disposal cell. An impermeable bottom liner is effective only in the short term; however, it can eventually result in saturation of the wastes and cause the bathtub effect over the long term

  20. Self-similar compression of a magnetized plasma filled liner

    Felber, F.S.; Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    New analytic, one-dimensional, self-similar solutions of magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the compression of a magnetized plasma by a thin cylindrical liner are presented. The solutions include several features that have not been included in an earlier self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. These features are the effects of finite plasma electrical conductivity, induction heating, thermal conductivity and related thermogalvanomagnetic effects, plasma turbulence, and plasma boundary effects. These solutions have been motivated by recent suggestions for production of ultrahigh magnetic fields by new methods. The methods involve radially imploding plasmas in which axial magnetic fields have been entrained. These methods may be capable of producing controlled magnetic fields up to approx. = 100 MG. Specific methods of implosion suggested were by ablative radial acceleration of a liner by a laser and by a gas-puff Z pinch. The model presented here addresses the first of these methods. The solutions derived here are used to estimate magnetic flux losses out of the compression volume, and to indicate conditions under which an impulsively-accelerated, plasma-filled liner may compress an axial magnetic field to large magnitude

  1. Cracking investigation of Monju emergency generator C unit cylinder liner. Cylinder liner soundness confirmation by a fall cause of the materials strength of the cylinder liner and the supersonic wave speed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Sakon, Miyoji; Takada, Osamu; Hatori, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Tsutomu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Kazama, Akihito; Ishizawa, Yoshihiro; Igawa, Katsuhisa; Nakae, Hideo

    2012-02-01

    I confirmed a leak of the effluent gas from cylinder part during a load examination after the check of the emergency generator C unit on December 28, 2010 of the facilities check average and confirmed crack in No.8 cylinder liner part. As a result, because it was not performed oil pressure management properly without attaching an oil pressure gauge when I removed cylinder liner about the cause, crack occurred by having been able to write excessive stress for the cylinder liner and reached damage. By a process of this investigation, a fall of the materials strength of some cylinder liner was confirmed, but because a lead ingredient got mixed with materials by a casting process at the time of the production of the cylinder liner, as for this, Widmannstaetten graphite occurred, and it became clear that materials strength fell. In addition, I performed inspection by the supersonic wave velocity measurement as technique to distinguish this Widmannstaetten graphite easily and confirmed that I was effective. Because this report was the knowledge that there were little inspection contents which modified soundness confirmation technique of the cylinder liner with the possibility of materials strength fall of the cylinder liner by the Widmannstaetten graphite outbreak and the mixture of lead for a report example in the field of cast iron, I gathered it in this report. (author)

  2. Modified pavement cement concrete

    Botsman, L. N.; Ageeva, M. S.; Botsman, A. N.; Shapovalov, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests design principles of pavement cement concrete, which covers optimization of compositions and structures at the stage of mixture components selection due to the use of plasticizing agents and air-retaining substances that increase the viability of a concrete mixture. It also demonstrates advisability of using plasticizing agents together with air-retaining substances when developing pavement concrete compositions, which provides for the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of concrete and the reduction of cement binding agent consumption thus preserving strength indicators. The paper shows dependences of the main physical-mechanical parameters of concrete on cement consumption, a type and amount of additives.

  3. Material properties characterization - concrete

    England, G.L.; MacLeod, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of the six contributions in the SMiRT 4 conference to Session H5 on structural analysis of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels. These relate to short term stress-strain aspects of concrete loaded beyond the linear range in uniaxial and biaxial stress fields, to some time and temperature dependent properties of concrete at working stress levels, and to a programme of strain-gauge testing for the assessment of concrete properties. From the information discussed, it is clear that there are difficulties in determining material properties for concrete, and these are summarised. (UK)

  4. Effects of tacky mat contamination on bond degradation for Chemlok/liner and NBR/liner bonds

    Padilla, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tacky mats are placed by the rubber lay-up areas for the solid rocket motor segments. These mats dust off the shoes prior to entering the platform where the lay-up work is performed. The possibility exists that a tacky mat could be touched with gloved hands prior to handling the uncured nitride butadiene rubber (NBR). Tests were run to determine if NBR were accidentally touched would there be any degradation of the liner/NBR bond. The tacky mats were judged solely on the basis of bond degradation caused by either direct or indirect contamination. Test results all indicate that there was no notable NBR/Chemlok or liner/NBR bond degradation on samples that came into contact with the tacky mat material. Testing procedures are described. The tacky mat adhesive composition does not contain fluorocarbons or release agents that would affect bonding.

  5. Evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings sites for liner requirements: Characterization and interaction of tailings, soil, and liner materials

    Relyea, J.F.; Martin, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of laboratory experiments using soils from Clive, Utah and tailings samples from three inactive uranium processing sites. The results are to be used to predict contaminant behavior for comparison with the regulatory criteria to decide whether a liner is needed. The interactions of leachates with soils and liner material were studied using both batch and column methods. It is determined that batch leaching tests are suitable for screening a large number of tailings samples for relative contaminant concentrations between samples but not for determining contaminant concentrations and release rates in tailings leachate. The results of column leaching tests on samples of tailings from inactive sites indicate that contaminant concentrations are highest in initial leachate from the columns and that concentrations decrease by an order of magnitude or more after one pore volume

  6. Design, analysis and construction of the prestressed concrete containment of the nuclear power station Gundremmingen

    Mueller, W.F.; Ick, U.

    1977-01-01

    Kraftwerk Union AG is presently constructing at Gundremmingen (Bavaria) on the River Danube a BWR twin-plant (KRB Units B and C) with a capacity of 2x1300 MWe. Owing to the wall thickness/diameter ratio the containment can be calculated as a thin-walled shell. Areas of discontinuity are subjected to three-dimensional investigations. For the design of the concrete structure different fracture safety margins are defined for the load conditions occurring in operation in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident and as a result of an aircraft or an earthquake. From this results that in the cross sectional areas without discontinuities of the prestressed outer cylinder no resultant tensions occur. For the steel liner different limits of strain are permitted for the various load conditions, bearing in mind that the integrity of the liner must remain ensured at any time. In order to keep the stresses resulting from the constraint of the containment outer cylinder in the foundation slab low, the cylindrical wall is placed on bearings. The suppression pool top slab is constrained at the containment outer cylinder and at the containment inner cylindrical wall. The inlets of the vent pipes are integrated in the slab in a way resulting in a double slab. The liner consists of 8 mm thick steel plate and is anchored in the concrete via steel sections. Mechanical equipment anchoring in the concrete is provided by welding anchor plates into the liner after the section concerned has been completed. The carcass work on the reactor building is scheduled to be completed within

  7. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  8. Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

    Mirjana Malešev; Vlastimir Radonjanin; Snežana Marinković

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate (NAC) as a control concrete and two types of concrete made with natural fine and recycle...

  9. Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts

    Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

    2013-12-01

    The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

  10. Analysis and optimization of dynamic model of eccentric shaft grinder

    Gao, Yangjie; Han, Qiushi; Li, Qiguang; Peng, Baoying

    2018-04-01

    Eccentric shaft servo grinder is the core equipment in the process chain of machining eccentric shaft. The establishment of the movement model and the determination of the kinematic relation of the-axis in the grinding process directly affect the quality of the grinding process, and there are many error factors in grinding, and it is very important to analyze the influence of these factors on the work piece quality. The three-dimensional model of eccentric shaft grinder is drawn by Pro/E three-dimensional drawing software, the model is imported into ANSYS Workbench Finite element analysis software, and the finite element analysis is carried out, and then the variation and parameters of each component of the bed are obtained by the modal analysis result. The natural frequencies and formations of the first six steps of the eccentric shaft grinder are obtained by modal analysis, and the weak links of the parts of the grinder are found out, and a reference improvement method is proposed for the design of the eccentric shaft grinder in the future.

  11. Torsional Vibration of a Shafting System under Electrical Disturbances

    Ling Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsional vibration responses of a nonlinear shafting system are studied by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix combining with the Newmark-β method. Firstly, the system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, from which a multi-segment lumped mass model is established. Secondly, accumulated errors are eliminated from the eigenfrequencies and responses of the system's torsional vibration by this newly developed procedure. The incremental transfer matrix method, combining the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix with Newmark-β method, is further applied to solve the dynamical equations for the torsional vibration of the nonlinear shafting system. Lastly, the shafting system of a turbine-generator is employed as an illustrating example, and simulation analysis has been performed on the transient responses of the shaft's torsional vibrations during typical power network disturbances, such as three-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit and asynchronous juxtaposition. The results validate the present method and are instructive for the design of a turbo-generator shaft.

  12. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  13. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    . The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...... sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...

  14. Metallographic examination of EPICOR-II liners from Three Mile Island

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials from selected EPICOR-II prefilter liners were collected and examined as part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program sponsored by the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The intent of that examination was to define the internal condition of liners and ensure that liners could be stored at INEL for ten years. This paper discusses the liner-integrity examination and presents the results of these examinations. Metallurgical examination of sections removed from the liners revealed no evidence of pitting or pitting-type corrosion. Measurements of wall thickness indicate that material was missing from the wall of PF-3 in an area where the protective coating had been removed to form a conductivity patch. If it is assumed that all thinning of the wall in that area is caused by corrosion, the liners will have a lifetime of approximately 50 years. 12 figures

  15. Comparative evaluation of 2% sodium fluoride iontophoresis and other cavity liners beneath silver amalgam restorations

    Gupta M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare 2% sodium fluoride (NaF iontophoresis with other cavity liners. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 30 patients in the age group 10-14 years with bilateral carious permanent first molars. The study evaluated the use of 2% NaF iontophoresis as a cavity liner and also compared its desensitizing effect with varnish and an adhesive bonded liner. Sensitivity gradings were done on a subjective verbal rating scale. Results: All the liner treatments decreased the sensitivity following liner application. However, decrease of sensitivity in the case of 2% NaF iontophoresis was more compared with that of varnish and adhesive bonded liner. The results were statistically significant. Conclusions: It was found that 2% NaF iontophoresis was more effective in reducing the postoperative sensitivity compared with that of varnish and scotchbond multipurpose.

  16. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  17. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  18. Reclamation of derelict land: procedure for locating abandoned mine shafts

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for locating abandoned shafts has been compiled from the experiences of those familiar with the problem. The procedure begins with a careful study of all the maps, aerial photographs and documents related to the mining activity and may include specialized surveys using geophysical, geochemical and aerial photographic methods when specific conditions are known or are likely to exist at the site. Direct methods, of either excavation, probing or drilling are required in each instance to confirm the location. Most of the methods are illustrated with case histories, and seismic and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail in appendices. Also in appendices, specific sources of information relating to mining are listed. Physical characteristics of mine shafts which are likely to have a bearing on the finding of the shaft are discussed, and an outline of the costs of the methods is presented. A glossary of mining terms used in the document and a detailed bibliography are provided.

  19. Shaft seal assembly for high speed and high pressure applications

    Hadt, W. F.; Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A seal assembly is provided for reducing the escape of fluids from between a housing and a shaft rotably mounted in the housing. The seal assembly comprises a pair of seal rings resiliently connected to each other and disposed in side-by-side relationship. In each seal ring, both the internal bore surface and the radial face which faces away from the other seal ring are provided with a plurality of equi-spaced recesses. The seal faces referred to are located adjacent a seating surface of the housing. Under normal operating conditions, the seal assembly is stationary with respect to the housing, and the recesses generate life, keep the assembly spaced from the rotating shaft and allow slip therebetween. The seal assembly can seize on the shaft, and slip will then occur between the radial faces and the housing.

  20. Above-cutoff impedance measurements of pumping holes for the Collider Liner

    Walling, L.; Barts, T.; Ruiz, E.; Turner, W.; Spayd, N.

    1994-04-01

    A holed liner was considered for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Collider Ring because of vacuum problems caused by photon-induced desorption. The liner would serve to shield the cold surface of the beam tube from the synchrotron radiation and the holes (or slots) would allow distributed pumping by gas-absorption material that could be placed between the liner and the beam tube. The impedance of holes and slots in a liner were studied by means of simulations using both MAFIA and HFSS, analytical modelling, wire measurements and electron beam measurements