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Sample records for concomitant intrapleural lidocaine

  1. Intrapleural agents for pleural infection: fibrinolytics and beyond.

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    Rahman, Najib M

    2012-07-01

    Pleural infection is a common, increasing clinical problem with a high morbidity and mortality. Medical management of pleural infection often fails, requiring invasive thoracic surgery to drain infected pleural collections, and for many years intrapleural agents have been assessed to reduce the need for surgical drainage and improve clinical outcomes. Randomized trials assessing intrapleural fibrinolytic agents have given conflicting results, and recent evidence provides important information on the role of intrapleural agents in the treatment of pleural infection, and the possible biology associated with infection progression in these patients. Pleural infection is increasing in both the adult and paediatric populations. The combined previous evidence assessing intrapleural fibrinolytics alone in pleural infection suggests lack of efficacy for clinically important outcomes. The Multi-Centre Intrapleural Sepsis Trial 2 (MIST2) study provides the first evidence of a novel treatment combination [intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) combined with intrapleural deoxyribonuclease (DNase)], which significantly improves the chest radiograph compared with either agent alone or placebo, and has potentially important benefits to important clinical outcomes (need for surgery and hospital stay). The precise mechanism of action of combination fibrinolytic and DNase in pleural infection is speculative. Fibrinolytic therapy alone has not been proven to be of use in the treatment of pleural infection. The MIST2 study provides clear-cut evidence demonstrating improved chest radiographs, and highly suggestive secondary outcomes suggesting improved clinically important outcomes, using a combination of intrapleural tPA and DNase. This novel treatment combination may represent an important step in our understanding and treatment of pleural infection; however, larger clinical studies specifically addressing important clinical outcomes and further laboratory research describing

  2. Intrapleural analgesia after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy Analgesia intrapleural após simpatectomia videotoracoscópica

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    Patrícia Gomes da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare analgesia traditionally used for thoracic sympathectomy to intrapleural ropivacaine injection in two different doses. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were divided into three similar groups, and all of them received intravenous dipyrone. Group A received intravenous tramadol and intrapleural injection of saline solution. Group B received intrapleural injection of 0.33% ropivacaine, and Group C 0.5% ropivacaine. The following aspects were analyzed: inspiratory capacity, respiratory rate and pain. Pain was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period by means of the visual analog scale and over a one-week period. RESULTS: In Groups A and B, reduced inspiratory capacity was observed in the postoperative period. In the first postoperative 12 hours, only 12.5% of the patients in Groups B and C showed intense pain as compared to 25% in Group A. In the subsequent week, only one patient in Group A showed mild pain while the remainder reported intense pain. In Group B, half of the patients showed intense pain, and in Group C, only one presented intense pain. CONCLUSION: Intrapleural analgesia with ropivacaine resulted in less pain in the late postoperative period with better analgesic outcomes in higher doses, providing a better ventilatory pattern.OBJETIVO: Comparar a analgesia tradicionalmente utilizada para simpatectomia videotoracoscópica à injeção intrapleural de ropivacaína em duas doses diferentes. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro pacientes foram distribuídos em três grupos semelhantes, e todos eles receberam dipirona endovenosa. O grupo A recebeu tramadol endovenoso e injeção intrapleural de solução salina. O grupo B recebeu injeção intrapleural de ropivacaína a 0,33%, e Grupo C ropivacaína a 0,5%. Os aspectos analisados foram: capacidade inspiratória, freqüência respiratória e dor. A dor foi avaliada no período pós-operatório por meio da escala visual analógica e durante o período de uma semana. RESULTADOS

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

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    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  4. Intrapleural chemo- and hyperthermotherapies for malignant pleural effusion: a randomized prospective study.

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    Chen, Wen-Jun; Yuan, Shao-Fei; Yan, Qing-Yuan; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Wang, Sen-Ming; Zheng, Wei-E; Zhang, Wu; Sun, Hong-Yu; Chen, Hua; Wu, Li-Li

    2012-02-01

    The current prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined intrapleural cisplatin and OK-432 (picibanil) plus hyperthermotherapy in patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). A total of 358 patients with MPE due to end-stage malignancies were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups, A and B: the intrapleural combination of cisplatin and OK-432 with hyperthermotherapy (n = 179) or without hyperthermotherapy (n = 179), respectively. Mild toxicities such as nausea, vomiting or anorexia, bone marrow depression, and pyrexia were similar in both groups. Patients in Group A (with hyperthermotherapy) showed a significantly higher overall response (93.4%) compared to those in Group B (79.8%, χ(2) = 43.11, p .05). After treatment, the quality of life scores were significantly increased in both groups as compared to prior treatment (p < .05). In conclusion, our study suggests that combined intrapleural cisplatin and OK-432 followed by hyperthermotherapy are more effective in the control of MPE and improve patients' quality of life.

  5. Dose dependency of outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in new rabbit empyema models

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    Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O.; Buchanan, Ann; Boren, Jake; Allen, Timothy; Rahman, Najib M.; Koenig, Kathleen; Chamiso, Mignote; Karandashova, Sophia; Henry, James; Idell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of empyema (EMP) is increasing worldwide; EMP generally occurs with pleural loculation and impaired drainage is often treated with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) or surgery. A number of IPFT options are used clinically with empiric dosing and variable outcomes in adults. To evaluate mechanisms governing intrapleural fibrinolysis and disease outcomes, models of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae were generated in rabbits and the animals were treated with either human tissue (tPA) plasminogen activator or prourokinase (scuPA). Rabbit EMP was characterized by the development of pleural adhesions detectable by chest ultrasonography and fibrinous coating of the pleura. Similar to human EMP, rabbits with EMP accumulated sizable, 20- to 40-ml fibrinopurulent pleural effusions associated with extensive intrapleural organization, significantly increased pleural thickness, suppression of fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activating activities, and accumulation of high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, plasminogen, and extracellular DNA. IPFT with tPA (0.145 mg/kg) or scuPA (0.5 mg/kg) was ineffective in rabbit EMP (n = 9 and 3 for P. multocida and S. pneumoniae, respectively); 2 mg/kg tPA or scuPA IPFT (n = 5) effectively cleared S. pneumoniae-induced EMP collections in 24 h with no bleeding observed. Although intrapleural fibrinolytic activity for up to 40 min after IPFT was similar for effective and ineffective doses of fibrinolysin, it was lower for tPA than for scuPA treatments. These results demonstrate similarities between rabbit and human EMP, the importance of pleural fluid PAI-1 activity, and levels of plasminogen in the regulation of intrapleural fibrinolysis and illustrate the dose dependency of IPFT outcomes in EMP. PMID:27343192

  6. Deuteration of lidocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedener, A.

    1988-01-01

    Stepwise deuteration of the acidic methylene group of lidocaine on a large scale using a moderate excess of 2 H 2 O in triethylamine/pyridine at 200 0 is described. The efficient and economical preparation of bideuterated lidocaine facilitates the use of this compound as an excellent internal standard in lidocaine determination or as a tracer in lidocaine pharmacokinetics. (author)

  7. Deuteration of lidocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haedener, A.

    1988-01-01

    Stepwise deuteration of the acidic methylene group of lidocaine on a large scale using a moderate excess of /sup 2/H/sub 2/O in triethylaminepyridine at 200/sup 0/ is described. The efficient and economical preparation of bideuterated lidocaine facilitates the use of this compound as an excellent internal standard in lidocaine determination or as a tracer in lidocaine pharmacokinetics.

  8. Clinical experience of intrapleural administration of fibrin glue for secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Sakiyama, Shoji; Kondo, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer is an intractable and serious pathosis, which directly aggravates patients' Quality of Life (QOL) and prognosis. We first select the intrapleural administration of fibrin glue for secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer. From April 2009 to May 2012, we encountered 5 patients who developed secondary pneumothorax during treatment for advanced lung cancer. Their average age was 60.8 years old, and 4 of them had squamous cell carcinoma, 1 had adenocarcinoma, and all had unresectable advanced lung cancer. In 4 of them, the point of air leakage could be detected by pleurography, and leakage could be stopped by the intrapleural administration of fibrin glue. All of them could receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy after treatment for secondary pneumothorax. The intrapleural administration of fibrin glue may be an effective and valid treatment for intractable secondary pneumothorax with advanced lung cancer. (author)

  9. WGA-Alexa transsynaptic labeling in the phrenic motor system of adult rats: Intrapleural injection versus intradiaphragmatic injection.

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    Buttry, Janelle L; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2015-02-15

    Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla. Intradiaphragmatic injection of WGA-Alexa 594 and vagal nerve injections of True blue were used to confirm the phrenic nuclei and to differentiate between the rVRG and the NA in the medulla. Following intrapleural injection, WGA-Alexa 488 was retrogradely transported to the phrenic nuclei and to the intercostal motor nuclei. Subsequently WGA-Alexa 488 was transsynaptically transported from the phrenic motoneurons to the pre-motor neurons in the rVRG that provide the descending drive to the phrenic neurons during inspiration. In addition WGA-Alexa 488 was identified in select cells of the NA confirmed by a dual label of both WGA-Alexa 488 and True blue. WGA-Alexa 488 demonstrates retrograde transsynaptic labeling following intrapleural injection whereas the previous method of injecting CTB-Alexa 488 only demonstrates retrograde labeling. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa fluor conjugates is an effective method to transsynaptically label the phrenic motor system providing an alternative for the invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injections. Furthermore, the study provides the first anatomical evidence of a direct synaptic relationship between rVRG and select NA cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrapleural cisplatin for management of malignant pleural effusion in a patient with plasma cell leucaemia.

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    Agarwal, Abhishek; Klair, Jagpal; Patolia, Setu; Meena, Nikhil K

    2015-06-29

    Plasma cell leucaemia (PCL) is a rare aggressive form of multiple myeloma. It occasionally involves the pleura, causing malignant pleural effusion (MPE). MPE presents a management dilemma for physicians, given the different treatment options available with varying efficacy and side effects. We report a case of a 64-year-old man with MPE due to PCL, successfully managed with intrapleural cisplatin and a tunnelled pleural catheter. We believe this to be the first report of management of PCL-associated MPE with intrapleural cisplatin. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Pleurodesis induced by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in rabbits: can it be used in humans? Pleurodese induzida pela injeção intrapleural de nitrato de prata ou talco em coelhos: há perspectivas para o uso em humanos?

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    Francisco S. Vargas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pleuropulmonary alterations caused by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in an experimental model, in order to consider its use in human beings. METHOD: 112 rabbits were randomly selected to receive intrapleural 0.5% silver nitrate or 400 mg/kg talc slurry in 2 ml saline. Eight rabbits of each group were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 months. Regarding the pleural cavity, the degree of macroscopic pleurodesis (adherences and microscopic alterations, represented by inflammation and pleural fibrosis, were analyzed. The parenchyma was evaluated regarding the degree of alveolar collapse, intra-alveolar septum edema, and cellularity, on a 0 to 4 scale. RESULTS: Intrapleural injection of silver nitrate produced earlier and more intense pleurodesis than talc slurry injection. The parenchymal damage was more evident with silver nitrate, considered as moderate, and limited to the first evaluation (after one month. From the second month on and throughout the entire one-year follow-up, the parenchymal damage was similar with both substances, only the pleural adherences were more intense with silver nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural silver nitrate produces better and longer-lasting than intrapleural talc injection. The parenchymal alterations, although discreet, are more pronounced when silver nitrate is used, but minimal after two months, and similar to those produced by talc injection during the entire one-year observation period. These effects on the pulmonary parenchyma do not contraindicate the use in humans. Thus, the use of intrapleural silver nitrate to produce fast and effective pleurodesis can be considered in patients in which pleural cavity symphysis is desired.OBJETIVO DE ESTUDO: Avaliar as alterações pleuropulmonares causadas pela injeção intrapleural de talco ou nitrato de prata em modelo experimental, com o intuito de considerar sua utilização em humanos. MÉTODO: 112 coelhos foram

  12. Acute Lidocaine Toxicity: a Case Series

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    Mitra Rahimi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parenteral form of lidocaine is the best-known source of lidocaine poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of acute lidocaine toxicity.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients intoxicated with lidocaine (based on  ICD10 codes admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2014 were analyzed.Results: 30 cases with the mean age of 21.83 ± 6.57 year were studied (60% male. All subjects had used either 6.5% lidocaine spray or 2% topical formulations of lidocaine. The mean consumed dose of lidocaine was 465 ± 318.17 milligrams. The most frequent clinical presentations were nausea and vomiting (50%, seizure (33.3%, and loss of consciousness (16.7%. 22 (73.3% cases had normal sinus rhythm, 4 (13.3% bradycardia, 2 (6.7% ventricular tachycardia, and 2 (6.7% had left axis deviation. 11 (36.6% cases were intubated and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU for 6.91 ± 7.16 days. Three patients experienced status epilepticus that led to cardiac arrest, and death (all cases with suicidal intention.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of topical lidocaine toxicity were among < 40-year-old patients with a male to female ratio of 1.2, with suicidal attempt in 90%, need for intensive care in 36.6%, and  mortality rate of 10%.

  13. Development of an electronic manometer for intrapleural pressure monitoring.

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    Krenke, Rafał; Guć, Maciej; Grabczak, Elżbieta Magdalena; Michnikowski, Marcin; Pałko, Krzysztof Jakub; Chazan, Ryszarda; Gólczewski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of intrapleural pressure is useful during various pleural procedures. However, a pleural manometer is rarely available. The aim of this study was to (1) construct an electronic pleural manometer, (2) assess the accuracy of the measurements done with the new device, (3) calculate the costs of the manometer construction and (4) perform an initial evaluation of the device in a clinical setting. Only widely accessible elements were used to construct the device. A vascular pressure transducer was used to transform pressure into an electronic signal. Reliability of the measurements was evaluated in a laboratory setting in a prospective, single-blind manner by comparing the results with those measured by a water manometer. Functionality of the device was assessed during therapeutic thoracentesis. The cost of the new pleural manometer was calculated. We built a small, portable device which can precisely measure intrapleural pressure. The measurement results showed very high agreement with those registered with a water manometer (r = 0.999; p electronic manometer during therapeutic thoracentesis showed it was easy to use. The total time needed for 6 measurements after withdrawal of different volumes of pleural fluid in 1 patient did not exceed 6 min. The total cost of the device was calculated to be electronic pleural manometer at modest costs. The device is easy to use and enables data display and storage in the personal computer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Respiratory function after selective respiratory motor neuron death from intrapleural CTB–saporin injections

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    Nichols, Nicole L.; Vinit, Stéphane; Bauernschmidt, Lorene; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes progressive motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. In rodent ALS models: 1) breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite major respiratory motor neuron death, suggesting unknown forms of compensatory respiratory plasticity; and 2) spinal microglia become activated in association with motor neuron cell death. Here, we report a novel experimental model to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on compensatory responses without many complications attendant to spontaneous motor neuron disease. In specific, we used intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB–SAP) to selectively kill motor neurons with access to the pleural space. Motor neuron survival, CD11b labeling (microglia), ventilatory capacity and phrenic motor output were assessed in rats 3–28 days after intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB–SAP (25 and 50 μg), or 2) unconjugated CTB and SAP (i.e. control; (CTB + SAP). CTB–SAP elicited dose-dependent phrenic and intercostal motor neuron death; 7 days post-25 μg CTB–SAP, motor neuron survival approximated that in end-stage ALS rats (phrenic: 36 ± 7%; intercostal: 56 ± 10% of controls; n = 9; p phrenic motor nucleus, indicating microglial activation; 2) decreased breathing during maximal chemoreceptor stimulation; and 3) diminished phrenic motor output in anesthetized rats (7 days post-25 μg, CTB–SAP: 0.3 ± 0.07 V; CTB + SAP: 1.5 ± 0.3; n = 9; p < 0.05). Intrapleural CTB–SAP represents a novel, inducible model of respiratory motor neuron death and provides an opportunity to study compensation for respiratory motor neuron loss. PMID:25476493

  15. Better Clinical Efficiency of TILs for Malignant Pleural Effusion and Ascites than Cisplatin Through Intrapleural and Intraperitoneal Infusion.

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    Chu, Hongjin; Du, Fengcai; Gong, Zhaohua; Lian, Peiwen; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Peng; Hu, Baohong; Chi, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficiency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared to cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion and ascites through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion. Thirteen patients with malignant pleural effusion and ascites were divided into a TIL-treated group and a cisplatin-treated group. Patients were given TILs or cisplatin, through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion respectively, after drainage of the malignant serous effusion by thoracentesis or abdominocentesis. The overall response rate and disease control rate of the TIL-treated group (33.33% and 83.33%) were higher than that of the cisplatin-treated group (28.57% and 71.43%). The progression-free survival for the TIL-treated group was significantly longer (p=0.002) and better than that of the cisplatin-treated group (66.67% vs. 28.57%). Quality of life apparently improved in the TIL-treated group and was clearly higher than that in the cisplatin-treated group. The use of TILs has a better clinical efficiency for malignant pleural effusion and ascites than cisplatin through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion without severe adverse effects. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Acute behavioral effects of intrapleural OK-432 (Picibanil) administration in preterm fetal sheep.

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    Cowie, Rosalind V; Stone, Peter R; Parry, Emma; Jensen, Ellen C; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To develop a model to study the fetal effects of intrapleural infusion of OK-432 (Picibanil), a pleurodesis agent derived from killed Gram-positive streptococci. OK-432 (0.1 mg, n = 5), or normal saline (n = 5) were infused over 20 min into the pleural space of chronically instrumented preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation. Fetal physiological parameters, including breathing and nuchal activity were monitored in utero from 6 h before infusion until 12 h afterward, and fetuses were killed after 7 days recovery. OK-432 was associated with transient suppression of fetal EEG activity, breathing and body movements from 3-6 h after infusion. Hypotension and hypoxia did not occur. At postmortem, local pleural adhesions were seen around the site of OK-432 infusion but not in saline treated fetuses. Intrapleural administration of OK-432 is associated with marked but transient fetal behavioral effects. This model will enable preclinical investigation of the neural and cardiovascular safety of OK-432 at a clinical relevant stage of development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort...

  18. Studies on the interaction of lidocaine with plasma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, J.

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to quantitate lidocaine's interaction with alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), human serum albumin (HSA), and AAG in the presence of HSA, and to determine the extent of displacement of lidocaine from its binding site(s) by selected cardiovascular drugs (dipyridamole, disopyramide and quinidine). Since the limited experimental work reported in this area has involved the use of a single lidocaine concentration, this study involved the evaluation of a range of lidocaine concentrations. Lidocaine interaction with plasma proteins (AAG and HSA) was studied at 37 0 C using an isothermal equilibrium dialysis system and 14 C-lidocaine HCl. A dialysis membrane (M.W. cutoff 12,000 to 14,000) separated the two chambers of each dialysis cell. The extent of 14 C-lidocaine dialysis was studied with respect to both drug and protein concentrations. Aliquots of each chamber of each of the cells were subjected to liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analyses for 14 C-lidocaine. The ratio of bound to free (R/F) lidocaine was evaluated as a function of AAG concentration from the LSC data. Scatchard and/or Rosenthal analyses were employed to evaluate n and k values where appropriate. Linear and multiple linear regression analyses of the data were appropriately performed

  19. Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep

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    Safoura Ghadirian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 μg mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

  20. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

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    Stolik-Dollberg Orit C

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivacaine. The outcome variable was the administration by the parents of acetaminophen during the ensuing 24 hours. Results Seventeen infants received lidocaine and 19 received bupivacaine DPNB. Ten infants in the lidocaine group (59% were given acetaminophen following circumcision compared to only 3 (16% in the bupivacaine group (P 2 = 20.6; P = 0.006. Conclusion DPNB with bupivacaine for neonatal circumcision apparently confers better analgesia than lidocaine as judged by the requirement of acetaminophen over the ensuing 24-hour period.

  1. Relapse of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Associated with Intravenous Lidocaine

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    Akiyuki Uzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine unmasks silent symptoms and eases neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis patients; however, the effects of lidocaine in neuromyelitis optica have never been reported. We describe the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder who developed optic neuritis 1 day after intravenous lidocaine injection for treating allodynia. Her symptom seemed to result from a relapse of neuromyelitis optica induced by lidocaine administration, and not because of the transient effects of intravenous lidocaine administration. The possibility that lidocaine administration results in relapse of neuromyelitis optica due to its immunomodulating effects cannot be ruled out.

  2. Comparison of Morphine, Morphine-Lidocaine, and Morphine-Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions in Dogs Using an Incision-Induced Pain Model.

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    Chiavaccini, Ludovica; Claude, Andrew K; Meyer, Robert E

    We aimed to compare antinociceptive effects of IV infusions of morphine (M), morphine-lidocaine (ML), or morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combined, in a mild-to-moderate pain model in dogs. Eighteen adult hounds were heavily sedated with IV morphine (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine to undergo thoracic skin incisions. After reversal, dogs were randomly assigned to receive loading doses of lidocaine and ketamine (MLK), lidocaine and saline (ML), or equivalent volume of saline (M), followed by 18 hr constant infusions of morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr) and ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/hr); morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr); or morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), respectively. Pain was assessed with Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and mechanical nociception with von Frey filaments (VFFS). Data were analyzed with linear mixed model on ranks. Independently of treatment, Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale was significantly higher than baseline for 24 hr (p < .0001), while VFFS was significantly lower than baseline for 48 hr post-recovery (p < .0001), with no difference between MLK and M groups. The ML group recorded significantly lower VFFS (p = .02) than the M group for the entire study. In conclusion, there was no significant analgesic difference between MLK and M alone.

  3. The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray

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    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

  4. Anesthetic duration of lidocaine with 10% dextran is comparable to lidocaine with 1:160 000 epinephrine after intraosseous injection in the rabbit.

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    Ito, Emiko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Hidetaka; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2007-09-01

    To compare the effects of 10% dextran and epinephrine on intraosseous injection with lidocaine in rabbits. Twenty male Japanese white rabbits were used. The effect of intraosseous injection was evaluated using an electromyogram (EMG) of the digastric muscle after electrical pulp stimulation. Two percent lidocaine alone (L), 2% lidocaine containing 1:80000 epinephrine (LE8), 2% lidocaine containing 1:160 000 epinephrine (LE16), and 2% lidocaine containing 10% dextran (LD) were tested. Electromyogram recordings were repeated before and 30 seconds, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, and 20 minutes after the intraosseous injection. Thereafter, recordings were repeated every 5 minutes until the EMG recovered to the control value. There was no difference in the onset time between the 4 groups. The order of the duration of maximum effect was LE8 >LE16 = LD >or=L. The order of the duration of anesthesia was LE8 >LE16 = LD >L. Ten percent dextran potentiates local anesthetic effects of 2% lidocaine in intraosseous injection. The potency of 10% dextran is comparable to 1:160 000 epinephrine.

  5. Dose De-escalation of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy for Pleural Infection. The Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural Infection Therapy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Natalia; Bintcliffe, Oliver; De Fonseka, Duneesha; Blyth, Kevin G; Smith, Nicola A; Piccolo, Francesco; Martin, Geoffrey; Wong, Donny; Edey, Anthony; Maskell, Nick; Lee, Y C Gary

    2017-06-01

    Intrapleural therapy with a combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 10 mg and DNase 5 mg administered twice daily has been shown in randomized and open-label studies to successfully manage over 90% of patients with pleural infection without surgery. Potential bleeding risks associated with intrapleural tPA and its costs remain important concerns. The aim of the ongoing Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural infection Therapy (ADAPT) project is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose de-escalation for intrapleural tPA. The first of several planned studies is presented here. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a reduced starting dose regimen of 5 mg of tPA with 5 mg of DNase administered intrapleurally for pleural infection. Consecutive patients with pleural infection at four participating centers in Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand were included in this observational, open-label study. Treatment was initiated with tPA 5 mg and DNase 5 mg twice daily. Subsequent dose escalation was permitted at the discretion of the attending physician. Data relating to treatment success, radiological and systemic inflammatory changes (blood C-reactive protein), volume of fluid drained, length of hospital stay, and treatment complications were extracted retrospectively from the medical records. We evaluated 61 patients (41 males; age, 57 ± 16 yr). Most patients (n = 58 [93.4%]) were successfully treated without requiring surgery for pleural infection. Treatment success was corroborated by clearance of pleural opacities visualized by chest radiography (from 42% [interquartile range, 22-58] to 16% [8-31] of hemithorax; P < 0.001), increase in pleural fluid drainage (from 175 ml in the 24 h preceding treatment to 2,025 ml [interquartile range, 1,247-2,984] over 72 h of therapy; P <  0.05) and a reduction in blood C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Seven patients (11.5%) had dose escalation of tPA to 10 mg. Three patients underwent

  6. Respiratory function after selective respiratory motor neuron death from intrapleural CTB-saporin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Vinit, Stéphane; Bauernschmidt, Lorene; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes progressive motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. In rodent ALS models: 1) breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite major respiratory motor neuron death, suggesting unknown forms of compensatory respiratory plasticity; and 2) spinal microglia become activated in association with motor neuron cell death. Here, we report a novel experimental model to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on compensatory responses without many complications attendant to spontaneous motor neuron disease. In specific, we used intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) to selectively kill motor neurons with access to the pleural space. Motor neuron survival, CD11b labeling (microglia), ventilatory capacity and phrenic motor output were assessed in rats 3-28days after intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25 and 50μg), or 2) unconjugated CTB and SAP (i.e. control; (CTB+SAP). CTB-SAP elicited dose-dependent phrenic and intercostal motor neuron death; 7days post-25μg CTB-SAP, motor neuron survival approximated that in end-stage ALS rats (phrenic: 36±7%; intercostal: 56±10% of controls; n=9; pneuron death and provides an opportunity to study compensation for respiratory motor neuron loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 50 or 100 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and 2 percent lidocaine...

  8. The influence of lidocaine topical anesthesia during transesophageal echocardiography on blood methemoglobin level and risk of methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak-Strzecka, Dominika; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Lipiec, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threating medical condition, which may be induced by application of topical anaesthetic agents commonly used during endoscopic procedure. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of lidocaine used prior to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on the blood level of methemoglobin in vivo. Additionally we attempted to establish the occurrence rate of clinically evident lidocaine-induced methemoglobinemia on the basis of data collected in our institution. We retrospectively analyzed patient records from 3,354 TEEs performed in our echocardiographic laboratory over the course of 13 years in search for clinically evident methemoglobinemia cases. Additionally, 18 consecutive patients referred for TEE were included in the prospective part of our analysis. Blood samples were tested before and 60 min after pre-TEE lidocaine anesthesia application. Information concerning concomitant conditions and pharmacotherapy were also obtained. In 3,354 patients who underwent TEE in our institution no cases of clinically evident methemoglobinemia occurred. In the prospective part of the study, none of 18 patients [16 (89 %) men, mean age 63 ± 13] was diagnosed with either clinical symptoms of methemoglobinemia or exceeded normal blood concentration of methemoglobin. Initial mean methemoglobin level was 0.5 ± 0.1 % with mild, statistically (but not clinically) significant rise to 0.6 ± 0.1 % after 60 min (p = 0.02). Among the analyzed factors only the relation between the proton pump inhibitors intake and methemoglobin blood level rise was identified as statistically relevant (p = 0.03). In adults, pre-TEE lidocaine anesthesia with recommended dosage results in significant increase in methemoglobin blood level, which however does not exceed normal values and does not result in clinically evident methemoglobinemia.

  9. Low-dose intravenous lidocaine as treatment for proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2002-01-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by a sudden internal anal sphincter and anorectic ring attack of pain of a short duration. Description of the influence of intravenous lidocaine treatment for proctalgia fugax. A 28-year-old patient suffering of proctalgia fugax for 8 months. Conventional treatment efforts did not improve his condition. A single dose of an intravenous lidocaine infusion completely stopped his pain attacks. Based on the experience reported in this case and the potential benefit of this treatment for proctalgia fugax, controlled studies comparing intravenous lidocaine with placebo should be conducted to confirm the observation and to provide a more concrete basis for the use of intravenous lidocaine for this indication.

  10. Local anesthetic effects of Lidocaine cream: randomized controlled trial using a standardized prick pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberger, Katharina; Krause, Karoline; Maier, Kristina; Zschocke, Ina; Radtke, Marc; Augustin, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    ELA-max (4% lidocaine) and EMLA cream (lidocaine-prilocaine 2.5%) are topicals used for superficial anesthesia. Only few studies have been published on their comparative effectiveness in close-to-practice pain models. (1) To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lidocaine cream compared with lidocaine-prilocaine cream and placebo. (2) To assess the safety and tolerability. Randomized, three-arm, double-blind trial in 40 healthy volunteers comparing the anesthetic effects of Lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream to placebo at various time points (0-120 min). A standardized pain was induced by lancet pricks and measured by a visual analogue scale. Intra-individual comparison between the test areas was performed in a cross-over design. Lidocaine showed significantly reduced pain compared to placebo at all assessment points. Pain reduction was achieved significantly earlier using lidocaine occlusively (30 min). No significant differences were found concerning the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There were no relevant adverse events. This study confirms that a topical preparation with 4% lidocaine is an effective and safe treatment option for superficial anesthesia. It supports the claim that an occlusive application is more rapid in action. 4% lidocaine is of value as a rapidly-acting local anesthetic for the treatment of minor surgical procedures.

  11. Comparison of the Concentrations of Lidocaine in Different Body Fluids/Tissues after Subarachnoid Space and Intravenous Administration of a Lethal Dose of Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the concentration of lidocaine in different body fluids/tissues after subarachnoid space and intravenous administrations of a lethal dose of lidocaine. Totally 18 dogs were used in the experiment. Six dogs were given subarachnoid anesthesia, another were given an intravenous injection of a dose of 75 mg/kg weight of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5 min and the last 6 dogs were used as the blank control dogs and given a subarachnoid space injection or a femoral artery injection of the same volume of sodium chloride. As soon as its vital signs disappeared, each dog was dissected and the specimen, such as brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in lateral ventricle, CSF in subarachnoid space, spinal cord (cervical spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, lumbar spinal cord, and waist spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bile, urine, heart blood, peripheral blood, muscle in injection location, and muscle in no injection location, were collected for analysis of lidocaine immediately. Analysis was performed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. From the maximum to the minimum, the order of lidocaine concentration detected in the subarachnoid space-administered dogs was as follows: CSF in subarachnoid space, waist spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, CSF in lateral ventricle, lumbar spinal cord, cervical spinal cord, lung, kidney, muscle in injection location, heart, brain, spleen, heart blood, liver, peripheral blood, bile, muscle in no injection location, and urine. The order of lidocaine concentration detected in the intravenously administered dogs was as followed: Kidney, heart, lung, spleen, brain, liver, peripheral blood, bile, heart blood, cervical spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, muscle in injection location, lumbar spinal cord, muscle in no injection location, CSF in subarachnoid space, urine, and CSF in lateral ventricle. The maximum concentration of lidocaine was detected in the subarachnoid

  12. Intravenous lidocaine infusion--a new treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Petersen, P; Dejgård, A

    1987-01-01

    after lidocaine infusion compared to after saline infusion (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The duration of the individual effect ranged from 3 to 21 days. Lidocaine infusion had no effect on the objective measurements of neuropathy. Intravenous lidocaine infusion seems to be a new...

  13. Kidney ischemia and reperfunsion syndrome: effect of lidocaine and local postconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGOR NAGAI YAMAKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effects of blocking the regulation of vascular tone on the ischemia and reperfusion syndrome in rats through the use of lidocaine in the postconditioning technique. Methods: we randomized 35 rats into seven groups of five animals: Group 1- Control; Group 2- Ischemia and Reperfusion; Group 3- Ischemia, Reperfusion and Saline; Group 4- Ischemic Postconditioning; Group 5- Ischemic Postconditioning and Saline; Group 6- Lidocaine; Group 7- Ischemic Postconditioning and Lidocaine. Except for the control group, all the others were submitted to renal ischemia for 30 minutes. In postconditioning groups, we performed ischemia and reperfusion cycles of five minutes each, applied right after the main ischemia. In saline and lidocaine groups, we instilled the substances at a rate of two drops per minute. To compare the groups, we measured serum levels of urea and creatinine and also held renal histopathology. Results: The postconditioning and postconditioning + lidocaine groups showed a decrease in urea and creatinine values. The lidocaine group showed only a reduction in creatinine values. In histopathology, only the groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning had decreased degree of tubular necrosis. Conclusion: Lidocaine did not block the effects of postconditioning on renal ischemia reperfusion syndrome, and conferred better glomerular protection when applied in conjunction with ischemic postconditioning.

  14. Lidocaine/L-Menthol Binary System: Cocrystallization versus Solid-State Immiscibility

    OpenAIRE

    Corvis , Yohann; Négrier , Philippe; Lazerges , Mathieu; Massip , Stéphane; Léger , Jean-Michel; Espeau , Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We present the synthesis, structure determination, and thermodynamic properties of a never reported cocrystal prepared with lidocaine and L-menthol. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the lidocaine/L-menthol binary system was achieved using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction experiments. The present study demonstrates that the only way to perform a phase equilibrium survey of the lidocaine/L-menthol system is to prepare the binary mixture...

  15. Lidocaine for systemic sclerosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc is an orphan disease with the highest case-specific mortality of any connective-tissue disease. Excessive collagen deposit in affected tissues is a key for the disease's pathogenesis and comprises most of the clinical manifestations. Lidocaine seems to be an alternative treatment for scleroderma considering that: a the patient's having excessive collagen deposits in tissues affected by scleroderma; b the patient's demonstrating increased activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of collagen; and c lidocaine's reducing the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine in treating scleroderma. Methods A randomized double-blind clinical trial included 24 patients with scleroderma randomized to receive lidocaine or placebo intravenously in three cycles of ten days each, with a one-month interval between them. Outcomes: cutaneous (modified Rodnan skin score, oesophageal (manometry and microvascular improvement (nailfold capillaroscopy; improvement in subjective self-assessment and in quality of life (HAQ. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for any outcome after the treatment and after 6-months follow-up. Improvement in modified Rodnan skin score occurred in 66.7% and 50% of placebo and lidocaine group, respectively (p = 0.408. Both groups showed an improvement in subjective self-assessment, with no difference between them. Conclusions Despite the findings of a previous cohort study favouring the use of lidocaine, this study demonstrated that lidocaine at this dosage and means of administration showed a lack of efficacy for treating scleroderma despite the absence of significant adverse effects. However, further similar clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine when administered in different dosages and by other means.

  16. Radioiodination and Biological Evaluation of Lidocaine for Diagnostic Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lidocaine is a common local anesthetic drug. 125 I-Lidocaine was prepared with labeling yield about 95%. The conditions required to obtain this yield were 50 μg substrate, 50 μg CAT, 5-10 min reaction time, ph 7 and at room temperature. Different chromatographic techniques (electrophoresis and thin layer chromatography TLC) were used to evaluate the radiochemical yield and purity of the labeled product. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Albino Swiss mice and the result indicate the possibility of using 125 I-Lidocaine to be used as imaging agent

  17. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Stolik-Dollberg, Orit C; Dollberg, Shaul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivac...

  18. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-01-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish. PMID:27931323

  19. Comparative analgesic and sedative effects of tramadol, tramadol-lidocaine and lidocaine for caudal epidural analgesia in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzok, Mohamed A; El-khodery, Sabry A

    2015-03-01

    To compare anti-nociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol, a combination of tramadol-lidocaine, and lidocaine alone for perineal analgesia in donkeys. Experimental 'blinded' randomized cross-over study. Six healthy adult donkeys. Treatments were tramadol (TR) (1.0 mg kg(-1) ), tramadol-lidocaine (TRLD) (0.5 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) respectively) and lidocaine (LD) (0.4 mg kg(-1) ) given into the epidural space. The volume of all treatments was 0.02 mL kg(-1) . Nociception was tested at the perineal region by pin prick, followed, if no reaction, by pressure from a haemostat clamp. Times to onset, degree and duration of anti-nociception of the perineal region were recorded. Response was tested immediately after drug administration and at: 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes post-administration and then at 30 minute intervals thereafter until a response re-occurred. Physiologic data and degree of sedation and ataxia were recorded pre-administration and at intervals for 240 minutes post-administration. Results were analyzed using anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Wilks' Lambda test as relevant. Significance was taken as p donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Arthur, G R; Covino, B G

    1988-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine were studied in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. The maternal femoral vessels were cannulated and, on the day of study, the urinary bladder was catheterized. Lidocaine HCl, 4-5 mg/kg, was administered by IV injection over 60 seconds. Serial samples of arterial blood and urine were collected over 4 hours, and drug concentrations were determined using a gas chromatographic technique. The volume of the central compartment was greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant ewes (1.51 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.16 L/kg) as was the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss): 3.24 +/- 0.40 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.32 L/kg. The volume of distribution during the terminal exponential phase of drug elimination (Vd beta) and total clearance of lidocaine (Cl) were also higher in pregnant animals: 4.17 +/- 0.50 L/kg and 99.6 +/- 8.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively; compared to 2.46 +/- 0.48 L/kg and 44.1 +/- 6.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, in nonpregnant ewes. However, the balance between these changes in Vd beta and Cl did not result in a significant difference in the elimination half-life of lidocaine (38.1 +/- 2.1 minutes in nonpregnant and 31.9 +/- 3.0 minutes in pregnant ewes). If these data are applicable to humans, the risk of drug accumulation after repeated administration of lidocaine is no greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant patients.

  1. Effect of fentanyl and lidocaine on the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Martin A; Seddighi, Reza; Egger, Christine M; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; KuKanich, Butch K; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MAC NM ) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MAC NM (MAC NM-B ) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MAC NM (MAC NM-T ) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MAC NM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine. RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MAC NM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MAC NM decreased from MAC NM-B to MAC NM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MAC NM of sevoflurane in dogs.

  2. Adrenaline with lidocaine for digital nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Rath, Santosh; Kalaivani, Mani; Bhanderi, Neel

    2015-03-19

    Surgery on fingers is a common procedure in emergency and day care surgery. Adrenaline combined with lidocaine can prolong digital nerve block and provide a bloodless operating field. Extended postoperative pain relief can reduce the need for analgesics and can facilitate hand rehabilitation. Conventionally, adrenaline is avoided at anatomical sites with end arteries such as digits, penis and pinna because of concerns about arterial spasm, ischaemia and gangrene distal to the site of drug infiltration. To assess the safety and efficacy of use of adrenaline (any dilution) combined with lidocaine (any dilution) for digital nerve blocks (fingers and toes). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 11, 2014), MEDLINE via Ovid SP (1966 to 18 November 2014) and EMBASE via Ovid SP (1980 to 18 November 2014). We also searched specific websites, such as www.indmed.nic.in; www.cochrane-sadcct.org; and www.Clinicaltrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of adrenaline with lidocaine and plain lidocaine in patients undergoing surgery on digits (fingers and toes). Our primary outcomes were duration of anaesthesia, adverse outcomes such as ischaemia distal to the injection site and cost analysis. Our secondary outcomes were duration of postoperative pain relief and reduced bleeding during surgery. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors independently extracted details of trial methodology and outcome data from reports of all trials considered eligible for inclusion. We performed all analyses on an intention-to-treat basis. We used a fixed-effect model when no evidence of significant heterogeneity between studies was found and a random-effects model when heterogeneity was likely. We included four RCTs with 167 participants. Risk of bias of the included studies was high, as none of them reported method of randomization, allocation concealment

  3. Effect of lidocaine 2% on bacterial culture of bronchial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, M.; Meybodi, F.A.A.; Mokarianpour, T.; Fallah, T.; Mongabadi, F.D.; Ayatollahi, J.; Shahcherghi, S.H.; Yazdi, M.H.A

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the action of 2% lidocaine on the culture results of bronchial fluid in patients suspected of having lower respiratory tract infections. Study Design:Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study:Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from November 2014 to November 2015. Methodology:Patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infections referred to bronchoscopy unit of the Hospital were included. Those with incomplete questionnaire and bronchoscopy contraindication were excluded. Bronchial fluid was aspirated before and after local application of 2% lidocaine and cultured, according to the suspected clinical diagnosis. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 17.0. For statistical comparisons, McNemar's test was used. Level of significance was kept at p <0.05. Results:The mean age of the study population was 51.83 +-15.93 with a range of 25 - 80 years. Out of 130 patients, 60 patients had positive culture results. Nineteen (31.7%) cases had positive culture for tuberculosis and 41 (63.3%) cases had positive results for other bacteria before intervention that did not change after using 2% lidocaine (p=1). In 70 (53.84%) cases, results were negative before and after use of 2% lidocaine. Conclusion:No significant difference was found between culture results before and after the use of lidocaine. Therefore, lidocaine can be used during bronchoscopy to increase patient tolerance. (author)

  4. Lidocaine patches reduce pain in trauma patients with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Karen A; Mayberry, John C; Peck, Ellen G; Schreiber, Martin A

    2011-04-01

    Rib fracture pain is notoriously difficult to manage. The lidocaine patch is effective in other pain scenarios with an excellent safety profile. This study assesses the efficacy of lidocaine patches for treating rib fracture pain. A prospectively gathered cohort of patients with rib fracture was retrospectively analyzed for use of lidocaine patches. Patients treated with lidocaine patches were matched to control subjects treated without patches. Subjective pain reports and narcotic use before and after patch placement, or equivalent time points for control subjects, were gathered from the chart. All patients underwent long-term follow-up, including a McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Twenty-nine patients with lidocaine patches (LP) and 29 matched control subjects (C) were analyzed. During the 24 hours before patch placement, pain scores and narcotic use were similar (LP 5.3, C 4.6, P = 0.19 and LP 51, C 32 mg morphine, P = 0.17). In the 24 hours after patch placement, LP patients had a greater decrease in pain scores (LP 1.2, C 0.0, P = 0.01) with no change in narcotic use (LP -8.4, C 0.5-mg change in morphine, P = 0.25). At 60 days, LP patients had a lower MPQ pain score (LP 7.7, C 12.2, P rib fracture pain. Lidocaine patches resulted in a sustained reduction in pain, outlasting the duration of therapy.

  5. Analgesic and physiological effect of electroacupuncture combined with epidural lidocaine in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu-Ying; Guo, Ni-Ni; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Meng; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2017-07-01

    To investigate physiological and antinociceptive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) with lidocaine epidural nerve block in goats. Prospective experimental trial. Forty-eight hybrid male goats weighing 27 ± 2 kg. The goats were randomly assigned to six groups: L2.2, epidural lidocaine (2.2 mg kg -1 ); L4.4, epidural lidocaine (4.4 mg kg -1 ); EA; EA-L1.1, EA with epidural lidocaine (1.1 mg kg -1 ); EA-L2.2, EA with epidural lidocaine (2.2 mg kg -1 ); and EA-L4.4, EA with epidural lidocaine (4.4 mg kg -1 ). EA was administered for 120 minutes. Epidural lidocaine was administered 25 minutes after EA started. Nociceptive thresholds of flank and thigh regions, abdominal muscle tone, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (f R ) and rectal temperature were recorded at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. Lidocaine dose-dependently increased nociceptive thresholds. There were no differences in nociceptive thresholds between L4.4 and EA from 30 to 120 minutes. The threshold in EA-L2.2 was lower than in EA-L4.4 from 30 to 120 minutes, but higher than in EA-L1.1 from 30 to 150 minutes or in L4.4 from 30 to 180 minutes. The abdominal muscle tone in EA-L2.2 was higher at 30 minutes, but lower at 90 and 120 minutes than at 0 minutes. There were no differences in muscle tone between L4.4 and L2.2 or EA-L4.4, and between any two of the three EA-lidocaine groups from 0 to 180 minutes. The f R and HR decreased in L4.4 at 60 and 90 minutes compared with 0 minutes. No differences in f R , HR, MAP and temperature among the groups occurred from 30 to 180 minutes. EA combined with 2.2 mg kg -1 epidural lidocaine provides better antinociceptive effect than 4.4 mg kg -1 epidural lidocaine alone in goats. EA provided antinociception and allowed a decrease in epidural lidocaine dose. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Comparison of skin anesthetic effect of liposomal lidocaine, nonliposomal lidocaine, and EMLA using 30-minute application time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalo, B D; Mirikitani, E J; Moy, R L

    1998-05-01

    Liposomes are microscopic phospholipid vessels that have been utilized to extend the action of topical medications. Previous studies have demonstrated that liposomal vehicles can prolong the action of a variety of medications, including antifungals, anesthetics, interferon, and antineoplastic agents. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree and duration of anesthesia produced by lidocaine in a liposomal vehicle compared with lidocaine in a nonliposomal vehicle and compared with EMLA. The topical preparations in this study were allowed to contact the skin for a 30-minute period prior to evaluation of anesthetic effectiveness. Unoccluded and Tegaderm-occluded topical preparations were evaluated in two separate arms of the study. Thirteen healthy volunteers (three male, 10 female) were recruited for the nonocclusion arm of the study. Six healthy volunteers (two male, four female) were recruited for the occlusion arm of the study. Subjects with a history of allergy to lidocaine, a history of seizures, cardiac or respiratory difficulty, pregnant patients, and patients less than 18 years old were excluded. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to testing. The volar forearms of the volunteers were swabbed with isopropyl alcohol and allowed to dry. A template was then utilized to mark 2 x 2-cm squares with a skin marker on both volar forearms. In total, nine squares corresponding to nine test areas were marked. The nine test preparations were applied to the test areas in a double-blinded fashion using a clean swab stick. The test preparations were then allowed to remain on the skin for 30 minutes in either occluded or nonoccluded from depending upon the arm of the study. Following the 30-minute application period, the test preparations were wiped off with clean gauze. Testing for anesthesia was performed by following a previously published method utilizing gentle pinpricks. A new pinprick apparatus was used for each patient. Pinprick

  7. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1 G93A ), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1 G93A rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; pSAP: 64±10%, n=10 vs. 60±13; n=8; p>0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Lidocaine and Epinephrine on Human Erythrocyte Shape and Vesiculability of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Slokar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of local anesthetic composed of lidocaine and epinephrine on vesiculability of blood cells and erythrocyte shape was studied. Whole blood and plasma were incubated with lidocaine/epinephrine. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by centrifugation and washing and counted by flow cytometry. Lidocaine/epinephrine and each component alone were added to diluted blood. Shape changes were recorded by micrographs. An ensemble of captured frames was analyzed for populations of discocytes, echinocytes, and stomatocytes by using statistical methods. Incubation of whole blood and blood plasma with lidocaine/epinephrine considerably increased concentration of extracellular vesicles in isolates (for an average factor 3.4 in blood and 2.8 in plasma. Lidocaine/epinephrine caused change of erythrocyte shape from mainly discocytic to mainly stomatocytic (higher than 50%. Lidocaine alone had even stronger stomatocytic effect (the percent of stomatocytes was higher than 95% while epinephrine had echinocytic effect (the percent of echinocytes was higher than 80%. The differences were highly statistically significant p<10-8 with statistical power P=1. Lidocaine/epinephrine induced regions of highly anisotropically curved regions indicating that lidocaine and epinephrine interact with erythrocyte membrane. It was concluded that lidocaine/epinephrine interacts with cell membranes and increases vesiculability of blood cells in vitro.

  9. Intravenous lidocaine for postmastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cursino de Menezes Couceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. METHODS: After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over 1 h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. RESULTS: Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p = 0.50. Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p = 0.50; in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p = 0.37 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24 h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p = 0.50 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24 h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out.

  10. Effects of intrathecal lidocaine on hyperalgesia and allodynia following chronic constriction injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Gu, Yiwen; Su, Diansan; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Xiangrui

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different doses of intrathecal lidocaine on established thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, defined the effective drug dose range, the duration of pain-relief effects, and the influence of this treatment on the body and tissues. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and received intrathecal saline or lidocaine (2, 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg) 7 days after loose sciatic ligation. Respiratory depression and hemodynamic instability were found to become more severe as doses of lidocaine increased during intrathecal therapy. Two animals in the group receiving 35 mg/kg lidocaine developed pulmonary oedema and died. Behavioral tests indicated that 6.5, 15, and 35 mg/kg intrathecal lidocaine showed different degrees of reversal of thermal hyperalgesia, and lasted for 2-8 days, while 2 mg/kg lidocaine did not. The inhibition of tactile allodynia was only observed in rats receiving 15 and 35 mg/kg lidocaine, and the anti-allodynic effects were identical in these two groups. Histopathologic examinations on the spinal cords revealed mild changes in rats receiving 2-15 mg/kg lidocaine. However, lesions were severe after administration of 35 mg/kg lidocaine. These findings indicate that intrathecal lidocaine has prolonged therapeutic effects on established neuropathic pain. The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities could be well preserved in most cases, except for 35 mg/kg. Considering the ratio between useful effects and side effects, doses of 15 mg/kg are suitable for intrathecal injection for relief of neuropathic pain.

  11. The Use and Method of Action of Intravenous Lidocaine and Its Metabolite in Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Thomas; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2018-03-14

    Lidocaine, an amide anesthetic, has been used in the treatment of a wide variety of pain disorders for over 75 years. In addition to pain control, lidocaine is an anti-arrhythmic agent and has anti-inflammatory properties. Lidocaine's unique properties, including nonlinear pharmacokinetics, have limited its modern-day use. The purpose of this review is to offer a better understanding of the properties of this unique treatment, which we hope will allow more practitioners to offer this to their patients. An analysis of the history, pharmacokinetics, and relevant uses of lidocaine in headache medicine based on a synthesis of the medical literature and clinical experience. Lidocaine is an amide anesthetic that inhibits voltage gated sodium channels, and lidocaine metabolism occurs exclusively in the liver. One lidocaine metabolite has its own unique properties and may be an active form of the drug. Open label and retrospective studies have investigated the use of lidocaine in many headache disorders, primarily via injection or infusion. Further research into the active metabolite of lidocaine may allow for its use as a novel nonopiate treatment of chronic pain. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  12. Tribenoside and lidocaine in the local treatment of hemorrhoids: an overview of clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z; Gökçe, Ö

    2016-06-01

    The combination of tribenoside+lidocaine (Procto-Glyvenol®) is a medical preparation for the local treatment of hemorrhoids, delivered as a suppository or rectal cream. This product has been used for decades in the therapy of hemorrhoids. This review discusses available evidence on the use of tribenoside/lidocaine in clinical practice. Papers were retrieved by a PubMed search, using different combinations of pertinent keywords (e.g. tribenoside AND hemorrhoids), without any limitations in terms of publication date and language. Documents from Authors' personal collection of literature could also be considered. Papers were selected for inclusion according to their relevance for the topic, as judged by the Authors. The efficacy of the combination of tribenoside+lidocaine in relieving symptoms caused by hemorrhoids and its safety have been assessed in several clinical studies on patients of either gender, either versus its two individual components (tribenoside and lidocaine) or versus steroids in the same setting. Five studies compared the combination treatment with each of its single components, and of these, three studies compared tribenoside+ lidocaine with a tribenoside-free semi-placebo preparation containing only lidocaine, and two studies compared this combination with lidocaine-free preparations containing only tribenoside. Tribenoside+lidocaine was compared with steroid-containing preparations in six studies. Last, two studies evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the tribenoside+lidocaine combination in women with hemorrhoids as a consequence of pregnancy or delivery. All the above-mentioned studies were well-conducted and can provide a comprehensive evaluation of tribenoside+lidocaine in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Enough evidence exists to recommend the use of this combination therapy as a fast, effective and safe option for the local treatment of low-grade hemorrhoids.

  13. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na + -channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  14. Synthesis of 14C labelled lidocaine (α-diethylamino acet-2,6-dimethylanilide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhentang; Qian Guojun; Lin Fenzhi; Zhuang Daoling; Zhang Yulong; He Zhanjun

    2002-01-01

    14 C-lidocaine was composed by 14 C-diethylamine reaction with ω-chloroacetic-2,6-dimethylaniline. 14 C-diethylamine was prepared from Ba 14 CO 3 via K 14 CN and 14 C-acetonitrile which was hydrogenated. Radiochemical purity of 14 C-diethylamine and 14 C-lidocaine is >99% by HPLC and TLC respectively. 14 C-lidocaine is needed for breath assay of mouse for measuring liver function

  15. Antibacterial properties of 2% lidocaine and reduced rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron; Kim, Stephen J; Chomsky, Amy; Hubbard, G Baker; Sheng, Jinsong

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether the application of subconjunctival 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben for anesthesia may reduce rates of endophthalmitis after intravitreal (IVT) injection. We performed in vitro experiments to determine the antibacterial properties of 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben (lidocaine) against causative organisms of endophthalmitis. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus viridans from patients with endophthalmitis were incubated with or without lidocaine. Aliquots (100 µL) were plated on Mueller-Hinton (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) or blood agar plates (S. viridans) at 0, 10, 30, 120, and 240 minutes, and colonies were counted after 24 hours. A retrospective review of 15,042 IVT injections was performed from January 2004 to February 2011 to determine the rate of endophthalmitis with or without application of subconjunctival lidocaine for anesthesia. Lidocaine demonstrated rapid bactericidal effects against all 3 organisms. After 10 minutes of exposure, there was approximately a 90% (P < 0.01), 95% (P < 0.001), and 92% (P < 0.001) reduction in colony forming units when compared with time 0 for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. viridans, respectively. Complete elimination of colony forming units occurred at subsequent time points for each organism in contrast to logarithmic increase for control plates. There were a total of 0 cases of endophthalmitis of 6,853 IVT injections performed with subconjunctival lidocaine and 8 cases of endophthalmitis of 8,189 (0.1%) IVT injections performed with other methods of anesthesia (P = 0.03). Application of subconjunctival 2% lidocaine/0.1% methylparaben for anesthesia may reduce the incidence of endophthalmitis after IVT injection.

  16. Lidocaine lozenges for pharyngeal anesthesia during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Supe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A novel lozenge formulation with advantages of ease of drug administration, palatable taste and improved patient compliance could be the preferred mode of topical pharyngeal anesthesia during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. This randomized, open-label, active-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine lozenges versus lidocaine spray in the diagnostic gastroduodenal endoscopy in Indian patients. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and forty-seven patients of either sex (18-80 years undergoing diagnostic gastroduodenal endoscopy were randomized either to; lidocaine lozenge 200 mg or lidocaine spray 200 mg to be applied as a single dose before gastroduodenal endoscopy. Ease of procedure, level of gag reflex, ease of application of the local anesthetic, and investigators global assessment were the primary efficacy endpoints. Need for rescue medication and patient′s global assessment were secondary efficacy endpoints. The incidence of any adverse event was the safety endpoint. Between groups, comparison was done by using appropriate statistical test. Results: Investigator reported significantly lesser procedural difficulty (P = 0.0007 and suppressed gag reflex (P < 0.0001 during UGE with lidocaine lozenge compared to spray. Ease of application of local anesthetic was reported easy in significantly more patients as compared with lidocaine spray (P = 0.001. Global assessment by patient and physician was favorable toward lozenge. Incidences of adverse events were similar in both the groups. Conclusions: The study suggests that lidocaine lozenges are an easier way of applying local oropharyngeal anesthesia, produces better suppression of gag reflex and makes the procedure easier when compared with lidocaine spray.

  17. Development of lidocaine gels for enhanced local anesthetic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Yang, Kyu-Ho

    2004-12-09

    In relieving local pains, lidocaine, one of ester type local anesthetics, has been used. To develop the lidocaine gels of enhanced local anesthetic effects, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based bioadhesive polymer gel containing an enhancer was formulated. As the drug concentration in the gels increased up to 3%, the permeation rate of drug linearly increased, thereafter reaching a plateau. As the temperature of surrounding solutions increased, the permeation of drug increased. The activation energy of drug permeation was 3.29 kcal/mol for lidocaine. The permeation rate of drug through skin was studied using various enhancers, such as glycols, non-ionic surfactants, and bile salts. Among the enhancers studied, diethylene glycol showed the greatest enhancing effects on drug permeation through skin. The analgesic activity was examined using a tail-flick analgesimeter. In the area under the efficacy curve (AUEC) of the rat-tail flick tests, lidocaine gel containing diethylene glycol showed about 3.89-fold increase in analgesic activity compared with the control. The addition of vasoconstrictor in the gels prolonged the analgesic effects. The result of this study supports that the bioadhesive gel with efficient anesthetic effect could be developed using HPMC with combination of enhancer and vasoconstrictor.

  18. [Effects of granisetron/lidocaine combination on propofol injection-induced pain: a double-blind randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-shan; Lin, Xue-mei; Zhou, Jun

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the alleviation effect of vein pretreatment and granisetron/lidocaine combination on propofol injection-induced pain. Two hundreds patients scheduled for gynaecological laparoscopic operations were randomly divided into four groups: control group (group I), lidocaine group (group II), granisetron group (group III) and granisetron/lidocaine combination group (group IV), with 50 patients in each group. The patients in the above four groups received placebo (saline), lidocaine 20 mg, granisetron 2 mg and granisetron 2 mg plus lidocaine intravenously respectively. The patients were injected with one-forth of scheduled propofol via a dorsal hand vein after one minute of venous occlusion. The pain during the injection of propofol was evaluated. Pain occurred in 84% of patients in the control group, 46% in the lidocaine group, 52% in the granisetron group and 24% in the granisetron/lidocaine combination group. There was a significant reduction in pain incidence in the three experimental groups compared with the control group (Pgranisetron/lidocaine combination group than in the control group (Pgranisetron/lidocaine may be effective not only in attenuating pains during i.v. injection of propofol, but also in preventing postoperative nausea, vomiting and shivering.

  19. Muscle-type nicotinic receptor blockade by diethylamine, the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando eAlberola-Die

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine bears in its structure both an aromatic ring and a terminal amine, which can be protonated at physiological pH, linked by an amide group. Since lidocaine causes multiple inhibitory actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, this work was aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of diethylamine (DEA, a small molecule resembling the hydrophilic moiety of lidocaine, on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Similarly to lidocaine, DEA reversibly blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents (IACh in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 close to 70 μM, but unlike lidocaine, DEA did not affect IACh desensitization. IACh inhibition by DEA was more pronounced at negative potentials, suggesting an open-channel blockade of nAChRs, although roughly 30% inhibition persisted at positive potentials, indicating additional binding sites outside the pore. DEA block of nAChRs in the resting state (closed channel was confirmed by the enhanced IACh inhibition when pre-applying DEA before its co-application with ACh, as compared with solely DEA and ACh co-application. Virtual docking assays provide a plausible explanation to the experimental observations in terms of the involvement of different sets of drug binding sites. So, at the nAChR transmembrane (TM domain, DEA and lidocaine shared binding sites within the channel pore, giving support to their open-channel blockade; besides, lidocaine, but not DEA, interacted with residues at cavities among the M1, M2, M3 and M4 segments of each subunit and also at intersubunit crevices. At the extracellular (EC domain, DEA and lidocaine binding sites were broadly distributed, which aids to explain the closed channel blockade observed. Interestingly, some DEA clusters were located at the α-γ interphase of the EC domain, in a cavity near the orthosteric binding site pocket; by contrast, lidocaine contacted with all α-subunit loops conforming the ACh binding site, both in α-γ and

  20. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  1. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Gèza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  2. Anaesthetic efficacy of lidocaine/clonidine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehr, E; Aminozarbian, M G; Akhavan, A; Mahdavian, P; Davoudi, A

    2017-06-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind study aimed to compare the efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine versus lidocaine with clonidine for inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and hemodynamic stability (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure) in patients with irreversible pulpitis. One hundred patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molar teeth randomly received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with clonidine (15 μg mL -1 ) or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (12.5 μg mL -1 ), using a conventional IANB technique. Endodontic access cavities were prepared 15 min after solution deposition, and all patients were required to have profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recording) upon endodontic access cavity preparation or initial canal instrumentation. The hemodynamic parameters were measured before, during and 5, 10 and 30 min after administration. Finally, the collected data were subjected to independent t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact test using spss software ver.20 at a significant level of 0.05. The success rates for IANB using lidocaine with epinephrine and lidocaine with clonidine solutions were 29% and 59%, respectively. The clonidine group exhibited a significantly higher success rate (P < 0.05). Five minutes after drug administration, systolic blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased in the lidocaine with epinephrine group and insignificantly decreased in lidocaine with clonidine group. For mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis, addition of clonidine to lidocaine improved the success rate of IANB compared to a standard lidocaine/epinephrine solution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topical lidocaine formulation in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolsted, K; Benfeldt, E; Kissmeyer, A-M

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the metabolising capacity of the human skin in relation to topically applied drugs and formulations. We chose lidocaine as a model compound since the metabolic pathways are well known from studies concerning hepatic metabolism following systemic drug administration. However......, the enzymes involved are also expressed in the skin. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the extent of the cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topically applied lidocaine in human volunteers. A dose of 5 mg/cm(2) of Xylocaine(R) (5% lidocaine) ointment was applied onto the buttock skin...... of the volunteers. After 2 h, residual formulation was removed, and two 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from each volunteer. The quantity of lidocaine extracted from the skin samples (epidermis + dermis) was 109 +/- 43 ng/mm(2) skin. One metabolite (monoethylglycine xylidide, MEGX) was detected in skin from 7...

  4. ROPIVACAINE VERSUS LIDOCAINE FOR EPISIOTOMY-A RANDOMISED DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Nagaraj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Episiotomy is a most common surgical procedure for parturients during vaginal delivery. The problem encountered with episiotomy is pain, which is maximum during first 24 hours and may be severe enough to disturb the puerperium. This study aims to compare analgesic efficacy of analgesics, ropivacaine and lidocaine for perineal infiltration during episiotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a randomised double blind study for a period one year from August 2013 in a tertiary hospital. 100 parturients were included. RESULTS Ropivacaine 0.75% compared to lidocaine 2% did not show any statistical significant changes at suturing and after 4 hours; however, there were great statistically significant changes in VAS scores after 8 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours of episiotomy suturing. Ropivacaine group did not require systemic analgesics for 24 hours, but lidocaine group required systemic analgesics after 4 hours of suturing. Both groups (Ropivacaine and Lidocaine did not have any adverse effects. CONCLUSION Ropivacaine can be used safely for episiotomy wound infiltration thereby reducing the need for systemic analgesia.

  5. Comparison of the effects of continuous intrapleural vs epidural administration of 0.5% bupivacaine on pain, metabolic response and pulmonary function following cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Mogensen, T; Bigler, D

    1989-01-01

    Twenty patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy were prospectively randomised to receive either intrapleural (bolus 20 ml followed by 10 ml/h) or thoracic epidural (bolus 9 ml followed by 5 ml/h) bupivacaine 0.5% for 8 h postoperatively to assess the effect of these two techniques on pain...

  6. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutay Goktug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Injection pain after propofol administration is common and maydisturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous(iv nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand orantecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain.METHOD: There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic adminis-tered. Metoprolol (n = 31, Group M, lidocaine (n = 32, Group L and nitroglycerin (n = 29, GroupN were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evalu-ated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 --- light pain, 2 --- mild pain, 3 --- severe pain in 5, 10, 15and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathwaysfor injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score.RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p = 0.981.There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level,location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol(p = 0.015 and nitroglycerin (p = 0.001 among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metopro-lol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein(p > 0.05, nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lowerpain scores (p = 0.001.CONCLUSION: We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofolrelated pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations.

  7. Comparison of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream for local anaesthesia during laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae and tattoo removal: Results of two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Greveling (Karin); E.P. Prens (Errol); ten Bosch, N.; M.B.A. van Doorn (Martijn)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pain is a common adverse effect of dermatological laser procedures. Currently, no standard topical anaesthetic cream exists for deeper dermal laser procedures. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream in reducing

  8. Efficacy and safety of bupivacaine versus lidocaine in local anesthesia of the nasopharynx: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jiyun; Huang, Lizhen; Yu, Xiao; He, Zheyun

    2016-09-30

    To assess the efficacy and safety of bupivacaine compared with lidocaine in local anesthesia of nasopharynx through meta-analysis. A number of medical literature data bases were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of included studies were manually searched. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Four studies were included. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, acceptable discomfort, and bleeding scores were analyzed for bupivacaine versus lidocaine. When considering the VAS scores, bupivacaine as a local anesthetic agent was better than lidocaine in controlling the pain of postoperative patients (p bupivacaine group demonstrated a higher acceptable discomfort than the patients in the lidocaine group (p = 0.008). With regard to the bleeding scores of the patients with nasal surgery, lidocaine was better at bleeding in postoperative patients compared with bupivacaine (p = 0.0007). These results indicated that bupivacaine showed better pain control of postoperative patients and acceptable discomfort in patients with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Lidocaine had a significantly increased ability the pain of patients with transnasal fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopic examination and bleeding in postoperative patients. No systemic adverse events were reported. Bupivacaine was found to have better promotion to pain control than did lidocaine for the patients after nasal surgery. Lidocaine had a significantly increased inhibition of bleeding in these postoperative patients; however, the efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine was unclear for the patients who had transnasal endoscopic examinations.

  9. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-05-01

    Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. SAMPLES WERE DIVIDED INTO EIGHT EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound.

  10. Localization of 14C-labeled 2% lidocaine hydrochloride after intraosseous anesthesia in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takashi; Mamiya, Hideki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of lidocaine hydrochloride in mandibular bone marrow after intraosseous anesthesia (IOA) in rabbits. We used macroautoradiography to examine the tissue distribution of a (14)C-labeled 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 1:80,000 epinephrine ((14)C-lidocaine). Under general anesthesia, (14)C-lidocaine was injected intraosseously or paraperiosteally. After IOA, animals were divided into three groups and observed at 1 (IOA-1), 5 (IOA-5), and 10 minutes (IOA-10) after injection. After infiltration anesthesia (IA), animals were observed at 1 minute after injection. The accumulation of (14)C-lidocaine was observed around the injection site in both the IA and the IOA groups. Paraperiosteally injected (14)C-lidocaine diffused to the surrounding tissues such as the lip, whereas IOA showed concentrated accumulation around the root apex throughout the experiment. The distribution area was significantly smaller in the IOA-1 group than in the IA group. The distribution area in the IOA-5 group was larger than those in the IOA-1 and IOA-10 groups. The accumulation of (14)C-lidocaine injected by IOA in rabbits was concentrated around the root apex. These results may explain the rapid onset time of IOA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of temperature on antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Y; Seki, K; Ikigai, H; Nishihara, S; Ueno, H; Murota, K; Masuda, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. At 10 C at which S. aureus organisms do not grow and might be metabolically inactive, the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to S. aureus was not observed in a concentration of 1%, which was quite antibacterial to S. aureus at 37 C. On the other hand, at 40 C a conspicuously increased antibacterial activity to S. aureus of lidocaine was observed in a concentration of 0.25% which was not antibacterial to S. aureus organisms at 37 C. Similar results were obtained when P. aeruginosa organisms were examined in place of S. aureus, although P. aeruginosa was found to be less susceptible to lidocaine than S. aureus. The clinical significance of the thermal effect on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine was discussed in brief.

  12. Research on lidocaine in the application of induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Tong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of lidocaine in the application of induced abortion.Methods:A total of 120 pregnant women with 6-10 week gestational age and ASA I-II level who were volunteered to receive induced abortions from January, 2010 to January, 2013 were included in the study, among which 60 cases were given lidocaine during the operation and served as the observation group, while 60 cases were not given lidocaine during the operation and served as the control group. The heart rate, blood pressure, the change of oxygen saturation, pain, and the occurrence of abortion syndrome before and after operation between the two groups were compared.Results:The fineness rates of analgesia and anesthesia evaluation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05). The postoperative heart rate and blood pressure in the control group were significantly lower than those before operation and in the observation group with a slow recovery (P0.05). The occurrence rate of abortion syndrome in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Application of lidocaine in the induced abortion can relieve the pain and reduce the occurrence rate of abortion syndrome with a simple and safe operation; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  13. Synthesis of novel lidocaine-releasing poly(diol-co-citrate) elastomers by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferrer, M Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-01-14

    Poly(octanediol-co-citrate) elastomers containing high loading of lidocaine were synthesized at temperatures below 100 °C by means of using deep eutectic mixtures of 1,8-octanediol and lidocaine. The preservation of lidocaine integrity resulted in high-capacity drug-eluting elastomers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Muscle injections with lidocaine improve resting fatigue and pain in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staud R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Roland Staud,1 Taylor Kizer,1 Michael E Robinson2 1Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Objective: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS complain of long-lasting fatigue and pain which are not relieved by rest and worsened by physical exertion. Previous research has implicated metaboreceptors of muscles to play an important role for chronic fatigue and pain. Therefore, we hypothesized that blocking impulse input from deep tissues with intramuscular lidocaine injections would improve not only the pain but also fatigue of CFS patients. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 58 CFS patients received 20 mL of 1% lidocaine (200 mg or normal saline once into both trapezius and gluteal muscles. Study outcomes included clinical fatigue and pain, depression, and anxiety. In addition, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia were assessed and serum levels of lidocaine were obtained after the injections. Results: Fatigue ratings of CFS patients decreased significantly more after lidocaine compared to saline injections (p = 0.03. In contrast, muscle injections reduced pain, depression, and anxiety (p < 0.001, but these changes were not statistically different between lidocaine and saline (p > 0.05. Lidocaine injections increased mechanical pain thresholds of CFS patients (p = 0.04 but did not affect their heat hyperalgesia. Importantly, mood changes or lidocaine serum levels did not significantly predict fatigue reductions. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that lidocaine injections reduce clinical fatigue of CFS patients significantly more than placebo, suggesting an important role of peripheral tissues for chronic fatigue. Future investigations will be necessary to evaluate the clinical benefits of such interventions. Keywords: muscle injections, lidocaine, metaboreceptor, chronic fatigue 

  15. Does gestational age affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lidocaine in mother and fetus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H; Santos, A C; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Plosker, H; Arthur, G R; Covino, B G

    1988-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lidocaine were studied in nine chronically prepared pregnant ewes and their fetuses at a mean ( +/- SE) gestation of 119 +/- 1.0 days, and the results were compared to the data previously published for ten animals at 138 +/- 1.2 days of gestation (term 148 days). Lidocaine was infused intravenously to the mother at a constant rate of 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1 over a period of 180 min, in order to reach a steady-state maternal plasma lidocaine concentration of approximately 2 micrograms/ml. Maternal and fetal blood samples and maternal urine were collected at intervals throughout the infusion for determination of pH, blood gases, and lidocaine concentrations. Maternal and fetal heart rate, blood pressure, and intraamniotic pressure were continuously recorded. Fetal cardiac output and organ blood flow were determined before and at the end of lidocaine infusion using radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Lidocaine tissue concentrations were determined in several maternal and fetal organs excised at the end of infusion. In both groups, the steady-state plasma concentrations of lidocaine were similar; namely, 2.3 +/- 0.17 and 2.1 +/- 0.21 micrograms/ml in preterm and term ewes, respectively. There were also no significant differences in steady-state plasma drug concentrations in preterm and term fetuses (1.3 +/- 0.11 and 1.2 +/- 0.15 micrograms/ml). The mean fetal maternal concentration ratios (F/M) were the same; namely, 0.6. Maternal urinary excretion of lidocaine correlated with urine pH, being greater in the more acid urine. Tissue uptake of drug tended to be higher in the preterm than term mothers, but only significantly so in the brain and adrenals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Transarterial lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration for relief of pain during transarterial chemoembolization of malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Anle; Yan Zhiping; Zhou Kangrong; Wang Jianhua; Cheng Jiemin; Qian Sheng; Luo Jianjun; Chen Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration for controlling abdominal pain and preventing the arterial spasm resulting from TACE, and to evaluate the optimal amount of lidocaine administration. Methods: In a prospective trial of 120 consecutive patients with malignant tumor who underwent TACE were divided into three groups, those who received lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration (group A, n=40), those who received lidocaine bolus intraarterial infusion immediately before TACE (group B, n=40) and those who received no lidocaine injection before TACE, (group C, n=40). The degree of post-procedure pain was evaluated by a subjective method (using visual analogue scales from 0 to 10), and an objective method (amount of post-procedure analgesics). Incidence and degree of arterial spasm were assessed by DSA. Results: The correlative pain incidences between the three groups showed significant difference (P 0.05). Mean dose of intramuscular analgesics for controlling intolerable pain in group A and B was significantly lower than that of group C (P<0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of arterial spasm between group A and B but it was much lower in group C. Lipiodol deposit in malignant mass was densest in group A, especially in the metastatic nodules of the liver. Conclusions: Transarterial administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion can not only reduce the incidence of pain during TACE, but also prevent the arterial spasm. It is much more effective than pre-TACE administration of pethidine and intraarterial infusion of lidocaine. The authors recommond routinely for the administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion. (authors)

  17. Effects of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced synovitis in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Campebell,R.C.; Peiró,J.R.; Valadão,C.A.A.; Santana,A.E.; Cunha,F.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Lidocaine (100mg 2%) injected into the carpal joint was used to evaluate the inflammatory response induced by injection (1.5ng) of intra-articular E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Seventeen male Mangalarga horses aged two to three years were divided into three groups and in all animals was injected 0.9% saline (SAL) in the left carpus (LC), and in the right carpus (RC) one of the following combinations were injected: group A (n=6) LPS plus SAL; group B (n=6) LPS plus lidocaine; gro...

  18. Clinical observation of pingyangmycin, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules embolization treatment for hysteromyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Cun; Zhou Guangde; Teng Jun; Zhang Kuiyang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility and availability of uterine arterial embolization for hysteromyoma with pingyangmycin, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine. Methods: The observation of pain sensation change of clinical symptoms, size of hysteromyoma, change of uterus volume together with the specimens and pathological features of 68 cases of hysteromyoma during and after the embolization by using pingyangmyein, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine were carried out and compared. Results: Intramuscular analgesic injection couldn't control the pain in 13 cases, covering 19.1%, symptom remission rate was 92.3%, including 89.2% menstruation recovery, 90.8% disappearance of pelvic pain, abdominal distension and compression symptoms, 78.8% average shrinkage of tumor size and 47.5% reduction of uterus volumes. Conclusion: Pingyangmyein, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine are the ideal embolization material for treating hysteromyoma. (authors)

  19. Comparative Study of Intrathecal Dexamethasone with Epinephrine as Adjuvants to Lidocaine in Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Naziri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used with local anesthetics to provide prolonged duration of sensory block in spinal anesthesia. The aim of present study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory block of intrathecal dexamethasone and epinephrine as adjuvants to lidocaine in patients who were candidate for cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial research was conducted on 90 pregnant women candidate for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive intrathecally either 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine plus 100 μg epinephrine or 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine plus 4 mg dexamethasone or 75 mg hyperbaric lidocaine. The onset and duration of sensory block as well as postoperative analgesia were assessed. Results: The time to reach the peak sensory block in lidocaine group was shorter than that of other two groups (p<0.001. Duration of sensory block in the control group, dexamethasone group, and epinephrine group were 64.16±7.99 min, 74.79±12.78 min, and 99.30±10.93 min, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: The present research shows that intrathecal dexamethasone and intrathecal epinephrine as adjuvant to lidocaine increases sensory block duration in the women candidate for cesarean section.

  20. Time Course of the Soleus M Response and H Reflex after Lidocaine Tibial Nerve Block in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Buffenoir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. In spastic subjects, lidocaine is often used to induce a block predictive of the result provided by subsequent surgery. Lidocaine has been demonstrated to inhibit the Hoffmann (H reflex to a greater extent than the direct motor (M response induced by electrical stimulation, but the timecourse of these responses has not been investigated. Methods. An animal (rat model of the effects of lidocaine on M and H responses was therefore developed to assess this time course. M and H responses were recorded in 18 adult rats before and after application of lidocaine to the sciatic nerve. Results. Two to five minutes after lidocaine injection, M responses were markedly reduced (mean reduction of 44% and H reflexes were completely abolished. Changes were observed more rapidly for the H reflex. The effects of lidocaine then persisted for 100 minutes. The effect of lidocaine was therefore more prolonged on the H reflex than on the M response. Conclusion. This study confirms that lidocaine blocks not only alpha motoneurons but also Ia afferent fibres responsible for the H reflex. The authors describe, for the first time, the detailed time course of the effect of lidocaine on direct or reflex activation of motoneurons in the rat.

  1. The experimental study of the effect of dexamethasone, lidocaine and contrast medium on the activity of collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhiqun; Liu Weimin; Li Zhonghua; Yang Peng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of hormone, anesthetic and contrast medium on the activities of collagenase lysis. Methods: Nuclear tissues were divided into equal amount for different groups and same units of collagenase were used for the lysis. The only difference in the control group from experimental groups was that there were no dexamethasone, lidocaine or omnipaque but existing in experimental groups. Twenty four hours later, the concentrations of the hydroxyproline were determined in different groups and the data were analyzed by statistical software with computer. Results: 1. The concentrations of hydroxyproline in the dexamethasone group, lidocaine group and omnipaque group were significantly lower than that of control group, especially that of lidocaine group, P value was <0.05 or 0.01. 2. The concentrations of hydroxyproline in the dexamethasone + lidocaine group, dexamethasone + omnipaque group, lidocaine+omnipaque group and dexamethasone + lidocaine + omnipaque group were significantly lower than that of control group; and simultaneously lower in dexamethasone group, lidocaine group, omnipaque group respectively; P value was also <0.05 or 0.01. Conclusion: Dexamethasone, lidocaine and omnipaque can individually inhibit the activity of collagenase at different degrees, so they shouldn't be used together with collagenase in treating the lumber disc herniation. (authors)

  2. Pupil dilation with intracameral lidocaine during phacoemulsification: Benefits for the patient and surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeghbali Aminollah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical and/or intracameral administration of anticholinergic and/or sympathomimetic mydriatic agents which are usually used for pupillary dilation during cataract surgery, have some disadvantages such as slow onset of dilation and adverse ocular and systemic effects. We evaluated intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% lidocaine without using any preoperative or intraoperative mydriatics to induce pupil dilation in 31 consecutive eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Pupil diameter was measured before and 90 sec after intracameral lidocaine injection. After intracameral lidocaine injection, the mean pupil diameter was significantly greater than the baseline measurement (P< 0.001. No additional mydriatics were needed up to the end of the operations. Intracameral preservative-free lidocaine 1% has a rapid and effective mydriasis that could be a safe alternative to topical and intracameral mydriatics in phacoemulsification.

  3. Remifentanil vs. Lidocaine on Response to Tracheal Tube during Emergence of General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Sadegi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: we specified Remifentanil reduces cough during the emergence from general anesthesia more effective than Lidocaine in patients undergoing general surgery. In addition, Remifentanil and i.v. lidocaine revealed comparable impact regarding VAS scoring, sedation level and pethidine consumption.

  4. Thermodynamic studies of mixtures for topical anesthesia: Lidocaine-salol binary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerges, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (EA 4066), Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Rietveld, Ivo B., E-mail: ivo.rietveld@parisdescartes.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (EA 4066), Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Corvis, Yohann; Ceolin, Rene; Espeau, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (EA 4066), Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2010-01-10

    The lidocaine-salol binary system has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, direct visual observations, and X-ray powder diffraction, resulting in a temperature-composition phase diagram with a eutectic equilibrium. The eutectic mixture, found at 0.423 {+-} 0.007 lidocaine mole-fraction, melts at 18.2 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C with an enthalpy of 17.3 {+-} 0.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. This indicates that the liquid phase around the eutectic composition is stable at room temperature. Moreover, the undercooled liquid mixture does not easily crystallize. The present binary mixture exhibits eutectic behavior similar to the prilocaine-lidocaine mixture in the widely used EMLA topical anesthetic preparation.

  5. Thermodynamic studies of mixtures for topical anesthesia: Lidocaine-salol binary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazerges, Mathieu; Rietveld, Ivo B.; Corvis, Yohann; Ceolin, Rene; Espeau, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The lidocaine-salol binary system has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, direct visual observations, and X-ray powder diffraction, resulting in a temperature-composition phase diagram with a eutectic equilibrium. The eutectic mixture, found at 0.423 ± 0.007 lidocaine mole-fraction, melts at 18.2 ± 0.5 o C with an enthalpy of 17.3 ± 0.5 kJ mol -1 . This indicates that the liquid phase around the eutectic composition is stable at room temperature. Moreover, the undercooled liquid mixture does not easily crystallize. The present binary mixture exhibits eutectic behavior similar to the prilocaine-lidocaine mixture in the widely used EMLA topical anesthetic preparation.

  6. Anticonvulsant treatment of asphyxiated newborns under hypothermia with lidocaine : efficacy, safety and dosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Marcel P. H.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; van Straaten, Henrica L. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Toet, Mona C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Groenendaal, Floris

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an antiarrythmicum used as an anticonvulsant for neonatal seizures, also during therapeutic hypothermia following (perinatal) asphyxia. Hypothermia may affect the efficacy, safety and dosing of lidocaine in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of

  7. HUMAN LIVER SLICES EXPRESS THE SAME LIDOCAINE BIOTRANSFORMATION RATE AS ISOLATED HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLINGA, P; MEIJER, DKF; SLOOFF, MJH; GROOTHUIS, GMM; Merema, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate whether liver slices are a valuable tool for the assessment of drug metabolism in human liver, we compared the phase I metabolism of lidocaine in human liver slices and hepatocytes prepared from three human livers. Lidocaine is mainly metabolised to monoethylglycinexylidide

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered with or without Adrenaline for the Paravertebral Brachial Plexus Block in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Amélie; Troncy, Eric; Guillot, Martin; Varin, France; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2017-01-01

    Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline's impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods. Blood samples were collected during 180 minutes following block execution. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed and their goodness-of-fit were compared. The lowering effects of adrenaline on the absorption of lidocaine were statistically determined with one-sided tests. A one-compartment disposition model with two successive zero-order absorption processes best fitted our experimental data. Adrenaline decreased the peak plasma lidocaine concentration by approximately 60% (P Adrenaline decreased the absorption rate of lidocaine and prolonged the duration of its absorption.

  9. Anesthetic effects of different volumes of lidocaine for spermatic cord block in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Santos Júnior, Juracy Cb; Marucio, Rodrigo L; Midon, Monica; Luna, Stelio Pl

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate three volumes of lidocaine for spermatic cord block to perform castration in cattle. Randomized blinded clinical study. Thirty mixed-breed Nellore cattle, aged 28-40 months and weighing 395±21 (352-452) kg [mean±standard deviation (range)]. Cattle were restrained in a chute and allowed to stand without sedation. Three milliliters of 2% lidocaine without epinephrine were infiltrated subcutaneously at each site of scrotal incision in all animals. The animals were allocated to three groups of 10 animals each. Lidocaine 2% was injected into each spermatic cord using a volume of 2, 3 or 4 mL in groups A, B, or C, respectively. The total volumes of lidocaine used were 10, 12, and 14 mL in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The duration of surgery and the retraction of the testicle (scored as positive or negative according to retraction of the testicle) during the procedure were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way anova followed by Tukey's and chi-square tests. Differences were considered significant when pcastration and following incisional infiltration of lidocaine, in adult cattle weighing about 400 kg. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Anaesthetic Protocol for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio: Propofol Combined with Lidocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valentim

    Full Text Available The increasing use of zebrafish model has not been accompanied by the evolution of proper anaesthesia for this species in research. The most used anaesthetic in fishes, MS222, may induce aversion, reduction of heart rate, and consequently high mortality, especially during long exposures. Therefore, we aim to explore new anaesthetic protocols to be used in zebrafish by studying the quality of anaesthesia and recovery induced by different concentrations of propofol alone and in combination with different concentrations of lidocaine.In experiment A, eighty-three AB zebrafish were randomly assigned to 7 different groups: control, 2.5 (2.5P, 5 (5P or 7.5 μg/ml (7.5P of propofol; and 2.5 μg/ml of propofol combined with 50, (P/50L, 100 (P/100L or 150 μg/ml (P/150L of lidocaine. Zebrafish were placed in an anaesthetic water bath and time to lose the equilibrium, reflex to touch, reflex to a tail pinch, and respiratory rate were measured. Time to gain equilibrium was also assessed in a clean tank. Five and 24 hours after anaesthesia recovery, zebrafish were evaluated concerning activity and reactivity. Afterwards, in a second phase of experiments (experiment B, the best protocol of the experiment A was compared with a new group of 8 fishes treated with 100 mg/L of MS222 (100M.In experiment A, only different concentrations of propofol/lidocaine combination induced full anaesthesia in all animals. Thus only these groups were compared with a standard dose of MS222 in experiment B. Propofol/lidocaine induced a quicker loss of equilibrium, and loss of response to light and painful stimuli compared with MS222. However zebrafish treated with MS222 recovered quickly than the ones treated with propofol/lidocaine.In conclusion, propofol/lidocaine combination and MS222 have advantages in different situations. MS222 is ideal for minor procedures when a quick recovery is important, while propofol/lidocaine is best to induce a quick and complete anaesthesia.

  11. Effects of lidocaine and droxicainide on myocardial necrosis: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, D.B.; Cheung, W.M.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Maroko, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine has been shown to protect ischemic myocardium, but the degree of its effectiveness is not yet well established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined quantitatively. Another member of the same class of drugs, droxicainide (ALS1249), DL-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-pipecolinyl-2,6-dimethylanilide hydrochloride, is a new antiarrhythmic agent that has shown a good therapeutic index in the initial experimental studies. Accordingly, the effects of this drug on ultimate infarct size were examined and compared with those of lidocaine. Coronary artery occlusion was performed on 29 dogs. One minute later, technetium-99m labeled microspheres were injected into the left atrium for assessment of the hypoperfused zone (the zone at risk of infarction). Fifteen minutes after occlusion, the dogs were randomized into three groups: 9 dogs served as a control group, 10 were given lidocaine and 10 were given the same dosage of droxicainide. Six hours after occlusion, the dogs were sacrificed and the hearts cut into 3 mm thick slices and incubated in triphenyltetrazolium chloride to delineate the area of myocardial damage. Autoradiography of the same slices provided images of the areas of myocardial hypoperfusion. Thereafter, in each dog, the percent of hypoperfused area that evolved to necrosis was calculated. In control dogs, it was 85.6 +/- 2.0%; in lidocaine-treated dogs, 68.1 +/- 4.1% (p less than 0.01), a reduction of 20%; and in droxicainide-treated dogs, 50.1 +/- 5.3%, a reduction of 41% (p less than 0.001 versus control and p less than 0.005 versus lidocaine)

  12. Peripheral lidocaine, but not ketamine inhibit capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Bach, Flemming Winther; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of the subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine, lidocaine and saline before injury on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in two separate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover experiments. In experiment 1, 100...... micrograms capsaicin was injected intradermally in one volar forearm 10 min after the skin had been pretreated with lidocaine 20.0 mg in 2.0 ml or 0.9% saline 2.0 ml at the capsaicin injection site. In experiment 2, a similar capsaicin test was given 10 min after the skin had been pretreated with ketamine 5...... and brush stimuli, and areas of brush-evoked and punctate-evoked hyperalgesia. Lidocaine reduced all measures compared with placebo (P ketamine failed to change any measures. Pain scores and areas of hyperalgesia were not affected when the contralateral site was infiltrated with ketamine...

  13. Toxicity of topical lidocaine applied to the breasts to reduce discomfort during screening mammography

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    Colleen K Lambertz

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Thirty mL of 4% lidocaine gel on the breasts and chest wall covered for 1 h in healthy women resulted in plasma concentrations of lidocaine and MEGX well below therapeutic or toxic levels and no clinically significant adverse events.

  14. The miracle of Lidocaine: Second Look with Cellular and Molecular Perspectives

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    Mahnoosh Foroughi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pain phenomena as a disabling state but normal fact in human have been noticed to alarm and concern to the tissue injury and damage. Pain management is one the most worldwide clinical challenges in general population that is associated with considerable health care expenses, decreased productive time and impression on the quality of life. Numerous studies have been done to identify its pathophysiology and effective therapeutic agents. Attention to pain etiology, the relationship of inflammatory pathways, the molecular mechanisms and involved transmitters have given insights to novel approaches with more effective pain relief agents. In addition to over the counter analgesic and prescription medicine (NSAIDs, opioids, COX-2 inhibitors, there is no consensus about the analgesic role of herbal medicines. Cochrane library reviewed the place of herbal medicine in low back pain. They showed although the RCTs were not large trials and well-designed but herbal medicine could reduce pain more than placebo in short term without significant side effects (1.Lidocaine as local/regional anesthetic agent has been introduced to reduce acute postoperative pain, the chronic pain conditions, myofascial pain, refractory neuropathic pain and neuralgia. In cancer pain patients with refractory to opioid agents, lidocaine infusion could achieve adequate analgesic state (2. Review of literature shows the recovery improvement by lidocaine infusion depends to the type of surgery. There is strong evidence to decrease pain scores in abdominal surgeries (both open and laparoscopy. In prostate, breast, thoracic and spine operations, the evidence is moderate with small benefit. In cardiac surgery, lidocaine infusion would decrease postoperative cognitive disorder with no analgesic effect (3. Lidocaine acts predominantly through blocking sodium channels. These channels in cell membrane would be upregulated and more excitable in neuropathic pain. Moreover lidocaine

  15. Effect of high-dose lidocaine treatment on superoxide dismutase and malon dialdehyde levels in seven diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, H; Bozkirli, F; Günaydin, B; Bilgihan, A

    2000-01-01

    We report on the use of intravenous (IV) high-dose lidocaine to relieve diabetic neuropathic pain, and the technique's effects on clinical measures of lipid peroxidation. Under continuous electrocardiogram monitoring, IV lidocaine (5 mg kg(-1) in 100 mL saline) was administered over 30 minutes to 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain who reported increased pain within the preceding 6 months. This treatment was performed once a week for 1 month. Blood samples were collected from the contralateral limb to determine plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on admission and following the final lidocaine administration. Plasma MDA concentrations significantly decreased after the final IV lidocaine treatment (P < .05, paired t-test), whereas SOD levels did not show a statistically significant difference compared with baseline levels. High-dose lidocaine treatment lessens MDA levels, a marker of free-radical-mediated cell damage. This suggests that one of lidocaine's mechanism of action may be its effect on oxygen free radicals, which in turn impacts lipid peroxidation.

  16. The topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in localized neuropathic pain: a reappraisal of the clinical evidence

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    de León-Casasola OA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oscar A de León-Casasola,1,2 Victor Mayoral3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2University at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. NY, USA; 3Anesthesiology Department, Pain Management Unit, University Hospital of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Abstract: Topical 5% lidocaine medicated plasters represent a well-established first-line option for the treatment of peripheral localized neuropathic pain (LNP. This review provides an updated overview of the clinical evidence (randomized, controlled, and open-label clinical studies, real-life daily clinical practice, and case series. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster effectively provides pain relief in postherpetic neuralgia, and data from a large open-label controlled study indicate that the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is as effective as systemic pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic polyneuropathy but with an improved tolerability profile. Additionally, improved analgesia and fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated synchronously with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, further demonstrating the value of multimodal analgesia in LNP. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides continued benefit after long-term (≤7 years use and is also effective in various other LNP conditions. Minor application-site reactions are the most common adverse events associated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster; there is minimal risk of systemic adverse events and drug–drug interactions. Although further well-controlled studies are warranted, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster is efficacious and safe in LNP and may have particular clinical benefit in elderly and/or medically compromised patients because of the low incidence of adverse events. Keywords: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, clinical evidence, localized neuropathic pain, postherpetic neuralgia, review

  17. The pharmacokinetics of morphine and lidocaine in nine severe trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenstadt, H; Mayan, H; Segal, E; Rotenberg, M; Almog, S; Perel, A; Ezra, D

    1999-12-01

    To study the pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine and lidocaine after a single intravenous (i.v.) bolus in severe trauma patients. Clinical case study. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care of a university hospital. Nine patients, ages 24 to 91 years (mean 54.4 yrs), admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score > 20) were included in the study. After initial evaluation and stabilization, a single i.v. dose of morphine 0.025 mg/kg and lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg was given separately, and blood samples were drawn for each drug serum concentration. Morphine pharmacokinetics was studied in eight patients, lidocaine pharmacokinetics in seven patients, and both drugs were studied in six patients. Morphine clearance 2.5 to 10 ml/kg/min (6 +/- 2.6, mean +/- SD) and volume of distribution 0.28 to 3.30 L/kg (1.4 +/- 1.0) were found to be lower than values described previously for healthy volunteers (33.5 +/- 9 ml/kg/min and 5.16 +/- 1.40 L/kg, respectively), and are similar to those described in trauma patients (5 +/- 2.9 ml/kg/min and 0.9 +/- 0.2 L/kg, respectively). In contrast, lidocaine clearance 4.5 to 9.4 ml/kg/min (6.7 +/- 1.7) and volume of distribution 0.39 to 1.20 L/kg (0.72 +/- 0.28) were similar to the value described in healthy volunteers (10 ml/kg/min and 1.32 L/kg, respectively). Changes in pharmacokinetics of drugs eliminated by the liver may occur in patients with severe trauma. The preserved lidocaine clearance indicates an almost normal hepatic blood flow and suggests that other mechanisms may be involved in the lower morphine clearance. The findings may have applications for the treatment of severe trauma patients and suggest that drug monitoring might be needed in some instances so as to avoid toxicity.

  18. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Dale GJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Dale,1 Stephanie Phillips,2 Gregory L Falk3 1Westmead Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 3Concord Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286 or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487. Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients. Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. Keywords: analgesia, local anesthetics, intravenous infusions, pharmacokinetics

  19. A comparison of buffered lidocaine versus ELA-Max before peripheral intravenous catheter insertions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet; Hurt, Sarah; Shootman, Mario; Kennedy, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is a common, painful experience for many children in the pediatric emergency department. Although local anesthetics such as injected buffered lidocaine have been shown to be effective at reducing pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion, they are not routinely used. ELA-Max, a topical local anesthetic, has the advantage of needle-free administration but has not been compared with buffered lidocaine for PIV insertion. To compare the reduction of pain and anxiety during PIV insertion provided by subcutaneous buffered 1% lidocaine or topical ELA-Max in children. A randomized trial in children 4 to 17 years old undergoing PIV insertion with 22-gauge catheters was conducted. Children received either buffered lidocaine or ELA-Max. Buffered lidocaine was administered by using 30-gauge needles to inject 0.1 to 0.2 mL subcutaneously just before PIV insertion. ELA-Max was applied to the skin and occluded with Tegaderm 30 minutes before PIV insertion. Self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaires (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 = no pain, anxiety) were completed by patients and their parents before PIV insertion to assess baseline perceptions about pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion and immediately after PIV insertion to assess pain and anxiety associated with the experience. After PIV insertion, the nurse who inserted the PIV also completed a VAS questionnaire assessing technical difficulty and satisfaction with the local anesthesia. A blinded observer also completed a VAS questionnaire to assess pain and anxiety associated with the PIV insertion. Data were analyzed by using chi2 and t tests. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled, and questionnaires were competed by all (mean age: 12.1 +/- 4.5 years; 61% female). There were no differences for buffered lidocaine and ELA-Max groups in age, gender, race, prior IV experience, or baseline pain and anxiety. There were no significant differences between buffered

  20. Adding magnesium to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia

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    Parviz Kashefi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg has been used as an adjuvant medication in postoperative analgesia. We planed this study to assess the effects of Mg, when added to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA on the tourniquet pain.
    • METHODS: Forty patients undertaking hand surgery were randomly allocated into 2 groups to be given IVRA. They received 20 ml lidocaine 1% diluted with 20 ml saline to a total of 40 ml in the group L (n = 20 or 7.5 ml magnesium sulfate 20% plus 20 ml lidocaine 1% diluted with 12.5 ml saline to a total of 40 ml in the group M (n = 20. Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times, anesthesia and operation qualities were recorded. Before and after the tourniquet use at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes, hemodynamic variables, tourniquet pain, and analgesic use were noted. Subsequent to the tourniquet deflation, at 6, 12, and 24 hours, hemodynamic variables, pain, time to first analgesic requirement, analgesic use and side effects were recorded.
    • RESULTS: Shortened sensory and motor block onset times were established in group M (P < 0.05. Visual analog scale (VAS scores were less in group M at 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes after tourniquet inflation (P < 0.05. Intraoperative, analgesic requirement was less in group M (P < 0.05. Anesthesia excellence, as determined by the anesthesiologist and surgeon, was significantly better in group M (P < 0.05. Time to the first analgesic requirement in group M was 53.75 ± 6.94 minutes and in group L was 40.76 ± 14.55 minutes (P < 0.05. Postoperative VAS scores were higher at 6, 12, and 24 hours in group L (P < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Adding Mg to lidocaine for IVRA enhanced the quality of anesthesia and analgesia without causing side effects.
    • KEYWORDS: Magnesium sulfate, intravenous regional anesthesia, postoperative pain.

  1. The effect of methyl-lidocaine on the biosynthesis of phospholipids de novo in the isolated hamster heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Tardi, P G; Man, R Y; Choy, P C

    1992-01-01

    Methyl-lidocaine is an amphiphilic agent which has been used as an experimental anti-arrhythmic drug. When hamster hearts were perfused with labelled glycerol, the presence of methyl-lidocaine in the perfusate was found to enhance the labelling in phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol. However, the labelling of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine was not significantly changed by methyl-lidocaine treatment. Assays in vitro for the enzymes inv...

  2. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  3. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...... all rats received a lidocaine challenge (LC) in the form of an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lidocaine (65 mg/kg). After the injection the animals were observed for occurrence of motor seizures. A total of 67% (10/15), 47% (7/15), and 0% (0/18) of the daily, weekly, and sham groups, respectively......, had motor seizures in response to the LC. In the second experiment five groups of rats received an ECS daily for 0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 days, respectively. Eighteen weeks after the last ECS all rats received an LC and 0% (0/15), 13% (2/15), 20% (3/15), 53% (8/15), and 58% (7/12), respectively, developed...

  4. Intra-operative lidocaine in the prevention of vomiting after elective tonsillectomy in children: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Ghislaine C; Altermatt, Fernando R; Paredes, Sebastian; Puga, Valentina; Auad, Hernán; Veloso, Ana M; Elgueta, María F

    2018-05-01

    Postoperative vomiting (POV) is a frequent complication of tonsillectomy in children. In adult patients undergoing abdominal surgeries, the use of intravenous lidocaine infusion can prevent POV. To evaluate the anti-emetic effect of an intravenous lidocaine infusion used as an adjuvant to general anaesthesia, in children undergoing elective ear, nose and throat surgery. Double-blind, randomised, controlled study. Hospital-based, single-centre study in Chile. ASA I-II children, aged 2 to 12 years, scheduled for elective tonsillectomy. We standardised the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to lidocaine (1.5 mg kg intravenous lidocaine over 5 min followed by 2 mg kg h) or 0.9% saline (at the same rate and volume). Infusions were continued until the end of the surgery. Presence of at least one episode of vomiting, retching or both in the first 24 h postoperatively (POV). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and postoperative pain. Ninety-two children were enrolled. Primary outcome data were available for 91. In the Lidocaine group, 28 of 46 patients (60.8%) experienced POV, compared with 37 of 45 patients (82.2%) in the Saline group [difference in proportions 21.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8 to 38.8), P = 0.024]. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that when we assumed that the patient in the Saline group lost to follow-up did not have POV, the difference in proportions decreased to 19.6% (95% CI, 0.9 to 37.2), with an unadjusted odds ratio of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.97, P = 0.044). The odds of having POV were 62% less likely in those patients receiving lidocaine compared with patients in the Saline group. The mean lidocaine plasma concentration was 3.91 μg ml (range: 0.87 to 4.88). Using an intravenous lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant to general anaesthesia decreased POV in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01986309.

  5. Small-dose hypobaric lidocaine-fentanyl spinal anesthesia for short duration outpatient laparoscopy. I. A randomized comparison with conventional dose hyperbaric lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghadia, H; McLeod, D H; Mitchell, G W; Merrick, P M; Chilvers, C R

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, single-blind trial of two spinal anesthetic solutions for outpatient laparoscopy was conducted to compare intraoperative conditions and postoperative recovery. Thirty women (ASA physical status I and II) were assigned to one of two groups. Group I patients received a small-dose hypobaric solution of 1% lidocaine 25 mg made up to 3 mL by the addition of fentanyl 25 micrograms. Group II patients received a conventional-dose hyperbaric solution of 5% lidocaine 75 mg (in 7.5% dextrose) made up to 3 mL by the addition of 1.5 mL 10% dextrose. All patients received 500 mL of crystalloid preloading. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L2-3 or L3-4 with a 27-gauge Quincke point needle. Surgery commenced when the level of sensory anesthesia reached T-6. Intraoperative hypotension requiring treatment with ephedrine occurred in 54% of Group II patients but not in any Group I patients. Median (range) time for full motor recovery was 50 (0-95) min in Group I patients compared to 90 (50-120) min in Group II patients (P = 0.0005). Sensory recovery also occurred faster in Group I patients (100 +/- 22 min) compared with Group II patients (140 +/- 27 min, P = 0.0001). Postoperative headache occurred in 38% of all patients and 70% of these were postural in nature. Oral analgesia was the only treatment required. Spinal anesthesia did not result in a significant incidence of postoperative backache. On follow-up, 96% said they found spinal needle insertion acceptable, 93% found surgery comfortable, and 90% said they would request spinal anesthesia for laparoscopy in future. Overall, this study found spinal anesthesia for outpatient laparoscopy to have high patient acceptance and a comparable complication rate to other studies. The small-dose hypobaric lidocaine-fentanyl technique has advantages over conventional-dose hyperbaric lidocaine of no hypotension and faster recovery.

  6. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G; Alfieri, Fabio M; Filippo, Thais R; da Rocha, Ivan D; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-05-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. NCT02387567. There are few data to support paraspinous lidocaine injection use in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Our results show that this therapy when combined with standard therapy significantly increases the number of responders versus standard treatment alone. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with a change in central sensitization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Nichole K; Horton, Zachary A; Bettendorf, Matthew; Frye, Ira; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    The lidocaine patch 5% was developed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. Anecdotal experience at our institution suggests the lidocaine patch 5% decreases narcotic usage in patients with traumatic rib fractures. This trial was developed to define the patch's efficacy. Patients with rib fractures admitted to the trauma service at our Level I trauma center were enrolled and randomized in a 1 to 1 double-blind manner to receive a lidocaine patch 5% or placebo patch. Fifty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 2007 to August 2008. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. The primary outcomes variable was total narcotic use, analyzed using the 1-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The secondary outcomes variables included non-narcotic pain medication, average pain score, pulmonary complications, and length of stay. Significance was defined based on a 1-sided test for the primary outcome and 2-sided tests for other comparisons, at p rib fractures, gender, trauma mechanism, preinjury lung disease, smoking history, percent of current smokers, and need for placement of chest tube between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups. There was no difference between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups, respectively, with regard to total IV narcotic usage: median, 0.23 units versus 0.26 units; total oral narcotics: median, 4 units versus 7 units; pain score: 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 6.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM); length of stay: 7.8 +/- 1.1 versus 6.2 +/- 0.7; or percentage of patients with pulmonary complications: 72.7% versus 72.0%. The lidocaine patch 5% does not significantly improve pain control in polytrauma patients with traumatic rib fractures.

  8. Health economic evidence of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedgens H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hiltrud Liedgens,1 Marko Obradovic,1 Mark Nuijten2 1Grunenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany; 2Ars Accessus Medica, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Background: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common and most debilitating complication of herpes zoster, and involves considerable associated costs. Objective: This paper presents results from nine health economic studies undertaken in eight European countries that compared lidocaine medicated plaster with gabapentin and/or pregabalin in PHN. It aims to support the increasing need for published cost-effectiveness data for health care decision-making processes in Europe. Methods: All studies were based on a similar core Markov model with data derived from clinical trials, local Delphi panels, and official national price and tariff lists. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; time without pain or intolerable adverse events was also included as a secondary outcome measure. All studies focused on an elderly population of patients with PHN who had insufficient pain relief with standard analgesics and could not tolerate or had contraindications to tricyclic antidepressants. Results: Despite considerable differences in many of the variables used, the results showed remarkable similarity and suggested that use of lidocaine medicated plaster offered cost-savings in many of the countries studied, where it proved a highly cost-effective alternative to both gabapentin and pregabalin. Conclusion: Lidocaine medicated plaster is a cost-effective alternative to gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of PHN. These savings are largely the result of the superior safety profile of the lidocaine medicated plaster. Keywords: post-herpetic neuralgia, zoster, cost-effectiveness, lidocaine, plaster

  9. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine and stable isotope labelled analogues : a study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burm, A.G.D.; de Boer, A G; van Kleef, J.W.; Vermeulen, N P; de Leede, L G; Spierdijk, J; Breimer, D D

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine and tri-deuteromethyl-labelled lidocaine and bupivacaine were investigated in healthy volunteers. The deuterium-labelled and the unlabelled form of the drug to be investigated were simultaneously infused in 10 min. Plasma concentrations were

  10. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to mitigate neurotransmitter actions and thereby attenuate the resulting amnesia. Rats received lidocaine and anisomycin injections into the amygdala 130 and 120 min, respectively, prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Memory tests 48 hr later revealed that lidocaine attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. In other rats, in vivo microdialysis was performed at the site of amygdala infusion of lidocaine and anisomycin. As seen previously, anisomycin injections produced large increases in release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Lidocaine attenuated the anisomycin-induced increase in release of norepinephrine but did not reverse anisomycin inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These findings are consistent with past evidence suggesting that anisomycin causes amnesia by initiating abnormal release of neurotransmitters in response to the inhibition of protein synthesis. PMID:21453778

  11. Anesthesia with topical lidocaine hydrochloride gauzes in acute traumatic wounds in triage, a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderikhof, Milan L.; Leenders, Noukje; Goddijn, Helma; Schep, Niels W.; Lirk, Philipp; Goslings, J. Carel; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2016-01-01

    Topical application of lidocaine in wounds has been studied in combination with vasoconstrictive additives, but the effect without these additives is unknown. The objective was to examine use of lidocaine-soaked gauzes without vasoconstrictive agents, in traumatic wounds in adult patients, applied

  12. Facilitatory effect of AC-iontophoresis of lidocaine hydrochloride on the permeability of human enamel and dentine in extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hideharu; Suda, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate chemical permeability through human enamel/dentine using conductometry and to clarify if alternating current (AC) iontophoresis facilitates such permeability. Electrical impedance of different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride was measured using a bipolar platinum impedance probe. A quadratic curve closely fitted to the response functions between conductance and lidocaine hydrochloride. For analysis of the passage of lidocaine hydrochloride through human enamel/dentine, eight premolars that were extracted for orthodontic treatment were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. The tooth crowns were held between two chambers with a double O-ring. The enamel-side chamber was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride, and the pulp-side chamber was filled with extrapure water. Two platinum plate electrodes were set at the end of each chamber to pass alternating current. A simulated interstitial pulp pressure was applied to the pulp-side chamber. The change in the concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in the pulp-side chamber was measured every 2min using a platinum recording probe positioned at the centre of the pulp-side chamber. Passive entry without iontophoresis was used as a control. The level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine against the dentinal fluid flow increased with time. Electrical conductance (G, mho) correlated closely to the concentration (x, mmol/L) of lidocaine hydrochloride (G=2.16x(2)+0.0289x+0.000376, r(2)=0.999). Lidocaine hydrochloride can pass through enamel/dentine. Conductometry showed that the level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine was increased by AC iontophoresis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Lidocaine on Pain Reduction after Cesarean Section under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Hirmanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Lidocaine on pain reduction during and ileus and the need for opioids after caesarean section. Methods: For this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 40 ASA I, II pregnant women who were candidates for caesarean section with general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of Lidocaine receivers and placebo using randomized block design; the Lidocaine group received 1.5 mg/kg of Lidocaine right before the surgery and then its infusion with a dose of 2 mg/kg.h until the end of the surgery and the placebo group received normal saline with the same volume and application. Patients’ pain intensity was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 (entering the recovery, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. Results: Lidocaine decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures of the patients only during the first minute after intubation, decreased the mean of arterial blood pressure at the 10th minute after intubation and 40th minute after surgery, and also decreased the mean of patients’ pain intensity, Diclofenac and Pethidine consumption, side effects (nausea and vomiting and reduced the time interval before the first time of tolerating oral liquids; but it had effect on infants’ Apgar score 1 and 5 minutes after delivery. Conclusions: Lidocaine was definitely effective on reducing the intensity of pain, opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption and ileus after surgery with the least occurrence of side effects for mothers and infants.

  14. Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Lidocaine on Pain Reduction after Cesarean Section under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Hirmanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Lidocaine on pain reduction during and ileus and the need for opioids after caesarean section.Methods: For this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 40 ASA I, II pregnant women who were candidates for caesarean section with general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of Lidocaine receivers and placebo using randomized block design; the Lidocaine group received 1.5 mg/kg of Lidocaine right before the surgery and then its infusion with a dose of 2 mg/kg.h until the end of the surgery and the placebo group received normal saline with the same volume and application. Patients’ pain intensity was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 (entering the recovery, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery.Results: Lidocaine decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures of the patients only during the first minute after intubation, decreased the mean of arterial blood pressure at the 10th minute after intubation and 40th minute after surgery, and also decreased the mean of patients’ pain intensity, Diclofenac and Pethidine consumption, side effects (nausea and vomiting and reduced the time interval before the first time of tolerating oral liquids; but it had effect on infants’ Apgar score 1 and 5 minutes after delivery.Conclusions: Lidocaine was definitely effective on reducing the intensity of pain, opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consumption and ileus after surgery with the least occurrence of side effects for mothers and infants.

  15. Effectiveness of lidocaine Denti patch ® system versus lidocaine gel as topical anesthetic agent in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Anwar Shehab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: New methods have been introduced to facilitate dental procedures, but the administration of local anesthesia is still necessary to perform pain control during several dental procedures. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the lidocaine Denti-patch ® system versus the lidocaine topical anesthetic gel in children concerning pain reaction during injection. Materials and Methods: One hundred 9-12-year-old cooperative children weighing more than 29 kg in need of bilateral dental treatment requiring maxillary and mandibular injection and not suffering from acute pain as a result of pulpits on the day of treatment were selected. The children were then divided into two groups: Group 1 comprising of 50 children in need of bilateral maxillary treatment and Group 2 compromising of 50 children requiring bilateral mandibular treatment. These groups were further subdivided into subgroups A and B; those receiving Denti-patch ® on one side and lidocaine gel on the contralateral side, respectively. Pain or comfort was evaluated during injection using sound, eye, motor (SEM scale (objective method while, using faces pain rating scale (FPS scale (subjective method after injection by a trained assistant blinded to the procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison of the results was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for SEM and FPS score. Result: There was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel group for maxilla (P < 0.0001, as well as mandible (P = 0.01 with respect to SEM score given by the children. Similarly, with FPS scale, there was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel groups in both maxilla and mandible (P < 0.0001. However, there was no statistical difference between the patch Groups 1A and IIA or the gel Groups 1B and II B. Conclusion: The Denti-patch ® system can significantly reduce the needle injection pain more than the gel.

  16. Influence of lidocaine forms (salt vs. freebase) on properties of drug-Eudragit® L100-55 extrudates prepared by reactive melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Ma, Xiangyu; Kun, Eucharist; Guo, Xiaodi; Yu, Zhongxue; Zhang, Feng

    2018-06-05

    This study examines the preparation of sustained-release lidocaine polyelectrolyte complex using reactive melt extrusion. Eudragit L100-55 was selected as the ionic polymer. The influence of drug forms (freebase vs. hydrochloride salt) on lidocaine-Eudragit L100-55 interactions, physical stability, and dissolution properties of extrudates was investigated. It was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy that polyelectrolyte could only form via the acid-base reaction between Eudragit L100-55 and lidocaine freebase. Due to this ionic interaction, the lidocaine extrudate was physically more stable than the lidocaine hydrochloride extrudate during the storage under stressed condition. Drug release from lidocaine extrudate was a function of drug solubility, polymer solubility, drug-polymer interaction, and drug-induced microenvironment pH. At 30% drug loading, extrudate exhibited sustained release in aqueous media at pH 1.2 and 4.5. Due to the alkaline microenvironment pH induced by dissolved lidocaine, Eudragit L100-55 was solubilized and sustained-release was not achieved in water and aqueous media at pH 5.5. In comparison, lidocaine hydrochloride induced an acidic microenvironment. Drug release of lidocaine hydrochloride extrudate was similar at pH 1.2, 4.5, 5.5 and water with drug being released over 10 hours. The release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the extrudates in these media was primarily controlled by microenvironment pH. It is concluded that different forms of lidocaine resulted in different drug-polymer interactions and distinctive physicochemical properties of extrudates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. [Conservative treatment of cervical radiculopathy with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattozzi, I

    2015-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a mixed pain syndrome characterized by neuropathic, skeletal and myofascial pain. This condition is frequently found in developed countries and is a significant source of disability and a reason for frequent medical consultation. In our Pain Therapy Centre, cervical radiculopathy is initially treated with bi-weekly cycles of mesotherapy coupled, at least 15 days later, with physiotherapy to reach the complete mobilization of cervical spine. Cervical radiculopathy is a localized neuro-pathic pain and in agreement with international guidelines, we checked if patients treated topically with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster may benefit in improving pain management and in reducing the time necessary to start physiotherapy. A retrospective study was carried out on 60 patients, of which 30 were treated with mesotherapy and 30 were treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. Data for a total of 30 days observation were collected from the patient medical records. In particular, besides medical history, intensity of pain, intensity of allodynia and pain were considered. For all analyzed parameters, both treatments were effective, but patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed faster control of the painful symptoms, an essential condition for an earlier rehabilitative treatment.

  18. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 μ/L, to Ringer's solution containing 3 H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO 2 to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L

  19. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Swanton, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil\\'s biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction\\/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine\\/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +\\/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +\\/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +\\/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +\\/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.

  20. Muscle-type nicotinic receptor modulation by 2,6-dimethylaniline, a molecule resembling the hydrophobic moiety of lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alberola-Die

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To identify the molecular determinants responsible for lidocaine blockade of muscle-type nAChRs, we have studied the effects on this receptor of 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA, which resembles lidocaine’s hydrophobic moiety. Torpedo marmorata nAChRs were microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes and currents elicited by ACh (IACh, either alone or co-applied with DMA, were recorded. DMA reversibly blocked IACh and, similarly to lidocaine, exerted a closed-channel blockade, as evidenced by the enhancement of IACh blockade when DMA was pre-applied before its co-application with ACh, and hastened IACh decay. However, there were marked differences among its mechanisms of nAChR inhibition and those mediated by either the entire lidocaine molecule or diethylamine (DEA, a small amine resembling lidocaine’s hydrophilic moiety. Thereby, the IC50 for DMA, estimated from the dose-inhibition curve, was in the millimolar range, which is one order of magnitude higher than that for either DEA or lidocaine. Besides, nAChR blockade by DMA was voltage-independent in contrast to the increase of IACh inhibition at negative potentials caused by the more polar lidocaine or DEA molecules. Accordingly, virtual docking assays of DMA on nAChRs showed that this molecule binds predominantly at intersubunit crevices of the transmembrane-spanning domain, but also at the extracellular domain. Furthermore, DMA interacted with residues inside the channel pore, although only in the open-channel conformation. Interestingly, co-application of ACh with DEA and DMA, at their IC50s, had additive inhibitory effects on IACh and the extent of blockade was similar to that predicted by the allotopic model of interaction, suggesting that DEA and DMA bind to nAChRs at different loci. These results indicate that DMA mainly mimics the low potency and non-competitive actions of lidocaine on nAChRs, as opposed to the high potency and voltage-dependent block by lidocaine, which is emulated by the

  1. Intravenous lidocaine as adjuvant to general anesthesia in renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Said Nakhli

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... patients scheduled to undergo elective non-laparoscopic renal surgery under general ..... ambulatory surgery where lidocaine use yielded a 30% ... for laparoscopic cholecystectomy as measured by BIS. ... elderly patients.

  2. Anaesthetic efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine in children's dentistry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huei Jinn; Alzahrani, Fatma Salem; Sim, Yu Fan; Tahmassebi, Jinous F; Duggal, Monty

    2018-04-10

    Over the last few years, numerous reviews and studies have awarded articaine hydrochloride local anaesthetic (LA) a superior reputation, with outcomes of different studies demonstrating a general tendency for articaine hydrochloride to outperform lidocaine hydrochloride for dental treatment. Nevertheless, there seems to be no clear agreement on which LA solution is more efficacious in dental treatment for children. There is no previous publication systematically reviewing and summarising the current best evidence with respect to the success rates of LA solutions in children. To evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine, used in paediatric dentistry. A systematic search was conducted on Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID; 1950 to June 2017), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; EBSCOhost; 1982 to June 2017), EMBASE (OVID; 1980 to June 2017), SCI-EXPANDED (ISI Web of Knowledge; 1900 to June 2017), key journals, and previous review bibliographies through June 2017. Original research studies that compared articaine with lidocaine for dental treatment in children were included. Methodological quality assessment and assessment of risk of bias were carried out for each of the included studies. Electronic searching identified 525 publications. Following the primary and secondary assessment process, six randomised controlled trials (RCT) were included in the final analysis. There was no difference between patient self-reported pain between articaine and lidocaine during treatment procedures (SMD = 0.06, P-value = 0.614), and no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between articaine and lidocaine injections following treatment in paediatric patients (RR = 1.10, P-value = 0.863). Yet, patients reported significantly less pain post-procedure following articaine injections (SMD = 0.37, P-value = 0.013). Substantial heterogeneity was noted in the reporting of outcomes among studies

  3. The Effect of Lidocaine Enriched Cardioplegia on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most of the complications after open heart surgery is usually associated with ischemia reperfusion injury that develops during cardiopulmoner bypass. In ischemia and reperfusion periods lidocaine blocks intracelluler sodium and calcium channels and protect cell membrane against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, lidocaine added to cardioplegia solution and its effects on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was examined. Material and Method: 36 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass surgery in our clinic between September 2005 and April 2006 was studied. Patients included into two groups. In study group patients (groupe I 2 mg/kg lidocaine was added into cardioplegia solution that is used during aortic cross clamp period; standart cardioplegia solution was used in control group patients (group II. Postoperative 6. and 24. hours cardiac enzyme levels, inotropic support requirement and atrial fibrilation incidence were compared in both groups. Results: In this study, 36 patients (13 women, 23 man whose average age was 63(±5,5, age range 50-70 years and ventriculer functions were not deformed (EF>40% were involved. There were no significantly differences in demographic datas between towo groups. There were no significantly differences in postoperative 6. and 24. hours troponin-I and CK-MB levels, inotropic support or defibrilation requirement and postoperative atrial fibrilation incidence between two groups. Discussion: Addition of 2 mg/kg dosage lidocaine into cardioplegia solution dont effect cardiac enzyme levels, inotropic support requirement and postoperative atrial fibrilation insidence and it doesnt prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Clonidine versus ketamine to prevent tourniquet pain during intravenous regional anesthesia with lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgias, N K; Maidatsi, P G; Kyriakidis, A M; Karakoulas, K A; Alvanos, D N; Giala, M M

    2001-01-01

    Both clonidine and ketamine have been found to prolong the action of local anesthetics through a peripheral mechanism. Our study compares the efficacy of a low dose of clonidine or ketamine separately added to intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) with lidocaine to prevent tourniquet pain. We conducted a prospective randomized double-blinded study in 45 patients undergoing hand or forearm surgery, with anticipated duration exceeding 1 hour under IVRA. Proximal cuff inflation of a double tourniquet was followed by administration of 40 mL of lidocaine 0.5% and either saline, 1 microg/kg clonidine, or 0.1 mg/kg ketamine. When anesthesia was established, the inflation of the proximal and distal cuff was interchanged. Thereafter, tourniquet pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS) every 10 minutes. Intraoperatively, boluses of 25 microg fentanyl were provided for tourniquet pain treatment when required, and total fentanyl consumption was recorded. Patients receiving plain lidocaine persistently reported the highest pain scores among groups (P <.001) 20 minutes after distal cuff inflation. Differences between the groups with additional treatment were noted 50 minutes after distal cuff inflation and until the end of the observation, with significantly lower VAS ratings (P <.001 to P <.01) in ketamine-treated patients. Total fentanyl consumption was significantly decreased by ketamine (70.00 +/- 25.35 microg) or clonidine (136.67 +/- 39.94 microg) compared with the plain lidocaine group (215.33 +/- 52.33 microg) (P <.001 between all groups). The addition of clonidine 1 microg/kg or ketamine 0.1 mg/kg to lidocaine for IVRA delays the onset of unbearable tourniquet pain and decreases analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain relief, although ketamine has a more potent effect.

  5. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 ..mu../L, to Ringer's solution containing /sup 3/H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO/sub 2/ to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L.

  6. The Onset and Duration of Action of 0.2% Lidocaine in a One-per-Mil Tumescent Solution for Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Lestari, Puri A

    2016-05-01

    One-per-mil tumescent solution, which contains 0.2% lidocaine with 1:1,000,000 epinephrine, has been reported to be clinically effective for hand surgery under local anesthesia. However, it was lacking in its basic pharmacokinetics profile in regard to the onset of action (OOA) and duration of action (DOA). A randomized, double-blind study was conducted on 12 volunteers who met the inclusion criteria from October to November 2014. All volunteers had their right and left ring finger pulps injected with either one-per-mil solution or 2% lidocaine. Semmes-Weinstein and two-point discrimination tests were used to test sensation. Visual analogue scale was recorded at the time when the finger lost its sensation and when it regained normal sensation to measure the OOA and DOA. The data were then analyzed with a paired t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The OOA and DOA of 2% plain lidocaine were 1 minute and 99.67 minutes, respectively. Meanwhile, 0.2% lidocaine in a one-per-mil tumescent solution showed an OOA of 5 minutes and a DOA of 186.83 minutes. The OOA of 0.2% lidocaine in a one-per-mil tumescent solution is statistically shorter than 2% plain lidocaine (P=0.04); while its DOA is statistically longer than 2% plain lidocaine (Pmil tumescent solution is statistically and clinically superior to 2% plain lidocaine in achieving longer duration of local anesthesia.

  7. Spinal anesthesia: a comparison of procaine and lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Truong, H H; Girard, M; Drolet, P; Grenier, Y; Boucher, C; Bergeron, L

    2001-05-01

    To compare spinal procaine to spinal lidocaine with regard to their main clinical characteristics and incidence of transient radicular irritation (TRI). In this randomized, double-blind, prospective study, patients (two groups, n=30 each) received either 100 mg of lidocaine 5% in 7.5% glucose (Group L) or 100 mg of procaine 10% diluted with 1 ml cerebrospinal fluid (Group P). After spinal anesthesia, segmental level of sensory block was assessed by pinprick. Blood pressure and the height of the block were noted each minute for the first ten minutes, then every three minutes for the next 35 min and finally every five minutes until regression of the block to L4. Motor blockade was evaluated using the Bromage scale. To evaluate the presence of TRI, each patient was questioned 48 hr after surgery. Time to highest sensory level and to maximum number of segments blocked showed no difference between groups. Mean time for sensory regression to T10 and for regression of the motor block were shorter in Group P. Eighty minutes following injection, sensory levels were lower in Group P. Five patients had inadequate surgical anesthesia in Group P and only one in Group L. No patient in Group P had TRI (95% CI 10-12%) while eight (27%) in Group L did (95% CI 12-46%). Procaine 10% was associated with a clinical failure rate of 14.2%. This characteristic must be balanced against an absence of TRI, which occurs more frequently with the use of lidocaine 5%.

  8. Sub-Tenon's lidocaine injection improves emergence agitation after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a sub-Tenon's lidocaine injection on emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane or halothane anaesthesia for strabismus surgery. Design: A prospective, randomised study. Setting: The study setting included a hospital where a surgical team performed ...

  9. Assessment of membrane protection by 31P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the 31 P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine

  10. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of human bronchial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Rendina, Erino A; Massullo, Domenico; Dauri, Mario; Rinaldi, Barbara; Capuano, Annalisa; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    Bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, but the induction of anaesthesia can induce bronchospasm. Consequently we investigated the influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of the human bronchial smooth muscle. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the contractile response of human bronchial smooth muscle to electrical field stimulation (EFS) has been evaluated. The role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and of inducible nitric oxide synthase has also been assessed. Furthermore, the interaction between these three dugs has been measured by Bliss Independence (BI) theory. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was assessed by Student's t test or ANOVA. Propofol (1.3 μg ml(-1)) and lidocaine (1 mg ml(-1)) reduced the baseline tone of bronchial rings (-14.45 ± 4.53% and -33.40 ± 1.07%, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas remifentanil had not such effect. Aminoguanidine prevented the relaxant effect of propofol. Propofol did not alter the bronchial contractile response to EFS following 30 min of treatment, whereas remifentanil enhanced the bronchial tension (133.83 ± 9.38%, control 101.93 ± 6.82%, P < 0.05 P < 0.05) and lidocaine completely abolished the contractility at 1 mg ml(-1) (P < 0.05). The desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves normalized the hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil (-26.77 ± 1.68%, P < 0.05). Significant BI antagonism (P < 0.001) was detected for propofol and lidocaine on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil. Propofol and remifentanil may be used safely for bronchoscopy, although remifentanil should be associated with propofol or lidocaine to prevent the potential opioid-mediated bronchospasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  12. Comparison of the effect of lidocaine adding dexketoprofen and paracetamol in intravenous regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Ali; Eroglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically.

  13. Diphenylhydantoin and lidocaine modification of A-V conduction in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlee, J L; Homer, L D; Tobey, R E

    1975-07-01

    The effect of halothane on A-V conduction was evaluated in gods during atrial pacing using the technique of His-bundle electrocardiography. In addition, the effects of lidocaine and diphenylkydantoin (DPH) on A-V conuction were examined during halothane anesthesia. Effects of these drugs on three subintervals of A-V conduction were compared. These included the -H (stimulus atifact of His-bundle deflection-atrioventricular conduction), H-Q (His-budnle deflection onset of QRS complex-His-Purkinje conduction), and H-S intervals(His-bundle delfection to end of QRS COmplex-total intraventricular conduction). Linear regression best described the relationship between duration of interval (P-H, H-V,and H-S) and heart rate during incremental increases in the atrial paced rate. Data from these experiments were fitted to a multiple lenear regression model that predicted the effect of increasing concentrations of halothan, lidocaine, and DPH on slope and intercept coefficients. In creasing concentrations of halothan ( 30 and 45 mg/100 ml arterial). Both lidocaine and DPH further depressed conduction at all levels of halothan anesthesia. The P-H interval was particularly sensitive todrug effefts. This may represent potentiation of the normal slowing of conduction through the AVnode in response to incremental increases in heart rate (fatigue response.) We conclude thatboth lidocaine and DPH fail to reverse the depressant effect of halothane on A-V conduction. This may explain their ineffectiveness in treating certain types of arrhythmias during halothane anesthesia.

  14. A case of Lemierre's syndrome with septic shock and complicated parapneumonic effusions requiring intrapleural fibrinolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre's syndrome is a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, which can lead to severe systemic illness. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 26-year-old man who suffered from pharyngitis followed by septic shock requiring intubation and vasopressor support from Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. The septic emboli to his lungs caused complicated bilateral parapneumonic effusions, which recurred after initial drainage. He required bilateral chest tubes and intrapleural tPA to successfully drain his effusions. His fever curve and overall condition improved with the resolution of his effusions and after a 33-day hospitalization, he recovered without significant disability. The severity of his illness and difficult to manage complicated parapneumonic effusions were the unique facets of this case. Using an evidence-based approach of tPA and DNase for complicated parapneumonic effusions in Lemierre's syndrome can be safe and effective.

  15. Kidney ischemia and reperfunsion syndrome: effect of lidocaine and local postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Igor Nagai; Pontes, Ruy Victor Simões; Costa, Felipe Lobato DA Silva; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effects of blocking the regulation of vascular tone on the ischemia and reperfusion syndrome in rats through the use of lidocaine in the postconditioning technique. we randomized 35 rats into seven groups of five animals: Group 1- Control; Group 2- Ischemia and Reperfusion; Group 3- Ischemia, Reperfusion and Saline; Group 4- Ischemic Postconditioning; Group 5- Ischemic Postconditioning and Saline; Group 6- Lidocaine; Group 7- Ischemic Postconditioning and Lidocaine. Except for the control group, all the others were submitted to renal ischemia for 30 minutes. In postconditioning groups, we performed ischemia and reperfusion cycles of five minutes each, applied right after the main ischemia. In saline and lidocaine groups, we instilled the substances at a rate of two drops per minute. To compare the groups, we measured serum levels of urea and creatinine and also held renal histopathology. The postconditioning and postconditioning + lidocaine groups showed a decrease in urea and creatinine values. The lidocaine group showed only a reduction in creatinine values. In histopathology, only the groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning had decreased degree of tubular necrosis. Lidocaine did not block the effects of postconditioning on renal ischemia reperfusion syndrome, and conferred better glomerular protection when applied in conjunction with ischemic postconditioning. avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio da regulação do tônus vascular por meio do uso da lidocaína na técnica de pós-condicionamento isquêmico na síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão renal em ratos. trinta e cinco ratos foram randomizados em sete grupos de cinco animais: Grupo 1- Controle; Grupo 2- Isquemia e Reperfusão; Grupo 3- Isquemia, Reperfusão e Solução Salina; Grupo 4- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico; Grupo 5- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico e Solução Salina; Grupo 6- Lidocaína; Grupo 7- Pós-condicionamento Isquêmico e lidocaína. Com exceção do grupo controle, todos

  16. Combination of Tramadol and Lidocaine for Pain Control During Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Double-blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Haluk; Seckiner, Ilker; Bayrak, Omer; Sen, Elzem; Erturhan, Sakip; Yagci, Faruk

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tramadol, lidocaine, and a combination of tramadol with lidocaine in pain relief using periprostatic nerve block technique by guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) before the prostate biopsy (PBx). For the indication of TRUS-PBx, the patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >4.0 ng/mL or abnormal digital examination findings were selected. The patients were randomized through random method. Group 1: patients were administered 5 mL of 2% lidocaine; group 2: patients were administered 5 mL of 25-mg tramadol; and group 3: patients were administered 5 mL of 2% lidocaine + 25-mg tramadol. The procedures were completed in 10 minutes, and a visual pain scale was administered to the patients to question the pain severity. TRUS-guided PBx was performed in 60 patients with an age range of 57-77 years (mean age, 66.2 ± 7.49 years) and a PSA range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The mean PSA level of the groups was 28.5 (±7.5), 16.1 (±5.0), and 14.9 (±2.9) ng/mL, respectively. The postprocedural pain scores by visual pain scale were 4.6 ± 1.2, 5.4 ± 1.2, and 3.6 ± 0.9 in lidocaine, tramadol, and lidocaine + tramadol groups, respectively. Periprostatic nerve block is the current golden standard method owing to pain management and comfort provided, independent of the patient age and the number of core biopsies. We suggest that tramadol may also be used in this field to achieve better pain management by improving lidocaine's effect or as an alternative to lidocaine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of cardiovascular responses after injection of lidocaine with either clonidine or adrenaline: a two-year comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandriyal, R; Pachauri, S; Giri, K Y; Rastogi, S; Prasad, N I B; Agarwal, S; Singh, H P

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine with lidocaine as a local anaesthetic agent for inferior alveolar mandibular nerve blocks for dental extraction. We studied 200 patients who required extraction of mandibular teeth and divided them into two groups of 100 each, the first of which was given lidocaine and adrenaline (12.5μg/ml) and the second lidocaine and clonidine (15μg/ml). Cardiovascular vascular variables (blood pressure, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure) were assessed before, during, and after extraction, and postoperative pain was measured on a visual analogue scale. There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (p=0.0001) and heart rate (p=0.000) after injection of clonidine. However, they both increased after injections of lidocaine plus adrenaline, and there was a significant reduction in pain at four hours postoperatively with clonidine (p=0.000). Our results showed that anaesthesia with lidocaine and clonidine decreases systolic blood pressure and heart rate 10minutes after injection for extraction of lower mandibular teeth. We suggest that patients who have local anaesthetic with lidocaine and clonidine are at minimal cardiovascular risk and there is no difference in the onset of anaesthesia. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pheniramine Maleate is more effective than Lidocaine on Fentanyl Induced Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Kara, Duygu; Karaman, Emine Uzlas; Karakoc, Fatma; Karakaya, Muhammet Ahmet; Arslan, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is frequently used during anesthesia induction. The use of fentanyl can cause cough through different mechanisms. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of pheniramine maleate (PM), an antihistaminic agent, and compare it with lidocaine on fentanyl induced cough. This is a randomized double-blind prospective clinical study of ASA I-II, 120 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were administered drugs intravenously and randomly allocated into three groups: Group C (2 ml 0.9 % normal saline), Group L (1mg/kg lidocaine), and Group F (PM 45.5 mg). 90 seconds after administration, 2µ/kg fentanyl was applied in three seconds to all patients. Severity of cough (mild: 1-2, moderate: 3-5, severe> 5), time of the cough and vital parameters were recorded 90 seconds after fentanyl injection. Eight patients (25%) in Group C had fentanyl induced cough whereas three patients (7.5%) in Group L and one patient (2.5%) in Group F experienced this phenomenon. There was statistically significant difference between Group F and Group C (p0.05). Pheniramine Maleate 45.5 mg is better that placebo and as effective as lidocaine to prevent fentanyl induced cough.

  19. Predictive value of lidocaine for treatment success of oxcarbazepine in patients with neuropathic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Maurer, Konrad; Alon, Eli; Sándor, Peter S

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes (NPS) can be associated with long periods of trial and error before reaching satisfactory analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a short intravenous (i.v.) infusion of lidocaine may have a predictive value for the efficacy of oxcarbazepine. In total, 16 consecutive patients with NPS were studied in a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study design. Each patient received i.v. lidocaine (5 mg/kg) within 30 min followed by a long-term oral oxcarbazepine treatment (900-1,500 mg/day). During an observation period of 28 days, treatment response was documented by a questionnaire including the average daily pain score documented on a numeric rating scale (NRS). A total of 6 out of 16 patients (38%) were lidocaine responders (defined as pain reduction >50% during the infusion), and 4 of 16 (25%) were oxcarbazepine responders. In total, 6 out of 16 participants (38%) discontinued oxcarbazepine treatment due to side effects. In an interim analysis predictive value of the lidocaine infusion was low with a Kendall's tau correlation coefficient of 0.29 and coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.119 (95% confidence interval -0.29 to 0.72). As a consequence of this low correlation, the study was discontinued for ethical reasons. In conclusion, lidocaine infusion has a low predictive value for effectiveness of oxcarbazepine-if at all.

  20. A Comparison of Equivalent Doses of Lidocaine and Articaine in Maxillary Posterior Tooth Extractions: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Friedl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Local anaesthesia is the standard of care during dental extractions. With the advent of newer local anesthetic agents, it is often difficult for the clinician to decide which agent would be most efficacious in a given clinical scenario. This study assessed the efficacy of equal-milligram doses of lidocaine and articaine in achieving surgical anaesthesia of maxillary posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Material and Methods: This case-series evaluated a total of 41 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a maxillary posterior tooth. Patients randomly received an infiltration of either 3.6 mL (72 mg 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL (72 mg 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the buccal fold and palatal soft tissue adjacent to the tooth. After 10 minutes, initial anaesthesia of the tooth was assessed by introducing a sterile 27-gauge needle into the gingival tissue adjacent to the tooth, followed by relief of the gingival cuff. Successful treatment was considered to have occurred when the tooth was extracted with no reported pain. Data was analyzed with the Fisher’s exact test, unpaired t-test and normality test. Results: Twenty-one patients received lidocaine and 20 received articaine. Forty of the 41 patients achieved initial anaesthesia 10 minutes after injection: 21 after lidocaine and 19 after articaine (P = 0.488. Pain-free extraction was accomplished in 33 patients: 19 after lidocaine and 14 after articaine buccal and palatal infiltrations (P = 0.226. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in efficacy between equivalent doses of lidocaine and articaine in the anaesthesia of maxillary posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

  1. Comparisons Of The Effects Of Medetomidine, Lidocaine And Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a one-week interval between subsequent injections. Lumbosacral epidural injection of medetomidine and medetomidine-lidocaine combinations induced behavioral changes characterized by ataxia, swaying movements, tail flaccidity, low head carriage, sternal and lateral recumbency posture coupled with salivation.

  2. Differential effect of ketamine and lidocaine on spontaneous and mechanical evoked pain in patients with nerve injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Bach, Flemming Winther; Juhl, Gitte Irene

    2006-01-01

    ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, on spontaneous pain, brush-evoked pain, and pinprick-evoked pain in patients with nerve injury pain. METHODS: Twenty patients participated in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover...... experiments in which they, on four different days, received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.24 mg/kg), lidocaine (5 mg/kg), or saline. Ongoing pain, pain evoked by brush and repetitive pinprick stimuli, and acetone was measured before, during, and after infusion. RESULTS: Ketamine...... significantly reduced ongoing pain and evoked pain to brush and pinprick, whereas lidocaine only reduced evoked pain to repetitive pinprick stimuli. In individual patients, there was no correlation between the pain-relieving effect of lidocaine and ketamine on ongoing or mechanically evoked pains. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Lidocaine Adding Dexketoprofen and Paracetamol in Intravenous Regional Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akdogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. Method. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Results. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. Conclusion. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically.

  5. Evaluation of calcium alginate gel as electrode material for alternating current iontophoresis of lidocaine using excised rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Haruka; Wakita, Ryo; Ando, Shizuka; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2014-06-27

    Iontophoresis (IOP) is a noninvasive method of delivering medication transcutaneously through the skin. The electrodes used in this method should tightly fit to rough and irregular surfaces and be biologically safe, easy to handle and prepare, and cost-effective. To satisfy these requirements, calcium alginate gel can be a candidate electrode for IOP. Using calcium alginate gel electrodes, we examined whether lidocaine can be effectively transported across an excised rat skin by squarewave alternating current (AC) application. A squarewave AC with either a 70% or 80% duty cycle was continuously applied to 0.5% calcium alginate gel electrodes containing 10% lidocaine at 10 V and 1 kHz for 60 min. Lidocaine concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer and the temperature of the gel was determined. The lidocaine concentrations for AC-IOP at the 70% and 80% duty cycles were significantly higher than that without AC-IOP. Furthermore, the group with the 80% duty cycle showed higher lidocaine concentrations than the group with the 70% duty cycle. The temperatures of all the groups were lower than 28 °C throughout the procedure. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  6. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  7. Clinically relevant doses of lidocaine and bupivacaine do not impair cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A; Gilliver, S C; Masterson, G R; Hardman, M J; Ashcroft, G S

    2010-06-01

    Lidocaine and bupivacaine are commonly infiltrated into surgical cutaneous wounds to provide local anaesthesia after surgical procedures. However, very little is known about their effects on cutaneous wound healing. If an inhibitory effect is demonstrated, then the balance between the benefits of postoperative local anaesthesia and the negatives of impaired cutaneous wound healing may affect the decision to use local anaesthesia or not. Furthermore, if a difference in the rate of healing of lidocaine- and bupivacaine-treated cutaneous wounds is revealed, or if an inhibitory effect is found to be dose-dependent, then this may well influence the choice of agent and its concentration for clinical use. Immediately before incisional wounding, we administered lidocaine and bupivacaine intradermally to adult female mice, some of which had been ovariectomized to act as a model of post-menopausal women (like post-menopausal women, ovariectomized mice heal wounds poorly, with increased proteolysis and inflammation). Day 3 wound tissue was analysed histologically and tested for expression of inflammatory and proteolytic factors. On day 3 post-wounding, wound areas and extent of re-epithelialization were comparable between the control and local anaesthetic-treated animals, in both intact and ovariectomized groups. Both tested drugs significantly increased wound activity of the degradative enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-2 relative to controls, while lidocaine also increased wound neutrophil numbers. Although lidocaine and bupivacaine influenced local inflammatory and proteolytic factors, they did not impair the rate of healing in either of two well-established models (mimicking normal human wound healing and impaired age-related healing).

  8. Sustained relief of pain from osteosynthesis surgery of rib fracture by using biodegradable lidocaine-eluting nanofibrous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Hsun; Hsu, Yung-Heng; Chou, Ying-Chao; Fan, Chin-Lung; Ueng, Steve W N; Kau, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2016-10-01

    Various effective methods are available for perioperative pain control in osteosynthesis surgery, but they are seldom applied intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to evaluate a biodegradable poly([d,l]-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lidocaine nanofibrous membrane for perioperative pain control in rib fracture surgery. Scanning electron microscopy showed high porosity of the membrane, and an ex vivo high-performance liquid chromatography study revealed an excellent release profile for both burst and controlled release of lidocaine within 30days. Additionally, the PLGA/lidocaine nanofibrous membrane was applied in an experimental rabbit rib osteotomy model. Implantation of the membrane around the osteotomized rib during osteosynthesis surgery resulted in a significant increase in weight gain, food and water consumption, and daily activity compared to the study group without the membrane. In addition, all osteotomized ribs were united. Thus, application of the PLGA/lidocaine nanofibrous membrane may be effective for sustained relief of pain in oeteosynthesis surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimum Effective Volume of Lidocaine for Ultrasound-Guided Costoclavicular Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotthisopha, Thitipan; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Samerchua, Artid; Leurcharusmee, Prangmalee; Tiyaprasertkul, Worakamol; Gordon, Aida; Finlayson, Roderick J; Tran, De Q

    This dose-finding study aimed to determine the minimum effective volume in 90% of patients (MEV90) of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block. Using an in-plane technique and a lateral-to-medial direction, the block needle was positioned in the middle of the 3 cords of the brachial plexus in the costoclavicular space. The entire volume of lidocaine was deposited in this location. Dose assignment was carried out using a biased-coin-design up-and-down sequential method, where the total volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 2.5 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 2.5 mL), with a probability of b = 0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1 - b = 0.89. Success was defined, at 30 minutes, as a minimal score of 14 of 16 points using a sensorimotor composite scale. Patients undergoing surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful blocks were obtained. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02932670). Fifty-seven patients were included in the study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval, the MEV90 for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block was estimated to be 34.0 mL (95% confidence interval, 33.4-34.4 mL). All patients with a minimal composite score of 14 points at 30 minutes achieved surgical anesthesia intraoperatively. For ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block, the MEV90 of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 34 mL. Further dose-finding studies are required for other concentrations of lidocaine, other local anesthetic agents, and multiple-injection techniques.

  10. Pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain and lidocaine sensitivity in patients with erythromelalgia, including the I848Tmutation in NaV 1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helås, T; Sagafos, D; Kleggetveit, I P; Quiding, H; Jönsson, B; Segerdahl, M; Zhang, Z; Salter, H; Schmelz, M; Jørum, E

    2017-09-01

    Nociceptive thresholds and supra-threshold pain ratings as well as their reduction upon local injection with lidocaine were compared between healthy subjects and patients with erythromelalgia (EM). Lidocaine (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 or 10 mg/mL) or placebo (saline) was injected intradermally in non-painful areas of the lower arm, in a randomized, double-blind manner, to test the effect on dynamic and static mechanical sensitivity, mechanical pain sensitivity, thermal thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain sensitivity. Heat pain thresholds and pain ratings to supra-threshold heat stimulation did not differ between EM-patients (n = 27) and controls (n = 25), neither did the dose-response curves for lidocaine. Only the subgroup of EM-patients with mutations in sodium channel subunits Na V 1.7, 1.8 or 1.9 (n = 8) had increased lidocaine sensitivity for supra-threshold heat stimuli, contrasting lower sensitivity to strong mechanical stimuli. This pattern was particularly clear in the two patients carrying the Na V 1.7 I848T mutations in whom lidocaine's hyperalgesic effect on mechanical pain sensitivity contrasted more effective heat analgesia. Heat pain thresholds are not sensitized in EM patients, even in those with gain-of-function mutations in Na V 1.7. Differential lidocaine sensitivity was overt only for noxious stimuli in the supra-threshold range suggesting that sensitized supra-threshold encoding is important for the clinical pain phenotype in EM in addition to lower activation threshold. Intracutaneous lidocaine dose-dependently blocked nociceptive sensations, but we did not identify EM patients with particular high lidocaine sensitivity that could have provided valuable therapeutic guidance. Acute pain thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain in controls and patients with erythromelalgia do not differ and have the same lidocaine sensitivity. Acute heat pain thresholds even in EM patients with the Na V 1.7 I848T mutation are normal and only nociceptor

  11. Simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Liao, Linchuan; Zuo, Zhong; Yan, Youyi; Yang, Lin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Hou, Junhong

    2007-04-11

    Nikethamide and lidocaine are often requested to be quantified simultaneously in forensic toxicological analysis. A simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for their simultaneous determination in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The method involves simple protein precipitation sample treatment followed by quantification of analytes using HPLC at 263 nm. Analytes were separated on a 5 microm Zorbax Dikema C18 column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, i.d.) with a mobile phase of 22:78 (v/v) mixture of methanol and a diethylamine-acetic acid buffer, pH 4.0. The mean recoveries were between 69.8 and 94.4% for nikethamide and between 78.9 and 97.2% for lidocaine. Limits of detection (LODs) for nikethamide and lidocaine were 0.008 and 0.16 microg/ml in plasma and 0.007 and 0.14 microg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. The mean intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) for both analytes were less than 9.2 and 10.8%, respectively. The developed method was applied to blood sample analyses in eight forensic cases, where blood concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 0.68 to 34.4 microg/ml and nikethamide ranged from 1.25 to 106.8 microg/ml. In six cases cerebrospinal fluid analysis was requested. The values ranged from 20.3 to 185.6 microg/ml of lidocaine and 8.0 to 72.4 microg/ml of nikethamide. The method is simple and sensitive enough to be used in toxicological analysis for simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  12. Lipid composition and lidocaine effect on immediate and delayed injection pain following propofol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Nahid; Bameshki, Alireza; Yazdani, Mohammadjavad; Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi

    2016-01-01

    Propofol has been used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. However, patients experience vascular pain during its injection. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the lipid type used in propofol preparations and that of lidocaine on the immediate and delayed vascular pain induced by propofol administration. In this double-blinded clinical study, 150 patients at American Society of Anesthesiologists level I-II were randomly divided into three equally sized groups. A propofol with medium and long-chain triglycerides (propofol-MCT/LCT) was administered to the first group. The second group received propofol containing propofol-LCT, and the third group received propofol-LCT and pretreatment lidocaine 20 mg. The incidence and the intensity of immediate (during injection) and delayed injection pain (after 20 s) were evaluated on a verbal analog scale (1-10) until patients' unconsciousness. Sample size was calculated with SigmaPlot version 12.5 software. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16, one-way analysis of variance, and post-hoc Tukey. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The demographic parameters of the three groups were similar. The lidocaine group experienced the least immediate vascular pain. The intensity of pain was highest in the propofol-LCT group (P = 0.04). Additionally, the intensity of delayed pain was lowest in the propofol-MCT/LCT group (P = 0.01). The incidence of pain associated with the propofol administration was 26.5, 44, and 18%, respectively, in propofol-MCT/LCT, propofol-LCT, and lidocaine and propofol-LCT groups. The results indicate an effect of the lipid type on delayed pain reduction, especially propofol-MCT/LCT. On the other hand, the lidocaine decreases immediate propofol-LCT vascular pain.

  13. A comparative evaluation of 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine in mandibular buccal infiltration anesthesia: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthingal, Sunith; Mohan, Dennis; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Alahmari, Ali; Alqahtani, Ahmed; Alsadoon, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine local anesthetics in achieving pulpal anesthesia of the lower first permanent molar teeth objectively, and to assess and compare lip and lingual mucosa numbness subjectively. Materials and Methods: All subjects received 1.7 ml of any one anesthetic in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to mandibular first molar teeth; the same individuals received the second infiltration at least 1 week after the first. Later, comparisons for pulpal anesthesia, lip and lingual mucosa numbness between these two anesthetics solutions were made. Results: Articaine showed significant results with P = 0.006 in achieving pulpal anesthesia objectively, when compared with lidocaine. Articaine also showed very high significant results subjectively with P = 0.0006 in achieving lip numbness, when compared with lidocaine. But the results in achieving lingual mucosa numbness with articaine subjectively was not significant with P = 0.01, when compared with lidocaine. Conclusion: Endodontic and operative treatments are one of the most common oral non-surgical procedures done under local anesthesia. The diversity of anesthetic substances currently available on the market requires dental professionals to assess the drug both by its pharmacokinetic and also by its clinical characteristics during dental treatments. Our study used 4% articaine, which is available in the market, for comparison with 2% lidocaine. Further studies are required to use an equal concentration of solutions to achieve more accurate results. PMID:26759799

  14. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Antinociceptive Actions of Lidocaine, Ketamine, Meloxicam, and Morphine Administration in Minimally Anaesthetized Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubedullah Kaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P<0.05 for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs.

  15. Lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination reduce isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Acevedo-Arcique

    Full Text Available The effects of intravenous (i.v. lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI: lidocaine 2 mg kg(-1, 100 µg kg(-1 minute(-1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg(-1, 2 µg kg(-1 hour(-1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5-39.2%, 43.4% (33.3-53.3% and 60.9% (46.1-78.1%, respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs.

  16. A Comparative Study of Ketamine Gargle and Lidocaine Jelly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... How to cite this article: Aigbedia SO, Tobi KU, Amadasun FE. A comparative ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow ... KEYWORDS: Postoperative throat pain, ketamine gargle, lidocaine, general .... taste from the normal saline placebo of the group L and.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo A; Dias, Bianca P; Bovino, Fernanda; Deschk, Maurício; Abimussi, Caio Jx; Oliva, Valéria Nls; Rodrigues, Celso A; Santos, Paulo Sp

    2014-03-01

    To assess the cardiovascular changes of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane during mechanical ventilation. Prospective, randomized, cross-over, experimental trial. A total of eight, healthy, male Holstein calves, aged 10 ± 1 months and weighing 114 ± 11 kg were included in the study. Calves were administered xylazine followed by ketamine and midazolam, orotracheal intubation and maintenance on isoflurane (1.3%) using mechanical ventilation. Forty minutes after induction, lidocaine (2 mg kg⁻¹ bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was administered IV followed by a continuous rate infusion (100 μg kg⁻¹ minute⁻¹) of lidocaine (treatment L) or saline (treatment C). Heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), cardiac output, end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2 ) and core temperature (CT) were recorded before lidocaine or saline administration (Baseline) and at 20-minute intervals (T20-T80). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were measured in treatment L. The HR was significantly lower in treatment L compared with treatment C. There was no difference between the treatments with regards to SAP, DAP, MAP and SVRI. CI was significantly lower at T60 in treatment L when compared with treatment C. PAOP and CVP increased significantly at all times compared with Baseline in treatment L. There was no significant difference between times within each treatment and between treatments with regards to other measured variables. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 1.85 to 2.06 μg mL⁻¹ during the CRI. At the studied rate, lidocaine causes a decrease in heart rate which is unlikely to be of clinical significance in healthy animals, but could be a concern in compromised animals. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists

  18. Development of a local anesthetic lidocaine-loaded redox-active injectable gel for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Yukio; Mizukoshi, Yutaro; Gao, Zhenyu; Feliciano, Chitho P; Chang, Kyungho; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    Although local anesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness at the areas of inflammation due to the acidic pH. The presence of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to induce inflammation and aggravate pain. To resolve these issues, we developed a redox-active injectable gel (RIG) with ROS-scavenging activity. RIG was prepared by mixing polyamine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyamine with nitroxide radical moieties as side chains on the polyamine segments (PMNT-b-PEG-b-PMNT) with a polyanion, which formed a flower-type micelle via electrostatic complexation. Lidocaine could be stably incorporated in its core. When the temperature of the solution was increased to 37°C, the PIC-type flower micelle transformed to gel. The continuous release of lidocaine from the gel was observed for more than three days, without remarkable initial burst, which is probably owing to the stable entrapment of lidocaine in the PIC core of the gel. We evaluated the analgesic effect of RIG in carrageenan-induced arthritis mouse model. Results showed that lidocaine-loaded RIG has stronger and longer analgesic effect when administered in inflamed areas. In contrast, while the use of non-complexed lidocaine did not show analgesic effect one day after its administration. Note that no effect was observed when PIC-type flower micelle without ROS-scavenging ability was used. These findings suggest that local anesthetic-loaded RIG can effectively reduce the number of injection times and limit the side effects associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management. 1. We have been working on nanomaterials, which effectively eliminate ROS, avoiding dysfunction of mitochondria in healthy cells. 2. We designed redox injectable gel using polyion complexed flower type micelle, which can eliminates ROS locally. 3. We could prepare local anesthesia-loaded redox injectable

  19. Anesthetic efficacy of combinations of 0.5 mol/L mannitol and lidocaine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Timothy; Kiser, Russell; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Beck, Mike

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of these 2 prospective, randomized, single-blind studies was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared with a combination lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 mol/L mannitol for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. In study one, 55 emergency patients randomly received IAN blocks by using a 3.18-mL formulation containing 63.6 mg of lidocaine with 31.8 μg epinephrine or a 5-mL formulation containing 63.6 mg of lidocaine with 31.8 μg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 1.82 mL of 0.5 mol/L mannitol. In study two, 51 emergency patients randomly received IAN blocks by using a 1.9-mL formulation containing 76.4 mg of lidocaine with 36 μg epinephrine or a 3-mL formulation containing 76.4 mg of lidocaine with 36 μg epinephrine (1.9 mL) plus 1.1 mL of 0.5 mol/L mannitol. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after the IAN block, and all patients had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analogue scale recordings) on endodontic access or instrumentation. The 1.9 mL of lidocaine (76.4 mg) with epinephrine plus 0.5 mol/L mannitol had a significantly (P = .04) better success rate of 39% when compared with the lidocaine formulation without mannitol (13% success rate). For mandibular posterior teeth in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, the addition of 0.5 mol/L mannitol to 1.9 mL of lidocaine (76.4 mg) with epinephrine resulted in a statistically higher success rate. However, the combination lidocaine/mannitol formulation would not result in predictable pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does intrapleural length and position of the intercostal drain affect the frequency of residual hemothorax? A prospective study from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thoracic trauma causes significant morbidity; however, many deaths are preventable and few patients require surgery. Intercostal chest drainage (ICD for hemo/pneumothorax is simple and effective; the main problem is residual hemothorax, which can cause lung collapse and empyema. Aims: Our study aimed to analyze the relationship between radiological chest tube parameters (position and intrathoracic length and the frequency of residual hemothorax. Settings and Design: This prospective analytical study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital in north India over 2 years till March 2013. Materials and Methods: Patients of chest trauma aged 18-60 years, with hemothorax or hemopneumothorax requiring ICD insertion were included in the study. Bedside ICD insertion was performed as per current standards. Immediate post-ICD chest radiographs were used to record lung status and ICD position (chest tube zone and intrapleural length. Residual hemothorax was defined as any collection identified on radiological investigations after 48 hours of ICD placement. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was performed with the chi-square test or Student′s t-test as appropriate, while multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression; a P-value < 0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 170 patients of chest trauma, 154 underwent ICD insertion. Most patients were young (mean age: 31.7 ± 12 years males (M:F = 14:1. Ninety-seven patients (57.1% had isolated chest injuries. Blunt trauma (n = 119; 77.3% and motor vehicle accidents (n = 72; 46.7% were the commonest causes. Mean hospital stay was 9 ± 3.94 days, and mortality 2/154 (1.1%. Residual hemothorax was seen in 48 (31%. No ICD zone or length was significantly associated with residual hemothorax on univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Intrapleural ICD zone or length does not affect the frequency of residual hemothorax.

  1. Evaluation of lidocaine treatment on frequency of cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury, and hospitalization time in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Itay, Srugo; Shira, Ben-Halevy; Kelmer, Efrat; Sigal, Yudelecitch; Itamar, Aroch; Gilad, Segev

    2012-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of IV lidocaine in decreasing complication rate and improving the outcome in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV). Prospective non-controlled study of 83 lidocaine-treated dogs with GDV compared to 47 untreated historical controls with GDV. University veterinary teaching hospital. One hundred and thirty client-owned dogs with naturally occurring GDV. Study group dogs were treated at presentation with lidocaine (2 mg/kg, IV bolus) followed by constant rate infusion (CRI) of 0.05 mg/kg/min for 24 h. Historical control dogs did not receive any lidocaine. There were no group differences in age, body weight, time lag from onset of clinical signs to presentation, rectal temperature and pulse rate at presentation, and proportion of gastric wall necrosis. The proportions of cardiac arrhythmias and acute kidney injury (AKI) were significantly (Pdogs with GDV compared to untreated historical controls. Due to the nonblinded, placebo-uncontrolled, nonrandomized nature of the current study, further evaluation of the efficacy of lidocaine in dogs with GDV is warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  2. Effect of cervical epidural blockade with 2% lidocaine plus epinephrine on respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hung

    2007-12-01

    Cervical epidural anesthesia has been used widely for surgery of upper limbs. Although cervical epidural anesthesia with local anesthetic of 2% lidocaine (plain) has demonstrated the safety in respiratory function in spite of unavoidable phrenic and intercostal palsies to certain extent, the replacement of local anesthetics with 2% lidocaine plus epinephrine has not been investigated yet. I conducted this study to look into the effect of 2% lidocaine plus epinephrine on respiratory function. I collected data from 50 patients with mean age of 24 +/- 3 yrs, mean weight of 65 +/- 10 kg, ASA status: I-II without preoperative pulmonary dysfunction undergoing orthropedic open-reduction with internal fixation because of fractures of upper limbs. Cervical epidural space (C7-T1) was approached by hanging-drop method, using a 17G Tuohy needle. A catheter was inserted craniad to a distance of 12 cm. Pulmonary function measurement and arterial blood gas data were obstained before, 20 min, 50 min and 105 min after injection of 12 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. The anesthesia levels were between C3-T3 and obtained 15 +/- 2 min after injection. Mean arterial blood gas analysis showed mild respiratory acidosis at 20 min (PaCO2: 48 +/- 3 mmHg) and 50 min (PaCO2: 44 +/- 2 mmHg). The measured values of inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) when compaired with control values, were decreased about 18.0% and 12.1% of the control values at 20 min and 50 min respectively. The ratios of FEV1/VC, FEV1/FVC were still within normal limits (> 80%). The results were significantly compatible with the criteria of mild restrictive type of pulmonary function. Cervical epidural anesthesia with 2% lidocaine plus epinephrine could reduce lung volumes and capacities, resulting from partially paralytic intercostal muscles and diaphragm innervated respectively by thoracic

  3. Comparison of placebo and intrauterine lidocaine with/or without rectal diclofenac sodium suppositories used in office endometrial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Celik, Handan; Sahinoglu, Ali Haydar

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of intrauterine lidocaine, intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac, and a placebo on analgesia and to determine the satisfaction of patients and surgeons in cases of endometrial biopsy. The double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun,Turkey, from April 2013 to January 2014, and comprised patients scheduled for in-office endometrial biopsy.They were divided into three groups: Group P, 5ml of 0.9% saline intrauterine; Group L, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine; and Group LD, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine ± 10min before the procedure plus 50mg of rectal diclofenac sodium. Haemodynamic changes and visual analogue scale scores were recorded during the preoperative period, when the cervix was grasped with a tenaculum, immediately after intrauterine instillation, during uterine curettage and at postoperative 10 min. The patient and the surgeon were questioned about their satisfaction 15 min after the procedure. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. The 90 patients in the study were divided into three equal groups of 30(33.33%) each. There were no statistically significant inter-group differences in age, bodyweight, parity, number of postmenopausal patients, haemodynamic parameters and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (p>0.05 in all categories). In Group P, the visual analogue scale score estimated when the cervix was grasped with the tenaculum was lower when compared with Group L and Group LD (p=0.029 and p=0.007, respectively). At other measurement time points, the scores did not differ between the groups. The groups did not differ with respect to patient and surgeon satisfaction and complication rates (p>0.05). Intrauterine lidocaine or intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac application had no effect on visual analogue scale scores, patient satisfaction and vasovagal reaction.

  4. Use of ropivacain and lidocaine for axillary plexus blockade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of ropivacain and lidocaine for axillary plexus blockade. ... of the juvenile anatomy, psychological barriers, time constraints on block ... children in the age group of 2 to 10 years and undergoing short upper limb surgery. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read ...

  5. Efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for preventing ventricular fibrillation after aortic cross-clamp release in open heart surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Chen, Hong-Wu; Peng, Huai-Ming; Jia, Dong-Yu; Zhou, Yu; Xiang, Mei-Xiang

    The relative preventative efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for ventricular fibrillation (VF) after release of an aortic cross-clamp (ACC) during open heart surgery has not been determined. This meta-analysis was designed to systematically evaluate the influence of amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo on the incidence of VF after ACC. Prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the VF-preventative effects of amiodarone with lidocaine, or amiodarone or lidocaine with placebo were included. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant RCTs. Fixed or randomized effect models were applied according to the heterogeneity of the data from the selected studies. We included eight RCTs in the analysis. Pooled results suggested that the preventative effects of amiodarone and lidocaine were comparable (relative risk (RR)=1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70 to 1.80, P=0.63), but both were superior to the placebo (amiodarone, RR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.00, P=0.05; lidocaine, RR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.88, P=0.006). The percentage of patients requiring electric defibrillation counter shocks (DCSs) did not differ significantly among patients administered amiodarone (RR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.19, P=0.08), lidocaine (RR=2.44, 95% CI: 0.13 to 44.02, P=0.55), or the placebo (RR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.25, P=0.16). Amiodarone and lidocaine are comparably effective in preventing VF after ACC, but the percentage of patients who subsequently require DCSs does not differ among those administered amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo.

  6. Activated endothelial interleukin-1beta, -6, and -8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression are attenuated by lidocaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, Wei

    2012-02-03

    Endothelial cells play a key role in ischemia reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lidocaine (0 to 0.5 mg\\/mL) for 60 min, thereafter tumor necrosis factor-alpha was added at a concentration of 2.5 ng\\/mL and the cells incubated for 4 h. Supernatants were harvested, and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and post hoc unpaired Student\\'s t-test where appropriate. Lidocaine (0.5 mg\\/mL) decreased IL-1beta (1.89 +\\/- 0.11 versus 4.16 +\\/- 1.27 pg\\/mL; P = 0.009), IL-6 (65.5 +\\/- 5.14 versus 162 +\\/- 11.5 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001), and IL-8 (3869 +\\/- 785 versus 14,961 +\\/- 406 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001) concentrations compared with the control. IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in HUVECs treated with clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine (0.005 mg\\/mL) were similar to control. ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine-treated (0.05 mg\\/mL) HUVECs was less than on controls (198 +\\/- 52.7 versus 298 +\\/- 50.3; Mean Channel Fluorescence; P < 0.001). Activated endothelial IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and ICAM-1 expression are attenuated only by lidocaine at concentrations larger than clinically relevant concentrations.

  7. Efficacy of a Buffered 4% Lidocaine Formulation for Incision and Drainage: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreld, Taryn Kratz; Fowler, Sara; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2015-10-01

    Incision and drainage of symptomatic emergency patients with facial swelling is painful even after local anesthetics are administered. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the pain of infiltration and the pain of an incision and drainage procedure of a buffered versus a nonbuffered 4% lidocaine formulation in symptomatic emergency patients presenting with a diagnosis of pulpal necrosis, associated periapical area, and an acute clinical swelling. Eighty-eight emergency patients were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive 2 intraoral infiltration injections (mesial and distal to the swelling) of either 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered with 0.18 mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate using the Onpharma (Los Gatos, CA) buffering system or 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Subjects rated the pain of needle insertion, needle placement, and solution deposition for each injection using a 170-mm visual analog scale. An incision and drainage procedure was performed, and subjects rated the pain of incision, drainage, and dissection on a 170-mm visual analog scale. No significant differences between the buffered and nonbuffered 4% lidocaine formulations were found for needle insertion, placement, and solution deposition of the infiltration injections or for the treatment phases of incision, drainage, and dissection. Buffering a 4% lidocaine formulation did not significantly decrease the pain of infiltrations or significantly decrease the pain of the incision and drainage procedure when compared with a nonbuffered 4% lidocaine formulation in symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of pulpal necrosis and associated acute swelling. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sucralfate and Lidocain: Antacid 50:50 solution in Post Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Kadir, Ehsan; Aijaz, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of pain relief of Sucralfate and lidocain antacid 50:50 solution in post esophageal variceal band ligation pain. All patients who had under gone Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation (EVBL) were included in the study. Patients un-willing to be included in the study or those who didn't have post EVBL pain were excluded. Patients with post EVBL pains were divided into two groups: one group was given sucralfate and other was given lidocaine: antacid 50:50 solution. Both were inquired about the duration of the pain relief after the medication. The results were analyzed on SPSS 23. Independent samples T-test was performed to find out whether the difference in duration of pain relief was significantly different in the two groups. Out of 110 patients who have EVBL, 66(60.00%) had pain and 44(40.00%) were pain free. In the pain group 46 (69.7%) were given sucralfate and 20 (30.3%) were given lidocain: antacid 50:50 solution. Mean duration of pain relief in two groups was 2.78 (SD ± 2.096) and 2.5 days (SD ±. 0.76) respectively. Independent samples T-test results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the duration of pain relief between these two groups with p value 0.426. Both Sucralfate and Lidocain: antacid 50:50 solutions are effective in relieving the post EVBL pain. However, no statistically significant difference in duration of pain relief was detected in separate groups of patients treated with either treatment.

  9. Effect of trochar site lidocaine on postoperative pain scoring and patient satisfaction after gynecologic laparoscopies – A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Zahran

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The combined use trochar sites and intraperitoneal lidocaine is superior to intraperitoneal lidocaine alone in managing postoperative pain after laparoscopic gynecological procedures. It leads to lower VAS at day 1 and day 7 postoperatively, less need for additional analgesics and higher patient satisfaction.

  10. Comparison Efficacy of Topical Piroxicam Gel and Lidocaine with Intravenous Pethidine in Reducing Pain during ESWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mohammad Alibeigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: ESWL is a non-invasive method of breaking stones, using acoustic shock waves. Shock waves cause temporary deep visceral pain and discomfort in entry therefore, administration of sedatives is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of topical lidocaine and piroxicam gel with intravenous pethidine in reducing pain during ESWL. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on 159 patients who referred to Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in Shahrkord for ESWL in 2009. Patients were randomly divided into three-groups. For the first group, intravenous pethidine (0.5 mg/kg alone was administered. The second group received topical piroxicam, and the third group received topical lidocaine in the area of flank for half an hour before ESWL. During the operation, those patients who had unbearable pain, received another 0.5 mg/kg of pethidine. Data was collected using MC Gill questionnaires and analyzed using the SPSS software, using parametric, nonparametric methods and Dunn's Multiple Comparisons tests. Results: The mean of pain scores in the first group (pethidine was 6.2 ± 6.9 while these scores were 3.2 ± 2 .7 and 3.9 ± 3.1 for the second (piroxicam gel and third group (lidocaine gel respectively. The differences in the mean score of pain was significant in the pethidine group compared to the other groups (P <0.05. The average pethidin consumption were 24 ± 16 mg for the first group (pethidine, 10 ± 13 mg for the second group (piroxicam gel, and 5 ± 9 mg for the third group (lidocaine gel. The mean difference was significant in pethidine treated group in comparison with other two groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of topical piroxicam or lidocaine reduces pain in patients after ESWL It also reduces the need for sedative drugs.

  11. Simultaneous determination of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Ju, Huangxian

    2006-09-01

    Ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine, partly excreted by the kidney, are generally used as hemostatic, analgesic and local anesthetic in surgery. We developed a simple and sensitive method for their simultaneous monitoring in human urine based on CE coupled with electrochemiluminescence detection by end-column mode. Under optimized conditions the proposed method yielded linear ranges from 5.0 x 10(-8) to 5.0 x 10(-5), 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-4) and 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-4) M with LODs of 8.0 x 10(-9) M (36 amol), 1.6 x 10(-8) M (72 amol) and 1.0 x 10(-8) M (45 amol) (S/N = 3) for ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine, respectively. The RSD for their simultaneous detection at 1.0 x 10(-6) M was 2.1, 2.8 and 3.2% (n = 7), respectively. For practical application an extraction step with ethyl acetate at pH 11 was performed to eliminate the influence of the sample ionic strength. The recoveries of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine at different levels in human urine were between 87 and 95%. This method was used for simultaneous detection of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine in clinic urine samples from two medicated patients. It was valuable in clinical and biochemical laboratories for monitoring these drugs for various purposes.

  12. 4% lidocaine versus 4% articaine for inferior alveolar nerve block in impacted lower third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiriseth, Kiatanant; Chaimanakarn, Sittipong; Chewpreecha, Prued; Nonpassopon, Natee; Khanijou, Manop; Ping, Bushara; Wongsirichat, Natthamet

    2017-03-01

    No study has compared lidocaine with articaine, each at a concentration of 4% and combined with epinephrine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4% lidocaine with that of 4% articaine, with a concentration of 1:100,000 epinephrine added to each, in an inferior alveolar nerve block for surgery on impacted lower third molars. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand. The randomized, single-blind, comparative split-mouth study was carried out in patients with symmetrically impacted lower third molars, as identified on panoramic radiographs. Each patient underwent surgery for the removal of the lower third molars by the same surgeon under local anesthesia at two separate visits, 3 weeks apart. The onset and duration of local anesthesia, intra-operative pain, surgical duration, and number of additional anesthetics administered were recorded. The subjective and objective onset of action for the local anesthetics showed statistically significant differences (P inferior alveolar nerve block was clinically more effective in the onset of subjective and objective anesthesia as compared with the use of 4% lidocaine. Based on the pain scores from the visual analogue scale, 4% lidocaine provided more analgesia during the procedure, and patients noted less intra-operative pain than with 4% articaine; however, the difference was not clinically significant.

  13. The Effect of Ketamine and Dexamethasone in Combination with Lidocaine on the Onset and Duration of Axillary Block in Hand and Forearm Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Behrooz; Hojjati Ashrafi, Siavash; Seyed Siamdoust, Seyedalireza; Hassani, Valiollah; Mohamad Taheri, Siavash; Noorizad, Samad

    2017-10-01

    Using peripheral nerve block compared to general anesthesia has gained more popularity due to reduced postoperative pain, less need for post-surgery analgesic drugs, reduced incidence of nausea, shortness of PACU time, and increased patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ketamine and dexamethasone as additives to lidocaine on duration and onset of axillary block action. In this clinical trial, all patients who referred to Hazrat-e-Fatemeh hospital for forearm and hand soft tissue surgery with informed consent were randomly divided into three groups in order to examine the onset and duration of axillary block: lidocaine + ketamine, lidocaine + dexamethasone in axillary block, and lidocaine alone (control). Then, the onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were measured and recorded every three minutes and after the surgery. Quantitative and qualitative variables were analyzed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square or Fisher exact test in SPSS v.22. Duration of sensory and motor block axillary was significantly higher in lidocaine + dexamethasone group than in lidocaine + ketamine group (P block axillary between the three groups (P > 0.05). According to the results of our study, we can conclude that adding dexamethasone or ketamine to lidocaine could improve duration of sensory and motor axillary block in patients undergoing forearm and hand soft tissue surgery. However, dexamethasone had the highest effect on duration of block axillary. We proved that dexamethasone or ketamine added to lidocaine had no effect on the onset of block axillary.

  14. Asymmetrical intrapleural pressure distribution: a cause for scoliosis? A computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Benedikt; Niemeyer, Frank; Galbusera, Fabio; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2018-04-13

    The mechanical link between the pleural physiology and the development of scoliosis is still unresolved. The intrapleural pressure (IPP) which is distributed across the inner chest wall has yet been widely neglected in etiology debates. With this study, we attempted to investigate the mechanical influence of the IPP distribution on the shape of the spinal curvature. A finite element model of pleura, chest and spine was created based on CT data of a patient with no visual deformities. Different IPP distributions at a static end of expiration condition were investigated, such as the influence of an asymmetry in the IPP distribution between the left and right hemithorax. The results were then compared to clinical data. The application of the IPP resulted in a compressive force of 22.3 N and a flexion moment of 2.8 N m at S1. An asymmetrical pressure between the left and right hemithorax resulted in lateral deviation of the spine towards the side of the reduced negative pressure. In particular, the pressure within the dorsal section of the rib cage had a strong influence on the vertebral rotation, while the pressure in medial and ventral region affected the lateral displacement. An asymmetrical IPP caused spinal deformation patterns which were comparable to deformation patterns seen in scoliotic spines. The calculated reaction forces suggest that the IPP contributes in counterbalancing the weight of the intrathoracic organs. The study confirms the potential relevance of the IPP for spinal biomechanics and pathologies, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  15. Electrophysiologic Study of a Method of Euthanasia Using Intrathecal Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered during Intravenous Anesthesia in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Davis, E; Williams, D C; Madigan, J E; Smith, F; Guedes, A

    2015-01-01

    An intravenous (IV) overdose of pentobarbital sodium is the most commonly used method of euthanasia in veterinary medicine. However, this compound is not available in many countries or rural areas resulting in usage of alternative methods such as intrathecal lidocaine administration after IV anesthesia. Its safety and efficacy as a method of euthanasia have not been investigated in the horse. To investigate changes in mean arterial blood pressure and electrical activity of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and heart during intrathecal administration of lidocaine. Our hypothesis was that intrathecal lidocaine affects the cerebral cortex and brainstem before affecting cardiovascular function. Eleven horses requiring euthanasia for medical reasons. Prospective observational study. Horses were anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, and ketamine; and instrumented for recording of electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Physical and neurological (brainstem reflexes) variables were monitored. Mean arterial blood pressure was recorded throughout the study. Loss of cerebro-cortical electrical activity occurred up to 226 seconds after the end of the infusion of lidocaine solution. Cessation of brainstem function as evidenced by a lack of brainstem reflexes and disappearance of BAER occurred subsequently. Undetectable heart sounds, nonpalpable arterial pulse, and extremely low mean arterial blood pressure supported cardiac death; a recordable ECG was the last variable to disappear after the infusion (300-1,279 seconds). Intrathecal administration of lidocaine is an effective alternative method of euthanasia in anesthetized horses, during which brain death occurs before cardiac death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Hemodynamic Effect of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 Epinephrine Infiltration in Maxillofacial Surgeries under General Anesthesia

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    Baratollah Shaban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine-containing lidocaine is the most used anestheic drug in dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes following local infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in subjects undergoing orthognatic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five patients without any systemic disease participated. After general anesthesia, two cartridges of 2% lidocaine + 1:80,000 epinephrine were infiltrated around the surgery site. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and blood sugar (BS were measured in three stages: before the injection (M1, at the end of injection (M2, and 10 min after injection (M3. Results: No significant difference observed in SBP, DBP, and MAP at the end of injection and 10 min later. HR was increased significantly after injection and remained significantly higher than baseline after 10 min. BS increased slightly at the end of injection and continued to increase after 10 min. However, changes in BS were not significant. Conclusion: Using two cartridges of epinephrine-containing lidocaine have slight systemic changes in healthy subjects; as a result, this dosage could be used in patients with cardiovascular complications undergoing general anesthesia.

  17. Hemodynamic Effect of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 Epinephrine Infiltration in Maxillofacial Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratollah Shaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine-containing lidocaine is the most used anestheic drug in dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes following local infiltration of 2%lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in subjects undergoing orthognatic surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Twenty five patients without any systemic disease participated. After general anesthesia, two cartridges of 2% lidocaine + 1:80,000 epinephrine were infiltrated around the surgery site. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and blood sugar (BS were measured in three stages: before the injection (M1, at the end of injection (M2, and 10 min after injection (M3. Results: No significant difference observed in SBP, DBP, and MAP at the end of injection and 10 min later. HR was increased significantly after injection and remained significantly higher than baseline after 10 min. BS increased slightly at the end of injection and continued to increase after 10 min. However, changes in BS were not significant. Conclusion: Using two cartridges of epinephrine-containing lidocaine have slight systemic changes in healthy subjects; as a result, this dosage could be used in patients with cardiovascular complications undergoing general anesthesia.

  18. Anesthetic Efficacy of a Combination of 4% Prilocaine/2% Lidocaine with Epinephrine for the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Olivia; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Fowler, Sara; Reader, Al; Draper, John

    2018-05-01

    Prilocaine plain has a high pH and concentration (4%), which could decrease the pain of injection and increase success. The purpose of this study was to compare pain associated with anesthetic solution deposition and the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with the combination of prilocaine and lidocaine versus a lidocaine and lidocaine combination when used for inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs). One hundred eighteen asymptomatic subjects were randomly given a combination of 1 cartridge of 4% prilocaine plain plus 1 cartridge of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or a combination of 2 cartridges of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for the IANB at 2 separate appointments. Subjects rated the pain associated with anesthetic solution deposition of injection. Mandibular teeth were tested with an electric pulp tester every 4 minutes for 57 minutes. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 17 minutes and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 57 minutes. Comparisons for anesthetic success were analyzed using the exact McNemar test, and pain ratings associated with anesthetic solution deposition were analyzed using multiple Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank tests; both were adjusted using the step-down Bonferroni method of Holm. Four percent prilocaine plain was significantly less painful upon anesthetic solution deposition. Pulpal anesthetic success was not significantly different between the 2 combinations. The combination of 4% prilocaine plain plus 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine did not increase pulpal anesthetic success for IANBs compared with a combination of 2 cartridges of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Pain associated with anesthetic solution deposition from the first cartridge of 4% prilocaine plain was significantly less when compared with the first cartridge of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published

  19. Histological investigation of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T S; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Bezerra, C S; Silva, J L

    2006-01-01

    Alveolitis is considered a disturbance of the alveolar healing process that is characterized by blood clot disintegration, alveolar wall infection and extreme pain. Several substances have been investigated to improve healing and guarantee postoperative comfort to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate, microscopically, in rats, the healing process in non-infected tooth sockets, after application of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, using lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. Forty-five rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) had their right incisor extracted and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=15): Group I (control): the sockets were filled with blood clot; Group II: application of adrenaline solution at 1:1 000 with an absorbent paper point during 1 min plus filling of the socket with a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle, and mint as flavoring; Group III: filling of the socket with the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. After 6, 15 and 28 days postoperatively, 5 animals per group were euthanized with an injectable anesthetic overdose. Histological and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring yielded similar response as that of the normal repair group and may be used to prevent the onset of alveolitis in those cases in which any predisposing factor is present. The use of this dressing has shown a good postoperative patient's comfort and does not cause a significant delay in the alveolar healing process.

  20. Effectiveness of intra-articular lidocaine injection for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Faloppa, Flavio; Wajnsztejn, André; Archetti Netto, Nicola; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Belloti, João Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder dislocation is the most common dislocation among the large joints. The aim here was to compare the effectiveness of reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocation with or without articular anesthesia. Prospective randomized trial conducted in Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp). From March 2008 to December 2009, 42 patients with shoulder dislocation were recruited. Reductions using traction-countertraction for acute anterior shoulder dislocation with and without lidocaine articular anesthesia were compared. As the primary outcome, pain was assessed through application of a visual analogue scale before reduction, and one and five minutes after the reduction maneuver was performed. Complications were also assessed. Forty-two patients were included: 20 in the group without analgesia (control group) and 22 in the group that received intra-articular lidocaine injection. The group that received intra-articular lidocaine had a statistically greater decrease in pain over time than shown by the control group, both in the first minute (respectively: mean 2.1 (0 to 5.0), standard deviation, SD 1.3, versus mean 4.9 (2.0 to 7.0, SD 1.5; P < 0.001) and the fifth minute (respectively: mean 1.0; 0 to 3.0; SD = 1.0 versus mean 4.0; 1.0 to 6.0; SD = 1.4; P < 0.001). There was one failure in the control group. There were no other complications in either group. Reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation using intra-articular lidocaine injection is effective, since it is safe and diminishes the pain. ISRCTN27127703.

  1. Transplacental Distribution of Lidocaine and Its Metabolite in Peridural Anesthesia Administered to Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Luciana de Barros; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Marques, Maria Paula; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Duarte, Geraldo

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal effects of drugs administered to mothers before delivery depend on the quantity that crosses the placental barrier, which is determined by the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the mother, fetus, and placenta. Diabetes mellitus can alter the kinetic disposition and the metabolism of drugs. This study investigated the placental transfer of lidocaine and its metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) submitted to peridural anesthesia. A total of 10 normal pregnant women (group 1) and 6 pregnant women with GDM (group 2) were studied, all at term. The patients received 200 mg 2% lidocaine hydrochloride by the peridural locoregional route. Maternal blood samples were collected at the time of delivery and, after placental expulsion, blood samples were collected from the intervillous space, umbilical artery, and vein for determination of lidocaine and MEGX concentrations and analysis of the placental transfer of the drug. The following respective lidocaine ratios between the maternal and the fetal compartments were obtained for groups 1 and 2: umbilical vein/maternal peripheral blood, 0.60 and 0.46; intervillous space/maternal blood, 1.01 and 0.88; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 0.77 and 0.91; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.53 and 0.51. The following MEGX ratios for groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, fetal/maternal, 0.43 and 0.97; intervillous space/maternal blood, 0.64 and 0.90; umbilical artery/umbilical vein, 1.09 and 0.99; and umbilical vein/intervillous space, 0.55 and 0.78. Gestational diabetes mellitus did not affect the transplacental transfer of lidocaine but interfered with the transfer of MEGX, acting as a mechanism facilitating the transport of the metabolite. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Intracuff buffered lidocaine versus saline or air – A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smoking or recently treated upper respiratory tract infections were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 25), based on the type of endotracheal tube cuff inflation, as follows: Group A (air), Group B (6 ml normal saline) and Group C (6 ml 2% lidocaine + 0.5 ml 7.5% sodium bicarbonate). A second, blinded anaesthetist, ...

  3. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  4. Intravenous lidocaine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Nikolova-Todorova, Zorica; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Gashi, Musli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fentanyl-induced cough is usually mild and transitory, but it can be undesirable in patients with increased intracranial pressure, open wounds of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurism, pneumothorax, and reactive airway disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough in children during induction in general anesthesia. Methods One hundred and eighty-six children of both sexes, aged between 4?10?years, ASA physical status I an...

  5. Recovery of storage and emptying functions of the urinary bladder after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, E T; Ionescu, T I; Kuipers, P W; de Gier, J; van Venrooij, G E; Boon, T A

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine on urinary bladder function in healthy men who were scheduled for minor orthopaedic surgical procedures. Twenty men were randomly allocated to receive either bupivacaine or lidocaine. Before spinal anesthesia, filling cystometry was performed with the patient in the supine position and a pressure flow study was done with the patient in the standing position. After operation, cystometric measurements were continued until the patient could void urine spontaneously. The levels of analgesia and of motor blockade were recorded. The urge to void disappeared immediately after injection of the local anesthetics. There was no difference in the duration of lower extremity motor blockade between bupivacaine and lidocaine. Detrusor blockade lasted significantly longer in the bupivacaine group (means +/- SD, 460 +/- 60 min) than in the lidocaine group (235 +/- 30 min). Total fluid intake and urine volume accumulated during the detrusor blockade were significantly higher in the bupivacaine group than in the lidocaine group. In the bupivacaine group, the total volume of accumulated urine (875 +/- 385 ml) was also significantly higher than cystometric bladder capacity (505 +/- 120 ml) with the risk of over distension of the bladder. Spontaneous voiding of urine did not occur until segmental sensory analgesia had regressed to the third sacral segment. Spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine causes a clinically significant disturbance of bladder function due to interruption of the micturition reflex. The urge to void disappears quickly and bladder function remains impaired until the block has regressed to the third sacral segment in all patients. With long-acting local anesthetics, the volume of accumulated urine may exceed the cystometric bladder capacity. With respect to recovery of urinary bladder function, the use of short-acting local anesthetics

  6. Dexmedetomidine Dose Dependently Enhances the Local Anesthetic Action of Lidocaine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2016-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) dose dependently enhances the local anesthetic action of lidocaine in rats. We hypothesized that the effect might also be dose dependent in humans. We evaluated the effect of various concentrations of DEX with a local anesthetic in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned by a computer to receive 1.8 mL of 1 of 4 drug combinations: (1) 1% lidocaine with 2.5 ppm (parts per million) (4.5 μg) DEX, (2) lidocaine with 5.0 ppm (9.0 μg) DEX, (3) lidocaine with 7.5 ppm (13.5μg) DEX, or (4) lidocaine with 1:80,000 (22.5 μg) adrenaline (AD), to produce inferior alveolar nerve block. Pulp latency and lower lip numbness (for assessing onset and duration of anesthesia) were tested, and sedation level, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 5 minutes for 20 minutes, and every 10 minutes from 20 to 60 minutes. Pulp latency of each tooth increased compared with baseline, from 5 to 15 minutes until 60 minutes. There were no significant intergroup differences at any time point. Anesthesia onset was not different between groups. Anesthesia duration was different between groups (that with DEX 7.5 ppm was significantly longer than that with DEX 2.5 ppm and AD; there was no difference between DEX 2.5 ppm and AD). Blood pressure decreased from baseline in the 5.0 and 7.5 ppm DEX groups at 30 to 60 minutes, although there was no hypotension; moreover, heart rate did not change in any group. Sedation score did not indicate deep sedation in any of the groups. Dexmedetomidine dose dependently enhances the local anesthetic action of lidocaine in humans. Dexmedetomidine at 2.5 ppm produces similar enhancement of local anesthesia effect as addition of 1:80,000 AD.

  7. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Roberta Moura; Carnaval, Talita Girio; Lanfredi, Camila Bernardeli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Seventy volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analog scale. All patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. By measuring pulpal anesthesia success with the pulp tester, lidocaine had a higher success rate (42.9%) than bupivacaine (20%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of bupivacaine was 80% and lidocaine was 62.9%. There were only statistically significant differences to the success of pulpal anesthesia. Neither of the solutions resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments of mandibular molars. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  9. Technical effects of adding 1 % lidocaine to technetium sulfur colloid for sentinel lymphatic mapping in early breast cancer: analysis of data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Cletus A; Henry, Leonard R; Howard, Robin S; Peoples, George E; Bilchik, Anton J; Avital, Itzhak; Buckenmaier Iii, Chester C; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    A practice standard in sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer is intradermal injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m), resulting in significant patient discomfort and pain. A previous randomized controlled trial showed that adding lidocaine to Tc-99m significantly reduced radioisotope injection-related pain. We tested whether 1 % lidocaine admixed with Tc-99m affects feasibility of SLN mapping. Between January 2006 and April 2009, 140 patients with early breast cancer were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive standard topical 4 % lidocaine cream and intradermal Tc-99m (control) or to one of three other study groups: topical placebo cream and injection of Tc-99m containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), 1 % lidocaine, or both. All SLN data were collected prospectively. Study groups were comparable for clinicopathological parameters. As previously reported, the addition of 1 % lidocaine to the radioisotope solution significantly improved patient comfort. Overall SLN identification rate in the trial was 93 %. Technical aspects of SLN biopsy were similar for all groups, including time from injection to operation, first SLN (SLN 1) gamma probe counts, ex vivo counts for SLN 1 and SLN 2, and axillary bed counts. SLN identification rates were comparable statistically: control (96 %), lidocaine (90 %), sodium bicarbonate (97 %), and sodium bicarbonate-lidocaine (90 %). The control group had a significantly higher SLN 2/SLN 1 ex vivo count ratio, and the number of SLNs detected was significantly reduced in the lidocaine versus no-lidocaine groups (p cancer is associated with fewer SLNs detected, but it does not appear to compromise SLN identification.

  10. Does Articaine Provide an Advantage over Lidocaine in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Jason; McDonagh, Marian; Sedgley, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    Achieving profound pulpal anesthesia can be difficult in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) question: in adults with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis who are undergoing endodontic treatment, what is the comparative efficacy of articaine compared with lidocaine in reducing pain and incidence of adverse events? A protocol was prepared and registered on PROSPERO. Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov by using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility for inclusion and quality. Weighted anesthesia success rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and compared by using a random-effects model. Two hundred seventy-five studies were initially identified from the search; 10 double-blind, randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. For combined studies, articaine was more likely than lidocaine to achieve successful anesthesia (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.41-3.47; P = .0006; I(2) = 40%). Maxillary infiltration subgroup analysis showed no significant difference between articaine and lidocaine (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 0.50-31.62; P = .19; I(2) = 59%). For combined mandibular anesthesia studies articaine was superior to lidocaine (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.40-3.44; P = .0006; I(2) = 30%), with further subgroup analysis showing no difference for mandibular block anesthesia (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.87-2.38; P = .16; I(2) = 0%). When used for supplemental infiltration after successful mandibular block anesthesia, articaine was significantly more effective than lidocaine (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.97-6.39; P pulpitis. There is a significant advantage to using articaine over lidocaine for supplementary infiltration after mandibular block anesthesia but no advantage when used for mandibular block anesthesia alone or for maxillary

  11. Lidocaine self-sacrificially improves the skin permeation of the acidic and poorly water-soluble drug etodolac via its transformation into an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yasushi; Hamamoto, Hidetoshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Poor transdermal penetration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) impairs both bioavailability and therapeutic benefits and is a major challenge in the development of transdermal drug delivery systems. Here, we transformed a poorly water-soluble drug, etodolac, into an ionic liquid in order to improve its hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and skin permeability. The ionic liquid was prepared by mixing etodolac with lidocaine (1:1, mol/mol). Both the free drug and the transformed ionic liquid were characterized by differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and saturation concentration measurements. In addition, in vitro skin-permeation testing was carried out via an ionic liquid-containing patch (Etoreat patch). The lidocaine and etodolac in ionic liquid form led to a relatively lower melting point than either lidocaine or etodolac alone, and this improved the lipophilicity/hydrophilicity of etodolac. In vitro skin-permeation testing demonstrated that the Etoreat patch significantly increased the skin permeation of etodolac (9.3-fold) compared with an etodolac alone patch, although an Etoreat patch did not increase the skin permeation of lidocaine, which was consistent with the results when using a lidocaine alone patch. Lidocaine appeared to self-sacrificially improve the skin permeation of etodolac via its transformation into an ionic liquid. The data suggest that ionic liquids composed of approved drugs may substantially expand the formulation preparation method to meet the challenges of drugs which are characterized by poor rates of transdermal absorption. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of anatomic location of lidocaine patch 5% on effectiveness and tolerability for postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1 Matthew Wieman,2 Leah Bednarek,2 Surya Chitra21International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 2Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc, Malvern, PA, USAPurpose: Lidocaine patch 5% is recommended as a first-line therapy for postherpetic neuralgia pain in neuropathic pain guidelines. Postherpetic neuralgia can occur anywhere on the body but often follows acute herpes zoster occurring in trigeminal and brachial plexus dermatomes. An analysis was conducted to determine whether the anatomic location of lidocaine patch 5% is associated with variations in effectiveness or tolerability in patients with postherpetic neuralgia.Methods: This was a post hoc analysis by anatomic site of patch placement (head [including neck], trunk [chest, abdomen, back, hips], and extremities [arm, leg] of a 4-week, multicenter, open-label study that enrolled patients with persistent pain following herpes zoster infection. Effectiveness was measured by Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain intensity (0 [no pain] to 10 [worst imaginable pain] and the BPI subscale for pain relief (0% [no relief] to 100% [complete relief]. Tolerability was assessed on the basis of patient-reported adverse events.Results: Of 332 enrolled patients (59.6% women [n = 198]; 92.5% white [n = 307]; mean [standard deviation] age, 71.2 [13.9] years, those (n = 203 who applied lidocaine patch 5% to a single anatomic site only and had baseline and postbaseline pain score data were analyzed (trunk, n = 130; head, n = 41; extremities, n = 32. The frequency of adverse events differed significantly by anatomic location, with significantly more adverse events reported with patch placement on the head versus the extremities (P = 0.006 or trunk (P = 0.02. BPI average pain improved significantly from baseline in each of the three anatomic areas (mean score decrease, 1.50–2.04; P ≤ 0.002, with no significant difference in effectiveness by patch location.Conclusion: Lidocaine 5% patch was

  13. Evaluation of lidocaine treatment and risk factors for death associated with gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs: 112 cases (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buber, Tali; Saragusty, Joseph; Ranen, Eyal; Epstein, Ana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Bruchim, Yaron

    2007-05-01

    To determine clinical features, outcome, risk factors for death, and efficacy of IV administration of lidocaine as a prophylactic treatment for ischemic reperfusion injury in gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Retrospective case series. 112 dogs with GDV. Data pertaining to breed; time lag to admission; clinical, clinicopathologic, and surgical findings; lidocaine treatment; and postoperative complications were assessed for association with outcome. German Shepherd Dogs (28.6%) and Great Danes (17%) were significantly over-represented. Risk factors for death included time lag (> or = 5 hours vs 38 degrees C [ 100.4 degrees F]) at admission (40.0% vs 14.9%), presence or absence of ARF (67.0% vs 23.3%), presence or absence of suspected gastric wall necrosis (59.3% vs 16.0%), and untreated gastric wall necrosis, compared with treated gastric wall necrosis (100% vs 47.6%). Overall mortality rate was 26.8%; no significant differences were detected in mortality rate or postoperative complications between dogs that received lidocaine IV prior to surgical intervention (52.0%) and dogs that did not (48.0%). Mean +/- SD hospitalization time was longer in the lidocaine treatment group (3.5 +/- 1.9 days vs 2.5 +/- 1.4 days). Presence of the identified risk factors should warrant aggressive treatment. Lidocaine treatment was not associated with mortality rate or postoperative complications, but was associated with prolonged hospitalization time.

  14. Comparison of granisetron and lidocaine on reducing injection pain of etomidate: a controlled randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Saliminia

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Reducing pain on injection of anesthetic drugs is of importance to every anesthesiologist. In this study we pursued to define if pretreatment by granisetron reduces the pain on injection of etomidate similar to lidocaine. Methods Thirty patients aged between 18 and 50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I or II, whom were candidates for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery were enrolled in this study. Two 20 gauge cannulas were inserted into the veins on the dorsum of both hands and 100 mL of normal saline was administered during a 10 min period from each cannula. Using an elastic band as a tourniquet, venous drainage of both hands was occluded. 2 mL of granisetron was administered into one hand and 2 mL of lidocaine 2% at the same time into the other hand. One minute later the elastic band was opened and 2 mL of etomidate was administered to each hand with equal rates. The patients were asked to give a score from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = severe pain to each the pain sensed in each hand. Results Two patients were deeply sedated after injection of etomidate and unable to answer any questions. The mean numerical rating score for injection pain of intravenously administered etomidate after intravenous granisetron was 2.3 ± 1.7, which was lower when compared with pain sensed due to intravenously administered etomidate after administration of lidocaine 2% (4.6 ± 1.8, p < 0.05. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrated that, granisetron reduces pain on injection of etomidate more efficiently than lidocaine.

  15. Effectiveness of intra-articular lidocaine injection for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jun Sugawara Tamaoki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Shoulder dislocation is the most common dislocation among the large joints. The aim here was to compare the effectiveness of reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocation with or without articular anesthesia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized trial conducted in Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp. METHODS: From March 2008 to December 2009, 42 patients with shoulder dislocation were recruited. Reductions using traction-countertraction for acute anterior shoulder dislocation with and without lidocaine articular anesthesia were compared. As the primary outcome, pain was assessed through application of a visual analogue scale before reduction, and one and five minutes after the reduction maneuver was performed. Complications were also assessed. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included: 20 in the group without analgesia (control group and 22 in the group that received intra-articular lidocaine injection. The group that received intra-articular lidocaine had a statistically greater decrease in pain over time than shown by the control group, both in the first minute (respectively: mean 2.1 (0 to 5.0, standard deviation, SD 1.3, versus mean 4.9 (2.0 to 7.0, SD 1.5; P < 0.001 and the fifth minute (respectively: mean 1.0; 0 to 3.0; SD = 1.0 versus mean 4.0; 1.0 to 6.0; SD = 1.4; P < 0.001. There was one failure in the control group. There were no other complications in either group. CONCLUSION: Reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation using intra-articular lidocaine injection is effective, since it is safe and diminishes the pain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN27127703.

  16. Conditions sufficient for the production of oral cocaine or lidocaine self-administration in preference to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, J L; Siris, A; Lau, C E

    1996-03-01

    Groups of rats were given a chronic history of drinking cocaine solutions of different concentrations in daily, 3-h schedule induced polydipsia sessions. Animals failed to develop a preference for cocaine solution to concurrently presented water. Schedule-induction conditions were maintained, and the animals were divided into separate groups, drinking either cocaine or lidocaine placed in a highly acceptable vehicle (glucose-saccharin solution). Animals preferred their respective drug solutions to concurrently presented water, and these preferences remained stable after the glucose-saccharin vehicle was gradually faded to water, leaving only cocaine or lidocaine, respectively, in the solution. Thus a stable preference for drug solution to water could be instituted in rats for either cocaine or lidocaine solution (putative reinforcing and nonreinforcing agents, respectively) given an appropriate associative history, with high intakes maintained by schedule-induction. Conditions sufficient for the initiation of an oral preference and high intake for a putatively reinforcing drug cannot be assumed to occur owing to the drug's reinforcing property in the absence of demonstrating the ineffectiveness of an appropriate negative control substance.

  17. Synthesis of ¹³C-lidocaine as a probe of breath test for the evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitome, Hidemichi; Sugiyama, Erika; Sato, Hitoshi; Akira, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    (13)C-Labeled lidocaine, 2-di[1-(13)C]ethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide (1), was synthesized from [1-(13)C]acetic acid in six steps, as a probe for a breath test to evaluate in vivo cytochrome P450 activity. The measurement of (13)CO2 in breath was successfully performed following oral administration of (13)C-lidocaine 1 to mice.

  18. Effects of Fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol and Dexmedetomidine-lidocaine-propofol on Tracheal Intubation Without Use of Muscle Relaxants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hancı

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fentanyl or dexmedetomidine when used in combination with propofol and lidocaine for tracheal intubation without using muscle relaxants. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists stage I risk were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (Group D, n = 30 or 2 mg/kg fentanyl (Group F, n = 30, both in combination with 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine and 3 mg/kg propofol. The requirement for intubation was determined based on mask ventilation capability, jaw motility, position of the vocal cords and the patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff. Systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation values were also recorded. Rate pressure products were calculated. Jaw relaxation, position of the vocal cords and patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff were significantly better in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05. The intubation conditions were significantly more satisfactory in Group D than in Group F (p = 0.01. Heart rate was significantly lower in Group D than in Group F after the administration of the study drugs and intubation (p < 0.05. Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in Group F than in Group D after propofol injection and at 3 and 5 minutes after intubation (p < 0.05. After intubation, the rate pressure product values were significantly lower in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05. We conclude that endotracheal intubation was better with the dexmedetomidine–lidocaine–propofol combination than with the fentanyl–lidocaine–propofol combination. However, side effects such as bradycardia should be considered when using dexmedetomidine.

  19. Systemic Lidocaine Does Not Attenuate Hepatic Dysfunction After Liver Surgery in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Wilmar; Diepenhorst, Gwen M. P.; Herroeder, Susanne; Erdogan, Deha; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart, lung, and brain, potentially due to modulation of inflammatory responses and apoptotic signaling pathways. Because hepatic I/R injury after liver surgery still poses a significant risk for postoperative

  20. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine decreases the incidence of persistent pain after breast surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grigoras, Anca

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer surgery is associated with a high incidence of persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous (IV) lidocaine on acute and PPSP, analgesic requirements, and sensation abnormalities in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

  1. Differential effects of systemically administered ketamine and lidocaine on dynamic and static hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Hansen, Peter Orm; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the effect of systemic administration of ketamine and lidocaine on brush-evoked (dynamic) pain and punctate-evoked (static) hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we studied 12 volunteers in three experiments....... Capsaicin 100 micrograms was injected intradermally on the volar forearm followed by an i.v. infusion of ketamine (bolus 0.1 mg kg-1 over 10 min followed by infusion of 7 micrograms kg-1 min-1), lidocaine 5 mg kg-1 or saline for 50 min. Infusion started 15 min after injection of capsaicin. The following...... were measured: spontaneous pain, pain evoked by punctate and brush stimuli (VAS), and areas of brush-evoked and punctate-evoked hyperalgesia. Ketamine reduced both the area of brush-evoked and punctate-evoked hyperalgesia significantly and it tended to reduce brush-evoked pain. Lidocaine reduced...

  2. A randomised double-blinded crossover study comparing pain during anaesthetising the eyelids in upper blepharoplasty : First versus second eyelid and lidocaine versus prilocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle M. W.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van der Lei, Berend

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether infiltration of the upper eyelid skin is less painful with prilocaine than with lidocaine. Methods: In 40 consecutive patients scheduled for bilateral upper blepharoplasty, one upper eyelid was anaesthetised with lidocaine with epinephrine and

  3. Synthesis and Analgesic Properties of Lidocaine Derivatives with Substituted Aminobenzothiazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Mohammadinoude, Mohammad Kazem; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely consumed drugs in the practice of medicine which provide a loss of sensation in a certain body part without loss of consciousness or impairment of central control of essential functions. Lidocaine (I) is the most commonly local anaesthetic drug which is widely used in all species due to its fabulous diffusing and penetrating properties as well as prompt onset of surgical analgesia. In this study, new aminobenzothiazole (with many useful biological and pharmacological properties) analogues were synthesized by changing of amine moiety of I. Both acute and chronic pain properties of new compounds (II-VI) were studied by using the tail immersion and formalin tests on mice and the outcomes were compared with control and lidocaine groups. According to the results, aminobenzothiazole derivatives are better candidates than diethylamine group for replacement on amine moiety of I. Also, derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups on this amine (V and VI) could decrease pain better than electron-donating ones (II and III) (specially on position 6 of this amine, II and V) which may be of concern for blockade of specific sodium channels by these new compounds.

  4. Predictive Value of Lidocaine infusion for treatment success of Oxcarbazepine long-term therapy in patients with Neuropathic Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Konrad; Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas; Alon, Eli; Sandor, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes (NPS) can be associated with long periods of trial and error before reaching satisfactory analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a short intravenous (i.v.) infusion of lidocaine may have a predictive value for the efficacy of oxcarbazepine. METHODS: In total, 16 consecutive patients with NPS were studied in a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study design. Each patient received i.v. lidocaine...

  5. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. [Lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid filler on a CPM® basis for lip augmentation : Experience from clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T; Sattler, G; Gauglitz, G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is an established procedure. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density CPM-HAL1 (Belotero® Balance Lidocaine) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero® Intense Lidocaine) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. Assessment of handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data from patients who received lip augmentation by means of bautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2 were documented. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, handling, fluidity, distribution, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. In total, 146 patients from 21 German centres participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for > 95 % of patients. Handling, fluidity, distribution and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in > 91 % of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93 % of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6 %) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 min (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period.

  7. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  8. Impact of Sodium Bicarbonate-Buffered Lidocaine on Patient Pain During Image-Guided Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Alison; Baker, Jay A; Shelby, Rebecca A; Soo, Mary Scott C

    2017-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine on reducing pain during imaging-guided breast biopsies. This prospective, HIPAA-compliant study randomly assigned 85 women undergoing ultrasound- or stereotactic-guided core-needle breast biopsies to receive intradermally and intraparenchymally either 1% lidocaine buffered with sodium bicarbonate (9:1 ratio) (bicarbonate study group) or 1% lidocaine alone (control group). Pain was evaluated using a 0-to-10 Likert pain scale during both intradermal and intraparenchymal anesthesia injections and during tissue sampling. Prebiopsy breast pain, anxiety, medical history, demographics, biopsy type, radiologist level of training, breast density, and lesion histology were recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Unadjusted mean pain scores were 1.47 and 2.07 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .15) during intradermal injections, and 1.84 and 2.98 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .03) during intraparenchymal injections. Tissue sampling mean pain scores were .81 and 1.71 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .07). Moderator analyses found (1) among patients with preprocedural pain, those in the bicarbonate group experienced less intradermal injection pain (0.85 ± 1.23) than patients in the control group (2.50 ± 2.09); (2) among patients with fatty or scattered fibroglandular tissue, those in the bicarbonate group (1.35 ± 1.95) experienced less intraparenchymal injection pain than the control group (3.52 ± 3.13); and (3) during ultrasound-guided biopsies, patients in the bicarbonate group experienced less tissue-sampling pain (0.23 ± 0.63) than the control group (1.79 ± 3.05). Overall, buffering lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced pain during intraparenchymal injections, and additional pain reduction was found in certain patient subgroups during intradermal

  9. Prevention of propofol injection pain in children: a comparison of pretreatment with tramadol and propofol-lidocaine mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazan, Hale; Sahin, Osman; Kececioglu, Ahmet; Uluer, M Selcuk; Et, Tayfun; Otelcioglu, Seref

    2012-01-01

    The pain on propofol injection is considered to be a common and difficult to eliminate problem in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with tramadol 1 mg.kg(-1)and propofol-lidocaine 20 mg mixture for prevention of propofol induced pain in children. One hundred and twenty ASA I-II patients undergoing orthopedic and otolaryngological surgery were included in this study and were divided into three groups with random table numbers. Group C (n=39) received normal saline placebo and Group T (n=40) received 1 mg.kg(-1) tramadol 60 sec before propofol (180 mg 1% propofol with 2 ml normal saline) whereas Group L (n=40) received normal saline placebo before propofol-lidocaine mixture (180 mg 1% propofol with 2 ml %1 lidocaine). One patient in Group C was dropped out from the study because of difficulty in inserting an iv cannula. Thus, one hundred and nineteen patients were analyzed for the study. After given the calculated dose of propofol, a blinded observer assessed the pain with a four-point behavioral scale. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and intraoperative variables (p>0.05) except intraoperative fentanyl consumption and analgesic requirement one hr after surgery among the groups (ppain when compared with control group. Moderate and severe pain were found higher in control group (ppain was 79.4% in the control group, 35% in tramadol group, 25% in lidocaine group respectively (ppain when compared to placebo in children.

  10. Peribulbar anaesthesia using a combination of lidocaine, bupivocaine and clonidine in vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calenda Emile

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficacy and safety of peribulbar anaesthesia was assessed using a combination of lidocaine, bupivacaine and clonidine during eye surgery. Methods: We prospectively studied 100 vitreo-retinal surgical procedures performed by several surgeons. The exclusion criteria included age below 30 years and, axial length of the orbit above 28 mm. Peribulbar was performed using Hamilton′s technique. A mixed anaesthetic solution of equal quantity of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% with clonidine (1mg/kg was injected. Patients received a mean volume of 14.5 ml ± 3.5 of the mixture. Akinesia and analgesia were assessed 15 minutes later by the surgeon. Whenever required, supplemental lidocaine 2% (3 ml by sub- Tenon infiltration was added by the surgeon. Supplemental injections were given only to patients who failed to develop analgesia. Results: The mean age of patients (male 52%, female 48% was 66 years ± 10 (mean ± SD, range 44-90. The 100 surgical procedures were made up of vitrectomy ± gas ± silicone oil (22/100, vitrectomy and lensectomy (6/100, vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane ± laser coagulation ± gas ± silicone oil (35/100, scleral buckling or encircling ± gas (36/100, and cryosurgery ± gas (1/100. Analgesia was adequate throughout surgery without any supplementation in 85% of cases and with a sub-Tenon infiltration in 99%. Akinesia was complete in 84%, mild in 12% and absent in 4% of cases. The sub-Tenon injection was performed in 15% of cases. Three patients (3% were agitated during surgery. No neurologic or cardiac complication was seen. In one patient, the systolic blood pressure decreased from 170 to 110 mmHg, 30 minutes after the institution of the peribulbar block. Conclusion: Our results show that peribulbar anaesthesia in the proposed mixture offers excellent analgesia in 85% of patients, and in 99% of the patients when supplemented by a subtenon injection. The current mixture of lidocaine, bupivacaine and

  11. Influence of hydralazine on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered d-propranolol and lidocaine in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzow, B G; Somogyi, A; McLean, A J

    1987-03-01

    A study was conducted on the influence of oral coadministration of hydralazine (H) on the pharmacokinetics of d-propranolol (P) and lidocaine (L) in 6 conscious dogs. They were given an oral solution containing P (2 mg/kg) and L (15 mg/kg) alone or together with 25 mg H. Plasma concentrations of P and L and the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) were measured by specific HPLC methods. Concomitant administration of H caused a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in P peak concentrations (Cmax, 34 +/- 5: 73 +/- 10 ng/ml) and the area under plasma concentration time curve (AUC, 142 +/- 18: 254 +/- 56 ng/ml X hr) of P with significant (p less than 0.05) 24% reduction of the apparent oral clearance. The time to reach peak concentrations (Tmax) and the terminal half life (t1/2 beta) were not altered. In contrast to the pattern seen with P the disposition of L was not affected by H. The change in presystemic clearance of P by H cannot be explained by a general underlying mechanism such as an alteration in liver blood flow alone or portal-systemic shunting, since then the pharmacokinetics of L should parallel those of P. It is speculated that other mechanisms, most likely alteration of P metabolism, are primarily responsible for the observed interaction between P and H.

  12. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient using the lidocaine patch 5%: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Frost, MD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Physical rehabilitation is an important component of long-term treatment. Unfortunately, patients with significant allodynia or hyperalgesia characteristic of CRPS-1 often have difficulty progressing through a physical therapy (PT regimen. In most adults with CRPS-1, the treatment of choice is PO opioids. Objective: This article presents a case report of the use of the lidocaine patch 5%, a targeted peripheral analgesic, in a pediatric patient and its effects on reducing pain, improving the patient's overall attitude, and facilitating compliance with ongoing PT. Results: A 10-year-old girl developed CRPS-1 after arthroscopic surgery for a sprained ankle. Attempts at PT were unsuccessful due to inadequate pain relief from various treatment modalities. Therapy with the lidocaine patch 5% was initiated and resulted in significant pain relief, improvements in the patient's attitude, and progress with PT. Conclusion: This case report of a child with CRPS-1 showed that therapy with lidocaine patch 5% may be efficacious in treating children with pain resulting from CRPS-1, thereby increasing the success of PT. Keywords: complex regional pain syndrome, lidocaine patch 5%, targeted peripheral analgesic, pediatrics

  13. Efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine for postoperative analgesia and recovery after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, S; Jokinen, J; Pace, N L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improvement of postoperative pain and other perioperative outcomes remain a significant challenge and a matter of debate among perioperative clinicians. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of perioperative i.v. lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain and recovery in p...

  14. Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anaesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, Dusanka; Pace, Nathan Leon

    2009-01-01

    (bupivacaine, prilocaine, procaine, levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and 2-chloroprocaine) was 7.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.16 to 12.86). Mepivacaine was found to give similar results as lidocaine and was therefor omitted from the overall comparison to diminish the heterogeneity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of articaine infiltration versus lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in pulp therapy of lower primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain control is essential to the behavioral management of children in pediatric dentistry. Effective anesthesia plays a key role in this regard, especially in pulp therapy. In order to achieve successful anesthesia, the type of analgesics and injection techniques should be considered. The present study aimed to compare the anesthetic efficacy of articaine infiltration and lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in the pulp therapy of lower primary molars. Materials and Methods: This randomized, crossover, triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 64 children aged 4-10 years, who required the bilateral pulp therapy of the lower primary molars. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment was performed for two sessions, and one lower primary molar was treated in each session. In the first treatment session, subjects in group A were injected with lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block, and in the second session, they were injected with articaine infiltration. In group B, all the procedures were similar to group A. In the first treatment session, subjects in group B were injected with articaine infiltration, and in the second session, they were injected with lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block. Pain intensity was measured upon the initiation of the pulp exposure using the visual analogue scale (VAS. Data analysis was performed by crossover analysis, paired t-test, and independent two-sample t-test. Results: During the study period, mean pain intensity in the children treated by lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was significantly lower compared to those treated by articaine infiltration. However, the two techniques had no statistically significant difference in the children aged 4-6 years and the treatment of the first primary molars. Conclusion: According to the results, lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block has higher anesthetic efficacy in the pulp therapy of the lower primary molars compared to articaine

  16. The analgesic effect of dexketoprofen when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Kargi, E; Erdoğan, G; Köksal, B G; Gül, Ş; Okyay, R D; Ayoğlu, H; Turan, I Ö

    2011-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of dexketoprofen as an adjunct to lidocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) or as a supplemental intravenous (i.v.) analgesic. Patients scheduled for elective hand or forearm soft-tissue surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All 45 patients received 0.5% lidocaine as IVRA. Dexketoprofen was given either i.v. or added into the IVRA solution and the control group received an equal volume of saline both i.v. and as part of the IVRA. The times of sensory and motor block onset, recovery time and postoperative analgesic consumption were recorded. Compared with controls, the addition of dexketoprofen to the IVRA solution resulted in more rapid onset of sensory and motor block, longer recovery time, decreased intra- and postoperative pain scores and decreased paracetamol use. It is concluded that coadministration of dexketoprofen with lidocaine in IVRA improves anaesthetic block and decreases postoperative analgesic requirements.

  17. Assessing patient satisfaction with cataract surgery under topical anesthesia supplemented by intracameral lidocaine combined with sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Bezerril Cipião Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular akinesia, the use of anticoagulants, and patient collaboration are some of the factors that must be taken into consideration when choosing the appropriate anesthesia for phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The satisfaction of patients with the use of topical anesthesia and conscious sedation for this procedure has not been enough described in Brazil. Conscious sedation allows patient walk and answer a voice command. To assess the satisfaction, pain, and perioperative hemodynamic alterations of patients subjected to phacoemulsification under conscious sedation and topical anesthesia supplemented with intracameral lidocaine. METHODS: Prospective cohort non-controlled study that included patients treated by the same surgical team over a 70-day period. Sedation was performed with midazolam at a total dose of 3 mg and topical anesthesia with 0.5% proxymetacaine chlorhydrate and 2% lidocaine gel combined with 2% lidocaine by intracameral route. The intraoperative vital parameters, scores based on the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale (ISAS, and the pain visual analog scale (VAS were recorded at several time points after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were enroled in study (73.6% female, the mean age was 65.9 years. The surgical procedures lasted 11.2 minutes on average. The hemodynamic parameters did not exhibit significant changes at any of the investigated time points. The average ISAS score was 2.67 immediately after surgery and 2.99 eight hours after the surgery; this increase was statistically significant (p<0.0001. More than two-thirds (68.9% of the participants (73 patients did not report any pain in the transoperative period, and 98.1% of patients denied the occurrence of pain after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Patients that received topical anesthesia supplemented by intracameral lidocaine combined with sedation for phacoemulsification cataract surgery reported adequate level of satisfaction with the anesthetic

  18. The effect of lidocaine on in vitro neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by plasma obtained during tourniquet-induced ischaemia and reperfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression occur during perioperative ischaemia and reperfusion (I\\/R) injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on neutrophil-independent changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression associated with tourniquet-induced I\\/R. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from venous blood samples (tourniquet arm) taken before (baseline), during, 15 min, 2 and 24 h following tourniquet release in seven patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery with tourniquet application. Isolated neutrophils from healthy volunteers (n = 7) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1) for 1 h, and then incubated with I\\/R plasma for 2 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)) for 1 h, and then incubated with the plasma for 4 h. Adhesion molecule expression was estimated using flow cytometry. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. RESULTS: I\\/R plasma (withdrawn 15 min following tourniquet release) increased isolated neutrophil CD11b (P = 0.03), CD18 (P = 0.01) and endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.008) expression compared to baseline. CD11b, CD18 and ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils was similar to control. CD11b (P < 0.001), CD18 (P = 0.03) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.002) expression on lidocaine (0.05 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils and HUVECs was less than that on controls. CONCLUSION: Increased in vitro neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression on exposure to plasma obtained during the early reperfusion phase is diminished by lidocaine at greater than clinically relevant plasma concentrations.

  19. Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Direct Current when Lidocaine Is Delivered by Iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan N. Saliba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dosage for the galvanic stimulation for iontophoresis varies. Clinicians manipulate the duration or the amplitude of the current, but it is not known which is more effective. We compared the anesthetic effect of lidocaine HCL (2% by manipulating the current parameters on 21 healthy volunteers (age: 21.2 ± 4.2, height 170.7 ± 10.2 cm, mass 82.1 ± 19.2 kg. Three conditions were administered in a random order using a Phoresor II® with 2 mL, 2% lidocaine HCL in an iontophoresis electrode. (1 HASD (40 mA*min: High amplitude (4 mA, short duration (10 min; (2 LALD (40 mA.min: Low amplitude (2 mA, long duration (20 min; (3 Sham condition (0 mA, 20 min. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM scores were taken pre and post intervention to measure sensation changes. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare sensation. Both iontophoresis treatments: LALD (4.2 ± 0.32 mm and HASD (4.2 ± 0.52 mm significantly increased SWM scores, indicating an increase in anesthesia, compared to the sham condition (3.6 ± 0.06 mm p < 0.05. Neither LALD nor HASD was more effective and there was no difference in anesthesia with the sham. Lidocaine delivered via iontophoresis reduces cutaneous sensation. However, there was no benefit in either a HASD or LALD treatment.

  20. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    The local anesthetic lidocaine suppresses different pain conditions when administered systemically. Part of the antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via receptor mechanisms. We have previously shown that muscarinic and nicotinic agonists that produce antinociception increase the intraspi...

  1. Bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock following lidocaine aerosol inhalation in a patient with butane inhalation lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Park, Kyong Ah; Yeo, So-Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hee; Goong, Hyeun-Jeong; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2011-10-01

    Allergic reactions to local anesthetics are very rare and represent inhalation lung injury due to butane gas fuel. On the fifth day, he developed an asthmatic attack and anaphylactic shock immediately after lidocaine aerosol administration to prepare for bronchoscopy to confirm an acute inhalational lung injury diagnosis. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed immediately after respiratory arrest, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit intubated and on a ventilator. He was extubated safely on the third post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation day. These observations suggest that aerosol lidocaine anesthesia may cause airway narrowing and anaphylactic shock. Practitioners should be aware of this potential complication. We report on this case with a brief review of the literature.

  2. Comparison of hemodynamic effects of lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor in hypertensive patients

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    Bahadir Ezmek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictors are not contraindicated in hypertensive patients, but due to their hemodynamic effects, local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors are mainly preferred by the clinicians. The aim of this study was to compare hemodynamic effects of three different local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors during tooth extraction in hypertensive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five mandibular molars and premolars were extracted in 60 hypertensive patients (29 females and 31 males; mean age: 66.95 ± 10.87 years; range: 38 to 86 years old. Inferior alveolar and buccal nerve blocks were performed with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (HCl, 2% prilocaine HCl or 3% mepivacaine HCl without vasoconstrictor. Hemodynamic parameters namely systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, saturation rate (SR, rate pressure product (RPP and pressure rate quotient (PRQ were investigated before and at different intervals after anesthetic injection. RESULTS: The hemodynamic effects of the three agents were similar to each other, although some significance was observed for DBP, MAP, RPP and PRQ values in the lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine groups. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor can be safely used in hypertensive patients. It is advisable that dental practitioners select anesthetic solutions for hypertensive patients considering their cardiovascular effects in order to provide patient comfort and safety.

  3. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.; Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 ± 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 ± 1.6 versus 4.6 ± 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 ± 2.7 versus 19 ± 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 ± 1.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  4. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S., E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.g [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece); Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 {+-} 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 {+-} 1.6 versus 4.6 {+-} 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 {+-} 2.7 versus 19 {+-} 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 {+-} 1.3 versus 4.5 {+-} 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  5. Comparing Transcervical Intrauterine Lidocaine Instillation with Rectal Diclofenac for Pain Relief During Outpatient Hysteroscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan S. Mohammadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of potential advantages to performing hysteroscopy in an outpatient setting. However, the ideal approach, using local uterine anesthesia or rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has not been determined. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of intrauterine lidocaine instillation with rectal diclofenac for pain relief during diagnostic hysteroscopy. Methods: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 70 nulliparous women with primary infertility undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy. Subjects were assigned into one of two groups to receive either 100mg of rectal diclofenac or 5mL of 2% intrauterine lidocaine. The intensity of pain was measured by a numeric rating scale 0–10. Pain scoring was performed during insertion of the hysteroscope, during visualization of the intrauterine cavity, and during extrusion of the hysteroscope. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to the mean pain score during intrauterine visualization (p=0.500. The mean pain score was significantly lower during insertion and extrusion of the hysteroscope in the diclofenac group (p=0.001 and p=0.030, respectively. Nine patients in the lidocaine group and five patients in diclofenac group needed supplementary intravenous propofol injection for sedation (p=0.060. Conclusions: Rectal diclofenac appears to be more effective than intrauterine lidocaine in reducing pain during insertion and extrusion of hysteroscope, but there are no significant statistical and clinical differences between the two methods with regard to the mean pain score during intrauterine inspection.

  6. Intravenous lidocaine for post-operative pain relief after hand-assisted laparoscopic colon surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikuišis, R; Miliauskas, P; Samalavičius, N E; Žurauskas, A; Samalavičius, R; Zabulis, V

    2014-04-01

    Perioperative intravenous (IV) infusion of lidocaine has been shown to decrease post-operative pain, shorten time to return of bowel function, and reduce the length of hospital stay. This randomized, prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of IV lidocaine on the quality of post-operative analgesia and other outcomes after hand-assisted laparoscopic colon surgery. Sixty four patients with colon cancer scheduled for elective colon resection were involved in this study. Patients were randomized to receive either lidocaine infusion [lidocaine group (LG)] or normal 0.9 % saline infusion [placebo group (PG)] for a period of 24 h. Anaesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Twenty-four-hour post-operative analgesia in the recovery area was maintained by continuous infusion of 0.1 μg/kg/h fentanyl. The primary outcome of the study was post-operative pain control. Pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Patients with a VAS score >3 were treated with ketorolac 30 mg as needed. Secondary outcomes included time to resumption of bowel function and length of hospital stay. Data in the two groups were compared using the two-tailed Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-tailed at a significance level of 0.05. Demographic characteristics and clinical features of both groups were similar. Intensity of pain at rest in LG compared with PG was significantly lower during the first 24 h post-operatively. LG patients reported significantly less pain during movements at 2-, 12-, and 24-h post-surgery than PG patients. The study showed that ketorolac consumption was significantly higher in PG: mean ketorolac consumption in LG was 43.77 ± 13.86 mg and in PG 51.67 ± 13.16 mg (p = 0.047). Compared with placebo, lidocaine infusion produced a 32 % reduction in time to the first drink (Cohen's d = 3.85), 16 % reduction in time to the first full diet

  7. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine & diclofenac sodium application for pain relief during fractional curettage: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gökhan; Bayraktar, Evrim; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Başer, Mürvet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Oğuz; Müderris, İptisam İpek

    2015-10-01

    Patients frequently experience pain of moderate to severe degree during gynaecologic procedures. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, pethidine and diclofenac sodium on fractional curettage procedure. A total of 144 multiparous women were randomly allocated to one of the six groups. The first group (control group) consisted of 22 participants and they did not receive any treatment. The second group had 26 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The 23 participants of the third group received two puff lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. t0 he forth group consisted of 25 participants receiving 100 mg pethidine. In the fifth group, the 23 participants received 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the sixth group consisted of 25 participants receiving diclofenac sodium. Pethidine was the best choice for reducing pain score during curettage procedure (t2:intra-operative). All analgesic procedures were significantly effective in reducing pain during postoperative period (t3). Significant pain reduction was achieved for both intra- and postoperative period by using analgesics. The results of our study showed that lidocaine puffs provided the best pain relief than the other analgesics used. Therefore, lidocaine may be considered as the first choice analgesic in fractional curettage (NCT ID: 01993589).

  8. Sustained Release of Lidocaine from Solvent-Free Biodegradable Poly[(d,l)-Lactide-co-Glycolide] (PLGA): In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Yi-Chuan; Liao, Chia-Chih; Chen, Ying-Chi; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2014-09-16

    Local anesthetics are commonly used for pain relief by regional nerve blocking. In this study, we fabricated solvent-free biodegradable pellets to extend the duration of lidocaine release without any significant local or systemic toxicity levels. To manufacture the pellets, poly[(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) was first pre-mixed with lidocaine powder into different ratios. The powder mixture was then compressed with a mold (diameter of 1, 5, 8 or 10 mm) and sintered at 65 °C to form pellets. The in vitro release study showed that the lidocaine/PLGA pellets exhibited a tri-phase release behavior (a burst, a diffusion-controlled release and a degradation-dominated release) and reached completion around day 28. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photos show that small channels could be found on the surfaces of the pellets on day 2. Furthermore, the polymer matrix swelled and fell apart on day 7, while the pellets became viscous after 10 days of in vitro elution. Perineural administration of the lidocaine/PLGA pellets produced anti-hypersensitivity effects lasting for at least 24 h in rats, significant when compared to the control group (a pure PLGA was pellet administered). In addition, no inflammation was detected within the nerve and in the neighboring muscle by histopathology.

  9. Sustained Release of Lidocaine from Solvent-Free Biodegradable Poly[(d,l-Lactide-co-Glycolide] (PLGA: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Kau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are commonly used for pain relief by regional nerve blocking. In this study, we fabricated solvent-free biodegradable pellets to extend the duration of lidocaine release without any significant local or systemic toxicity levels. To manufacture the pellets, poly[(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA was first pre-mixed with lidocaine powder into different ratios. The powder mixture was then compressed with a mold (diameter of 1, 5, 8 or 10 mm and sintered at 65 °C to form pellets. The in vitro release study showed that the lidocaine/PLGA pellets exhibited a tri-phase release behavior (a burst, a diffusion-controlled release and a degradation-dominated release and reached completion around day 28. Scanning electron microscope (SEM photos show that small channels could be found on the surfaces of the pellets on day 2. Furthermore, the polymer matrix swelled and fell apart on day 7, while the pellets became viscous after 10 days of in vitro elution. Perineural administration of the lidocaine/PLGA pellets produced anti-hypersensitivity effects lasting for at least 24 h in rats, significant when compared to the control group (a pure PLGA was pellet administered. In addition, no inflammation was detected within the nerve and in the neighboring muscle by histopathology.

  10. Effects of Addition of Systemic Tramadol or Adjunct Tramadol to Lidocaine Used for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Hand Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Yektaş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA is used in outpatient hand surgery as an easily applicable and cost-effective technique with clinical advantages. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addition of systemic tramadol or adjunct tramadol to lidocaine for IVRA in patients undergoing hand surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I-II patients (n=60 who underwent hand surgery were included. For this purpose, only lidocaine (LDC, lidocaine+adjunct tramadol (LDC+TRA group, or lidocaine+systemic tramadol (LDC+SysTRA group was administered to the patients for IVRA and the groups were compared in terms of onset and recovery time of sensory and motor blocks, quality of anesthesia, and the degree of intraoperative and postoperative pain. The onset time of sensorial block was significantly shorter in the LDC+TRA group than that in the LDC+SysTRA group. The motor block recovery time was significantly shorter in the LDC+SysTRA group than that in the LDC+TRA and LDC groups. Administration of tramadol as an adjunct showed some clinical benefits by providing a shorter onset time of sensory and motor block, decreasing pain and analgesic requirement, and improving intraoperative conditions during IVRA. It was determined that systemic tramadol administration had no superiority.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine and Ropivacaine Mixture for Scalp Nerve Block and Local Infiltration Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Sugino, Shigekazu; Janicki, Piotr K; Ishioka, Yoshiya; Hatakeyama, Yosuke; Hayase, Tomo; Kaneuchi-Yamashita, Miki; Kohri, Naonori; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Mixtures of various local anesthetics, such as lidocaine and ropivacaine, have been widely used. However, their efficacy and safety for scalp nerve blocks and local infiltration during awake craniotomy have not been fully elucidated. We prospectively investigated 53 patients who underwent awake craniotomy. Scalp block was performed for the blockade of the supraorbital, supratrochlear, zygomaticotemporal, auriculotemporal, greater occipital, and lesser occipital nerves with a mixture containing equal volumes of 2% lidocaine and 0.75% ropivacaine, including 5 μg/mL of epinephrine. Infiltration anesthesia was applied at the site of skin incision using the same mixture. The study outcomes included changes in heart rate and blood pressure after head pinning and skin incision, and incidence of severe pain on emergence from anesthesia. Total doses and plasma concentrations of lidocaine and ropivacaine were measured at different time points after performing the block. The heart rate and blood pressure after head pinning were marginally, but significantly, increased when compared with baseline values. There were no significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure before and after the skin incision. Nineteen percent of the patients (10/53) complained of incisional pain at emergence from anesthesia. The highest observed blood concentrations of lidocaine and ropivacaine were 1.9±0.9 and 1.1±0.4 μg/mL, respectively. No acute anesthetic toxicity symptom was observed. Scalp block with a mixture of lidocaine and ropivacaine seems to provide effective and safe anesthetic management in patients undergoing awake craniotomy.

  12. Comparison of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Mepivacaine and Lidocaine in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Renata Pieroni; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Buscariolo, Inês Aparecida

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2% mepivacaine combined with 1:100,000 epinephrine with 2% lidocaine combined with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy of mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Forty-two patients with irreversible pulpitis who were admitted to the Emergency Center at the University of São Paulo School of Dentistry volunteered to take part in the study and were randomized to receive conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 or 3.6 mL of either 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. We recorded patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia tested by using electric pulp stimulation, and absence/presence of pain during the subsequent pulpectomy by using a verbal analogue scale. All patients tested reported lip anesthesia after application of either type of inferior alveolar nerve block. Pulpal anesthesia success rates measured by using the pulp tester were satisfactory for both solutions (86% for mepivacaine and 67% for lidocaine). Success rates according to patient report of no pain or mild pain during pulpectomy were higher for mepivacaine solution (55%) than for lidocaine solution (14%). The differences between mepivacaine and lidocaine were statistically significant. Mepivacaine resulted in effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments. The success rates with either solution were not high enough to ensure complete pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard versus pH-adjusted and lidocaine supplemented radiocolloid for patients undergoing sentinel-lymph-node mapping and biopsy for early breast cancer (PASSION-P trial): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E; Jurgens, Jennifer S; Howard, Robin S; Schuyler, Brandi; Kwon, Kyung H; Henry, Leonard R; Shriver, Craig D; Buckenmaier, Chester C

    2009-09-01

    Sentinel-lymph-node (SLN) mapping and biopsy maintains staging accuracy in early breast cancer and identifies patients for selective lymphadenectomy. SLN mapping requires injection of technetium-99m-sulfur colloid-an effective but sometimes painful method, for which better pain-management strategies are needed. In this randomised, double-blind trial, we compared degree of pain between standard radiocolloid injection and pH-adjusted and lidocaine-supplemented formulations for patients undergoing SLN mapping for breast cancer. Between Jan 13, 2006, and April 30, 2009, 140 patients with early breast cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 fashion to receive the standard topical 4% lidocaine cream and injection of [(99m)Tc]Tc-sulfur colloid (n=35), or to one of three other study groups: topical placebo cream and injection of Tc-sulfur colloid containing either sodium bicarbonate (n=35), 1% lidocaine (n=35), or sodium bicarbonate and 1% lidocaine (n=35). The randomisation sequence was computer generated, and all patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was patient-reported breast pain immediately after radioisotope injection, using the Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale and McGill pain questionnaire, analysed in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00940199. 19 of the 140 patients enrolled were excluded from analysis: nine declined study participation or sought care elsewhere, nine did not undergo SLN mapping because of disease extent or a technical problem, and one had unreliable data. There were no adverse events. Mean pain scores on the Wong-Baker scale (0-10) were: 6.0 (SD 2.6) for those who received standard of practice, 4.7 (3.0) for those who received radiocolloid plus bicarbonate, 1.6 (1.4) for those who received radiocolloid plus 1% lidocaine, and 1.6 (1.3) for those who received radiocolloid plus bicarbonate and 1% lidocaine (psodium bicarbonate group, 4.6 (4

  14. Transient impairment of the axolemma following regional anaesthesia by lidocaine in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The local anaesthetic lidocaine is known to block voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs), although at high concentration it was also reported to block other ion channel currents as well as to alter lipid membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the clinical regional anaesthetic...... reflect, at least in part, a reversible structural impairment of the axolemma....

  15. The protective effect of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathway and excessive inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-J; Ding, Y-B; Ma, P-L; Jiang, S-H; Li, K-Z; Li, A-Z; Li, M-C; Shi, C-X; Du, J; Zhou, H-D

    2018-04-01

    Acute lung injury is a severe disease with a high rate of mortality, leading to more important illness. We aimed at exploring the protective role and potential mechanisms of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control group receiving 0.9% saline solution, LPS group treated with 4 mg/kg LPS i.p., LPS + lidocaine(treated with 4 mg/kg LPS i.p. followed by giving 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg of lidocaine i.v.). Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for histopathological examination and biochemical analyze 12 h after LPS induction. The cytokines expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 was measured by ELISA. In addition, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in lung tissues were also detected using ELISA. The protein expressions of p38, p-p38, p65, p-p65 and IκB were analyzed by Western blot. The results indicated that after lidocaine treatment was able to decrease significantly wet-to-dry (W/D) ratio and ameliorate the histopathologic damage. Additionally, total protein content and the number of leukocytes in BALF significantly decreased. ELISA result indicated that the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in BALF were markedly suppressed. Meanwhile, the activities of T-AOC and SOD in lung tissues significantly increased, while the content of MDA significantly decreased after treatment with lidocaine. Moreover, Western blot suggested that lidocaine inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK. Therefore, lidocaine could ameliorate the LPS-induced lung injury via NF-κB/p38 MAPK signaling and excessive inflammatory responses, providing a potential for becoming the anti-inflammatory agent against lung injury.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of 2% lidocaine containing 1:200,000 epinephrine with and without hyaluronidase (75 IU) in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Sarvepalli Venkata; Shetty, Krishna Prasad; Kilaru, Krishnarao; Bhargavi, Puridi; Reddy, E Srinivas; Bellutgi, Aditya

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine containing epinephrine compared with lidocaine containing epinephrine plus hyaluronidase (75 IU) when performing an inferior alveolar nerve block. Patients complaining of pain in the mandibular posterior teeth were selected. Based on their chief complaint, proper clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. Among them, 40 subjects diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis were selected. The inferior alveolar nerve block was induced using 3 mL 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. Hyaluronidase (75 IU) or a placebo was injected 30 minutes after the beginning of pulpal anesthesia (randomized and double-blind trial). The duration of the effect in the pulpal and gingival tissues was evaluated by the response to painful electrical stimuli applied to the adjacent premolar and by mechanical stimuli (pinprick) to the buccal gingiva, respectively. In both pulpal and gingival tissues, the duration of the anesthetic effects with hyaluronidase was longer than with placebo. Hyaluronidase increased the duration of the effects of lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Preparation and biological profile of 99mTc-lidocaine as a cardioselective imaging agent using 99mTc eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator based on Al-Mo gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, T.M.; October University of Modern Sciences and Arts; Ibrahim, A.B.; Rashed, H.M.; Fasih, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The current study is aimed to prepare 99m Tc-lidocaine as a new myocardial perfusion-imaging agent. The used 99m Tc was obtained from Al- 99 Mo-molybdate(VI) gel matrix. 99m Tc-lidocaine showed higher (15.4 ± 0.11% ID/g) and faster (15 min post injection) cardiac uptake than the recently studied 99m Tc-valsartan and 99m Tc-procainamide. Consequently, 99m Tc-lidocaine will be a valuable myocardial SPECT agent for diagnosis of emergency patients. Besides, the receptor affinity study confirmed the selectivity of 99m Tc-lidocaine for sodium channels in the heart. (author)

  18. Effects of epidural lidocaine analgesia on labor and delivery: A randomized, prospective, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisi Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether epidural analgesia for labor prolongs the active-first and second labor stages and increases the risk of vacuum-assisted delivery is a controversial topic. Our study was conducted to answer the question: does lumbar epidural analgesia with lidocaine affect the progress of labor in our obstetric population? Method 395 healthy, nulliparous women, at term, presented in spontaneous labor with a singleton vertex presentation. These patients were randomized to receive analgesia either, epidural with bolus doses of 1% lidocaine or intravenous, with meperidine 25 to 50 mg when their cervix was dilated to 4 centimeters. The duration of the active-first and second stages of labor and the neonatal apgar scores were recorded, in each patient. The total number of vacuum-assisted and cesarean deliveries were also measured. Results 197 women were randomized to the epidural group. 198 women were randomized to the single-dose intravenous meperidine group. There was no statistical difference in rates of vacuum-assisted delivery rate. Cesarean deliveries, as a consequence of fetal bradycardia or dystocia, did not differ significantly between the groups. Differences in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor were not statistically significant. The number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7, did not differ significantly between both analgesia groups. Conclusion Epidural analgesia with 1% lidocaine does not prolong the active-first and second stages of labor and does not increase vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rate.

  19. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  20. Comparison of Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4% Articaine Primary Buccal Infiltration Versus 2% Lidocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Mandibular First Molar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Muhammad; Rehman Khattak, Shakeel Ur; Sikandar, Huma; Shah, Shafqat Ali; Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate success of pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4% articaine in buccal infiltration versus 2% lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Randomized control trial. Department of Operative Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, from March to August 2014. One hundred and fifty-six emergency patients, who had 1st molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by random allocation. One group received 4% articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 2% lidocaine. Subjects’self-reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anaesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. Mean age of subjects was 31.46 ±10.994 years. The success rate of 4% buccal infiltration was 76.9%; whereas the success rate of 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was 62.8%. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. 4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy.

  1. Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of the microcirculation during acute hypervolemic hemodilution and epidural lidocaine injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oever, Huub L. A.; Dzoljic, Misa; Ince, Can; Hollmann, Markus W.; Mokken, Fleur C.

    2006-01-01

    We used Orthogonal Polarization Spectral Imaging to examine the microcirculation of the vaginal mucosa in nine anesthetized patients during two consecutive anesthetic interventions: hypervolemic hemodilution using hydroxyethyl starch followed by thoracic epidural lidocaine. Images taken before and

  2. Lumbar segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics, pain relief, and motor function: a prospective double-blind study between lidocaine and ropivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, André P; Wilder Smith, Oliver H G; Crul, Ben J P; van de Heijden, Marc P; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2004-08-01

    Selective segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics are applied for diagnostic purposes in patients with chronic back pain to determine the segmental level of the pain. We performed this study to establish myotomal motor effects after L4 spinal nerve blocks by lidocaine and ropivacaine and to evaluate the relationship with pain. Therefore, 20 patients, of which 19 finished the complete protocol, with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain without neurological deficits underwent segmental nerve blocks at L4 with both lidocaine and ropivacaine. Pain intensity scores (verbal numeric rating scale; VNRS) and the maximum voluntary muscle force (MVMF; using a dynamometer expressed in newtons) of the tibialis anterior and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured on the painful side and on the control side. The median VNRS decrease was 4.0 (P segmental nerve (L4) block is associated with increased quadriceps femoris and tibialis anterior MVMF, without differences for lidocaine and ropivacaine.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration in surgical patients: simultaneous investigation of absorption and disposition kinetics using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, A.G.; Van Kleef, J.W.; Vermeulen, N.P.; Olthof, G.; Breimer, D.D.; Spierdijk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration were studied in 12 surgical patients using a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of the agent to be evaluated, a deuterium-labelled analogue was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of the unlabelled and the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics were determined using a combination of capillary gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Bi-exponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics. The progression of the absorption was evaluated using deconvolution. Mono- and bi-exponential functions were then fitted to the fraction absorbed versus time data. The distribution and elimination half-lives of the deuterium-labelled analogues were 25 +/- 13 min (mean +/- SD) and 121 +/- 31 min for lidocaine and 19 +/- 10 min and 131 +/- 33 min for bupivacaine. The volumes of the central compartment and steady-state volumes of distribution were: lidocaine 57 +/- 10 l and 105 +/- 25 l, bupivacaine 25 +/- 6 l and 63 +/- 22 l. Total plasma clearance values averaged 0.97 +/- 0.21 l/min for lidocaine and 0.56 +/- 0.14 l/min for bupivacaine. The absorption of lidocaine could be described by a single first order absorption process, characterized by a half-life of 71 +/- 17 min in five out of six patients. The absorption of bupivacaine could be described adequately assuming two parallel first order absorption processes in all six patients. The half-lives, characterizing the fast and slow absorption processes of bupivacaine, were 50 +/- 27 min and 408 +/- 275 min, respectively. The fractions of the dose, absorbed in the fast and slow processes, were 0.35 +/- 0.17 and 0.61 +/- 0.16, respectively

  4. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration in surgical patients: simultaneous investigation of absorption and disposition kinetics using stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burm, A.G.; Van Kleef, J.W.; Vermeulen, N.P.; Olthof, G.; Breimer, D.D.; Spierdijk, J.

    1988-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration were studied in 12 surgical patients using a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of the agent to be evaluated, a deuterium-labelled analogue was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of the unlabelled and the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics were determined using a combination of capillary gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Bi-exponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics. The progression of the absorption was evaluated using deconvolution. Mono- and bi-exponential functions were then fitted to the fraction absorbed versus time data. The distribution and elimination half-lives of the deuterium-labelled analogues were 25 +/- 13 min (mean +/- SD) and 121 +/- 31 min for lidocaine and 19 +/- 10 min and 131 +/- 33 min for bupivacaine. The volumes of the central compartment and steady-state volumes of distribution were: lidocaine 57 +/- 10 l and 105 +/- 25 l, bupivacaine 25 +/- 6 l and 63 +/- 22 l. Total plasma clearance values averaged 0.97 +/- 0.21 l/min for lidocaine and 0.56 +/- 0.14 l/min for bupivacaine. The absorption of lidocaine could be described by a single first order absorption process, characterized by a half-life of 71 +/- 17 min in five out of six patients. The absorption of bupivacaine could be described adequately assuming two parallel first order absorption processes in all six patients. The half-lives, characterizing the fast and slow absorption processes of bupivacaine, were 50 +/- 27 min and 408 +/- 275 min, respectively. The fractions of the dose, absorbed in the fast and slow processes, were 0.35 +/- 0.17 and 0.61 +/- 0.16, respectively.

  5. Intravenous Lidocaine for Effective Pain Relief After a Laparoscopic Colectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, EunJin; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun Joo; Park, Yong Hee; Yang, So Young; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Seung Won

    2015-01-01

    A perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion has been reported to decrease postoperative pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous lidocaine in reducing postoperative pain for laparoscopic colectomy patients. Fifty-five patients scheduled for an elective laparoscopic colectomy were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group L received an intravenous bolus injection of lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg before intubation, followed by 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation. Group C received the same dosage of saline at the same time. Postoperative pain was assessed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery by using the visual analog scale (VAS). Fentanyl consumption by patient-controlled plus investigator-controlled rescue administration and the total number of button pushes were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. In addition, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were checked on the operation day and postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 5. VAS scores were significantly lower in group L than group C until 24 hours after surgery. Fentanyl consumption was lower in group L than group C until 12 hours after surgery. Moreover, additional fentanyl injections and the total number of button pushes appeared to be lower in group L than group C (P < 0.05). The CRP level tended to be lower in group L than group C, especially on postoperative day1 and 2 and appeared to be statistically significant. The satisfaction score was higher in group L than group C (P = 0.024). Intravenous lidocaine infusion during an operation reduces pain after a laparoscopic colectomy. PMID:25785316

  6. Infiltration with lidocaine and adrenaline instead of normal saline does not improve the septoplasty procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Volkan; Baklaci, Deniz; Kum, Rauf Oguzhan; Yilmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Ozcan, Muge; Unal, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether infiltration of local anesthetics with adrenaline improved septoplasty procedure when compared to normal saline. Eight-two patients undergoing septoplasty were randomized into two groups. In group 1, septal mucoperichondrium was infiltrated with lidocaine with adrenaline, and normal saline was used in group 2. Presence of intra-operative septal mucosal injuries, the amount of bleeding, arterial blood pressure, operation time as well as the quality of the surgical field and the convenience of finding the correct surgical plane as determined by the surgeon using a 5-point scale were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences for the amount of blood loss, mean arterial pressure, operation time, or scores for convenience of finding the correct surgical plane between the two groups. There was no significant difference for intra-operative simple (P = 0.631) and total (simple+severe) (P = 0.649) septal mucoperichondrial injuries between groups 1 and 2, either. However, severe mucoperichondrial injury rate was higher in the patients infiltrated with lidocaine and adrenaline (P = 0.026), and the quality of the surgical field was worse in the patients injected with normal saline (P = 0.0179). Infiltration of septal mucoperichondrium with lidocaine and adrenaline instead of normal saline was not advantageous in terms of objective parameters tested, including bleeding amount and duration of surgery as well as the of the total mucosal injury rate in septoplasty procedure.

  7. Use of Lidocaine Patches for Neuropathic Pain in a Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ann Fleming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few reports of the use of the lidocaine 5% patch (L5%P for neuropathic pain (NP in the cancer patient. Within a comprehensive cancer centre, L5%P has been prescribed by the Pain and Palliative Care Service (Peter McCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia for selected patients with NP since 2001.

  8. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  9. Effects of two newly synthesized analogues of lidocaine on rat arterial blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, N M; Al Sayed, M I; Al Zuhair, H H; Al Obaid, A R; Fatani, A J

    2001-04-01

    Two new analogues of lidocaine were synthesized at the College of Pharmacy, King Saud University: compound I (Methyl-2-[2-(N,N-diethylamino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate) and compound II (Methyl-2-[2-(piperidino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate). Their influence on the arterial blood pressure and the heart rate of urethane-anaesthetized rats was studied and compared with the actions of lidocaine. Compounds I, II and lidocaine induced significant dose-dependent decreases in the arterial blood pressure and heart rate, which usually returned to basal values within 3-5 min. There were significant differences in the potency of the three compounds in producing their effects on blood pressure and heart rate (Plidocaine and compound I, respectively. The results of this study also indicated the ineffectiveness of antagonists of autonomic, histaminergic and 5-HT receptor, and various vasodilators in blocking the actions of the three compounds on blood pressure and heart rate. Pretreatment with CaCl(2)significantly reduced the hypotension and bradycardia induced by the three compounds, suggesting the involvement of calcium channels, probably of the L type. Several possible mechanisms are postulated. In conclusion, the results direct attention to the capability of the two new compounds to decrease blood pressure and heart rate; affects that may have clinical potential. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p blood glucose level very fast.

  11. Juvéderm Volbella with Lidocaine for Lip and Perioral Enhancement: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Raspaldo, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Juvéderm Volbella with Lidocaine is effective for lip enhancement, improves perioral lines and oral commissures, and results in less short-term swelling and disruption in daily activities than Restylane-L.

  12. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has actions potentially of benefit during ischaemia-reperfusion. Neutrophils and endothelial cells have an important role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Isolated human neutrophil CD11b and CD18, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) ICAM-1 expression and supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation were studied in the presence or absence of different concentrations of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by flow cytometry and IL- 1beta concentrations by ELISA. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls as appropriate. Data are presented as mean+\\/-SD. RESULTS: Exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation increased neutrophil CD11b (94.33+\\/-40.65 vs. 34.32+\\/-6.83 mean channel fluorescence (MCF), P = 0.02), CD18 (109.84+\\/-35.44 vs. 59.05+\\/-6.71 MCF, P = 0.03) and endothelial ICAM-1 (146.62+\\/-16.78 vs. 47.29+\\/-9.85 MCF, P < 0.001) expression compared to normoxia. Neutrophil CD18 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (71.07+\\/-10.14 vs. 109.84+\\/-35.44 MCF, P = 0.03). Endothelial ICAM-1 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (133.25+\\/-16.05 vs. 146.62+\\/-16.78 MCF, P = 0.03). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased HUVEC supernatant IL-1beta concentrations compared to normoxia (3.41+\\/-0.36 vs. 2.65+\\/-0.21 pg mL(-1), P = 0.02). Endothelial supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in lidocaine-treated HUVECs were similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine at clinically relevant concentrations decreased neutrophil CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression but not endothelial IL-1beta concentrations.

  13. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  14. Cytotoxic effects of local anesthesia through lidocaine/ropivacaine on human melanoma cell lines

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    Ding-Kun Kang

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Local anesthetics (LAs are generally considered as safe, but cytotoxicity has been reported for several local anesthetics used in humans, which is not well investigated. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of lidocaine, ropivacaine and the combination of lidocaine and ropivacaine were evaluated on human melanoma cell lines. Melphalan, a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, was used as a control agent for comparison of cytotoxic activity. Methods: Melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294T, were exposed to 1 h to different concentrations of above agents. Cell-viability after exposure was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Investigated LAs showed detrimental cytotoxicity on studied melanoma cell lines in time- (p < 0.001, concentration- (p < 0.001, and agent dependant. In both A375 and Hs294T cell lines, minimum cell viability rates were found after 72 h of exposure to these agents. Lidocaine 2% caused a reduction of vital cells to 10% ± 2% and 14% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively after 72 h of exposure. Ropivacaine 0.75% after 72 h reduced viable cells to 15% ± 3% and 25% ± 3% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to the combination was 10% ± 2% and 18% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to melphalan was 8% ± 1% and 12% ± 2%, in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Conclusion: LAs have cytotoxic activity on human melanoma cell lines in a time-, concentration- and agent-dependant manner. Apoptosis in the cell lines was mediated through activity of caspases-3 and caspases-8.

  15. Lidocaine and ropivacaine, but not bupivacaine, demethylate deoxyribonucleic acid in breast cancer cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Hollmann, M. W.; Fleischer, M.; Weber, N. C.; Fiegl, H.

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine demethylates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in breast cancer cells. This modification of epigenetic information may be of therapeutic relevance in the perioperative period, because a decrease in methylation can reactivate tumour suppressor genes and inhibit tumour growth. The objectives of

  16. Mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation of lidocaine at a Pt electrode under acidic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Turan; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic hydroxylation reactions, which are mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo, are some of the most important reactions of Phase I metabolism, because insertion of a hydroxyl group into a lipophilic drug compound increases its hydrophilicity and prepares it for subsequent Phase II metabolic conjugation reactions as a prerequisite to excretion. Aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of pharmaceuticals may be obtained through various synthetic and enzymatic methods Electrochemical oxidation is an alternative with advantages in terms of mild reaction conditions and less hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we report that aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of lidocaine can be readily obtained electrochemically under aqueous acidic conditions at platinum electrodes. Our results show that the dominant N-dealkylation reaction can be suppressed by decreasing the solution pH below 0.5 resulting in selective 3-hydroxylidocaine, which is an in vivo metabolite of lidocaine. Experiments in 18 O labelled water indicated that water is the primary source of oxygen, while dissolved molecular oxygen contributes to a minor extent to the hydroxylation reaction.

  17. Fentanyl supplement expedites the onset time of sensory and motor blocking in interscalene lidocaine anesthesia

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    RS Moharari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Opioids are usually used in regional anesthesia, with or without local anesthetics to improve the regional block or postoperative pain control. Since no data are available on fentanyl's effect on the onset time of lidocaine interscalene anesthesia, the purpose of this study was to examine its effect on the onset time of sensory and motor blockade during interscalene anesthesia.  Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, ninety patients scheduled for elective shoulder, arm and forearm surgeries under an  interscalene brachial plexus block .They were randomly allocated to receive either 30 ml of  1.5 % lidocaine with 1.5 ml of isotonic saline  (control group, n = 39 or 30 ml of 1.5%  lidocaine with 1.5 ml (75µg of  fentanyl (fentanyl group,n=41. Then the onset time of sensory and motor blockades of the shoulder, arm and forearm were evaluated every 60 sec. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockades was defined as the time between the last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain sensation. Results: Ten patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade or unbearable pain during the surgery. The onset time of the sensory block was significantly faster in the fentanyl group (186.54± 62.71sec compared with the control group (289.51± 81.22, P < 0.01. The onset times of the motor block up to complete paralysis in forearm flexion was significantly faster in the fentanyl group (260.61± 119.91sec than the control group (367.08± 162.43sec, P < 0.01 There was no difference in the duration of the sensory block between two groups. Conclusion: Results of the study showed that the combination of 75 µg fentanyl and 1.5% lidocaine solution accelerated the onset of sensory and motor

  18. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain

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    Hussain Amjad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB and lidocaine HCl (LID was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9 were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate (SA. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release, which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  19. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae, E-mail: mono-111@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Yeol, E-mail: apleseed@hanmail.net; Kim, Jae Kyu, E-mail: kjkrad@jnu.ac.kr [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sang Young, E-mail: sycpvts@jnu.ac.kr; Choi, Soo Jin Na, E-mail: choisjn@jnu.ac.kr; Lee, Ho Kyun, E-mail: mhaha@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  20. ELA-max: A new topical lidocaine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the role of a new formulation of lidocaine (ELA-max) in local anesthesia in children and compare it with the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). Relevant literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (1966-November 2003) using the search terms ELA-max and EMLA. Bibliographies of selected articles were also examined to include all relevant investigations. The product manufacturer was contacted for inclusion of the most recent data available. Topical anesthesia in children is clinically challenging. ELA-max has been shown to be as effective as EMLA for venipuncture in children, but with faster onset. Adverse effects, such as transient blanching with redness and erythema, have been reported. Further investigation is needed to determine the effectiveness of ELA-max on other painful procedures in children, as well as its safety.

  1. Intramuscular diclofenac vs periprostatic lidocaine injection for controlling pain undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) technique for getting prostatic tissue for histopathology is now the standard procedure for malignant lesions of the prostate and imperative diagnostic investigation of patients with clinical specks of prostatic neoplasia. During TRUS guided biopsy, pain control has been important issue therefore, highly potent analgesia before this procedure should be considered on high priority according to current census. Therefore, we compared intramuscular diclofenac injection with sensory blockade of injection lidocaine to abolish pain undergoing prostatic biopsy with TRUS technique. Methods: Total 200 patients were selected for this study having raised PSA values and suspicious nodule on Digital Rectal Examination. These patients were segregated into two groups by randomization. Group Ar eceived intramuscular diclofenac and group Bw ere infiltrated with lidocaine injection for sensory blockade. Results: Patients in group A was having mean age of 64.5±5.8 years while for group B patients was 65.6±4.9 years (p=0.16). Both groups have statistically insignificant difference in their mean PSA values (p=0.24) and mean prostatic volume (p=0.22). The mean pain scores on visual analogue scale in groups A was 3.5±0.8 and in group B it was 2.4±0.8 (p<0.001). 60% group A patients reported with mild or no pain compared to 90% in group B. (p<0.001). Conclusion: Local blockade with lidocaine injection has better pain control as compared to patients experienced pain with intramuscular diclofenac used for prostatic biopsy through TRUS technique.

  2. The Efficacy of Buccal Infiltration of 4% Articaine and PSA Injection of 2% Lidocaine on Anesthesia of Maxillary Second Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaei, Ensiyeh; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Milad; Ranjbar, Rana

    2017-01-01

    During the early mixed dentition period, the location of the deciduous maxillary second molar results in ineffectiveness of the infiltration technique in this area. In such cases, administration of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block is recommended; however, such a technique has some complications. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of buccal infiltration of 4% Articaine and PSA technique with 2% Lidocaine on the success of anesthesia of maxillary deciduous second molars in 6 to 9-year old children. In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, 56 children aged 6-9 years requiring vital pulp therapy of deciduous maxillary second molar were included. In group 1, 4% Articaine was injected using a buccal infiltration technique. In group 2, 2% Lidocaine was injected using the PSA nerve block technique. After 10 min, the caries was removed and access cavity preparation was instituted. The patients were asked to report the presence or absence of pain during the procedure. Therefore, the existence of pain was measured by the patient's self-report. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and the chi -squared test. Pain was reported by 6 (21.4%) and 9 (32.1%) subjects in the Articaine and Lidocaine groups, respectively. Chi -squared test did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups ( P =0.54). Under the limitations of the present study, there was no significant differences between the results of Articaine buccal infiltration and Lidocaine PSA technique, so Articaine buccal infiltration can be used as a substitute for the PSA technique.

  3. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine for suction-assisted lipectomy with tumescent technique under general anesthesia: a randomized, double-masked, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilla, Stefan; Fontbona, Montserrat; de Valdés, Victoria Diaz; Dagnino, Bruno; Sorolla, Juan Pablo; Israel, Guillermo; Searle, Susana; Norambuena, Hernán; Cabello, Rodrigo

    2013-08-01

    Suction-assisted lipectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in plastic surgery. To minimize blood loss and to obtain adequate analgesia, a liquid solution is infiltrated into the subcutaneous plane before suction. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution reduces postoperative pain. A prospective, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial was designed. Each side of patients' body zones to be treated with suction-assisted lipectomy was randomized to receive infiltration solution with or without lidocaine. Treatment allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers in permuted blocks of eight. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale and registered 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after the procedure. The trial was stopped after a first interim analysis. The use of lidocaine in the dilute solution reduced pain by 0.5 point on the visual analogue scale (95 percent CI, 0.3 to 0.8; p<0.001). The effect was independent of the suctioned body zone (p=0.756), and lasted until 18 hours after surgery. Its analgesic effect was lost at the 24-hour postoperative control. Pain increased an average of 0.018 point on the visual analogue scale per hour (95 percent CI, 0.001 to 0.036; p=0.043). The use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution is effective in postoperative pain control until 18 hours after surgery. Nevertheless, its clinical effect is limited and clinically irrelevant, and therefore it is no longer used by the authors. Therapeutic, I.

  4. The incidence of transient neurologic syndrome after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine or bupivacaine: The effects of needle type and surgical position: brief report

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    Etezadi F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBurning Transient Neurologic Syndrome (TNS which was first described by Schneider et al in 1993, is defined as a transient pain and dysesthesia in waist, buttocks and the lower limbs after spinal anesthesia.1,2 The incidence of TNS after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine is reported to be as high as 10-40%.3,4 This prospective study was designed to determine the incidence of TNS with two different types of drugs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, in lithotomy or supine positions as the primary outcomes and to determine the association between two different types of needles and surgical positions with the occurrence of TNS as the secondary outcome."nThe present study was conducted on 250 patients (ASA I-II, aged 18-60 years old, who were candidates for surgery in supine or lithotomy positions. According to the needle type (Sprotte or Quincke and the local anesthetic (lidocaine or bupivacaine all patients were randomly divided into four groups. After establishing standard monitoring, spinal anesthesia was performed in all sitting patients by attending anesthesiologists at L2-L3 or L3-L4 levels. The patients were placed in supine or lithotomy position, in regards to the surgical procedure. During the first three postoperative days, patients were observed for post spinal anesthesia complications, especially TNS. Any sensation of pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia or hyperalgesia in the low back area, buttocks, the anterior or posterior thigh, knees, either foot or both feet were recorded. Moreover, duration of pain, its radiation and its relation to sleep and the patients' position were all carefully considered. Ultimately, the patients' response to opioid (pethidine for analgesia was determined."nThe incidence of TNS was higher when spinal anesthesia was induced with lidocaine (68% vs. 22%, P=0.003. TNS developed in 85% of the patients in lidocaine group and 58% in bupivacaine group after surgery in lithotomy position (P=0.002. In 77 patients pain

  5. The stability and microbial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness diagnostics in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Cornett, C.; Damborg, P.

    2016-01-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are frequently used for diagnostic procedures in equine veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical stability and bacterial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness examinations in horses. The LAs...... serially in both new and repeatedly punctured (RP) vials. Mepivacaine remained chemically stable. A 1.9% increase in bupivacaine concentration was evident in one group, whereas a 1.9–3.7% decrease was noted in six groups. Risk factors associated with a change in concentration were light and RP vials...... in practice vehicles were risk factors for degradation. No contamination was present in any of the LAs and pH remained stable. Commercially available solutions of lidocaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine stored under common veterinary field conditions are extremely stable and sterile for extended periods...

  6. Does the combination of 3% mepivacaine plain plus 2% lidocaine with epinephrine improve anesthesia and reduce the pain of anesthetic injection for the inferior alveolar nerve block? A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Emily; Nusstein, John; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Beck, Mike; Fowler, Sara

    2014-09-01

    In theory, using 3% mepivacaine initially for an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block would decrease the pain of injection, provide faster onset, and increase anesthetic success. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with a combination of 3% mepivacaine/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) versus a combination of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine)/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) in IAN blocks. Injection pain was also studied. One hundred asymptomatic subjects were randomly given a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 3% mepivacaine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for the IAN block at 2 separate appointments. Subjects rated the pain of injection. The molars, premolars, and incisors were tested with an electric pulp tester in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes. Anesthetic success was defined as the subject achieving 2 consecutive 80 readings within 15 minutes after completion of the IAN blocks and sustaining the 80 reading for 60 minutes. Success was not significantly different (P > .05) between the 2 combinations. No statistical differences in injection pain or onset times were found. The combination of 3% mepivacaine plus 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was equivalent to the combination of 2 cartridges of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in terms of injection pain, onset time, and pulpal anesthetic success for the IAN block. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immediate reaction to lidocaine with periorbital edema during upper blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Presman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In clinical practice, we recommend that patient should be informed about the possibility of recurrence of an adverse reaction in case of re-exposure to lidocaine, even in the vast majority of cases where true allergy could not be proven. In case of further need for local anesthesia with history of an adverse event, a different agent may be chosen even from the same class (another amide as cross-reactions in the amide group are rare. Otherwise, an anesthetic from the ester group can also be safely used.

  8. Extending labor epidural analgesia using lidocaine plus either dexmedetomidine or epinephrine for emergency cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Hasanein

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Epidural dexmedetomidine is comparable to epinephrine as an adjuvant to epidural lidocaine in fastening the onset of surgical anesthesia and resulted in better intraoperative analgesia and in longer duration of sensory and motor block in the settings of converting labor epidural analgesia for emergency CS.

  9. Mechanochemical Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Lidocaine-Phloroglucinol Hydrate 1:1:1 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Evelyn Magaña-Vergara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular complexation is a strategy used to modify the physicochemical or biopharmaceutical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Solvent assisted grinding is a common method used to obtain solid complexes in the form of cocrystals. Lidocaine is a drug used as an anesthetic and for the treatment of chronic pain, which bears in its chemical structure an amide functional group able to form hydrogen bonds. Polyphenols are used as cocrystal coformers due to their ability to form O–H···X (X = O, N hydrogen bond interactions. The objective of this study was to exploit the ability of phloroglucinol to form molecular complexes with lidocaine by liquid assisted grinding. The formation of the complex was confirmed by the shift of the O–H and C=O stretching bands in the IR spectra of the polycrystalline ground powders, suggesting the formation of O–H···O=C hydrogen bonds. Hydration of the complexes also was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and by powder X-ray diffraction. The molecular structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  10. Thalamic VPM nucleus in the behaving monkey. III. Effects of reversible inactivation by lidocaine on thermal and mechanical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G H; Bushnell, M C; Oliveras, J L; Bastrash, N; Tremblay, N

    1993-11-01

    1. The present study evaluates the necessity of the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM) for discrimination of the intensity of noxious heating, innocuous cooling, and innocuous tactile (airpuff) stimulation of the maxillary skin. 2. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to detect small differences (Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) was microinjected into regions of thalamus where single-unit recordings had identified neuronal responses to the noxious heating and/or cooling stimuli. The effectiveness of the anesthetic blockade was monitored by multiunit recordings using microelectrodes positioned 1-3 mm from the orifice of the injection cannula. The monkey's ability to detect near-threshold changes in stimulus intensity was compared before and after each injection. 3. During six experimental sessions, single injections of 1-4 microliters lidocaine near the dorsomedial border of VPM did not significantly alter the monkey's ability to detect small changes in the intensity of noxious heat, cool, airpuff, or visual stimuli despite neurophysiological evidence that spontaneous neuronal activity was blocked within parts of VPM. 4. During three experiments, dual simultaneous microinjections of lidocaine (delivered through 2 microcannulae separated by approximately 1 mm) resulted in profound deficits in noxious heat discrimination, with lesser deficits in cool and airpuff discrimination; visual discrimination was never altered. Monitoring of adjacent microelectrodes revealed that although activity ventral to the injection sites was blocked, activity in medial thalamic nuclei, implicated in nociceptive processing, was probably not altered by these injections. 5. These data suggest that VPM is important for the perception of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli as well as for the perception of tactile stimuli. However, considering the ineffectiveness of small single microinjections of lidocaine, it appears that some critical proportion of VPM must be inactivated to disrupt

  11. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms

  12. The Amide Local Anesthetic Lidocaine in Cancer Surgery—Potential Antimetastatic Effects and Preservation of Immune Cell Function? A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiên-Nga Chamaraux-Tran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of the primary tumor in solid cancer is an essential component of the treatment. However, the perioperative period can paradoxically lead to an increased risk of cancer recurrence. A bimodal dynamics for early-stage breast cancer recurrence suggests a tumor dormancy-based model with a mastectomy-driven acceleration of the metastatic process and a crucial role of the immunosuppressive state during the perioperative period. Recent evidence suggests that anesthesia could also influence the progress of the disease. Local anesthetics (LAs have long been used for their properties to block nociceptive input. They also exert anti-inflammatory capacities by modulating the liberation or signal propagation of inflammatory mediators. Interestingly, LAs can reduce viability and proliferation of many cancer cells in vitro as well. Additionally, retrospective clinical trials have suggested that regional anesthesia for cancer surgery (either with or without general anesthesia might reduce the risk of recurrence. Lidocaine, a LA, which can be administered intravenously, is widely used in clinical practice for multimodal analgesia. It is associated with a morphine-sparing effect, reduced pain scores, and in major surgery probably also with a reduced incidence of postoperative ileus and length of hospital stay. Systemic delivery might therefore be efficient to target residual disease or reach cells able to form micrometastasis. Moreover, an in vitro study has shown that lidocaine could enhance the activity of natural killer (NK cells. Due to their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure, NKs are the main actor of the innate immune system. However, several perioperative factors can reduce NK activity, such as stress, pain, opioids, or general anesthetics. Intravenous lidocaine as part of the perioperative anesthesia regimen would be of major interest for clinicians, as it might bear the potential

  13. Efficacy and safety of articaine versus lidocaine for irreversible pulpitis treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; Li, Chunjie; Wang, Hang; Shen, Jiefei; Liu, Wenjia; Kou, Liang

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of articaine compared with lidocaine for irreversible pulpitis (IP) treatment. Databases were explored electronically and relevant journals as well as the references of the included studies were hand-searched for randomised clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of articaine with lidocaine in treatment of IP. Twenty studies were included, of which eight had low risk of bias, 10 had moderate risk of bias and two had high risk of bias. In comparison with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine showed a higher success rate in anaesthesia of IP at either person (risk ratio (RR) 1.15; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10 1.20; P < 0.00001) or tooth unit (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.10 1.19, P < 0.00001), lower VAS scores during injection phase (mean difference (MD) -0.67; 95% CI -1.26 -0.08, P = 0.02) and treatment phase (MD -3.35; 95% CI -3.78 -2.91, P < 0.00001), shorter onset time of pulpal anaesthesia (MD -0.94; 95% CI -1.13 -0.74, P < 0.00001) and lower percentage of patients undergoing adverse events (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03 0.92, P = 0.04). Given the efficacy and safety of the two solutions, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was superior to 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in dental treatments in IP. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  14. The effect of early ambulation on the incidence of neurological complication after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihanak Talakoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transient neurological symptoms (TNS, was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine but its etiology remains unknown this study was evaluated the influence of ambulation time on the occurrence of TNSs after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine 5%. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II, who were candidates for lower abdominal surgery in supine or lithotomy positions. Patients were randomly divided into early ambulation group (Group A who were asked to start walking as soon as the anesthesia was diminished or to the late ambulation group (Group B who walked after at least 12 h bedridden. Participants were contacted 2 days after spinal anesthesia to assess any type of pain at surgical or anesthesia injection site, muscle weakness, fatigue, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, headache, and difficult urination or defecation. Results: Four subjects (13.3% in Group A and two patients (6.7% in Group B had pain at anesthesia injection site (P = 0.019. Fourteen patients in Group A (46.7% and six patients in Group B (20% had post-dural puncture headache (P = 0.014. Participants in Group B reported difficult urination more than Group A (P = 0.002. there were not statistically significant differences between two groups regarding frequency of fatigue, muscle weakness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, difficult defecation, paresthesia, and the mean of visual analogue scale at the surgical site. Conclusion: Early ambulation after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine did not increase the risk of neurologic complication.

  15. [Determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Qin; Liang, Mao-Zhi; Qin, Yong-Ping; Nan, Feng

    2010-07-01

    To establish a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of lidocaine (LDC) and its metabolites, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX), in human plasma. METHODS; The assay was conducted with an API 3000 HPLC-MS/MS system consisted of a Ultimate C18 column (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol: 5 mmol/ L ammonium acetate (50:50, pH was adjusted to 5.0 by formic acid) and the flow rate was set at 0.2 mL/min. The alkalinized sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. After evaporation of the organic layer, the residue was dissolved in mobile phase and the drug was determined by HPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization. The calibration curve was linear in a range from 15.625 to 2000 ng/mL for LDC. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 1.5625 to 200 ng/mL for both for MEGX and GX. The limit of quantification for LDC, MEGX and GX was set at 15.625, 1.5625 and 1.5625 ng/mL. This method for the quantitative determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in human plasma is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. Therefore it can be used for the determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in clinical practice.

  16. [Comparative effects of vitamin C on the effects of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on human chondrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500μM was determined by Live/Dead assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaineC effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative effects of vitamin C on the effects of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500 μM was determined by LIVE/DEAD assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaineC effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4 percent Articaine Primary Buccal Infiltration Versus 2 percent Lidocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Mandibular First Molar Teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, M.; Khattak, S. U. R.; Shah, S. A.; Fayyaz, M.; Sikandar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate success of pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4 percentage articaine in buccal infiltration versus 2 percentage lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Operative Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, from March to August 2014. Methodology: One hundred and fifty-six emergency patients, who had 1st molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by random allocation. One group received 4 percentage articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 2 percentage lidocaine. Subjects self-reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anaesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. Results: Mean age of subjects was 31.46 ±10.994 years. The success rate of 4 percentage buccal infiltration was 76.9 percentage; whereas the success rate of 2 percentage lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was 62.8 percentage. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: 4 percentage articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2 percentage lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy. (author)

  19. A comparison of the efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in achieving pulpal anesthesia in maxillary teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaa, Mohammad D; Whitworth, John M; Meechan, John G

    2012-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of buccal infiltrations of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in achieving anesthesia in maxillary teeth with irreversible pulpitis. This randomized double-blind clinical trial included 100 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in maxillary teeth. Patients received 2.0 mL 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in the buccal sulcus adjacent to the tooth with pulpitis. Before and every 2 minutes up to a maximum of 10 minutes after injection, the response of the test tooth was assessed using an electronic pulp tester. Successful pulp anesthesia was considered to have occurred when no response was obtained to the maximum stimulation (80 reading) of the pulp tester during the test period, at which time treatment commenced. Treatment was regarded as being successfully completed when it was associated with no pain. The time to onset of successful pulp anesthesia was recorded for each test tooth. Injection discomfort was recorded on standard 100-mm visual analog scales (VASs). Data were analyzed by the Chi-square and Student t tests. Fifty patients received articaine and 50 received lidocaine. Seventy-three of the 100 patients achieved pulpal anesthesia within 10 minutes of injection: 38 after articaine and 35 after lidocaine (P = .5). The onset of pulpal anesthesia after articaine and lidocaine buccal infiltrations was similar (mean and standard deviations: 4.9 ± 2.7 minutes vs 5.1 ± 2.4 minutes, respectively; t = 0.2; P = .82). Pain-free treatment was completed in 33 patients after articaine and 29 after lidocaine buccal infiltrations (P = .63). Although articaine buccal injection was significantly more comfortable than lidocaine buccal injection (t = 2.3, P = .026), both were associated with mild discomfort on VAS (means ± standard deviation: 10.8 mm ± 11.7 mm vs 17.5 mm ± 17.6 mm, respectively). There was no significant difference in efficacy

  20. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Eerd, M.J. van; Seventer, R. van; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection. METHODS: Twenty patients with an

  1. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for non resectable esophageal carcinoma. For patients with operable tumors, surgery is the traditional treatment. However several data could improve therapeutic results. At the present time, no randomized trial has demonstrated, except for adenocarcinoma of the cardia, the benefit of preoperative treatment. Other randomized trials are needed to determine the role and the optimal modalities of these treatments. This is a review of the literature data in concomitant chemotherapy and radiation in the management of esophagus. (author)

  2. Chemical stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride from an elixir and lidocaine hydrochloride from a viscous solution when mixed together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishnu D

    2006-01-01

    The stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (from an elixir) and lidocaine hydrochloride (from a viscous solution) in a mixture (1:1) was studied using a stability-indicating high-peformance liquid chromatographic assay method. The concentrations of the drugs were related directly to peak heights and the percent relative standard deviations based on five injections were 1.4 for diphenhydramine and 1.3 for lidocaine. The products of hydrolysis from the both the drugs and a number of excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the developed assay procedure. The mixture was stable for at least 21 days when stored in amber-colored bottles at room temperature. The pH value of the mixture remained constant, and the physical appearance did not change during the study period.

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF CONCOMITANT SQUINT

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    Vijay Chopra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malalignment in the visual axes of the two eyes is called strabismus. Fusion of both images is replaced either by diplopia or suppression of one image. Squint leads to loss of binocular single vision. Concomitant squint is a type of manifest squint in which the amount of deviation in the squinting eye is same in all gazes. Binocular single vision and ocular movement coordination are not present since birth, but are acquired in the early childhood. This process starts by the age of 3-6 months and is completed up to 5-6 years. Any hindrance in the development of these processes may result in concomitant squint. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 100 cases of concomitant squint, patients were included in our study. Detailed history was taken regarding the onset of squint and duration. Past history and family history was also elicited. General examination was done to detect any abnormalities of central nervous system. Routine ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity, cover test performed to detect the type of deviation whether uniocular or alternating and the type of fixation. Angle of deviation was measured by Hirschberg’s test and on the synoptophore. Binocular single vision was assessed using Worth’s 4-dot test and synoptophore. Cycloplegic refraction and fundus evaluation done in all patients. Inclusion Criteria- All primary non-paralytic deviations, sensory deprivation strabismus. Exclusion Criteria- Paralytic strabismus, strabismus associated with neurological disorders, consecutive strabismus and palpebral fissure abnormalities patients. RESULTS Majority of cases of concomitant squint were of esotropic type. Most common form of esotropia seen was infantile esotropia. Most common form of exotropia was intermittent exotropia. 19% of cases were secondary to other ocular diseases namely cataract, macular lesion, high myopia, etc. Amblyopia was present in 54% patients and of very dense type, which could not be treated

  4. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V; Manochehrifar, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  5. Clinical evaluation of an ointment with 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine in the treatment of alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L J; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Rodrigues, T S; Simonato, L E

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate the use of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, using a lanolin base and mint as flavoring, to treat alveolitis in humans. Twenty-five patients, with a diagnosis of alveolitis, were treated in the following way: locoregional anesthesia; surgical cleaning of the socket with alveolar curettes; saline solution irrigation with a 20 ml disposable syringe; and complete filling of the socket with the ointment. The analysis of the results showed that the painful symptoms were severe before and on the day of the treatment in 17 (68%) of the 25 patients treated. Post-treatment analysis presented 2 patients (18%) with severe painful symptoms after 24 h of the treatment and complete remission of painful symptoms after 48 h of the treatment with the ointment. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, with mint flavoring and lanolin as a base, can be used to treat alveolitis.

  6. Efficacy of Articaine and Lidocaine for Buccal Infiltration of First Maxillary Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Double-blinded Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Parirokh, Masoud; Nakhaee, Nouzar; V. Abbott, Paul; Samani, Syamak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 2% lidocaine to 4% articaine in buccal infiltration of maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Moreover, the effect of root length on success of anesthesia irrespective of the type of anesthetic agent was assessed. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients suffering from painful maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis received an infiltration injection of either 4% articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80000 epinephrine. Each patient recorded their pain score in response to a cold test on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS) before commencing the treatment, 5 min following injection, during access preparation, after pulp exposure and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analyzed using the multivariate logistic regression analysis, chi-square and t tests. Results: Finally, 47 out of 50 patients were eligible to be included in this study. The anesthetic success rates in the lidocaine and articaine groups were 56.52% and 66.67%, respectively and the difference was not significant (P=0.474). Irrespective of the anesthetic agent, the length of the palatal root (Odds Ratio=0.24, P=0.007) had an adverse effect on anesthetic success. There was an association between longer palatal root length and anesthetic failure. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine in terms of anesthetic success in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. The length of the palatal root had a significant negative influence on anesthetic success. PMID:27141212

  7. Efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine as a supplemental buccal infiltration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brandon S; Botero, Tatiana M; McDonald, Neville J; Gardner, Richard J; Peters, Mathilde C

    2014-06-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis (IP) is often difficult to obtain and often requires supplemental injections after an ineffective inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the efficacy of 4% articaine with 2% lidocaine for supplemental buccal infiltrations (BIs) after an ineffective IANB in mandibular molars with IP. In addition, the use of articaine for IANB and intraosseous injections was investigated. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with IP of a mandibular molar were selected and received an IANB with 4% articaine. All injections were 1.7 mL with 1:100,000 epinephrine. All patients reported profound lip numbness after IANB. Patients with ineffective IANB (positive pulpal response to cold or pain on access) randomly received 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine as a supplemental BI. Endodontic access was initiated 5 minutes after deposition of the infiltration solution. Success was defined as no pain or no more than mild pain during endodontic access and instrumentation as measured on a visual analogue scale. Seventy-four patients failed to achieve pulpal anesthesia after IANB with 4% articaine, resulting in IANB success rate of 26%. Success rates for supplemental BIs were 62% for articaine and 37% for lidocaine (P < .05). This effect was most pronounced in second molars (P < .05). Supplemental BI with articaine was significantly more effective than lidocaine. The IANB success rate of 4% articaine confirmed published data. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-emptive multimodal analgesia with tramadol and ketamine-lidocaine infusion for suppression of central sensitization in a dog model of ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Ubedullah; Rahman, Nor-Alimah; Abubakar, Adamu Abdul; Goh, Yong Meng; Fakurazi, Sharida; Omar, Mohamed Ariff; Chen, Hui Cheng

    2018-01-01

    The effects of pre-emptive infusion of ketamine-lidocaine with tramadol on the suppression of central sensitization were investigated in a dog ovariohysterectomy model. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: ketamine-lidocaine-tramadol (KLT) and tramadol (T) groups. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 4 mg/kg body weight as premedication. Immediately after induction, the KLT group received ketamine and lidocaine at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg loading dose, followed by continuous rate infusion of 50 and 100 µg/kg/min, respectively, for 2 hours. Dogs in T group received saline bolus and continuous rate infusion at equi-volume. Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were recorded, whereas postoperative pain was evaluated using an algometer and short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale. Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were obtunded to a greater degree in KLT compared to T group. Postoperatively, the pain scores increased only for the first hour in KLT group, compared to 12 hours in T group. Mechanical thresholds at the abdomen decreased postoperatively between 12 and 60 hours in KLT group versus the entire 72 hours in T group. Thresholds at tibia and radius in both groups increased in the immediate 1 hour postoperatively, but decreased thereafter. Significant decrement of thresholds from baseline were detected in the tibia at 24, 42, and 60 hours in KLT group compared to 24-72 hours in T group, and in the radius between 36 and 48 hours in T group, but none in KLT group. Addition of pre-emptive ketamine-lidocaine infusion to single intravenous dose of tramadol enhanced attenuation of central sensitization and improved intra- and postoperative analgesia.

  9. Effect of paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block application for pain relief during suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Özoğlu, Nil; Aksoy, Ülkü; Albayrak, Evrim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group) consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  10. Effect of Paracetamol, Dexketoprofen Trometamol, Lidocaine Spray, and Paracervical Block Application for Pain Relief during Suction Termination of First-Trimester Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic efficacy of preoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol, intravenous paracetamol, lidocaine spray, and paracervical block with ultracaine on curettage procedure. A total of 111 subjects with the request of pregnancy termination between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The first group (control group consisted of 20 participants without medication. The second group consisted of 25 participants receiving 2 puffs of lidocaine sprays on cervical mucosa. The third group consisted of 20 participants receiving oral 25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol. The fourth group consisted of 23 participants receiving 1000 mg intravenous paracetamol and the fifth group consisted of 23 participants receiving paracervical block with ultracaine. Paracervical block reduced pain score significantly in both intraoperative and postoperative periods. All analgesic procedures were significantly effective for reducing pain in postoperative period. Paracervical block may be the best method for reducing pain scores in intraoperative and postoperative periods during curettage procedure. All analgesic procedures such as lidocaine, paracetamol, ultracaine, and paracervical block with ultracaine can be used for reducing pain score in postoperative period. This trial is registered with NCT01947205.

  11. Effectiveness of intra-arterial anesthesia for uterine fibroid embolization using dilute lidocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Songhua; Li, Yi; Wang, Guoliang; Han, Hongjie; Yang, Zhenyan

    2005-01-01

    A modified protocol of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) is proposed for alleviating the postinterventional pain. This randomized and double-blinded clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of intra-arterial infusion of dilute lidocaine for postinterventional pain relief in UFE. Forty-six patients who underwent UFE were randomly grouped equally. In the test group, after the poly(vinyl alcohol) embolization was complete, a dilute lidocaine solution with 40 mg in 6.0 ml, 3.0 ml for each side or 4.0 and 2.0 ml for two sides, was given through the catheter. In the control group, the patients received 6.0 ml of saline solution as a placebo. A simple pain degree classification method for patient self-evaluation was developed. A questionnaire was completed by each patient to record the degree of pain during five periods; these were during the procedure, the first 12 h, the second 12 h, between 24 and 48 h, and between 48 and 72 h. The numbers of patients with the same degree of pain in the five time segments from the two groups were statistically compared. Compared with the control group, the patients in the test group experienced less pain within 48 h after the procedure (p<0.01). The results suggest that this improved UFE protocol is a simple approach to prevent the acute postinterventional pain of UFE. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of intra-arterial anesthesia for uterine fibroid embolization using dilute lidocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Songhua; Li, Yi; Wang, Guoliang; Han, Hongjie; Yang, Zhenyan [Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2005-08-01

    A modified protocol of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) is proposed for alleviating the postinterventional pain. This randomized and double-blinded clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of intra-arterial infusion of dilute lidocaine for postinterventional pain relief in UFE. Forty-six patients who underwent UFE were randomly grouped equally. In the test group, after the poly(vinyl alcohol) embolization was complete, a dilute lidocaine solution with 40 mg in 6.0 ml, 3.0 ml for each side or 4.0 and 2.0 ml for two sides, was given through the catheter. In the control group, the patients received 6.0 ml of saline solution as a placebo. A simple pain degree classification method for patient self-evaluation was developed. A questionnaire was completed by each patient to record the degree of pain during five periods; these were during the procedure, the first 12 h, the second 12 h, between 24 and 48 h, and between 48 and 72 h. The numbers of patients with the same degree of pain in the five time segments from the two groups were statistically compared. Compared with the control group, the patients in the test group experienced less pain within 48 h after the procedure (p<0.01). The results suggest that this improved UFE protocol is a simple approach to prevent the acute postinterventional pain of UFE. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of 2-Chloroprocaine, Bupivacaine, and Lidocaine for Spinal Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Knee Arthroscopy in an Outpatient Setting: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunkens, An; Vermeulen, Kristien; Van Gerven, Elke; Fieuws, Steffen; Van de Velde, Marc; Rex, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Knee arthroscopy is a well-established procedure in day-case surgery, which is frequently performed under spinal anesthesia. It is, however, controversial whether the choice for a specific local anesthetic translates into relevant outcomes. We hypothesized that the use of 2-chloroprocaine would be associated with a faster recovery from sensorimotor block. Ninety-nine patients were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial and randomly allocated to receive either 40 mg 2-chloroprocaine, 40 mg lidocaine, or 7.5 mg bupivacaine. The primary endpoint was the time until complete recovery of sensory block. Secondary endpoints included time to recovery from motor block, failure rates, incidence of hypotension/bradycardia, postoperative pain, first mobilization, voiding and discharge times, and the incidence of transient neurologic symptoms. This clinical trial was registered prior to patient enrollment (EudraCT 2011-003675-11). Patients in the chloroprocaine group had a significantly shorter time until recovery from sensory block (median, 2.6 hours; interquartile range [IQR], 2.2-2.9 hours) than patients in the lidocaine group (3.1 hours; IQR, 2.7-3.6 hours; P bupivacaine group (6.1 hours; IQR, 5.5 hours to undefined hours; P bupivacaine. Times to first mobilization, voiding, and discharge were significantly shorter for chloroprocaine when compared with bupivacaine, but not with lidocaine. In the bupivacaine group, patients needed significantly less rescue medication for postoperative pain when compared with lidocaine and chloroprocaine. Groups did not differ with respect to patient satisfaction, incidence of bradycardia/hypotension, and transient neurologic symptom rate. For spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing ambulatory knee arthroscopy, chloroprocaine has the shortest time to complete recovery of sensory and motor block compared with bupivacaine and lidocaine.

  14. The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

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    Saleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

  15. Effect of ketoprofen, lidocaine local anesthesia, and combined xylazine and lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia during castration of beef cattle on stress responses, immunity, growth, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Hughes, J M L; Crowe, M A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the effects of burdizzo castration alone or in combination with ketoprofen (K), local anesthesia (LA), or caudal epidural anesthesia (EPI) on plasma cortisol, acute-phase proteins, interferon-gamma production, growth, and behavior of beef cattle, 50 Holstein x Friesian bulls (13 mo old, 307 +/- 5.3 kg) were assigned to (n = 10/treatment): 1) control (handled; C); 2) burdizzo castration (B); 3) B following K (3 mg/ kg of BW i.v.; BK); 4) B following LA (8 mL into each testis and 3 mL s.c. along the line where the jaws of the burdizzo were applied with 2% lidocaine HCl; BLA); and 5) B following EPI (0.05 mg/kg of BW of xylazine HCl and 0.4 mg/kg of BW of lidocaine HCl as caudal epidural; BEPI). The area under the cortisol curve against time was lower (P castration groups than in C. On d 7, haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations remained higher (P castration increased plasma cortisol and acute-phase proteins, and suppressed immune function and growth rates. Local anesthesia prolonged the increase in acute-phase proteins. Ketoprofen was more effective than LA or EPI in decreasing cortisol and partially reversed the reduction in ADG following castration. The use of K or EPI was more effective than LA in decreasing pain-associated behavioral responses observed during the first 6 h after treatment. Systemic analgesia with ketoprofen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was more effective in reducing inflammatory responses associated with castration than LA or EPI.

  16. Intraperitoneal injection of Bupivacaine and Lidocaine in reducing postoperative pain in gynecologic laparoscopic surgeries: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleyassin A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: As less invasive surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy, become more common, patients can go home soon after the surgery. However, some pain is accompanied by such procedures due to peritoneal stretching, diaphragmatic irritation, or, to a lesser extent, abdominal puncture. It is important to reduce the level of pain to the point that narcotics are not necessary. The administration of opioids for pain after abdominal surgeries is common. The receptors involved seem to be susceptible to blockade with low-dose local anesthesia, although this is subject to some controversy. In this study, we assess and compare the effectiveness of intraperitoneal Bupivacaine and Lidocaine in pain reduction after diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopy in infertility patients. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 150 patients admitted to Dr. Shariati Hospital for diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopy were entered into three randomized groups. Group B received Bupivacaine after the diagnostic laparoscopic procedure, group L received Lidocaine and group C, the control group, received a placebo after the surgery, all administered intraperi- toneally. Postsurgerical pain was assessed using the numeric visual analogue scale at 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results: In group B, the pain scores at 6 and 24 hours after surgery were significantly less than those of group L. Conclusions: Administration of Bupivacaine after diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopic procedures is more effective in pain control than Lidocaine. The effect of this drug is temporary, yet it significantly decreases early postoperative pain, reducing the need for additional postoperative analgesics. Furthermore, the time at which patients can be discharged from the hospital is significantly reduced.

  17. Effect of Paracetamol Pretreatment on Rocuronium-Induced Injection Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Comparison with Lidocaine

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    Gulnaz Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol on rocuronium-induced injection pain with that of lidocaine. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A 20-gauge cannula was inserted into a vein on the dorsum of the patient%u2019s left hand and lactated Ringer%u2019s solution was infused at 100 ml/h. After 5 minutes, infusion was stopped and the left arm of the patient%u2019s was elevated for 15 seconds for gravity of venous blood. While venous occlusion was applied to the left upper arm using a pneumatic tourniquet, one of the pretreatment solutions (normal saline 5 mL, lidocaine 40 mg, paracetamol 50 mg was injected over a period of 10 seconds. The intensity of the pain patients experienced was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale in Group C (normal saline 5 mL, n=60, Group L (lidocaine 40 mg, n=60 and Group P (paracetamol 50 mg, n=60. After 2 minutes, the venous occlusion was released and the patients received 0.06 mg/kg rocuronim bromide over 10 seconds and the rocuronim-induced pain was assessed. Results: The overall incidence of rocuronium-induced injection pain was significantly more in Group C than the other groups (p

  18. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and moto...... blocks. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study we investigated these findings in patients undergoing unilateral knee arthroscopy....

  19. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Paracetamol is frequently involved in intended self-poisoning, and concomitant overdosing of other drugs is commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate further concomitant drug overdose in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects on the outcome...... of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  20. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

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    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  1. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  2. Local anesthesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a study comparing eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream and lidocaine infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Mogensen, P

    1992-01-01

    A study of the anesthetic efficacy of a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream) versus lidocaine infiltration in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was done. A total of 46 patients had 30 gm. of EMLA cream applied to the skin over the kidney and 45 had subcutaneous infiltration...... anesthesia with 20 ml. 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. All patients received an intravenous dose of morphine just before ESWL. The patients were comparable with regard to age, sex, weight, morphine dosage, number of shock waves given and duration of treatment. Median pain score and the amount of supplementary...... analgesics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to post-ESWL skin changes. Therefore, EMLA cream can be recommended for ESWL provided it is applied correctly....

  3. Comparison of O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate following injection of vasoconstrictor containing anesthetic (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor anesthetic (Mepivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Along with higher usage of dental local anesthesia with risks to people health together with their positive role, the important goal of dentistry, patients’ health, has been stressed repeatedly nowadays. This study was conducted to compare O2 saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate of patients following injection of anesthetic containing vasoconstrictor (lidocaine 2% and without vasoconstrictor (Mepivacaine. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 32 healthy humans (16 females and 16 males with 25-50 years age range and no history of drug usage. Cases were classified into two matched groups. O2 saturation, heart and respiratory rate were recorded before extraction of a mandibular posterior tooth. In the first group, 3.6 ml lidocaine 2% with 1:80,000 epinephrine and in the second group Mepivacaine 3% was injected, using inferior alveolar dental nerve block with aspiration. Variables were measured and recorded. Tooth extraction was performed and the mentioned variables were recorded again. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t and Paired t-test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: After injection of lidocaine, the heart rate was increased (12.25±1.75 bpm, and the time to reach the maximum rate was 64.75±11.26 seconds. After extraction of tooth, heart rate in both groups was increased not considering the type of injection. Conclusion: The study showed that the injection of lidocaine (containing epinephrine in patients without contraindication has no risk. Also, possible increase in heart rate is not risky and is not associated with O2 saturation decrease and respiratory interruption.

  4. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  5. Effect of sodium bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Khademi, Abbasali; Baghaei, Badri; Noormohammadi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of buffered with nonbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine solution for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in patients with mandibular posterior teeth experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Eighty adult patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth were selected. The patients received 2 cartridges of either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine buffered with 0.18 mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine with 0.18 mL sterile distilled water using conventional IAN block injections. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Lip numbness was required for all the patients. Success was determined as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by the t, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests. The success rates were 62.5% and 47.5% for buffered and nonbuffered groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P = .381). Buffering the 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate did not improve the success of the IAN block in mandibular molars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro synergistic activity of lidocaine and miconazole against Candida albicans

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    Maria da Conceição dos Santos Oliveira Cunha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the main yeast isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC and a major antifungal used to treat VVC is miconazole (MZ, it shows local toxic effects, such as irritation and burns. The lidocaine (LD is a local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic activity of LD/MZ against 19 strains of C. albicans isolated from vaginal secretion. 78.9% of the strains were susceptible to the combination LD/MZ, demonstrating synergism of drugs. These drugs can be used to produce vaginal creams to treat VVC, especially drug resistant.

  7. Direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas and liquid chromatography for the determination of lidocaine in human urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.H M; Hofman, N.S K; de Jong, G.J.

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been combined with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of lidocaine in human urine. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated fibre was directly immersed into buffered urine. Extraction conditions such as time, pH, ionic

  8. Evaluation of the clinical and analgesic effects of subarachnoid ketamine-lidocaine administration in goats undergoing mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daradka M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mousa Daradka, Zuhair Bani IsmailDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanAbstract: Twenty adult female goats affected with chronic mastitis were subjected to mastectomy or hemimastectomy under subarachnoid regional analgesia using a ketamine-lidocaine combination. Ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg and lidocaine hydrochloride at 1.25 mg/kg were administered intrathecally at the lumbosacral intervertebral space. Goats were then subjected to a 120-minute observation period for systemic or neurotoxic symptoms such as agitation, restlessness, hind limb paralysis, or seizures. In addition, analgesia of the caudal abdominal region and signs of systemic sedation were scored on a scale of 0–3. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were also recorded prior to (baseline values and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after administration. Mastectomy or hemimastectomy operation was carried out after full assurance of the analgesic effect on the udder and caudal abdominal region. Time of onset of surgical analgesia (score 3 was achieved at 15 minutes and lasted for 60 minutes. Maximal sedation score was recorded at 15 minutes and lasted for 60 minutes, then decreased thereafter, with the lowest sedation score recorded at 120 minutes. There was a significant (P<0.05 rise in heart rate at some point between 5–90 minutes, while the respiratory rate and rectal temperature did not change significantly from baseline values. Postoperatively, animals did not show any signs of pain or discomfort. Follow-up on the operated goats showed that all wounds were fully healed without any significant complications. In goats, intrathecal administration of ketamine-lidocaine combination resulted in a safe and effective analgesia of the caudal abdominal and udder region sufficient to perform mastectomy or hemimastectomy.Keywords: analgesia, sedation, ruminants, mastectomy

  9. Salt Solubility Products of Diprenorphine Hydrochloride, Codeine and Lidocaine Hydrochlorides and Phosphates – Novel Method of Data Analysis Not Dependent on Explicit Solubility Equations

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    Gergely Völgyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel general approach was described to address many of the challenges of salt solubility determination of drug substances, with data processing and refinement of equilibrium constants encoded in the computer program pDISOL-XTM. The new approach was illustrated by the determinations of the solubility products of diprenorphine hydrochloride, codeine hydrochloride and phosphate, lidocaine hydrochloride and phosphate at 25 oC, using a recently-optimized saturation shake-flask protocol.  The effects of different buffers (Britton-Robinson universal and Sörensen phosphate were compared. Lidocaine precipitates were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and polarization light microscopy. The ionic strength in the studied systems ranged from 0.25 to 4.3 M. Codeine (and possibly diprenorphine chloride were less soluble than the phosphates for pH > 2. The reverse trend was evident with lidocaine.  Diprenorphine saturated solutions showed departure from the predictions of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in alkaline (pH > 9 solutions, consistent with the formation of a mixed-charge anionic dimer.

  10. Pain relief with lidocaine 5% patch in localized peripheral neuropathic pain in relation to pain phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgaard Demant, Dyveke; Lund, Karen; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    In neuropathic pain with irritable nociceptor phenotype, up-regulation of sodium channels on nociceptors is supposed to be an important pain mechanism that may be targeted by topical sodium channel blockade. This randomised, double-blind, phenotype-panel, cross-over study with 4-week treatment pe...... had an effect on peripheral neuropathic pain, and it may be most efficacious in patients with irritable nociceptor phenotype. The lack of significant phenotype differences may be caused by too low statistical power.......In neuropathic pain with irritable nociceptor phenotype, up-regulation of sodium channels on nociceptors is supposed to be an important pain mechanism that may be targeted by topical sodium channel blockade. This randomised, double-blind, phenotype-panel, cross-over study with 4-week treatment...... periods of lidocaine 5% patch and placebo was performed to search for phenotype differences in effect. The primary efficacy measure was the total pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS), and the primary objective was to compare the effect of lidocaine in patients with and without...

  11. Will a single periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection improve the clinical efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Altay, Nuray; Kalender, Ali Murat; Öztürk, İbrahim Avşin

    2016-11-01

    A local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine into the periarticular soft tissue structures is used commonly for rapid pain relief. It is hypothesized that knee pain associated with knee osteoarthritis would be relieved quickly and effectively in patients receiving intraarticular hyaluronic acid combined with a periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection. To test this hypothesis, the clinical effect of the combined treatment with hyaluronic acid injection alone in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as compared in this prospective single-blinded randomized trial. This study included 70 patients. Group 1 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections only, whereas group 2 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections combined with a single local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine. Injections were administered to the most painful areas of the anterior or posterior medial condyle of the femur or tibia. The outcome was measured by independent assessors (blinded to treatment) using a linear VAS pain scale and WOMAC and HSS knee scores. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. During the first 3 weeks, group 2 patients showed significantly better all scores than did group 1 patients (p hyaluronic acid alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered a useful adjunctive treatment modality. This combined method may provide early return to patient's daily activity. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  12. Comparison of local anesthetic effects of lidocaine versus tramadol and effect of child anxiety on pain level in circumcision procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Fazli; Tuncel, Altug; Balci, Melih; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sacan, Ozlem; Kisa, Cebrail; Kayali, Mustafa; Atan, Ali

    2013-10-01

    To compare the local anesthetic effects of tramadol hydrochloride with those of lidocaine in circumcision procedures. We also investigated the effect of child anxiety on pain level. A total of 70 children were included in this study. The children were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 26) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and they underwent circumcision using Ali's clamp(®). Group 2 (n = 35) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and group 3 (n = 12) 5% tramadol. The last two groups underwent conventional circumcision. The mean anxiety score was 22.6. We did not find significant differences in terms of anxiety score among the groups (p = 0.761). When the pain scores of the groups during injection were compared, it was found that there were no significant differences. However, the pain score of the third group was significantly high when it was compared with the first and second group 2 and 10 min after injection. In the correlation analysis, we found a positive correlation between children's anxiety scores and the pain degree during injection (r = 0.373, p = 0.001). Tramadol may not provide effective local anesthesia in male circumcision. The child's anxiety before the circumcision seems to have a negative effect on pain level. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct detection of glucuronide metabolites of lidocaine in sheep urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Gregory S; Smith, Alistair K; Rothwell, Jim T; Edwards, Scott H

    2018-02-15

    The anaesthetic lidocaine is metabolised quickly to produce a series of metabolites, including several hydroxylated metabolites, which are further metabolised by addition of a glucuronic acid moiety. Analysis of these glucuronide metabolites in urine is performed indirectly by cleaving the glucuronic acid group using β-glucuronidase. However, direct analysis of intact glucuronide conjugates is a more straightforward approach as it negates the need for long hydrolysis incubations, and minimises the oxidation of sensitive hydrolysis products, while also distinguishing between the two forms of hydroxylated metabolites. A method was developed to identify three intact glucuronides of lidocaine in sheep urine using LC-MS/MS, which was further confirmed by the synthesis of glucuronide derivatives of 3OH-MEGX and 4OH-LIDO. Direct analysis of urine allowed the detection of the glucuronide metabolites of hydroxylidocaine (OH-LIDO), hydroxyl-monoethylglycinexylidide (OH-MEGX), and hydroxy-2,6-xylidine (OH-XYL). Analysis of urine before and after β-glucuronidase digestion showed that the efficiency of hydrolysis of these glucuronide metabolites may be underestimated in some studies. Analysis of urine in the current study from three different sheep with similar glucuronide metabolite concentrations resulted in different hydrolysis efficiencies, which may have been a result of different levels of substrate binding by matrix components, preventing enzyme cleavage. The use of direct analysis of intact glucuronides has the benefit of being less influenced by these matrix effects, while also allowing analysis of unstable metabolites like 4OH-XYL, which rapidly oxidises after hydrolysis. Additionally, direct analysis is less expensive and less time consuming, while providing more information about the status of hydroxylated metabolites in urine. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of peripheral lidocaine application (neural therapy) in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Yusuf; Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Gedik, Abdullah; Tamam, Cüneyt; Nazlıkul, Hüseyin

    2017-09-01

    Many agents and treatments are used in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in MS patients, but no study has been conducted on the use of peripheric lidocaine (neural therapy-NT) on MS patients. We evaluated the effects of local administration of lidocaine on NDO in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. For each patient local anesthetic lidocaine was injected at each session. Sessions were held once a week for 5 weeks. At each session, Th 10-L1, urogenital segment intradermal injections, Frankenhauser, and sacral epidural injections were given. The patients had clinical and urodynamic assessment 1 month before and 3, 9, and 12 months after NT. In addition, multiple sclerosis quality of life inventory (MSQL-54) and bladder control scale (BLCS) was performed for patients. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study (8 males, 20 females). The patients' average age was 31.7 ± 8.1 years. The injection therapy significantly improved volume at first involuntary bladder contraction (FCV), maximal detrusor pression during filling (P det. max.), maximal cystometric bladder capacity (MCC) after 3 months. Also, the MSQL-54 and BLCS scores were improved with treatment. However, these improvements reached a maximum 3 months after treatment, but from the 9 month a regression was seen in the parameters, and after 12 months the findings were seen to be slightly above their basal levels. These results suggest that NDO treatment in MS patients could be an effective treatment which is easy and has very few side effects, and is cost effective. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of intraperitoneal and incisional port site lidocaine on pain relief after gynecological laparoscopic surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla W. Shady

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: This study clearly depicts that incisional and intraperitoneal infiltration of lidocaine is an easy, safe, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that provides good analgesia during the early post-operative period and also provides early recovery from laparoscopic surgery.

  16. The Effects of Preoperative Oral Pregabalin and Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion on Postoperative Morphine Requirement in Patients Undergoing Laparatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senniye Ulgen Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement, adverse effects, patients’ satisfaction, mobilization, time to first defecation and time to discharge in patients undergoing laparotomy.

  17. The analgesic effect of nitroglycerin added to lidocaine on quality of intravenous regional anesthesia in patients undergoing elective forearm and hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Kimiaei Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of nitroglycerine (NTG on sensory and motor block onset and recovery time as well as the quality of tourniquet pain relief, when added to lidocaine (LID for intravenous regional anesthesia in elective forearm and hand surgery. METHODS: A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 40 patients that were randomly allocated into two groups received lidocaine 3 mg/kg with NTG 200 µg or received only lidocaine 3 mg/kg as the control. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two study groups in hemodynamic parameters before tourniquet inflation, at any time after inflation and after its deflation. There was no difference in the mean of pain score over time between the two groups. The onset time of sensory and motor blockades was shorter in the group received both LID and NTG. The mean recovery time of sensory blockade was longer in the former group. The frequency of opioid injections was significantly lower in those who administered LID and NTG. CONCLUSION: The adjuvant drug of NTG when added to LID is effective in improving the overall quality of anesthesia, shortening onset time of both sensory and motor blockades, and stabling homodynamic parameters in hand and forearm surgery.

  18. Efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine in block and infiltration anesthesia administered in teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Kazem, Majeed; Dianat, Omid; Noghrehkar, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia in posterior mandibular teeth with irreversible pulpitis usually requires administering an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus other supplemental injections. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the anesthetic success rate of buccal infiltration injections of articaine and lidocaine when supplemented with an IANB. One hundred twenty-five emergency patients who had their first or second mandibular molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis participated in the study and received the IANB by using either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. One hundred two of the patients reported moderate-to-severe pain upon initiation of their endodontic treatment or through filing of their tooth canals and received supplemental buccal infiltration injections by using the same anesthetic that the IANB had been performed. After the block or the supplemental buccal infiltration injections, success was achieved with no or mild pain during instrumentation of the tooth canals. The success rate after the administration of the infiltration injections after an incomplete IANB by using lidocaine was 29%, whereas by using articaine it was 71% (P pulpitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Kiselev, M.A.; Hoell, A.; Neubert, R.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are of special interest because a variety of reactants can be introduced into the nanometer-sized aqueous domains, leading to materials with controlled size and shape. In the past few years, significant research has been conducted in the reverse ME-mediated synthesis of organic nanoparticles. In this study, a w/o ME medium was employed for the synthesis of lidocaine by direct precipitation in w/o microemulsion systems: water/isopropylpalmitat/Tween80/Span80. The particle size as well as the location of nanoparticles in the ME droplet were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that lidocaine precipitated in the aqueous cores because of its insolubility in water. Hydrodynamic radius and gyration radius of microemulsion droplets were estimated as ∼15 nm and ∼4.50 nm from DLS and SANS respectively. Furthermore, different size parameters obtained by DLS and SANS experiments were compared. (author)

  20. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Kiselev, M. A.; Hoell, A.; Neubert, R. H. H.

    2004-08-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are of special interest because a variety of Reactants can be introduced into the nanometer-sized aqueous domains, leading to materials with controlled size and shape [1,2]. In the past few years, significant research has been conducted in the reverse ME-mediated synthesis of organic nanoparticles [3,4]. In this study, a w/o ME medium was employed for the synthesis of lidocaine by direct precipitation in w/o microemulsion systems: water/isopropylpalmitat/Tween80/Span80. The particle size as well as the location of nanoparticles in the ME droplet were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that lidocaine precipitated in the aqueous cores because of its insolubility in water. Hydrodynamic radius and gyration radius of microemulsion droplets were estimated as ~15 nm and ~4.50 nm from DLS and SANS respectively. Furthermore, different size parameters obtained by DLS and SANS experiments were compared

  1. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  2. Analgesic efficacy of equimolar 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen gas premix (Kalinox®) as compared with a 5% eutectic mixture of lidocaine/prilocaine (EMLA®) in chronic leg ulcer debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traber, Juerg; Held, Ulrike; Signer, Maria; Huebner, Tobias; Arndt, Stefan; Neff, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    Chronic foot and leg ulcers are a common health problem worldwide. A mainstay of chronic ulcer therapy is sharp mechanical wound debridement requiring potent analgesia. In this prospective, controlled, single-centre, crossover design study, patients were assigned to either the administration of topical analgesia with 5% lidocaine/prilocaine cream or the inhalation of an analgesic 50% N 2 O/O 2 gas premix. Primary outcome parameter was level of pain at maximum wound depth during debridement as measured by a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included level of pain after debridement, overall duration of treatment session, duration and completeness of debridement, and the patient's subjective perception of analgesic quality during debridement. Pain level increased from 0·60/0·94 (first/second debridement; baseline) to 1·76/2·50 (debridement) with 5% lidocaine/prilocaine and from 1·00/1·35 (baseline) to 3·95/3·29 (debridement) with 50% N 2 O/O 2 gas premix. Patient satisfaction was 90·48%/94·44% (first/second debridement) with topical 5% lidocaine/prilocaine analgesia and 90·48%/76·47% with the inhalation of 50% N 2 O/O 2 gas premix. Debridement was completed in a significantly higher percentage of 85·71%/88·89% (first/second debridement) with 5% lidocaine/prilocaine than with 50% N 2 O/O 2 gas premix (42·86%/58·82%) (odds ratio 6·7; P = 0·001). This study provides sound evidence that analgesia with topically administered 5% lidocaine/prilocaine cream is superior to the use of inhaled 50% N 2 O/O 2 gas premix in chronic leg ulcer debridement. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of the effects of remifentanil and remifentanil plus lidocaine on intubation conditions in intellectually disabled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Eyigor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. We aimed to compare the tracheal intubation conditions and hemodynamic responses either remifentanil or a combination of remifentanil and lidocaine with sevoflurane induction in the absence of neuromuscular blocking agents. METHODS: Fifty intellectually disabled, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients who underwent tooth extraction under outpatient general anesthesia were included in this study. Patients were randomized to receive either 2 μg kg-1 remifentanil (Group 1, n = 25 or a combination of 2 μg kg-1 remifentanil and 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine (Group 2, n = 25. To evaluate intubation conditions, Helbo-Hansen scoring system was used. In patients who scored 2 points or less in all scorings, intubation conditions were considered acceptable, however if any of the scores was greater than 2, intubation conditions were regarded unacceptable. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 were recorded at baseline, after opioid administration, before intubation, and at 1, 3, and 5 min after intubation. RESULTS: Acceptable intubation parameters were achieved in 24 patients in Group 1 (96% and in 23 patients in Group 2 (92%. In intra-group comparisons, the heart rate and mean arterial pressure values at all-time points in both groups showed a significant decrease compared to baseline values (p = 0.000 CONCLUSION: By the addition of 2 μg/kg remifentanil during sevoflurane induction, successful tracheal intubation can be accomplished without using muscle relaxants in intellectually disabled patients who undergo outpatient dental extraction. Also worth noting, the addition of 1 mg/kg lidocaine to 2 μg/kg remifentanil does not provide any additional improvement in the intubation parameters.

  4. Evaluation of local anesthetic effects of Lidocaine-Ibuprofen ionic liquid stabilized silver nanoparticles in Male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiliang; Yu, Shashuang; Li, Xingwang; Ma, Chuangen; Li, Aixiang

    2018-01-01

    A simple approach for the synthesis of Lidocaine-Ibuprofen ionic liquid stabilized silver nanoparticles (IL-AgNPs) was reported in this work. The shape, size and surface morphology of the Lidocaine-Ibuprofen ionic liquid stabilized AgNPs were characterized by using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Visible), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis showed the formation of 20-30nm size of IL-AgNPs with very clear lattice fringes. SAED pattern confirmed the highly crystalline nature of fabricated IL stabilized AgNPs. EDS results confirmed the formation of nanosilver. The fabricated IL-AgNPs were studied for their local anesthetic effect in rats. The results of local anesthetic effect showed that the time for onset of action by IL-AgNPs is 10min, which is significantly higher than that for EMLA. Further, tactile test results confirmed the stronger and faster local anesthetic effect of IL-AgNPs when compared to that of EMLA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mechanochemical Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Lidocaine-Phloroglucinol Hydrate 1:1:1 Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Evelyn Magaña-Vergara; Porfirio de la Cruz-Cruz; Ana Lilia Peraza-Campos; Francisco Javier Martínez-Martínez; Juan Saulo González-González

    2018-01-01

    Molecular complexation is a strategy used to modify the physicochemical or biopharmaceutical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Solvent assisted grinding is a common method used to obtain solid complexes in the form of cocrystals. Lidocaine is a drug used as an anesthetic and for the treatment of chronic pain, which bears in its chemical structure an amide functional group able to form hydrogen bonds. Polyphenols are used as cocrystal coformers due to their ability to form O–H...

  6. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... was a protective factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 0.26; CI 0.07, 0.96). Concomitant acetylsalicylic acid overdose was a risk factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 4.87; CI 1.52, 15.7) and death or liver transplantation (OR 6.04; CI 1.69, 21.6). A tendency towards a more...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  7. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi; Hans, Manoj-Kumar; Shetty, Shashit

    2014-12-01

    This study was done to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis for inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular posterior teeth. Patients with irreversible pulpitis referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, K.D. Dental College, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. After the patient's subjective assessment of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation was recorded and the absence/presence of pain was recorded through visual analogue scale. The pulpal anesthesia success for articaine (76%) was slightly more than with lidocaine (58%) as measured with pulp tester as well as for the pain reported during the procedure the success rate of articaine (88%) was slightly more than that of lidocaine (82%) although the difference between the two solutions was not statistically significant. Both the local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on patients with irreversible pulpitis when used for inferior alveolar nerve block. Key words:Anesthesia, articaine, lignocaine, pulpitis.

  8. Comparison of anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi; Shetty, Shashit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was done to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis for inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular posterior teeth. Material and Methods: Patients with irreversible pulpitis referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, K.D. Dental College, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 1.8 mL of either 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. After the patient’s subjective assessment of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation was recorded and the absence/presence of pain was recorded through visual analogue scale. Results: The pulpal anesthesia success for articaine (76%) was slightly more than with lidocaine (58%) as measured with pulp tester as well as for the pain reported during the procedure the success rate of articaine (88%) was slightly more than that of lidocaine (82%) although the difference between the two solutions was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the local anesthetic solutions had similar effects on patients with irreversible pulpitis when used for inferior alveolar nerve block. Key words:Anesthesia, articaine, lignocaine, pulpitis. PMID:25674319

  9. Effect of intravenous lidocaine combined with amitriptyline on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni Giraldes, Ana Laura; Salomão, Reinaldo; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko

    2016-10-01

    Regarding the use of intravenous lidocaine in fibromyalgia, there are no well-controlled studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in fibromyalgia patients. In a randomized double-blind study, group 1 patients received 240 mg of lidocaine in 125 mL of saline solution, while group 2 patients received 125 mL of saline, both once a week for 4 weeks (T1, T2, T3 and T4). All patients received amitriptyline. The following were assessed: pain intensity before treatment (T0) and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment; clinical manifestations; the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) before and at 4 and 8 weeks after; the levels of IL 1, 6 and 8 before and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Lower pain intensity was observed in the lidocaine group at T2, with no difference at the other time points. There was a reduction in pain intensity in both groups. The use of paracetamol and tramadol and plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between the groups. Clinical manifestations and side effects did not differ between groups. The combination of 240 mg of intravenous lidocaine (once a week for 4 weeks) with 25 mg of amitriptyline for 8 weeks had no meaningful impact in fibromyalgia patients. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  11. Tolerability of the capsaicin 8% patch following pretreatment with lidocaine or tramadol in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain: a multicentre, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T S; Høye, K; Fricová, J; Vanelderen, P; Ernault, E; Siciliano, T; Marques, S

    2014-10-01

    Application of the capsaicin 8% patch is associated with treatment-related discomfort. Consequently, pretreatment for 60 min with anaesthetic cream is recommended; however, this may be uncomfortable and time consuming. We conducted a multicentre, randomized (1:1), assessor-blinded study in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain to assess tolerability of the capsaicin patch following topical lidocaine (4%) or oral tramadol (50 mg) pretreatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients tolerating capsaicin patch application (ability to receive ≥90% of a 60-min application). Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores were assessed before, during and after treatment. Overall, 122 patients were included (61 per arm). The capsaicin patch was tolerated by 121 patients. Tolerability of the capsaicin patch was similar following pretreatment with lidocaine and tramadol. Following patch application, pain levels increased up to 55 min (change from baseline of 1.3 for lidocaine and 1.4 for tramadol). After patch removal, tramadol-treated patients experienced greater pain relief up to the end of day 1; in the evening, mean changes in NPRS scores from baseline were 0 for lidocaine and -1 for tramadol. Proportions of patients reporting increases of ≥2 NPRS points or >33% from baseline at one or more time point(s) on the day of treatment were similar between arms. Adverse event incidence was comparable between arms. Capsaicin 8% patch tolerability was similar in the two arms, with comparable results for most secondary endpoints. Tramadol given 30 min before patch application should be considered as an alternative pretreatment option in patients receiving capsaicin patch treatment. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  12. Does Injection of Lidocaine with 1/100000 Epinephrine Immediately before Lateral Osteotomy Reduce Post-Operative Periorbital Edema and Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansoor zojajy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative periorbital edema and ecchymosis are common after rhinoplasty. We studied the effect of local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline immediately before osteotomy on prevention of post-operative periorbital edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy candidates for rhinoplasty were enrolled in the self-controlled clinical trial study. Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution injected randomly to one side just prior to the lateral osteotomy. The opposite side used as a control. The degree of edema/ecchymosis on both sides was compared on the 1st, 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.Results: Mean of severity of edema, 24 hours after operation was 3in both sides, (Mann-whitney U; p=0.829. Mean of severity of edema, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.867 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.756.There was no significant difference between two sides. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 24 hours after operation was 3 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.692. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.655 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.873. There was no significant difference between two sides.Conclusion: local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution immediately before lateral osteotomy could not reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

  13. The effect of a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic on pain and discomfort associated with orthodontic elastomeric separator placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Al-Melh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators can be uncomfortable and painful. Therefore, it is important to relieve this disturbing sensation to create a discomfort or pain-free orthodontic visit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic on pain and discomfort associated with the placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators. Methods Fifty subjects aging between 20–35 years were included in this study. In the maxillary arch, a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic was placed around the ginigval margins of the premolar and molar on side. On the other side, a placebo agent was placed around the ginigval margins of the premolar and molar. After two minutes, an elastomeric separator was placed between the premolar and molar on both sides. The subjects were then asked to report their findings on a Verbal Scale and a Visual Analogue Scale every second minute for a period of 10 min. The subjects were also given a questionnaire to evaluate the overall impression on the topical anesthetic use. Results The overall mean discomfort/pain score was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.001 with the topical anesthetic than with the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that mean pain scores were statistically significantly low with the 10-min time duration (F (1.54,42.2 = 40.7, p = 0.001, with an estimated grand mean (8.37, 95% CI 6.75–9.98. The questionnaire responses revealed that 87% of the subjects reported an overall satisfaction and agreement with the topical anesthetic than with the placebo or no difference (13% after the initial separator placement. Conclusions The discomfort and pain resulting from the initial placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators can be significantly reduced with the lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic.

  14. Does Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection with Low-Dose Lidocaine Cause Objective Upper Extremity Weakness? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Nelson, Ariana; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J; Nagpal, Geeta; Walega, David R

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose local anesthetic is often used in cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CIESI), yet its effect on upper extremity strength has not been studied. The presence of consequent weakness has potential implications for postprocedure safety. This study aimed to determine whether low-dose lidocaine in a C7-T1 CIESI causes objective weakness. Prospective case series. Academic pain center. Adults, cervical radicular pain. Participants underwent CIESI with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine (3 mL total injectate). Elbow flexion (EF), wrist extension (WE), elbow extension (EE), and handgrip strength were measured by dynamometry at baseline, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes postinjection. Changes in strength from baseline and the proportion of participants with a minimum perceptible change in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength (≥20%) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty-seven participants were included. At 15 and 30 minutes postinjection, there was no within-participant difference in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength from baseline overall. Nonetheless, five (19%, 95% CI = 4-33) of the participants demonstrated a 20% or greater strength decrease in at least one myotomal distribution. A 20% or greater decrease in strength was present in left EF 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), right EF 7% (95% CI = 0-17%), left WE 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), and right WE 7% (95% CI = 0-17%). The present data suggest that CIESI with an injectate volume of 3 mL that includes 1 mL of 1% lidocaine may result in objective upper extremity weakness that is above the minimum threshold of perception in a subset of patients. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Does concomitant anterior fundoplication promote dysphagia after laparoscopic Heller myotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Donovan; Morton, Connor; Kraemer, Emily; Villadolid, Desiree; Ross, Sharona B; Cowgill, Sarah M; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2008-07-01

    Concerns for gastroesophageal reflux after laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia justify considerations of concomitant anterior fundoplication. This study was undertaken to determine if concomitant anterior fundoplication reduces symptoms of reflux after myotomy without promoting dysphagia. From 1992 to 2004, 182 patients underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy without fundoplication. After a prospective randomized trial justified its concomitant application, anterior fundoplication was undertaken with laparoscopic Heller myotomy in 171 patients from 2004 to 2007. All patients have been prospectively followed. Pre and postoperatively, patients scored the frequency and severity of symptoms of achalasia (including dysphagia, choking, vomiting, regurgitation, chest pain, and heartburn) using a Likert Scale (0 = never/not bothersome to 10 = always/very bothersome). Before myotomy, symptoms of achalasia were frequent and severe for all patients. After myotomy, the frequency and severity of all symptoms of achalasia significantly decreased for all patients (P Heller myotomy alone, concomitant anterior fundoplication led to significantly less frequent and severe heartburn after myotomy (P Heller myotomy reduces the frequency and severity of symptoms of achalasia. Concomitant anterior fundoplication decreases the frequency and severity of heartburn and dysphagia after laparoscopic Heller myotomy. Concomitant anterior fundoplication promotes salutary relief in the frequency and severity of symptoms after myotomy and is warranted.

  16. Effect of Buffered 4% Lidocaine on the Success of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Jared; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Fowler, Sara; Beck, Mike

    2015-06-01

    Medical studies have suggested that buffering local anesthetic may increase the ability to achieve anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 4% buffered lidocaine on the anesthetic success of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received a conventional IAN block using either 2.8 mL 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 2.8 mL 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered with sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind manner. For the buffered solution, each cartridge was buffered with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate using the OnPharma (Los Gatos, CA) system to produce a final concentration of 0.18 mEq/mL sodium bicarbonate. Fifteen minutes after administration of the IAN block, profound lip numbness was confirmed, and endodontic access was initiated. Success was defined as no or mild pain (≤54 mm on a 170-mm visual analog scale) on access or instrumentation of the root canal. The success rate for the IAN block was 32% for the buffered group and 40% for the nonbuffered group, with no significant difference (P = .4047) between the groups. Injection pain ratings for the IAN block were not significantly (P = .9080) different between the 2 formulations. For mandibular posterior teeth, a 4% buffered lidocaine formulation did not result in a statistically significant increase in the success rate or a decrease in injection pain of the IAN block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comparison of Articaine and Lidocaine for Buccal Infiltration After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block For Intraoperative Pain Control During Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Junior, Geraldo Prisco; de Almeida Souza, Liane Maciel; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    In order to compare the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine for pain control during third molar surgery, 160 patients presenting bilateral asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars were selected. They received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 during inferior alveolar nerve block. In group 1 (n = 80), an infiltrative injection of 0.9 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 was performed in buccal-distal mucosa of the third molar. Group 2 (n = 80) received 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 in the contralateral side. All procedures were performed at the same visit, by a single operator, in a double-blind and parallel design. The duration of each surgery and the moment when the patient expressed pain were noted. Data were analyzed by nonpaired t test and chi-square test (alpha = 5%). Duration of surgery did not differ (p = .83) between Groups 1 (19.8 ± 2.3 minutes) and 2 (19.7 ± 3.0 minutes). Pain was expressed more in group 1 (26.3%) than in group 2 (10%) (odds ratio = 3.2, p = .0138). In both groups, tooth sectioning was the most painful event (p inferior alveolar nerve block in controlling intraoperative pain related to impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

  18. Does the use of ketamine or nitroglycerin as an adjuvant to lidocaine improve the quality of intravenous regional anesthesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmetwaly Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effect of adding ketamine or nitroglycerin (NTG as adjuncts to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA on intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, sensorial and motor block onset times, and tourniquet pain. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients undergoing hand surgery were divided into three groups as follows: control group receiving lidocaine 2%, LK group receiving lidocaine 2% with ketamine, and LN group administered lidocaine 2% with NTG. Sensory and motor blocks′ onset and recovery times were recorded. Visual analog scale (VAS for tourniquet pain was measured after tourniquet application and it was also used to measure postoperative pain. Analgesic consumption for tourniquet pain and postoperatively were recorded. Results: Sensory block onset times were shorter in the LK (4.4 ± 1.2 minutes and LN (3.5 ± 0.9 minutes groups compared with the control group (6.5 ± 1.1 minute (P < 0.0001 and motor block onset times were shorter in the LK (7.3 ± 1.6 minutes and LN (3.6 ± 1.2 minutes groups compared with the control group (10.2 ± 1.5 minutes (P< 0.0001. Sensory recovery time prolonged in the LK (6.7 ± 1.3 minutes and LN (6.9 ± 1.1 minutes groups compared with the control group (5.3 ± 1.4 minutes (P = 0.0006 and < 0.0001, respectively. Motor recovery time prolonged in the LK (8.4 ± 1.4 minutes and LN (7.9 ± 1.1 minutes groups compared with the control group (7.1 ± 1.3 minutes (P = 0.0014 and 0.023, respectively. The sensory and motor block onset times were also shorter in LN group than in the LK group (3.5 ± 0.9 versus 4.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P=0.004; and 3.6 ± 1.2 versus 7.3 ± 1.6 minutes, P < 0.0001, respectively. The amount of fentanyl required for tourniquet pain was less in adjuvant groups when compared with control group. It was 13.6 ± 27.9 and 27.6 ± 34.9 μg in LK group and LN groups

  19. Concomitant medication of psychoses in a lifetime perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vares, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Strålin, Pontus; Levander, Sten; Lindström, Eva; Jönsson, Erik G

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patients treated with antipsychotic drugs often receive concomitant psychotropic compounds. Few studies address this issue from a lifetime perspective. Here, an analysis is presented of the prescription pattern of such concomitant medication from the first contact with psychiatry until the last written note in the case history documents, in patients with a diagnosis of psychotic illness. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of all case history data of 66 patients diagnosed w...

  20. Effects of entonox in comparison of lidocaine on pain severity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Honarmandpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Episiotomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in obstetrics, which requires analgesia. Entonox gas is known to have analgesic and sedative properties. However, no studies have been found on the analgesic effects of Entonox on episiotomy incision. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of Entonox and lidocaine on pain intensity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 term nulliparous women, who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by randomized sampling and equally divided into two groups of intervention and control (n=60. In the intervention group, Entonox gas was applied two minutes before episiotomy incision until the end of the procedure. On the other hand, the control group received 5 ml of lidocaine 2% as routine care before episiotomy incision. Data were collected using visual analogue scale to compare the study groups in terms of pain intensity. In addition, patient satisfaction with pain management technique during episiotomy and side effects of Entonox were assessed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests, and P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding pain intensity (P=0.52. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in the satisfaction level of the two groups (P=0.70. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Entonox could be used as an effective and noninvasive alternative to lidocaine to reduce pain during episiotomy incision without significant side effects.

  1. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  2. Antihyperalgesic efficacy of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in capsaicin and sunburn pain models--two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustorff, Burkhard; Hauer, David; Thaler, Johannes; Seis, Astrid; Draxler, Julia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze analgesic efficacy of the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover studies in 16 healthy volunteers using capsaicin and sunburn pain models. Lidocaine and placebo plasters were simultaneously applied to forearms and thighs at contralateral body sites for three alternating 12-h plaster-on/plaster-off periods. Between the second and third plaster-on period, 4.2-cm circular spots on both pretreated thighs were irradiated with three times the individual minimal erythema dose of UVB light. After the last plaster-on period, 20 μl of 0.1% capsaicin was injected intradermally into both forearms. The study was repeated using a single 12-h plaster application. The area of pinprick hyperalgesia was diminished by 53% (p sunburn model; the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia to rigid filaments (8 - 512 mN) was reduced in both models. Cold pain perception threshold was reduced (19.7°C ± 8.0 vs 21.8°C ± 6.8 for placebo, p sunburn). Similar effects were observed in the 12-h exposure study. No effect was seen on capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain and flare size, or blood flow in the sunburn area, and heat hyperalgesia in either study. Lidocaine plaster effectively treats mechanical hyperalgesia and cold pain.

  3. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity.

  4. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  5. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Burnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97. After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78. Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB.

  6. Comparison of granisetron and lidocaine on reducing injection pain of etomidate: a controlled randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Saliminia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Reducing pain on injection of anesthetic drugs is of importance to every anesthesiologist. In this study we pursued to define if pretreatment by granisetron reduces the pain on injection of etomidate similar to lidocaine. Methods: Thirty patients aged between 18 and 50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I or II, whom were candidates for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery were enrolled in this study. Two 20 gauge cannulas were inserted into the veins on the dorsum of both hands and 100 mL of normal saline was administered during a 10 min period from each cannula. Using an elastic band as a tourniquet, venous drainage of both hands was occluded. 2 mL of granisetron was administered into one hand and 2 mL of lidocaine 2% at the same time into the other hand. One minute later the elastic band was opened and 2 mL of etomidate was administered to each hand with equal rates. The patients were asked to give a score from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = severe pain to each the pain sensed in each hand. Results: Two patients were deeply sedated after injection of etomidate and unable to answer any questions. The mean numerical rating score for injection pain of intravenously administered etomidate after intravenous granisetron was 2.3 ± 1.7, which was lower when compared with pain sensed due to intravenously administered etomidate after administration of lidocaine 2% (4.6 ± 1.8, p < 0.05. Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that, granisetron reduces pain on injection of etomidate more efficiently than lidocaine. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: A redução da dor causada pela injeção de anestésicos é importante para todos os anestesiologistas. Neste estudo buscamos definir se o pré-tratamento com granisetrona reduz a dor causada pela injeção de etomidato de forma semelhante à lidocaína. Métodos: Trinta pacientes com idades entre 18 e 50 anos

  7. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anestesia epidural com ropivacaína, lidocaína ou associação de lidocaína e xilazina em cães: efeitos cardiorrespiratório e analgésico Epidural anaesthesia using ropivacaine, lidocaine or the combination of lidocaine and xylazine in dogs: cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Salata Gasparini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da ropivacaína, da lidocaína e da associação de lidocaína e xilazina na anestesia epidural de cães. Trinta cães foram tranqüilizados com acepromazina intravenosa, distribuídos em três grupos e submetidos à anestesia epidural no espaço lombo-sacro, com lidocaína 2% com vasoconstrictor (GL, ropivacaína 1% (GR ou com xilazina associada à lidocaína (GXL. Mensuraram-se as freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, a concentração final expirada de CO2 (EtCO2, o volume minuto (VM e a temperatura retal (T. Para avaliação da analgesia somática, utilizou-se o teste do panículo e o teste térmico a 55°C. Os protocolos produziram anestesia da região retro-umbilical, sendo que a associação XL produziu bloqueio anestésico mais cranial, porém causou bradicardia moderada. A duração da anestesia foi mais prolongada nos animais dos grupos GXL (240 min e GR (250 min, quando comparada as do grupo GL (120 min.This study was aimed at investigating the effects of ropivacaine, lidocaine or lidocaine combined with xylazine for epidural anaesthesia in dogs. Thirty dogs were sedated with acepromazine IV, divided in to three groups and submitted to lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia using 2% lidocaine with adrenaline (L or 1% ropivacaine (R or xylazine combined with lidocaine (XL. Heart and respiratory rates, systolic arterial blood pressure, EtCO2, minute volume and temperature were measured. Cutaneous anaesthesia was investigated using a forceps and thermic stimulus. All protocols produced retroumbilical anaesthesia. The combination of XL produced a more cranial anaesthetic block, with moderate bradycardia. The duration of the anaesthesia was more prolonged in animals treated with XL (240min and R (250min, when compared to L alone (120min.

  9. Pre-emptive multimodal analgesia with tramadol and ketamine–lidocaine infusion for suppression of central sensitization in a dog model of ovariohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaka U

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubedullah Kaka,1,2 Nor-Alimah Rahman,1 Adamu Abdul Abubakar,1,3 Yong Meng Goh,2,4 Sharida Fakurazi,5,6 Mohamed Ariff Omar,4 Hui Cheng Chen1 1Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 5Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 6Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Objectives: The effects of pre-emptive infusion of ketamine–lidocaine with tramadol on the suppression of central sensitization were investigated in a dog ovariohysterectomy model.Patients and methods: Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: ketamine–­lidocaine–tramadol (KLT and tramadol (T groups. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 4 mg/kg body weight as premedication. Immediately after induction, the KLT group received ketamine and lidocaine at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg loading dose, followed by continuous rate infusion of 50 and 100 µg/kg/min, respectively, for 2 hours. Dogs in T group received saline bolus and continuous rate infusion at equi-volume. Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were recorded, whereas postoperative pain was evaluated using an algometer and short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale.Results: Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were obtunded to a greater degree in KLT compared to T group. Postoperatively, the pain scores increased only for the first hour in KLT group, compared to 12 hours in T group. Mechanical thresholds at the abdomen decreased postoperatively between 12 and 60 hours in KLT group versus the entire 72 hours in T group. Thresholds at tibia and

  10. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  11. Topical lidocaine patch 5% for acute postoperative pain control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilhooly, D

    2011-02-01

    A 39-year-old para 3 woman presented for elective caesarean section (lower segment caesarean section (LSCS)) for breech presentation. The patient had a strong history of atopy and anaphylaxis to paracetamol, codeine, penicillin and latex. The patient was asthmatic, triggered by aspirin. Epidural anaesthesia was unsuccessful and LSCS was carried out under spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patient was unwilling to take analgesic medication due to fear of an allergic reaction. Three 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the wound for postoperative analgesia. This reduced the patient\\'s visual analogue scale pain score from 10\\/10 to 5\\/10 at rest and 10\\/10 to 7\\/10 with movement. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was added and this improved associated back pain, reducing the pain further to 2\\/10. This is the first description of lignocaine patch 5% for postoperative LSCS pain. It is suggested that this method of delivery of local anaesthetic, which is easy to apply and has minimal side effects, should be considered not as a sole agent but as part of a multimodal technique to address postoperative LSCS pain.

  12. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  13. Regional immunotherapy has a detrimental effect on the response to combined irradiation and chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell bronchognic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckdeschel, J.C.; De Vore, C.; Caradonna, R.; Horton, J.; McKneally, M.F.; Kellar, S.; McIlduff, J.B.; Baxter, D.H.; Killam, D.; Sedransk, N.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with stage III M 0 non-oat cell bronchogenic carcinoma confined to the thorax were randomized to receive either intrapleural BCG (10 7 cfu, Tice strain) or intrapleural saline 3 weeks prior to beginning combined irradiation and chemotherapy. Radiation to the primary tumor and regional nodes was given at a dose of 3,000 rad in ten sessions and was followed in 7-14 days by CAMP chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate, and procarbazine) for a planned duration of 6 months. Isoniazid, 300 mg/day, was given to all patients for 3 months starting 1 week after intrapleural therapy. There were no significant differences in pretreatment prognostic factors or in response to radiation therapy. The patients receiving intrapleural BCG in addition to radiation and chemotherapy had a median survival of 18 weeks, significantly shorter than that for the patients receiving intrapleural saline (54 weeks, P=0.017). (orig.)

  14. Buffered lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture - the ideal local anesthetic solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Corliss A; Best, Alyssa A; Best, Timothy J; Hamilton, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    The use of injectable local anesthetic solutions to facilitate pain-free surgery is an integral component of many procedures performed by the plastic surgeon. In many instances, a solution that has both rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia is optimal. A combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine, plain or with epinephrine, is readily available in most Canadian health care settings where such procedures are performed, and fulfills these criteria. However, commercially available solutions of both medications are acidic and cause a burning sensation on injection. Buffering to neutral pH with sodium bicarbonate is a practical method to mitigate the burning sensation, and has the added benefit of increasing the fraction of nonionized lipid soluble drug available. The authors report on the proportions of the three drugs to yield a neutral pH, and the results of an initial survey regarding the use of the combined solution with epinephrine in hand surgery.

  15. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  16. [Low-dose hypobaric spinal anesthesia for anorectal surgery in jackknife position: levobupivacaine-fentanyl compared to lidocaine-fentanyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, J; Santos-Yglesias, J; Girón, J; Jiménez, A; Errando, C L

    2010-11-01

    To compare the percentage of patients who were able to bypass the postoperative intensive care recovery unit after selective spinal anesthesia with lidocaine-fentanyl versus levobupivacaine-fentanyl for anorectal surgery in jackknife position. Randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing 2 groups of 30 patients classified ASA 1-2. One group received 18 mg of 0.6% lidocaine plus 10 microg of fentanyl while the other group received 3 mg of 0.1% levobupivacaine plus 10 microg of fentanyl. Intraoperative variables were time of start of surgery, maximum extension of sensory blockade, requirement for rescue analgesics, and hemodynamic events. The level of sensory blockade was recorded at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after the start of surgery and at the end of the procedure. The degrees of postoperative motor blockade and proprioception were recorded, as were the results of the Romberg test and whether or not the patient was able to bypass the postoperative recovery unit. Also noted were times of start of ambulation and discharge, complications, and postoperative satisfaction. Intraoperative variables did not differ significantly between groups, and all patients in both groups bypassed the postoperative recovery unit. Times until walking and discharge home, complications, and overall satisfaction after surgery were similar in the 2 groups. Both spinal anesthetic solutions provide effective, selective anesthesia and are associated with similar rates of recovery care unit bypass after anorectal surgery in jackknife position.

  17. Determination of Degradation Products of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride, Lidocaine and Piroxicam in a Semi-Topical Formulation: MS-MS Confirmation of Unknown Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioroiu, Bogdan Ionel; Grigoriu, Ioana Cezara; Cioroiu, Mona Elisabeta; Niculaua, Marius; Lupuleasa, Roxana; Lazar, Mihai Ioan

    2016-07-01

    Association of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, piroxicam and lidocaine in a topical formulation is one of the newest innovations in the pharmaceutical formulary field. In this study, a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the establishment of the impurities of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, lidocaine and piroxicam in the semisolid topical formulation. In this study, we not only determined 2,6-dimethylaniline, 2-pyrydilamine but also specified impurities of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (dibenzosuberenone, amitriptyline, carbinole, cyclobenzaprine N-oxide and anthrachinone). The target compounds were determined using a mobile phase that consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer (0.025 M; pH 6.2)-acetonitrile-methanol (60 : 13 : 27, v/v/v). A minimum of three supplementary possible degradation products were determined. Using mass spectrometry, the unspecified impurities were identified and the use of correlation matrices permitted the association with the possible source compounds. The chromatographic conditions were qualified and validated according to ICH guideline requirements to confirm specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Epidural anesthesia and postoperatory analgesia with alpha-2 adrenergic agonists and lidocaine for ovariohysterectomy in bitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Virgínia H.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Lopes, Carlize; Gehrcke, Martielo I.; Muller, Daniel C.M.; Garlet, Clarissa D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the viability and cardiorespiratory effects of the association of epidural alpha-2 adrenergic agonists and lidocaine for ovariohysterectomy (OH) in bitches. Forty-two bitches were spayed under epidural anesthesia with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of 1% lidocaine with adrenaline (CON) or in association with 0.25 mg/kg BW of xylazine (XYL), 10 μg/kg BW of romifidine (ROM), 30 μg/kg BW of detomidine (DET), 2 μg/kg BW of dexmedetomidine (DEX), or 5 μg/kg BW of clonidine (CLO). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and arterial pressures were monitored immediately before and every 10 min after the epidural procedure. Blood gas and pH analysis were done before, and at 30 and 60 min after the epidural procedure. Animals were submitted to isoflurane anesthesia if they presented a slightest sign of discomfort during the procedure. Time of sensory epidural block and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. All animals in CON and DEX, 5 animals in ROM and CLO, 4 animals in XYL, and 3 in DET required supplementary isoflurane. All groups, except CLO, showed a decrease in HR. There was an increase in arterial pressures in all groups. Postoperative analgesia lasted the longest in XYL. None of the protocols were totally efficient to perform the complete procedure of OH; however, xylazine provided longer postoperative analgesia than the others. PMID:23277701

  19. When local anesthesia becomes universal: Pronounced systemic effects of subcutaneous lidocaine in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Catherine; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2017-01-01

    Sodium channel blockers are commonly injected local anesthetics but are also routinely used for general immersion anesthesia in fish and amphibians. Here we report the effects of subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (5 or 50mgkg-1) in the hind limb of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) on reflexes...... regained over 4h. Systemic sedative effects were not coupled to local anti-nociception, as a forceps pinch test at the site of injection provoked movement at the height of the systemic effect (tested at 81±4min). Amphibians are routinely subject to general anesthesia via exposure to sodium channel blockers...

  20. The duration of spinal anesthesia with 5% lidocaine in chronic opium abusers compared with nonabusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughian, Maryam; Dabbagh, Ali; Rajaei, Samira; Maftuh, Hassan

    2007-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that chronic opium abusers have lower thresholds for pain. In this study we sought to determine whether chronic opium abuse has any effect on the duration of spinal block by local anesthetics. In a case-controlled study, 50 opium abusers and 50 nonabusers undergoing lower abdomen operations were selected from among the patients admitted to a university hospital for elective surgery. All patients received 100 mg hyperbaric preservative-free 5% lidocaine in dextrose, intrathecally. The duration of anesthesia was much shorter in the opium abusers (60 +/- 7 min) than in the nonabusers (83 +/- 10 min) (P opium abusers.

  1. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy as a definitive treatment modality for locally advanced cervical cancer. T Refaat, A Elsaid, N Lotfy, K Kiel, W Small Jr, P Nickers, E Lartigau ...

  2. Polymeric films loaded with cisplatin for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a pharmacokinetic study in an ovine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocelli, Elisabetta; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Piergiorgio; Mucchino, Claudio; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Leonardi, Fabio; Ventura, Luigi; Barbieri, Stefano; Colombo, Paolo; Fusari, Antonella; Carbognani, Paolo; Rusca, Michele; Sonvico, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) continues to be a distressing tumor due to its aggressive biologic behavior and scanty prognosis. Several therapeutic approaches have been tested both in clinical and preclinical settings, being intrapleural chemotherapy one of the most promising. Some years ago, our interest focused on polymeric films loaded with cisplatin for the adjuvant intrapleural treatment of surgical patients. After in vitro and in vivo studies in a rat recurrence model of MPM, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the polymeric films in a sheep model in view of further studies in a clinical setting. Methods An ovine model was used. Animals were divided into four groups according to pharmacologic treatment: control group (three animals undergoing left pneumonectomy and saline-NaCl solution); intrapleural hyaluronate cisplatin films (HYALCIS) group (six animals undergoing left pneumonectomy and intrapleural application of polymeric films loaded with cisplatin); intrapleural cisplatin solution (six animals undergoing left pneumonectomy and intrapleural application of cisplatin solution); intravenous cisplatin (five animals undergoing left pneumonectomy and intravenous administration of cisplatin solution). The primary objective was the plasmatic and pleural concentration of cisplatin in the treatment groups. The secondary objective was the treatment-related toxicity evaluated by plasmatic analysis performed at prearranged time intervals and histological examinations of tissue samples collected during animal autopsy. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. Bonferroni correction was applied for comparison between all groups. Results Twenty female Sardinian sheep with a mean weight of 45.1 kg were studied. All animals survived the surgical procedures. The whole surgical procedure had a mean duration of 113 minutes. Cisplatin blood levels obtained from polymeric films application were low during the

  3. Feasibility and efficacy of accelerated weekly concomitant boost postoperative radiation therapy combined with concomitant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Berrin; Luthi, Francois; Matzinger, Oscar; Betz, Michael; Dragusanu, Daniela; Bulling, Shelley; Bron, Luc; Pasche, Philippe; Seelentag, Walter; Mirimanoff, René O; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and efficacy of weekly concomitant boost accelerated postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) with concomitant chemotherapy (CT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). Conformal or intensity-modulated 66-Gy RT was performed in 5.5 weeks in 40 patients. Cisplatin was given at days 1, 22, and 43. Median follow-up was 36 months. Grade 3 mucositis, dysphagia, and erythema was observed in ten (25%), nine (23%), and six (13%) patients, respectively. Grade 3 or more anemia was observed in two (6%) patients, and leukopenia in five (13%) patients. No grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was observed. Grade 3 nephrotoxicity was observed in one patient (3%). No treatment-related mortality was observed. Grade 2 or more xerostomia and edema were observed in ten (25%) and one (3%) patient, respectively. Locoregional relapse occurred in eight patients, and seven patients developed distant metastases. Median time to locoregional relapse was 6 months. Three-year overall, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were 63%, 62%, and 81%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the only prognostic factor was nodal status. Reducing overall treatment time using accelerated PORT/CT by weekly concomitant boost (six fractions per week) combined with concomitant cisplatin CT is easily feasible with acceptable morbidity.

  4. Concomitant sensitization to glutaraldehyde and methacrylic monomers among dentists and their patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Grigorievna Lyapina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multitude of methacrylic monomers is used in dentistry. Glutaraldehyde (G is used in dental practice and consumer products as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the frequency and the risk of concomitant sensitization to some methacrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacrylo-xypropoxyphenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA, 2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate (THFMA and glutaraldehyde in students of dentistry, students from the dental technician school, dental professionals and dental patients. Material and Methods: A total of 262 participants were included in the study: students of dentistry, students from the dental technician school, dental professionals, and dental patients as a control group. All were patch-tested with methacrylic monomers and glutaraldehyde. The results were subject to the statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: Among the group of dental students, the highest frequency of concomitant sensitization was to TEGDMA and G (15.5%. In the group of patients the highest frequency of concomitant sensitization was to EGDMA and G (16.4%. The frequency of concomitant sensitization among dental professionals was much lower, with the highest rate to TEGDMA and G (7.7%, too. We consider the students from the dental technician school, where the exposure to glutaraldehyde is less likely, to be the group at a lesser risk of concomitant sensitization. Conclusions: Dental students and dental patients could be outlined as groups at the risk of concomitant sensitization to glutaraldehyde and methacrylic monomers. For dental professionals, we assumed an increased risk for concomitant sensitization to TEGDMA and aldehydes that are commonly used in dentistry. We consider the students from the dental technician school to be the group at a lesser risk of

  5. Jet Injection of 1% buffered lidocaine versus topical ELA-Max for anesthesia before peripheral intravenous catheterization in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Stephanie; Booth, Rebekah; Koenig, Heidi; Sikes, Kendra; Gracely, Edward; Kim, In K

    2008-08-01

    Peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter insertion is a frequent, painful procedure that is often performed with little or no anesthesia. Current approaches that minimize pain for PIV catheter insertion have several limitations: significant delay for onset of anesthesia, inadequate anesthesia, infectious disease exposure risk from needlestick injuries, and patients' needle phobia. Comparison of the anesthetic effectiveness of J-Tip needle-free jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine to the anesthetic effectiveness of topical 4% ELA-Max for PIV catheter insertion. A prospective, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing J-Tip jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine to a 30-minute application of 4% ELA-Max for topical anesthesia in children 8 to 15 years old presenting to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department for PIV catheter insertion. All subjects recorded self-reported visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain at time of enrollment and pain felt following PIV catheter insertion. Jet injection subjects also recorded pain of jet injection. Subjects were videotaped during jet injection and PIV catheter insertion. Videotapes were reviewed by a single blinded reviewer for observer-reported VAS pain scores for jet injection and PIV catheter insertion. Of the 70 children enrolled, 35 were randomized to the J-Tip jet injection group and 35 to the ELA-Max group. Patient-recorded enrollment VAS scores for pain were similar between groups (P = 0.74). Patient-recorded VAS scores were significantly different between groups immediately after PIV catheter insertion (17.3 for J-Tip jet injection vs 44.6 for ELA-Max, P ELA-Max, P = 0.23). J-Tip jet injection of 1% buffered lidocaine provided greater anesthesia than a 30-minute application of ELA-Max according to patient self-assessment of pain for children aged 8 to 15 years undergoing PIV catheter insertion.

  6. Reduction of painful area as new possible therapeutic target in post-herpetic neuropathic pain treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casale R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Casale,1,2 Maria Di Matteo,3,7 Cristina E Minella,4,7 Guido Fanelli,5,7 Massimo Allegri4,6,71Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Pain Rehabilitation Unit, Foundation Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Pavia, 2EFIC Montescano School, Montescano, 3Anesthesia and Intensive Care I, 4Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 5Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Parma, University of Parma, Parma, 6Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, 7Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research Group, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is neuropathic pain persisting after an acute episode of herpes zoster, and is associated with severe pain and sensory abnormalities that adversely affect the patient's quality of life and increase health care costs. Up to 83% of patients with PHN describe localized neuropathic pain, defined as “a type of neuropathic pain characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s of maximum pain”. Topical treatments have been suggested as a first-line treatment for localized neuropathic pain. Use of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster could reduce abnormal nervous peripheral discharge and via the plaster could have a “protective” function in the affected area. It has been suggested that use of this plaster could reduce pain as well as the size of the painful area. To evaluate this possible outcome, we retrospectively reviewed eight patients with PHN, treated using 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. During a follow-up period of 3 months, we observed good pain relief, which was associated with a 46% reduction in size of the painful area after one month (from 236.38±140.34 cm2 to 128.80±95.7 cm2 and a 66% reduction after 3 months (81.38±59.19 cm2. Our study cohort was composed mainly of elderly patients taking multiple drugs to treat comorbidities, who have a high risk of drug

  7. Effects of articaine on [3H]noradrenaline release from cortical and spinal cord slices prepared from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and compared to lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, D; Somogyi, A; Bányai, D; Lakatos, M; Balogh, M; Al-Khrasani, M; Fürst, S; Vizi, E S; Hermann, P

    2017-10-01

    Since a significant proportion of diabetic patients have clinical or subclinical neuropathy, there may be concerns about the use of local anaesthetics. The present study was designed to determine and compare the effects of articaine, a widely used anaesthetic in dental practice, and lidocaine on the resting and axonal stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]noradrenaline ([ 3 H]NA) in prefrontal cortex slices and the release of [ 3 H]NA in spinal cord slices prepared from non-diabetic and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (glucose level=22.03±2.31mmol/l) rats. The peak of allodynia was achieved 9 weeks after STZ-treatment. Articaine and lidocaine inhibited the stimulation-evoked release in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the resting release by two to six times. These effects indicate an inhibitory action of these anaesthetics on Na + - and K + -channels. There was no difference in clinically important nerve conduction between non-diabetic and diabetic rats, as measured by the release of transmitter in response to axonal stimulation. The uptake and resting release of NA was significantly higher in the brain slices prepared from diabetic rats, but there were no differences in the spinal cord. For the adverse effects, the effects of articaine on K + channels (resting release) are more pronounced compared to lidocaine. In this respect, articaine has a thiophene ring with high lipid solubility, which may present potential risks for some patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and tolerability of i.m. disodium clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1%, given twice monthly, in comparison with i.m. disodium clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1%, given weekly, in healthy postmenopausal female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, Milko; Cremonesi, Giovanni; Baraldi, Enrica; Leuratti, Chiara; Mariotti, Fabrizia

    2013-04-01

    Clodronate is a bisphosphonate effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Non-adherence to bisphosphonates, however, is a major issue in clinical practice. Simplifying dose regimens may increase compliance. To assess bioequivalence between an intramuscular (i.m.) clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1% twice-a-month formulation and a clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1% weekly formulation in 32 postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, two-way crossover study, test and reference formulations were administered in single dose, with a 2-week wash-out between administrations. The primary endpoint was clodronic acid cumulative excretion in the first 24 hours after injection (Xu0-24h). Cumulative excretion in the 72 hours post-dose (Xu0-72h) and maximum excretion rate (Ratemax) were also evaluated. Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric means ratios of the dose-normalized parameters were within the 80.00 - 125.00% range. Local tolerability was evaluated. Mean Xu0-24h values were 114.03 ±23.13 mg and 55.22 ±9.73 mg for clodronate 200 mg and 100 mg. The 90% CIs for dose-normalized Xu0-24h, Xu0-72h and Ratemax ere 95 -110%, 94 -107% and 95 - 113%. Local tolerability of both treatments was good. The differences in pain intensity between formulations were not sigificantly different at most assessment times. Headache was the only treatment-related adverse event. Bioequivalence of the two formulations was confirmed in terms of dose-normalized rate and amount of clodronic acid excretion. This result, together with the favorable tolerability of the novel 200 mg formulation, suggests the possibility of reducing the number of i.m. administrations from once-a-week to twice-a-month.

  9. Comparison of the anaesthetic efficacy of epinephrine concentrations (1 : 80 000 and 1 : 200 000) in 2% lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Miglani, S; Kohli, S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled, double-blind trial was to comparatively evaluate the anaesthetic efficacy and injection pain of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with different concentrations of epinephrine (1 : 80 000 and 1 : 200 000) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Sixty-two adult volunteers, actively experiencing pain, were randomly allocated into 2 groups and received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with either 1 : 80 000 or 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentration. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 min after the initial IANB. Pain during treatment was recorded using the Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (HP VAS). The primary outcome measure, and the definition of 'success', was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain (HP VAS score <55 mm). Secondary outcome measure was the pain experienced during LA solution deposition. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square test. The anaesthetic success rates of 2% lidocaine solutions containing 1 : 80 000 and 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentrations were 20% and 28%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the pain experienced during deposition of the solutions. Two percent lidocaine solution used for IANB achieved similar success rates when used with 1 : 80 000 or 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A double-blind, randomized study comparing pure chromated glycerin with chromated glycerin with 1% lidocaine and epinephrine for sclerotherapy of telangiectasias and reticular veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Philippe; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Wutschert, Robert; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2011-11-01

    Chromated glycerin (CG) is an effective, although painful, sclerosing agent for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins treatment. To determine pain level and relative efficacy of pure or one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% mixed chromated glycerin in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Patients presenting with telangiectasias and reticular leg veins on the lateral aspect of the thigh (C(1A) or (S) E(P) A(S) P(N1) ) were randomized to receive pure CG or CG mixed with one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% (CGX) treatment. Lower limb photographs were taken before and after treatment and analyzed by blinded expert reviewers for efficacy assessment (visual vein disappearance). Patients' pain and satisfaction were assessed using visual analogue scales. Data from 102 of 110 randomized patients could be evaluated. Patient pain scores were significantly higher when pure CG was used than with CGX (psclerotherapy pain without affecting efficacy when treating telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  11. Concomitant Persistent Pain in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia – Evidence for Different Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Gozalov, Aydin; Olesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    and clinical importance of concomitant persistent pain in TN. This has led to subgrouping of TN into forms with and without concomitant persistent pain in the recent 3rd International Classification of Headache Disorders beta classification. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on the clinical...... to sodium channel blockers (P = .001). There were no significant differences in other clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant persistent pain is very prevalent in TN and is not a consequence of paroxysmal pain. Findings support that the 3rd International Classification of Headache Disorders beta...

  12. Biological effects of concomitant influence of radioactive and chemical factors. (Experimental research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    Remote consequences of concomitant influence of radioactive and chemical hazards substances, modeling the ecological situation at the territory of the Altaj region after the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site is studied on the mice. Negative effect of the concomitant impact of radioactive and hazardous chemical substances on the basic morpho-functional systems of animals is revealed; the reproduction function proved to be the most sensitive one. It is noted that the radiation factor constitutes the basis of all violations of bone marrow blood-producing function by concomitant influence

  13. Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Kuroki, Syoji; Tanaka, Masao

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI). The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia was significantly more prevalent in patients with concomitant thyroid disease (88.5%) than in those without thyroid disease (49.0%) (P<0.01). The mean serum calcium was significantly higher and the inorganic phosphate level was significantly lower in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P<0.05). Unilateral exploration was performed more often in patients without thyroid disease than in those with thyroid disease (P<0.01). Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed at an earlier stage in patients with concomitant thyroid disease. Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. (author)

  14. Buffered Lidocaine With Sodium Bicarbonate did not Increase Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Success Rate in Patients Having Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Effect of buffered 4% lidocaine on the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Schellenberg J, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Fowler S, Beck M. J Endod 2015;41(6):791-6. The study was supported by Meyers/Reader Graduate Endodontic Support Fund Double blinded randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Preoperative Oral Ketorolac on Anesthetic Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Buccal and Lingual Infiltration with Articaine and Lidocaine in Patients with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Meetu; Grewal, Mandeep S; Grewal, Stutee; Deshwal, Parul

    2015-11-01

    Irreversible pulpitis (IP) commonly results in decreased anesthetic efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for mandibular molar. It has been shown that supplementary buccal and/or lingual infiltration as well as premedication with ketorolac result in improved efficacy of the IANB. One hundred fifty emergency patients who had their lower first or/and second molar diagnosed with IP participated in the study. All patients were randomly divided into 2 major IANB groups: 1 group received 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the other group received 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 25 each: (1) buccal and lingual infiltration with articaine and lidocaine, respectively; (2) preoperative oral medication of ketorolac; and (3) preoperative oral medication of ketorolac followed by buccal and lingual infiltration with articaine and lidocaine, respectively. Endodontic access was initiated 15 minutes after solution deposition, and all patients were required to have profound lip numbness. Success of the anesthetic was defined as none or mild pain on endodontic access and initial instrumentation. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple-comparison analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis) and t tests. Articaine IANB with infiltrations plus oral ketorolac premedication significantly increased the success rate to 76%. The success rate after the administration of an articaine IANB with infiltration injections was 64%, whereas with lidocaine it was 32% (P < .05). Premedication with ketorolac significantly increases the anesthetic efficacy of articaine IANB plus infiltration in mandibular molars with IP. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preemptive analgesic effect of lidocaine in a chronic neuropathic pain model Efeito analgésico preemptivo da lidocaína em modelo de dor crônica neuropática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Batista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preemptive analgesia inhibits the progression of pain caused by surgical lesions. To analyze the effect of lidocaine on postoperative pain relief, we performed compression of the right sciatic nerve in Wistar rats and observed the differences on behavior between the group that received lidocaine and the group that was not treated with the local anesthetics pre-operatively. Group 1 was not operated (control; group 2 underwent the sciatic nerve ligature without lidocaine; group 3, underwent surgery with previous local infiltration of lidocaine. Group 2 showed significantly longer scratching times with a peak on day 14 post-operative (p=0.0005 and reduction in the latency to both noxious (p=0.003 and non-noxious (p=0.004 thermal stimulus. Group 3 presented significantly shorter scratching times (p=0.004 and longer latency times when compared to Group 2. Preemptive use of lidocaine 2% can potentially reduce the postoperative neuropathic pain associated with sciatic nerve compression.A analgesia preemptiva inibe a progressão da dor causada por lesão cirúrgica. Para analisar o efeito da lidocaína na diminuição da dor pós-operatória, submetemos ratos Wistar a compressão cirúrgica do nervo ciático e observamos diferenças em alguns padrões de comportamento entre o grupo tratado com lidocaína pré-operatória e o grupo não-tratado com o anestésico local. O grupo 1 não foi operado (controle; o grupo 2, submetido a ligadura do nervo ciático sem lidocaína, apresentou significativo aumento do tempo de coçar-se com um pico no 14º pós-operatório (p=0.0005 e redução na latência para os estímulos térmicos nocivo (p=0.003 e não-nocivo (p=0.004; o grupo 3, operado com a droga preemptiva, demonstrou significativo decréscimo no tempo de coçar-se (p=0.004 e maiores tempos de latência quando comparados aos do grupo 2. O uso preemptivo da lidocaína 2% pode, potencialmente, reduzir a dor neuropática pós-operatória associada à compress

  17. Differences Between Snakebites with Concomitant Use of Alcohol or Drugs and Single Snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Joann; Kleinschmidt, Kurt C; Domanski, Kristina; Smith, Eric Anthony; Haynes, Ashley; Roth, Brett

    2018-02-01

    Published reports have suggested that the concurrent use of alcohol or drugs occurs among some snakebite victims, but no national assessment of such data exists. We used data from US poison control centers collected during telephone calls in calendar years 2000-2013 to compare snake envenomations with concomitant use of drugs, alcohol, or both to snakebites lacking such use. A total of 608 snakebites with 659 instances of concomitant alcohol/drug use were reported, which represent approximately 1% of 92,751 snakebites reported to US poison control centers. An annual mean of 48 snakebites with concomitant use of alcohol/drugs was reported, compared with a mean of 6625 snakebites per year with no concomitant use of alcohol/drugs. Most cases involved men, peaked during the summer months, and involved copperheads or rattlesnakes, which mirrored overall trends. Snakebite victims who also used alcohol/drugs were more likely than victims with only a snakebite reported to be bitten by rattlesnakes, to be admitted to the hospital, and die. Alcohol was the most common reported concomitant substance, but other substances were reported. Snakebites with concomitant use of alcohol/drugs are uncommon, accounting for approximately 1% of the snakebite envenomations reported annually to US poison control centers; however, snakebite victims also reporting alcohol/drug use are more likely to be bitten by rattlesnakes, be admitted to a healthcare facility, and die.

  18. Concomitant hypo-hyperdontia with dens invaginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B S; Nagarajappa, D; Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Although developmental anomalies of tooth number are quite common in permanent dentition, concomitant occurrence of hypohyperdontia is a very rare mixed numeric anomalous condition of teeth. Very few cases of this condition have been reported in the English literature. Here we report such a rare case noted in a 26 year-old male dental graduate with no other associated systemic condition or syndrome.

  19. Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley V; Abdurrob, Abdurrahman; Spoendlin, Julia; Lewis, Edwin; Newcomer, Sophia R; Fireman, Bruce; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M; Duffy, Jonathan; Weintraub, Eric S; Kulldorff, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. This paper addresses a methodological challenge for observational studies using a self-controlled design to investigate the safety of concomitant vaccination. We propose a process for distinguishing which of several concomitantly administered vaccines is responsible for increased risk of an adverse event while adjusting for confounding due to relationships between effect modifying risk factors and concomitant vaccine combinations. We illustrate the approach by re-examining the known increase in risk of seizure 7 to 10 days after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and evaluating potential independent or modifying effects of other vaccines. Initial analyses suggested that DTaP had both an independent and potentiating effect on seizure. After accounting for the relationship between age at vaccination and vaccine combination, there was little evidence for increased risk of seizure with same day administration of DTaP and MMR; incidence rate ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.2 (0.9-1.6), P value = θ.226. We have shown that when using a self-controlled design to investigate safety of concomitant vaccination, it can be critically important to adjust for time-invariant effect modifying risk factors, such as age at time of vaccination, which are structurally related to vaccination patterns due to recommended immunization schedules. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Should anti-inhibitor coagulant complex and tranexamic acid be used concomitantly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Holme, P A

    2015-11-01

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia patients is challenging especially when undergoing surgical procedures. The development of an inhibitor precludes using factor VIII (FVIII) therapy thereby requiring a bypassing agent (BPA) for surgical bleeding prophylaxis if the FVIII inhibitor titre >5 BU. Concomitant use of anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (AICC) and tranexamic acid has been reported in the literature as a beneficial treatment for this population. Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex is known to cause an increase in thrombin generation and tranexamic acid inhibits fibrinolysis. Hence, the combined used of AICC and tranexamic acid has been limited due to safety concerns over possibilities of increased risk of thrombotic events and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, the rationale for concomitant therapy is to obtain a potential synergistic effect and to increase clot stability. We conducted a literature review of past studies and individual case reports of concomitant use of AICC and tranexamic acid, which was extensively used during dental procedures. Evidence also exists for concomitant use of the combined therapy in orthopaedic procedures, control of gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis and cerebral haemorrhages. Some patients who received the combined therapy had failed monotherapy with a single BPA prior to combined therapy. There were no reports of thrombotic complications related to the concomitant therapy and haemostasis was achieved in all cases. Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex and tranexamic acid therapy was found to be safe, well-tolerated and effective therapy in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Additional randomized controlled studies should be performed to confirm these findings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Endovenous Laser Ablation and Concomitant Foam Sclerotherapy: Experience in 504 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Saim; Ceken, Kagan; Alparslan, Ahmet; Durmaz, Sedat; Sindel, Timur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of endovenous laser ablation (ELA) and concomitant ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (USGFS) in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Methods: During a 6-year period, concomitant USGFS of the varicose veins were performed in 504 out of 610 patients who underwent ELA for truncal or perforating vein insufficiency. In these 504 patients (944 legs; bilateral in 440 patients), the incompetent veins were greater saphenous vein in 615 legs, small saphenous vein in 118 veins, perforating veins in 42 legs, and a combination of these in 169 legs. In all patients, after ELA of the incompetent veins, USGFS was performed for the remaining varicosities with 1–3% polidocanol foam. Patients were followed up clinically and with color Doppler ultrasound at 1, 6, and 12 months. Results: ELA was technically successful in all cases, although another venous puncture was necessary in 29 legs. Concomitant USGFS was also technically successful in all cases, but one to three additional sclerotherapy sessions were performed in 203 legs with persistent varicosities. During the follow-up, recanalization of the laser-ablated refluxing veins occurred in 16 legs (1.7%) and was treated with repeat ELA or USGFS. Major complications occurred in 1.4% of the treated legs and included skin necrosis and calf vein thrombosis. Conclusion: ELA and concomitant foam sclerotherapy is feasible and effective. The procedures are associated with a low complication rate and can be performed in both legs in the same session. Concomitant use of laser and foam may potentially decrease the recanalization rate of laser-ablated vessels.

  2. The Efficacy of Buccal Infiltration of 4% Articaine and PSA Injection of 2% Lidocaine on Anesthesia of Maxillary Second Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Maljaei, Ensiyeh; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Milad; Ranjbar, Rana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During the early mixed dentition period, the location of the deciduous maxillary second molar results in ineffectiveness of the infiltration technique in this area. In such cases, administration of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block is recommended; however, such a technique has some complications. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of buccal infiltration of 4% Articaine and PSA technique with 2% Lidocaine on the success of anesthesia of maxillary ...

  3. Antiarrhythmic Drugs for Nonshockable-Turned-Shockable Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The ALPS Study (Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Leroux, Brian G; Daya, Mohamud; Rea, Thomas; Vaillancourt, Christian; Morrison, Laurie J; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, James; Ornato, Joseph P; Dunford, James V; Wittwer, Lynn; Weisfeldt, Myron L; Aufderheide, Tom P; Vilke, Gary M; Idris, Ahamed H; Stiell, Ian G; Colella, M Riccardo; Kayea, Tami; Egan, Debra; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Gray, Pamela; Gray, Randal; Straight, Ron; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-28

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) commonly presents with nonshockable rhythms (asystole and pulseless electric activity). It is unknown whether antiarrhythmic drugs are safe and effective when nonshockable rhythms evolve to shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia [VF/VT]) during resuscitation. Adults with nontraumatic OHCA, vascular access, and VF/VT anytime after ≥1 shock(s) were prospectively randomized, double-blind, to receive amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo by paramedics. Patients presenting with initial shock-refractory VF/VT were previously reported. The current study was a prespecified analysis in a separate cohort that initially presented with nonshockable OHCA and was randomized on subsequently developing shock-refractory VF/VT. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included discharge functional status and adverse drug-related effects. Of 37 889 patients with OHCA, 3026 with initial VF/VT and 1063 with initial nonshockable-turned-shockable rhythms were treatment-eligible, were randomized, and received their assigned drug. Baseline characteristics among patients with nonshockable-turned-shockable rhythms were balanced across treatment arms, except that recipients of a placebo included fewer men and were less likely to receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Active-drug recipients in this cohort required fewer shocks, supplemental doses of their assigned drug, and ancillary antiarrhythmic drugs than recipients of a placebo ( P discharge ( P =0.24). No significant interaction between treatment assignment and discharge survival occurred with the initiating OHCA rhythm (asystole, pulseless electric activity, or VF/VT). Survival in each of these categories was consistently higher with active drugs, although the trends were not statistically significant. Adjusted absolute differences (95% confidence interval) in survival from nonshockable-turned-shockable arrhythmias

  4. Concomitant Rotavirus and Salmonella Infections in Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tzong Lan

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Concomitant rotavirus and Salmonella infections accounted for 3.7% of cases in this study. Patients in group C (30.0% had a significantly higher incidence of hypokalemia than group R (7.3% or S (8.8%. Group C consisted of 33 cases of the 895 reviewed cases (3.7%. In a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis, concomitant infection with Salmonella should be considered if the child has sustained a high fever (≥ 39°C for over 4 days and a green stool with mucus and blood.

  5. ACCELERATED ONSET OF RETINAL TOXICITY FROM HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE USE WITH CONCOMITANT BREAST CANCER THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aman; Maiz, Alejandra M; Tucker, William R; Cukras, Catherine

    2018-05-16

    To report a case of accelerated retinal toxicity due to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use for treatment of Sjögren syndrome in a patient treated with concomitant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Observational case report. A 56-year-old white woman using 400 mg HCQ (7.1 mg/kg real body weight) daily for a total of 2 years and 10 months for treatment of Sjögren syndrome with concomitant use of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide therapy (21-day cycle, 4 cycles) followed by anastrozole for breast cancer, presented with visual complaints and findings of severe HCQ toxicity. Concomitant breast cancer therapy may have a synergistic effect with HCQ leading to accelerated retinal toxicity. As such potential acceleration is poorly understood, patients on HCQ who are treated with concomitant chemotherapy should be considered for more frequent retinal screenings to maximize safety and preservation of vision.

  6. Comparison the effect of lidocaine gel and inhalation of lavender aromatherapy on pain score of arteriovenous fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: patients undergoing hemodialysis repetitively experience pain and anxiety related to arterivenous fistula (AVF) punctures. Using of appropriate methods of pain relief in these patients is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of lidocaine gel and inhalation of lavender aromatherapy on pain intensity of arterivenous fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this before and after clinical trial study, 40 hemodialysis patients were sele...

  7. Concomitant hypo-hyperdontia with dens invaginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although developmental anomalies of tooth number are quite common in permanent dentition, concomitant occurrence of hypohyperdontia is a very rare mixed numeric anomalous condition of teeth. Very few cases of this condition have been reported in the English literature. Here we report such a rare case noted in a 26 year-old male dental graduate with no other associated systemic condition or syndrome.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Anesthetic Efficacy of 2% Lidocaine, 4% Articaine, and 0.5% Bupivacaine on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    To compare the anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine on producing inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. A total of 91 adult patients who were actively experiencing mandibular molar pain were involved in this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of the anesthetic solution used. The first group received IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, the second group received IANB with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the third group received IANB with 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. After 15 minutes of IANB, conventional endodontic access preparation was started. The pain during the treatment was noted on a Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS). The primary outcome measure was anesthetic success, and anesthesia was considered successful if the patient reported no pain or weak/mild pain (HP VAS score .05). The 2% lidocaine solution used for IANB had similar success rates when compared with 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine.

  9. Use of Lactoferrin in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kapitonov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the degree of activation of lipid peroxidation in patients with severe concomitant injury and to determine whether they could be corrected with the antioxidant agent Laprot. Subjects and methods. The time course of changes in lipid peroxidation parameters and clinical data was studied in 68 patients with severe concomitant injury, in 35 of whom Laprot (made by P. A. Herzen Moscow Oncological Research Institute, Russian Agency for Medical Technologies (Russia, was added to the standard treatment. Results. The significant activation of oxidative processes and lipid peroxi-dation, which was accompanied by antioxidant system imbalance, was ascertained to occur in severe concomitant injury. Key words: injury, lipid peroxidation, lactoferrin.

  10. Ultrasound-guided intrapleural positioning of pleural catheters: influence on immediate lung expansion and pleurodesis in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pedro Henrique Xavier Nabuco de; Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Santos, Thiago da Silva; Chate, Rodrigo Caruso; Paiva, Antonio Fernando Lins de; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the role of intrapleural positioning of a pleural catheter in early lung expansion and pleurodesis success in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion (RMPE). This was a retrospective study nested into a larger prospective cohort study including patients with RMPE recruited from a tertiary university teaching hospital between June of 2009 and September of 2014. The patients underwent pleural catheter insertion followed by bedside pleurodesis. Chest CT scans were performed twice: immediately before pleurodesis (iCT) and 30 days after pleurodesis (CT30). Catheter positioning was categorized based on iCT scans as posterolateral, anterior, fissural, and subpulmonary. We used the pleural volume on iCT scans to estimate early lung expansion and the difference between the pleural volumes on CT30 and iCT scans to evaluate radiological success of pleurodesis. Clinical pleurodesis success was defined as no need for any other pleural procedure. Of the 131 eligible patients from the original study, 85 were included in this nested study (64 women; mean age: 60.74 years). Catheter tip positioning was subpulmonary in 35 patients (41%), anterior in 23 (27%), posterolateral in 17 (20%), and fissural in 10 (12%). No significant differences were found among the groups regarding early lung expansion (median residual pleural cavity = 377 mL; interquartile range: 171-722 mL; p = 0.645), radiological success of pleurodesis (median volume = 33 mL; interquartile range: -225 to 257 mL; p = 0.923), and clinical success of pleurodesis (85.8%; p = 0.676). Our results suggest that the position of the tip of the pleural catheter influences neither early lung expansion nor bedside pleurodesis success in patients with RMPE. Avaliar o papel do posicionamento intrapleural do cateter pleural na expansão pulmonar precoce e no sucesso da pleurodese em pacientes com derrame pleural maligno recorrente (DPMR). Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo aninhado em um estudo prospectivo de

  11. Double-Blind Crossover Study to Compare Pain Experience During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Administration Using Buffered Two Percent Lidocaine in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Jindal, Garima; Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Buffering of anesthetic solutions has been suggested to reduce pain on injection and onset of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the reduction in pain on injection during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. A double blind crossover study was designed where 30 six- to 12-year-old patients received two sessions of inferior alveolar nerve block scheduled one week apart. Two percent lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine was given during one appointment, and a buffered solution was given during the other. Pain on injection was assessed using the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale, and the time to onset was assessed after gingival probing. The Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (HP-VAS) was self recorded by the patient after administration of local anesthesia. When tested using Mann-Whitney analysis, no significant differences were found between the SEM scores (P=0.71) and HP-VAS scores (P=0.93) for the two solutions used. Student's t test was used to assess the difference in the onset of anesthesia, which was also found to be statistically insignificant (P=0.824). Buffered lidocaine did not reduce the pain on injection or time to onset of anesthesia for inferior alveolar nerve block in children.

  12. Identification of Sulfanilamide, Phenazone, and Lidocaine hydrochloride by HPLC Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaba, R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed for the analysis of sulfanilamide, phenazone, and lidocaine hydrochloride content in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations using HPLC technique. Analysis was performed on column had the following specifications: SHIM-PACK CLC(M) C18(100A 0 , 5μm, 4.6 x 250 mm). And mobile phase consisting of tow phases: the first was methanol, the second consisting of pure form of [water, icy acetic acid, triethylamine in rate (240: 7: 3 v/v/v) respectively], and the two phases were mixed in rate (20:80) respectively, flow rate was 1.5 ml/min, at temperature 300 C, and detector in the ultraviolet range at wavelength 254 nm, consequently. We could separate and determinate the studied compounds in its mixtures, and reached to excellent linearity for each one with correlation coefficients equivalent to (0.9999). This supposed method was applied on prepared samples and pharmaceutical preparation contains of the three studied compounds. The relative standard deviations RSD (n=5) was smaller than (1.99%) for prepared samples and (2.11%) for the pharmaceutical preparation. So this method proved to be sensitive, accurate, is useful for quantitative control of pharmaceutical products. (author)

  13. Rapid Vortex Fluidics: Continuous Flow Synthesis of Amides and Local Anesthetic Lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Joshua; Chalker, Justin M; Raston, Colin L

    2015-07-20

    Thin film flow chemistry using a vortex fluidic device (VFD) is effective in the scalable acylation of amines under shear, with the yields of the amides dramatically enhanced relative to traditional batch techniques. The optimized monophasic flow conditions are effective in ≤80 seconds at room temperature, enabling access to structurally diverse amides, functionalized amino acids and substituted ureas on multigram scales. Amide synthesis under flow was also extended to a total synthesis of local anesthetic lidocaine, with sequential reactions carried out in two serially linked VFD units. The synthesis could also be executed in a single VFD, in which the tandem reactions involve reagent delivery at different positions along the rapidly rotating tube with in situ solvent replacement, as a molecular assembly line process. This further highlights the versatility of the VFD in organic synthesis, as does the finding of a remarkably efficient debenzylation of p-methoxybenzyl amines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Efficient Smoothed Concomitant Lasso Estimation for High Dimensional Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Eugene; Fercoq, Olivier; Gramfort, Alexandre; Leclère, Vincent; Salmon, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    In high dimensional settings, sparse structures are crucial for efficiency, both in term of memory, computation and performance. It is customary to consider ℓ 1 penalty to enforce sparsity in such scenarios. Sparsity enforcing methods, the Lasso being a canonical example, are popular candidates to address high dimension. For efficiency, they rely on tuning a parameter trading data fitting versus sparsity. For the Lasso theory to hold this tuning parameter should be proportional to the noise level, yet the latter is often unknown in practice. A possible remedy is to jointly optimize over the regression parameter as well as over the noise level. This has been considered under several names in the literature: Scaled-Lasso, Square-root Lasso, Concomitant Lasso estimation for instance, and could be of interest for uncertainty quantification. In this work, after illustrating numerical difficulties for the Concomitant Lasso formulation, we propose a modification we coined Smoothed Concomitant Lasso, aimed at increasing numerical stability. We propose an efficient and accurate solver leading to a computational cost no more expensive than the one for the Lasso. We leverage on standard ingredients behind the success of fast Lasso solvers: a coordinate descent algorithm, combined with safe screening rules to achieve speed efficiency, by eliminating early irrelevant features.

  15. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies in high-grade acromioclavicular separation (type III - V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Jochen; Schwarting, Tim; Malcherczyk, Dominik; Peterlein, Christian-Dominik; Ruchholtz, Steffen; El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk

    2017-11-10

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations are common injuries of the shoulder associated with physical activity. The diagnosis of concomitant injuries proves complicated due to the prominent clinical symptoms of acute ACJ dislocation. Because of increasing use of minimally invasive surgery techniques concomitant pathologies are diagnosed more often than with previous procedures. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of concomitant intraarticular injuries in patients with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III - V) as well as to reveal potential risk constellations. The concomitant pathologies were compiled during routine arthroscopically assisted treatment in altogether 163 patients (147 male; 16 female; mean age 36.8 years) with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III: n = 60; Rockwood type IV: n = 6; Rockwood type V: n = 97). Acromioclavicular separation occurred less often in women than men (1:9). In patients under 35, the most common cause for ACJ dislocation was sporting activity (37.4%). Rockwood type V was observed significantly more often than the other types with 57.5% (Rockwood type III = 36.8%, Rockwood type IV 3.7%). Concomitant pathologies were diagnosed in 39.3% of the patients with that number rising to as much as 57.3% in patients above 35 years. Most common associated injuries were rotator cuff injuries (32.3%), chondral defects (30.6%) and SLAP-lesions (22.6%). Of all patients, 8.6% needed additional reconstructive surgery. Glenohumeral injuries are a much more common epiphenomenon during acromioclavicular separation than previously ascertained. High risk group for accompanying injuries are patients above 35 years with preexisting degenerative disease. The increasing use of minimally invasive techniques allows for an easier diagnosis and simultaneous treatment of the additional pathologies.

  16. Usefulness of intra-articular bupivacain and lidocain adjunction in MR or CT arthrography: A prospective study in 148 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosimann, Pascal J.; Richarme, Delphine; Becce, Fabio; Knoepfli, Anne-Sophie; Mino, Vincent; Meuli, Reto; Theumann, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of shorter- and longer-acting intra-articular anaesthetics on post-arthrographic pain. Materials and methods: 154 consecutive patients investigated by MR or CT arthrographies were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1 – intra-articular contrast injection only; 2 – lidocain 1% adjunction; or 3 – bupivacain 0.25% adjunction. Pain was assessed before injection, at 15 min, 4 h, 1 day and 1 week after injection by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: At 15 min, early mean pain score increased by 0.96, 0.24 and 0 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Differences between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 2 were statistically significant (p = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively), but not between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.54). Delayed mean pain score increase was maximal at 4 h, reaching 1.60, 1.22 and 0.29 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Differences between groups 1 and 2 and 2 and 3 were statistically significant (p = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but not between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.46). At 24 h and 1 week, the interaction of local anaesthetics with increase in pain score was no longer significant. Results were independent of age, gender and baseline VAS. Conclusion: Intra-articular anaesthesia may significantly reduce post-arthrographic pain. Bupivacain seems to be more effective than lidocain to reduce both early and delayed pain

  17. Evaluation of Gentamicin and Lidocaine Release Profile from Gum Acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol Based Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    No doubt, the prevention of infection is an indispensable aspect of the wound management, but, simultaneous wound pain relief is also required. Therefore, herein this article, incorporation of antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into hydrogel wound dressings, prepared by using acacia gum, carbopol and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) polymers, has been carried out. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. Synthesis of hydrogel wound dressing was carried out by free radical polymerization technique. The drug loading was carried out by swelling equilibrium method and gel strength of hydrogels was measured by a texture analyzer. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. It is concluded that the pH of swelling medium has influenced the network structure of hydrogel i.e., molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links, crosslink density and the corresponding mesh size. A good correlation was established between gel strength and network parameters. Cryo-SEM images showed porous morphology of hydrogels. These hydrogels were found to be biodegradable and antimicrobial in nature. Drug release occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order model. Overall it is concluded that modification in GA has led to formation of a porous hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Experimental investigation of the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG in a turbocharged spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni Movahed, M.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Mirsalim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is compared with gasoline and CNG modes. • BSFC, HC and CO emissions of the concomitant injection are lower than gasoline mode. • Deteriorations of the concomitant injection are negligible compared to gasoline mode. • Cylinder peak pressure and heat loss to coolant of the concomitant injection are lower than CNG mode. • Some shortcomings in CNG mode can be solved by changing the spark timing and lambda. - Abstract: Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is a new concept to overcome problems of bi-fueled spark ignition engines, which operate in single fuel mode, either in gasoline or in CNG mode. This experimental study indicates how some problems of gasoline mode such as retarded ignition timings for knock prevention and rich air–fuel mixture for component protection can be resolved with the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG. Results clearly show that the concomitant injection improves thermal efficiency compared to gasoline mode. On the other hand, simultaneous injection of gasoline and CNG reduces some problems of CNG mode such as high cylinder pressure and heat loss to the engine coolant. This decreases the stringent requirements for thermal and mechanical strength of the engine components in CNG mode. In addition, it is shown that by modifying the spark advance and air fuel ratio in CNG mode, the engine operation improves in terms of NOx emissions and maximum in-cylinder pressure as the concomitant injection does. Nevertheless, new requirements such as an intercooler with higher cooling capacity are implied to the engine configuration. Finally, the most important concerns in control strategies of the engine control unit for a vehicle with concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG are discussed

  19. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  20. CONCOMITANT HELMINTHIC AND ENTERO-PROTOZOAL INFESTATION IN INDIAN PEAFOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  1. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-02-01

    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  2. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-03-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  3. Anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in patients with irreversible pulpitis after inferior alveolar nerve block: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramesh, Kumar M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The inferior alveolar nerve block (IAN) is the most frequently used mandibular injection technique for achieving local anesthesia in endodontics. Supplemental injections are essential to overcome failure of IAN block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Aim: To evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth when conventional IAN block failed. Materials and Methods: Thirty emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular posterior tooth received an IAN block and experienced moderate to severe pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analogue scale ratings intraosseous injection using 2% lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:23716971

  4. Concomitant atrial fibrillation surgery for people undergoing cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Berendsen, Mark A; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Kruse, Jane; McCarthy, Patrick M; Malaisrie, S C

    2016-01-01

    Background People with atrial fibrillation (AF) often undergo cardiac surgery for other underlying reasons and are frequently offered concomitant AF surgery to reduce the frequency of short- and long-term AF and improve short- and long-term outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of concomitant AF surgery among people with AF who are undergoing cardiac surgery on short-term and long-term (12 months or greater) health-related outcomes, health-related quality of life, and costs. Search methods Starting from the year when the first “maze” AF surgery was reported (1987), we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (March 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (March 2016), Embase Ovid (March 2016), Web of Science (March 2016), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, April 2015), and Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA, March 2016). We searched trial registers in April 2016. We used no language restrictions. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of any concomitant AF surgery compared with no AF surgery among adults with preoperative AF, regardless of symptoms, who were undergoing cardiac surgery for another indication. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted data. We evaluated the risk of bias using the Cochrane ‘Risk of bias’ tool. We included outcome data on all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality, freedom from atrial fibrillation, flutter, or tachycardia off antiarrhythmic medications, as measured by patient electrocardiographic monitoring greater than three months after the procedure, procedural safety, 30-day rehospitalisation, need for post-discharge direct current cardioversion, health-related quality of life, and direct costs. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a fixed-effect model when heterogeneity was low (I2 ≤ 50%) and random

  5. Contralateral Fracture of the Penis with Concomitant Urethral Injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ra

    2009-03-16

    Mar 16, 2009 ... 2, 2009. 103. 103-106. Case Report. Contralateral Fracture of the Penis with Concomitant. Urethral ... Examination revealed ecchymosis and swelling of the proximal shaft and ... of impotence due to infection and cavernosal.

  6. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  7. Contemporary Management of Patients with Concomitant Coronary and Carotid Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Mun J; Echeverria, Angela; Lin, Peter H

    2018-01-01

    The ideal management of concomitant carotid and coronary artery occlusive disease remains elusive. Although researchers have advocated the potential benefits of varying treatment strategies based on either concomitant or staged surgical treatment, there is no consensus in treatment guidelines among national or international clinical societies. Clinical studies show that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with either staged or synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with a high procedural stroke or death rate. Recent clinical studies have found carotid artery stenting (CAS) prior to CABG can lead to superior treatment outcomes in asymptomatic patients who are deemed high risk of CEA. With emerging data suggesting favorable outcome of CAS compared to CEA in patients with critical coronary artery disease, physicians must consider these diverging therapeutic options when treating patients with concurrent carotid and coronary disease. This review examines the available clinical data on therapeutic strategies in patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease. A treatment paradigm for considering CAS or CEA as well as CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention is discussed.

  8. Efeitos do tratamento prévio com lidocaína, paracetamol e lidocaína-fentanil por via venosa na dor causada pela injeção de propofol: estudo comparativo Efectos del tratamiento previo con lidocaína, paracetamol y lidocaína-fentanil intravenosos en el dolor causado por la inyección de propofol: estudio comparativo Effect of pretreatment with lidocaine, intravenous paracetamol and lidocaine-fentanyl on propofol injection pain: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. El-Radaideh

    2007-02-01

    ón venosa fue hecha después de 60 segundos, siendo seguida de la administración intravenosa de propofol, 2,5 mg.kg-1 a una velocidad de 0,5 mg.s-1 a través de un catéter de 20G insertado en la vena del dorso de la mano. La evaluación del dolor fue hecha durante la inyección de propofol. Ella incluyó movimientos de la mano, expresión verbal espontánea de dolor, muecas y gemidos durante la inyección de propofol. RESULTADOS: Lidocaína-fentanil (70% sin dolor y lidocaína (68% sin dolor fueron más eficaces en la reducción del dolor causado por la inyección de propofol que el paracetamol (54% sin dolor y el placebo (36% sin dolor (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Performed a randomized, double blind study to assess the efficacy of intravenous (IV pretreatment with lidocaine, IV paracetamol (Perfalgan® or lidocaine mixed with fentanyl in reducing propofol injection pain. METHODS: Immediately after venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet on the patient's arm IV lidocaine 1% 4 mL (Group L, n = 50, IV paracetamol (Perfalgan® 4 mL (40 mg (Group R, n = 50, lidocaine 2% mixed with 100 µg fentanyl (Group LF, n = 50 or normal saline 4 mL (Group P, n = 50; as placebo control was given to 200 adult patients. The release of the venous occlusion was done after 60s and followed by intravenous administration of propofol 2.5 mg.kg-1 at rate of 0.5 mg.s-1 through a 20G catheter inserted in hand dorsum vein. Pain assessment was made during the propofol injection. This included movement of hand, spontaneous verbal expressions of pain, frowning, and moaning during the injection of propofol. RESULTS: Lidocaine-fentanyl (70% pain free, and lidocaine (68% pain free significantly reduced propofol injection pain more than paracetamol (54% pain free and more than placebo (36% pain free (p < 0.05. The difference in reducing the incidence of propofol injection pain between lidocaine and lidocaine-fentanyl did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant superiority of

  9. Pretreatment with remifentanil, fentanyl, or lidocaine to prevent withdrawal after rocuronium using venous occlusion technique in children and adolescents: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Halaweh, S A; Aloweidi, A K; Qudaisat, I Y; Al-Hussami, M O; Al Zaben, K R; Abu-Halaweh, A S

    2014-12-01

    Pain caused by intravenous injection of the muscle relaxant rocuronium bromide is common in children and adolescents. The cause of this unwanted effect is still unclear, and different pretreatment drugs have been administered in attempts to alleviate this side effect, with varying degrees of success. This study used a 60-s venous occlusion technique to evaluate the effectiveness of pretreatment with lidocaine, fentanyl, or remifentanil in preventing pain-induced withdrawal caused by intravenous injection of rocuronium bromide during the induction of general anesthesia. One hundred and one child and adolescent patients, ASA Ι-II, requiring various surgical procedures under general anesthesia with muscle relaxation and mechanical ventilation, were enrolled. Patients were allocated randomly using computer-generated randomization into one of four pretreatment groups: a remifentanil group (1 µg/kg, n = 25), fentanyl group (1 µg/kg, n = 26), lidocaine 1% group (0.5 mg/kg, n = 25), and normal saline group (n = 25). Drug doses were prepared in normal saline to a total volume of 5 ml. Venous occlusion was applied 10 cm above the venous access site. Pretreatment drugs were injected and retained for 60 s at the site of injection by an anesthetist blinded to group allocation. After release of the tourniquet, rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg) was then injected over 5 s, and withdrawal was recorded by another anesthetist blinded to group allocation. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test were used to statistically analyze the results as appropriate. Compared to normal saline, all other pretreatment groups scored a significantly lower mean of withdrawal response (P rocuronium injection. Remifentanil was superior to fentanyl in suppressing the withdrawal response caused by rocuronium injection (P rocuronium injection in children and adolescents. Lidocaine was superior to remifentanil which, in turn, was more effective than fentanyl.

  10. Evaluation of corneal anaesthesia after the application of topical 2 per cent lidocaine, 0.5 per cent bupivacaine and 1 per cent ropivacaine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D; Peña, M T; Ríos, J; Leiva, M

    2014-05-10

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare the efficacy and duration of topical anaesthesia induced by 2 per cent lidocaine (L), 0.5 per cent bupivacaine (B) and 1 per cent ropivacaine (R) in the dog using 24 clinically healthy beagles with normal ocular examination. Dogs were randomly divided into three groups: 2 per cent lidocaine (n=8), 0.5 per cent bupivacaine (n=8) and 1 per cent ropivacaine (n=8). The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Following baseline CTT measurement, a single drop of the assigned anaesthetic was applied to each eye and the CTT was measured bilaterally within one minute after administration and every five minutes until the basal CTT value was restored. Data were analysed with non-parametric analysis of variance models and Dunnet's test for post hoc analysis. One per cent ropivacaine was the most effective drug (LCTTmax=3 cm, BCTTmax=2 cm, RCTTmax=0 cm; Pper cent ropivacaine had the maximal and quickest anaesthetic effect. This drug could be used for specific diagnostic procedures where quick and short, but effective, corneal anaesthesia is needed.

  11. Concomitant fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the more frequent use of biological therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask Lage-Hansen, Philip; Chrysidis, S; Lage-Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    identified. No group differences were found regarding disease duration, age, gender, and serological status. Of the RA patients with concomitant FM, 64% were treated with biological therapy vs. 32% of RA patients without concomitant FM (p = 0.002). The mean DAS28 in the FM group was 4.4 compared to 2......OBJECTIVES: To compare the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and its components in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with and without concomitant fibromyalgia (FM), and to investigate the use of biological treatment in the two groups. METHOD: Questionnaires developed to diagnose FM were...... applied to investigate group differences in the use of biological therapy, baseline characteristics, patient-reported outcomes, and DAS28 between groups when appropriate. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 162 out of 264 (61%) patients. Twenty-five patients (15.4%) with concomitant FM were...

  12. Prevalence of Concomitant Sacroiliac joint Dysfunction in Patients With Image Proven Herniated Lumbar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alalawi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction is a widely known but poorly defined cause of low back pain. To our knowledge, few published studies have been conducted to evaluate systematically the prevalence and significance of concomitant sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar discs. As concomitant SIJ dysfunction in low back pain patients is likely to respond to particular noninvasive interventions such as manipulation,improved understanding of the relationship between these two diagnoses would improve clinical decision making and research.Methods:This study was designated to estimate the prevalence of concomitant sacroiliac joint dysfunction in sub acute low back pain patients with image proven discopathy and evaluate the theory that sacroiliac joint dysfunction can be a source of pain and functional disability in discopathy. A total of 202 patients with sub acute radicular back pain and MRI proven herniated lumbar discs underwent standardized   physiatrist history and physical examination, specified for detection of concomitant sacroiliac joint dysfunction.Results: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a concomitant finding in 72.3% of evaluated patients.There was significantly higher SIJ dysfunction prevalence in female patients (p <0.0001. Conclusion: SIJ dysfunction is a significant pathogenic factor with high possibility of occurrence in low back pain. Thus, in the presence of radicular and sacroiliac joint symptoms, SIJ dysfunction, regardless of intervertebral disc pathology, must be considered in clinical decisiomaking.

  13. Concomitant Hip Arthroscopy and Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; LaReau, Justin M; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Gupta, Asheesh; Stake, Christine E; Redmond, John M

    2015-11-01

    To detail our early experience using concomitant hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia. We prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed the surgical and outcome data of 17 patients who underwent concomitant hip arthroscopy and PAO between October 2010 and July 2013. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, outcome and pain scores, and radiographic data were collected. Intraoperative arthroscopic findings and postoperative complications were recorded. The group consisted of 3 male and 14 female patients with a mean follow-up period of 2.4 years. Three patients had undergone previous surgery on the affected hip. Chondrolabral pathology was identified in all 17 patients. Twelve patients underwent labral repair, and five patients underwent partial labral debridement. No patient was converted to total hip arthroplasty or required revision surgery at short-term follow-up. All 4 patient-reported outcome scores showed statistically significant changes from baseline to latest follow-up (P arthroscopy and PAO has been favorable. We noted that all our patients have evidence of chondrolabral damage at the time of PAO when the joint is distracted and evaluated. All patients in this series had intra-articular pathology treated arthroscopically and showed satisfactory mean clinical improvement. Hip arthroscopy with PAO did not appear to introduce complications beyond the PAO alone. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 利多卡因与布比卡因应用于控制根管治疗术后疼痛的比较研究%Comparative Study of Application of the Control Postoperative Pain between Lidocaine and Bupivacaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海涛; 仵楠; 梁君; 徐江

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo compare the effect of controling pain after endodontic treatment between lidocaine and bupivacaine. Methods30 patients who suited in inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria were chosen and randomly arranged to lidocaine and bupivacaine groups. The research group was bupivacaine group(0.5%), the control group was lidocaine group(2%), , VAS was used to score after inferior alveolar block anesthesia.ResultsThe effect of bupivacaine group was higher than that of lidocaine group.Conclusion For postoperative pain, it is better to choose bupivacaine to relieve symptoms.%目的:对比研究利多卡因和布比卡因应用于控制根管治疗术后疼痛的效果。方法将符合纳入标准和排除标准的30例发生根管治疗术后中、重度疼痛的患者按照随机分2组,实验组为布比卡因组(0.5%),对照组为利多卡因组(2%),行下牙槽阻滞麻醉后按照视觉模拟评分法(VAS)评分。结果布比卡因组控制根管治疗术后疼痛的效果优于利多卡因组。结论针对难以忍受的根管治疗术后疼痛可以选择布比卡因缓解症状。

  15. Evaluation of haemato-biochemical and oxidative indices in naturally infected concomitant tick borne intracellular diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore haemato-biochemical and oxidative stress indices due to concomitant tick borne intracellular diseases in dogs presented at Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly during May 2010 to May 2012. Methods: Microscopy of Giemsa blood smear and ELISA test (SNAP 4D伊 were carried out in suspected cases to confirm haemo-parasitic infection. Blood and serum samples were analyzed for oxidative stress indices and haemato-biochemical changes. All the ailing conditions were recorded to investigate the clinical pattern of concomitant tick borne diseases. Ultrasonographic study was carried out to obtain the hepatic involvement. Results: Examination of 3 650 dogs revealed that 2.77% dog were positive for various tick borne diseases, out of which 21.78% were with concomitant infection. Clinical symptoms were noted with overall mean clinical score of 9.95依0.30. Ultrasonographic examination revealed hepatomegaly, distension of gall bladder, and ascites. Haemato-biochemical evaluation confirmed anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia and hyperbilirubinemia with increased serum alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in concomitant infected dogs. The lipid peroxidation level of concomitant infection was significantly higher (P<0.05 than healthy group whereas superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reduced and catalase activity in concomitant infected group were decreased. Conclusions: The severity of infection was more pronounced in dogs harboring Ehrlichia, Babesia and Hepatozoon and the oxidative stress may have a pathophysiological role in concomitant infection in dogs.

  16. Brief reports: a clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We report onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per nerve (total local anesthetic volume 4 mL). Block performance time, block onset time, duration of surgery, and block duration were measured. Seventeen consecutive patients were recruited. The mean (SD) block performance and onset times were 271 (67.9) seconds and 9.7 (3.7) minutes, respectively. Block duration was 160.8 (30.7) minutes. All operations were performed using regional anesthesia alone. The duration of anesthesia obtained is sufficient for most ambulatory hand surgery.

  17. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...... channels. METHODS: The authors conducted an in vitro laboratory study in which they expressed TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and recorded cation currents with the two-electrode voltage clamp method. They used confocal microscopy for Ca²⁺ imaging in TRPV1 transient transfected tsA201...

  18. Concomitant occurrence of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Changlee S; Grier, David D; Beaty, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare self-limiting disorder of histiocytes with unknown etiology. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is most common in children and young adults and is characterized by painless lymphadenopathy. Histologically there is a proliferation of sinus histiocytes with lymphophagocytosis or emperipolesis. On rare occasions, SHML has been associated with lymphoma, usually involving different anatomic sites and developing at different times. We report a case of concomitant SHML and nodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the same lymph node without involvement of other nodal or extranodal sites. The presence of concomitant SHML within the lymph node involved by nodal marginal zone lymphoma may represent the responsiveness of SHML histiocytes to B-cell-derived cytokines in lymphoproliferative disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first description of concomitant occurrence of SHML and nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

  19. Severe Late Toxicities Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Compared to Radiotherapy Alone in Cervical Cancer: An Inter-era Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Bentzen, Søren M.; Sklenar, Kathryn L.; Dunn, Emily F.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Tannehill, Scott P.; Straub, Margaret; Bradley, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare rates of severe late toxicities following concomitant chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with cervical cancer were treated at a single institution with radiotherapy alone or concomitant chemoradiotherapy for curative intent. Severe late toxicity was defined as grade ≥3 vaginal, urologic, or gastrointestinal toxicity or any pelvic fracture, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE), occurring ≥6 months from treatment completion and predating any salvage therapy. Severe late toxicity rates were compared after adjusting for pertinent covariates. Results: At 3 years, probability of vaginal severe late toxicity was 20.2% for radiotherapy alone and 35.1% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.026). At 3 years, probability of skeletal severe late toxicity was 1.6% for radiotherapy alone and 7.5% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.010). After adjustment for case mix, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was associated with higher vaginal (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-5.2, P 50 was associated with higher vaginal (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0, P=.013) and skeletal (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-27.0, P=.028) severe late toxicity. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy was not associated with higher gastrointestinal (P=.886) or urologic (unadjusted, P=.053; adjusted, P=.063) severe late toxicity. Conclusion: Compared to radiotherapy alone, concomitant chemoradiotherapy is associated with higher rates of severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities. Other predictive factors include dilator compliance for severe vaginal late toxicity and age for severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities.

  20. Single-shot imaging with higher-dimensional encoding using magnetic field monitoring and concomitant field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of bentonite binders in single or concomitant mycotoxin contamination of chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Tsiplakou, E; Tsitsigiannis, D I; Georgiadou, M; Iliadi, M K; Sotirakoglou, K; Zervas, G

    2016-08-01

    Concomitant presence of mycotoxins is more likely to appear than a single mycotoxicosis since many mycotoxigenic fungi grow and produce their toxic metabolites under similar conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 4 mycotoxin binders to protect meat-type chickens against single and concomitant administration in the feed of two mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) both at concentration of 0.1 mg/kg. A total of 440 as hatched, d-old, Ross 308 broilers were reared for 42 d. There were 11 dietary treatments. Chickens were fed on either an uncontaminated basal diet, basal diet and AFB1, basal with concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA, basal diet and three binders A, B and C (1%) with or without AFB1 or basal diet and binder D (0.5%) with or without concomitant presence of AFB1 and OTA. Performance, carcass yield and several biochemical parameters were examined. Mycotoxin concentration in liver and breast muscle samples was determined. Broiler performance under concomitant mycotoxin contamination was poorer than that under single mycotoxicosis. Mycotoxin presence increased relative heart weight compared to that of broilers fed on uncontaminated diets. Only OTA and not AFB1 was detected and only in the liver. OTA concentration was four-fold lower in broilers fed on a diet with binder compared to those fed on contaminated diets without binder. In conclusion, the study revealed that binder composition and presence or not of multiple toxins may be important factors for optimum broiler performance under mycotoxicosis.

  2. Comparison of conventional and novel PET tracers for imaging mesothelioma in nude mice with subcutaneous and intrapleural xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sogawa, Chizuru; Sugyo, Aya [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sudo, Hitomi [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 206-8670 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio [Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Yoshi-nobu; Furukawa, Takako [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Molecular Probe Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Saga, Tsuneo [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: saga@nirs.go.jp

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor originating in the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium, and the prognosis of patients undergoing current treatment remains poor. To develop new therapies, it is important to have a noninvasive imaging system for evaluating the efficacy of such prospective treatments. We have established clinically relevant mouse models and evaluated conventional and novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. Methods: Epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were inoculated subcutaneously and intrapleurally into nude mice. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were conducted by injecting [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), 3'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3'-doxythymidine (FLT) or 4'-methyl-[{sup 11}C]thiothymidine (S-dThd) into the mouse models. In vitro cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and thymidine kinase 1 (TK{sub 1}) activity in both cell lines were measured. Expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and Ki-67 in xenografted tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results: In epithelioid mesothelioma models, biodistribution experiments showed that tumor uptake of [{sup 11}C]S-dThd was significantly higher than that of [{sup 18}F]FDG. On the other hand, in sarcomatoid models, [{sup 18}F]FDG showed significantly higher accumulation than the other two tracers. These differential uptakes of the three tracers were confirmed by PET imaging. The cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and TK{sub 1} activity in sarcomatoid cells were higher than those of epithelioid cells. GLUT-1 protein was strongly expressed in sarcomatoid but not in epithelioid tumor. We observed a high percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumors. Conclusions: We established nude mouse models of epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of mesothelioma. PET tracers applicable for the evaluation of epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma would vary

  3. Residual and Past Entropy for Concomitants of Ordered Random Variables of Morgenstern Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mohie EL-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system, which is observed at time t, the residual and past entropies measure the uncertainty about the remaining and the past life of the distribution, respectively. In this paper, we have presented the residual and past entropy of Morgenstern family based on the concomitants of the different types of generalized order statistics (gos and give the linear transformation of such model. Characterization results for these dynamic entropies for concomitants of ordered random variables have been considered.

  4. Prevalence of Concomitant Sacroiliac joint Dysfunction in Patients With Image Proven Herniated Lumbar Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Alalawi; Ali akbar Jafarian; Seyed Pezhman Madani; Mohammad Dadian; Keykavous Firouznia

    2009-01-01

    Background:Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a widely known but poorly defined cause of low back pain. To our knowledge, few published studies have been conducted to evaluate systematically the prevalence and significance of concomitant sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar discs. As concomitant SIJ dysfunction in low back pain patients is likely to respond to particular noninvasive interventions such as manipulation,improved understanding of the relationship bet...

  5. The impact of haemoglobin level and concomitant infections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of paroxysm during Plasmodium infection. Likewise, the presence of concomitant infections in the clinically ill subjects quickened the on-set of clinical signs. The need for proper laboratory diagnosis to ascertain real cause/s of fever during malaria attack so as to avoid wrong treatment/under treatment, and balanced diet to ...

  6. Streptomycin-lidocaine injections for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: Report of three cases with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghray, Shefali; Asif, Shaik Mohammed; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj

    2013-09-01

    The sudden, stabbing, paroxysmal pain of neuralgia is the fiercest agony that a patient may experience in his life. Many varied medical treatments and surgical procedures have been suggested in the literature for neuralgic pain. Most of the patients fail to respond to medical treatments or succumb to complications of total anesthesia owing to surgical procedures. Herein, we tried a new treatment modality in patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia with appreciable success in all the three cases that are presented in this paper. Streptomycin sulfate dissolved in 2% lidocaine solution was deposited at the peripheral branches on the involved nerves targeting the trigger zones, given weekly once for a maximum of 6 week period and continued once in 2 weeks if symptoms persisted. All patients were followed-up for 1 year and there was a marked improvement on follow-up.

  7. Imaging and concomitant dose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Image guidance in radiotherapy now involves multiple imaging procedures for planning, simulation, set-up inter and intrafraction monitoring. Presently ALARA (i.e. as low as reasonable achievable) is the principle of management of dose to radiation workers and patients in any diagnostic imaging procedures including image guided surgery. The situation is different in repeated radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging performed for simulation, dose planning, patient positioning and set-up corrections during preparation/execution of Image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) as well as for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). Reported imaging and concomitant doses will be highlighted and discussed for the management and optimization of imaging techniques in IMRT and IGRT

  8. The Role of Concomitant Radiation Boost in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshi, Harun; Ismail, Mahmoud; Boskos, Christos; Zhao, Kuaile; Kaul, David

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzed the impact of concomitant boost on long-term clinical outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer. A total of 141 patients (median age=61 years) were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Median total dose was 50.4 Gy. Forty-three patients received a concomitant boost. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), given as a 24-h continuous infusion. Mean follow-up was 83.7 months. The 3, 5-, and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 91.9%, 84.6%, and 52.9%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates at 3, 5, and 10 years were 91.4%, 88.9%, and 79.3%, respectively. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) rates at 3, 5, and 10 years were 84.6%, 75.4%, and 49.9%, respectively. Overall, 9.9% of all patients achieved pathological complete response. Down-staging of T- or N-stage was achieved in 55.1% and 41.5% of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that female sex (p=0.011), concomitant boost-radiotherapy (p=0.014), and the presence of fewer than five positive lymph nodes (prectal cancer in terms of local outcomes. Intensified radiotherapy using a concomitant boost has a positive effect on OS. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was

  10. Comparison of the degree of pulpal anesthesia achieved with the intraosseous injection and infiltration injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John; Wood, Mark; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2005-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained from an intraosseous injection to an infiltration injection that used 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The success rate for the intraosseous injection was 98%; for the infiltration injection, the success rate was 85%. There was no significant difference between the two techniques. The mean time for the onset of pulpal anesthesia was significantly faster with the intraosseous injection and the infiltration injection resulted in a significantly longer duration of pulpal anesthesia.

  11. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration. I. Penetration rate and release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, H; Taguchi, H; Iida, K; Danjo, K

    2001-12-13

    We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost GL-content-dependently, while an optimum GL content was observed for the LC penetration rate. No LC penetration was observed from an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.4) of LC, suggesting only unionized LC can substantially penetrate through the mucosa. A significant relationship between the penetration rate of LC and the release rate of unionized LC was found, suggesting that the in vitro dissolution study is a useful tool to predict the penetration rate taking the unionized drug fraction into consideration.

  12. Nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of lidocaine: Synthesis, structure and comparative in vitro evaluations of biological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Leila; McArdle, Patrick; Erxleben, Andrea; Chiniforoshan, Hossein

    2015-10-20

    Metal complexes of the type [Ni(LC)2(X)2], 1 and 2, [Co(LC)2(X)2], 3 and 4 (LC: lidocaine, X = dca (dicyanamide), 1 and 3, X = NCS(-), 2 and 4) have been synthesized and characterized. The geometries of 1-4 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The complexes are water soluble and stable in aqueous solution. The interaction of 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. A gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated that the complexes cleave pUC19 plasmid DNA. The in vitro free radical scavenging, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic potential of all the complexes were examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracorporeal Detoxification in Victims with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Khoroshilov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in severe concomitant injury (SCI, by applying extracorporeal detoxification techniques as soon as possible. Subjects and methods. The results of examination and treatment were studied in 41 victims with SCI treated at the N. N. Burdenko Main Military Clinical Hospital in 2006 to 2008. In the early posttraumatic period (on days 1—3, all the victims (n=41 were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 victims (n=19 underwent hemodiafiltration (HDF with replacement at 35 ml/kg/hr; Group 2 (n=22 had plasmapheresis. Results. Early HDF applied to Group 1 victims could achieve 32, 44, and 37% reductions in the elevated levels creatine phosphokinase, myoglobin, and middle-sized molecules, respectively. In Group 2, plasmapheresis showed a lower effect (19, 25, and 26% reductions. Furthermore, there was a decrease in total protein in Group 1, which was absent in Group 2. Conclusion. The timely use of extracorporeal detoxification techniques in victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in the early posttraumatic period prevents the development of fatal complications of SCI, at the same time HDF is more effective and safe than plasmapheresis. Key words: severe concomitant injury, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobin, plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration.

  14. FASTR: A novel data format for concomitant representation of RNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FASTR: A novel data format for concomitant representation of RNA sequence and secondary structure information. Tungadri Bose ... Data archival; data dissemination; file format; RNA; RNA secondary structure ... Bio-Sciences R&D Division, TCS Innovation Labs, Tata Consultancy Services Limited, Pune 411 013, India ...

  15. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy with Concomitant Hiatal Hernia Repair: an Unresolved Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakour Aridi, Hanaa; Asali, Mohammad; Fouani, Tarek; Alami, Ramzi S; Safadi, Bassem Y

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of the concomitant repair of hiatal hernia (HHR) during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in reducing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of concomitant HHR on postoperative GERD symptoms in our patient population. A retrospective review of patients who underwent LSG with or without HHR between 2011and 2014 was performed. Pre- and postoperative GERD symptoms were assessed at different time intervals until a maximum of 2 years after the surgery. The study included 165 patients; 76 (46%) underwent LSG with concomitant HHR (group A) while the rest underwent only LSG (group B). Baseline GERD complaints were more prevalent in group A (61.8 vs 41.6%, p = 0.04), in which 44 patients (57.9%) had evidence of hiatal hernia on preoperative EGD. In the remaining 32 patients, it was diagnosed intraoperatively. GERD symptoms did not significantly differ between the two groups after years 1 and 2. GERD remission was observed in 21.3% of the 76 patients who underwent concomitant HHR (group A) and in 29.7% of those who did not (group B) while new-onset GERD symptoms were reported in 12 patients (41.4%) in group A and in 24 patients (46.2%) in group B. Routine HHR at the time of LSG does not show an improvement in GERD symptoms. More prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of the routine dissection, identification, and repair of concomitant hiatal hernia during LSG.

  17. Effectiveness of Alveolar Opening in Patients with Acute Lung Injury and Concomitant Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Marchenkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of a lung opening maneuver in patients with acute lung injury (ALI and concomitant pneumothorax, who were on biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation (BIPAP and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. Subject and methods. Seventy-three patients with acute lung injury and concomitant pneumoth-orax resulting from blunt chest trauma were examined. Their condition was an APACHE II of 18—24 scores. After elimination of pneumothorax, an open lung maneuver was made using different modes of lung support 3—5 times daily. Results. The study has shown that BIPAP used in patients with ALI and concomitant pneumothorax reduces the time of pleural cavity drainage, which allows the lung opening maneuver to be applied earlier. The employment of the latter in patients with ALI and pneumothorax permits a prompter recovery of lung function during different types of respiratory support, which is attended by reductions in the number of complications, artificial ventilation, and mortality. When the lung opening maneuver is combined with BIPAP, its efficiency considerably increases. Key words: acute lung injury, pneumothorax, BIPAP, lung opening maneuver.

  18. Pattern of Midface Trauma with Associated Concomitant Injuries in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognizing concomitant injuries in patients with facial fracture is important for rapid assessment and further management of these patients. These results support the use of head computed tomography scan and cervical spine radiographs in most general trauma work‑ups, but specifically validates their use in patients with.

  19. Concomitant injuries are an important determinant of outcome of high-grade blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnüriger, B; Inderbitzin, D; Schafer, M; Kickuth, R; Exadaktylos, A; Candinas, D

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical importance of concomitant injuries in polytraumatized patients with high-grade blunt liver injury. A retrospective single-centre study was performed to investigate the safety of non-operative management of liver injury and the impact of concomitant intra- and extra-abdominal injuries on clinical outcome. Some 183 patients with blunt liver injury were admitted to Berne University Hospital, Switzerland, between January 2000 and December 2006. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Immediate laparotomy was required by 35 patients (19.1 per cent), owing to extrahepatic intra-abdominal injury (splenic and vascular injuries, perforations) in 21 cases. The mortality rate was 16.9 per cent; 22 of the 31 deaths were due to concomitant lesions. Of 81 patients with high-grade liver injury, 63 (78 per cent) were managed without surgery; liver-related and extra-abdominal complication rates in these patients were 11 and 17 per cent respectively. Grades 4 and 5 liver injury were associated with hepatic-related and extra-abdominal complications. Concomitant injuries are a major determinant of outcome in patients with blunt hepatic injury and should be given high priority by trauma surgeons. An algorithm for the management of blunt liver injury is proposed. Copyright (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Phase II study of concomitant chemoradiotherapy in bulky refractory or chemoresistant relapsed lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Lapusan, Simona; Ribrag, Vincent; Koscielny, Serge; Ferme, Christophe; Carde, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local efficacy of concomitant chemoradiotherapy in patients with mostly refractory lymphoma. Methods and materials: Patients with refractory or chemoresistant-relapsed lymphoma and bulky life-threatening masses were included in this study. A split course of concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and etoposide) was delivered during a 6-week period. Weekly blood tests and a clinical examination using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group guidelines were performed to assess acute toxicity. The tumor response was evaluated 1-3 months after treatment and at regular follow-up visits. Results: We enrolled 21 patients in the study between January 1998 and April 2003. Of the 21 patients, 60% had disseminated disease with bulky tumor masses and 85% had refractory lymphoma, of which most had been treated with at least two different chemotherapy regimens before concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Seventy-five percent received regimens containing cisplatinum and etoposide. The median radiation dose was 40 Gy (range, 12-62.5 Gy). Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity and mucositis was observed in 70% and 30% of cases respectively, without any deaths. The overall response and complete remission rate was 70% and 20%, respectively. The 1-year overall survival and local progression-free survival rate was 20.4% and 54%, respectively. Three patients with localized disease were still alive 16, 33, and 48 months after treatment. Conclusion: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for refractory or chemoresistant-relapsed lymphoma induced high hematologic toxicity, but seemed adequate for controlling local bulky tumor masses. No toxicity-related death was observed

  1. Preformulation and characterization of a lidocaine hydrochloride and dexamethasone sodium phosphate thermo-reversible and bioadhesive long-acting gel for intraperitoneal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez-Camargo, Diana; Suñé-Negre, Josep Maria; Roig-Carreras, Manel; García-Montoya, Encarna; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; Miñarro-Carmona, Montserrat; Ticó-Grau, Josep Ramon

    2016-02-10

    The search for new formulations of anaesthetic agents that allow a localized administration and provide a prolonged effect is of great interest in the multimodal management of postoperative pain. The pre-formulation and characterization of a lidocaine and dexamethasone thermosensitive and bioadhesive long-acting gel for intraperitoneal administration was done as a tool in the management of pain in abdominal surgeries. The pre-formulation process was conducted by a systematic variation of the concentration of the different polymers, until setting it, in a suitable concentration that allowed an adequate gelation temperature. The poloxamer 407 (P407) was used as the main polymer; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the bioadhesive agent and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to adjust the gelation temperature and physicochemical properties. The formulations were characterized by gelation temperature, pH, viscosity at 25°C and 37°C, gelation time, density and osmolality. Gelation temperature was decreased when increasing the concentration of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and poloxamer 407, this effect was also observed when adding lidocaine hydrochloride and dexamethasone sodium phosphate to the formulations. The gelation temperature did not have statistically significant relation with the PVP concentration (P-value of 0.6797), even though, there is a tendency in the gelation temperature by varying it. Between the developed formulations, the 12.5/3.3/0.4% (P407/HPMC/PVP) formulation presents an appropriate gelation temperature, a suitable viscosity for administration by syringe, an adequate and stable pH and osmolality to prevent tissue damage and a correct gelation time that allowed the formation of a prolonged release implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospective assessment of concomitant lumbar and chronic subdural hematoma: is migration from the intracranial space involved in their manifestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Rinko; Kim, Kyongsong; Mishina, Masahiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yoshida, Daizo; Morita, Akio

    2014-02-01

    Spinal subdural hematomas (SDHs) are rare and some are concomitant with intracranial SDH. Their pathogenesis and etiology remain to be elucidated although their migration from the intracranial space has been suggested. The authors postulated that if migration plays a major role, patients with intracranial SDH may harbor asymptomatic lumbar SDH. The authors performed a prospective study on the incidence of spinal SDH in patients with intracranial SDH to determine whether migration is a key factor in their concomitance. The authors evaluated lumbar MR images obtained in 168 patients (125 males, 43 females, mean age 75.6 years) with intracranial chronic SDH to identify cases of concomitant lumbar SDH. In all cases, the lumbar MRI studies were performed within the 1st week after surgical irrigation of the intracranial SDH. Of the 168 patients, 2 (1.2%) harbored a concomitant lumbar SDH; both had a history of trauma to both the head and the hip and/or lumbar area. One was an 83-year-old man with prostate cancer and myelodysplastic syndrome who suffered trauma to his head and lumbar area in a fall from his bed. The other was a 70-year-old man who had hit his head and lumbar area in a fall. Neither patient manifested neurological deficits and their hematomas disappeared under observation. None of the patients with concomitant lumbar SDH had sustained head trauma only, indicating that trauma to the hip or lumbar region is significantly related to the concomitance of SDH (p < 0.05). As the incidence of concomitant lumbar and intracranial chronic SDH is rare and both patients in this study had sustained a direct impact to the head and hips, the authors suggest that the major mechanism underlying their concomitant SDH was double trauma. Another possible explanation is hemorrhagic diathesis and low CSF syndrome.

  3. Doses to organs and tissues from concomitant imaging in radiotherapy: a suggested framework for clinical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R M

    2008-12-01

    The increasing use of imaging for localization and verification in radiotherapy has raised issues concerning the justifiable doses to critical organs and tissues from concomitant exposures, particularly when extensive image-guided radiotherapy is indicated. Doses at positions remote from the target volume include components from high-energy leakage and scatter, as well as from concomitant imaging. In this paper, simulated prostate, breast and larynx treatments are used to compare doses from both high-energy and concomitant exposures as a function of distance from the target volume. It is suggested that the fraction, R, of the total dose at any point within the patient that is attributable to concomitant exposures may be a useful aid in their justification. R is small within the target volume and at large distances from it. However, there is a critical region immediately adjacent to the planning target volume where the dose from concomitant imaging combines with leakage and scatter to give values of R that approach 0.5 in the examples given here. This is noteworthy because the regions just outside the target volume will receive total doses in the order of 1 Gy, where commensurately high risk factors may not be substantially reduced because of cell kill. Other studies have identified these regions as sites of second cancers. The justification of an imaging regimen might therefore usefully take into account the maximum value of R encountered from the combination of imaging and radiotherapy for particular treatment sites.

  4. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, John T.; Morrison, William H.; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Peters, Lester J.; Ang, K. Kian

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a concomitant boost fractionation schedule of radiotherapy for treating patients with squamous carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa. Patients and Methods: Between December 1983 and November 1992, 83 patients with squamous carcinoma of the tonsil were treated with concomitant boost fractionation. The distribution of American Joint Committee on Cancer T stages was TX-4, T1-5, T2-29, T3-41, T4-4; N stages were NX-1, N0-26, N1-13, N2-31, N3-12. Patients were treated with standard large fields to 54 Gy in 6 weeks. The boost treatment consisted of a second daily 1.5 Gy fraction for 10-12 fractions, usually delivered during the final phase of treatment. The tumor dose was 69-72 Gy, given over 6 weeks. Twenty-one patients, who all had N2 or N3 regional disease, underwent neck dissections, either before (13 patients) or 6 weeks after radiotherapy (8 patients); the other patients were treated with radiotherapy alone. Results: The 5-year actuarial disease-specific survival and overall survival rates were 71 and 60%, respectively. Patients with T2 and T3 primary tumors had 5-year actuarial local control rates of 96 and 78%, respectively. Patients with T3 disease who received the final-phase boost had a 5-year actuarial local control rate of 82%. Actuarial 5-year regional disease control rates were N0, 92%; N1, 76%; N2, 89%; and N3, 89%. The 21 patients who had neck dissections all had their disease regionally controlled. Patients presenting with nodal disease or after a node excision who were treated with radiation alone had a 5-year actuarial regional disease control rate of 79%. All but five patients had confluent Grade 4 mucositis during treatment. Severe late complications attributable to radiation included mandibular necrosis, in-field osteosarcoma, and chronic dysphagia for solid foods. Conclusions: High rates of local and regional disease control were achieved with the concomitant boost fractionation schedule, with few cases of severe late

  5. Effects of lidocaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced synovitis in horses Efeitos da lidocaína em sinovite induzida por lipopolissacarídeo, em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Campebell

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine (100mg 2% injected into the carpal joint was used to evaluate the inflammatory response induced by injection (1.5ng of intra-articular E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin. Seventeen male Mangalarga horses aged two to three years were divided into three groups and in all animals was injected 0.9% saline (SAL in the left carpus (LC, and in the right carpus (RC one of the following combinations were injected: group A (n=6 LPS plus SAL; group B (n=6 LPS plus lidocaine; group C (n=5 lidocaine plus SAL. Synovial fluid and blood samples were collected immediately before the injection of LPS (T0, and at 1.5 (T1, 3 (T2, 6 (T3, 12 (T4 and 36 hours (T5 after the injection. Clinical and physical variables and cellular and biochemical characteristics of the synovial fluid were evaluated at the same time. The local and systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by measurement of mean serum and synovial fluid TNF-alpha concentration. A rise in TNF-alpha concentration in LPS injected joints at 3h in group A and from 1.5h to 3h in group B was observed. It is concluded that LPS triggered an inflammatory process and that lidocaine did not inhibit or attenuate the LPS-induced synovitis nor the synthesis and release of TNF-alpha .Injetou-se lidocaína (100mg 2% na articulação do carpo para avaliar a resposta inflamatória induzida pela injeção (1,5ng intra-articular de lipopolissacarídeo (LPS de E. coli. Utilizaram-se 17 cavalos Mangalarga não castrados, entre dois e três anos, divididos em três grupos. No carpo esquerdo (CE administrou-se solução fisiológica a 0,9% (SAL e no carpo direito (CD uma das seguintes combinações: grupo A (n=6 LPS mais SAL, grupo B (n=6 LPS mais lidocaína e grupo C (n=5 lidocaína mais SAL. Amostras do líquido sinovial e de sangue foram colhidas imediatamente antes da injeção de LPS (T0 e às 1,30 (T1, 3 (T2, 6 (T3, 12 (T4 e 36 horas (T5 após a injeção. Variáveis clínicas e físicas, e caracter

  6. Gradient pre-emphasis to counteract first-order concomitant fields on asymmetric MRI gradient systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengzhen; Weavers, Paul T; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Huston, John; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Frigo, Louis M; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-06-01

    To develop a gradient pre-emphasis scheme that prospectively counteracts the effects of the first-order concomitant fields for any arbitrary gradient waveform played on asymmetric gradient systems, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using a real-time implementation on a compact gradient system. After reviewing the first-order concomitant fields that are present on asymmetric gradients, we developed a generalized gradient pre-emphasis model assuming arbitrary gradient waveforms to counteract their effects. A numerically straightforward, easily implemented approximate solution to this pre-emphasis problem was derived that was compatible with the current hardware infrastructure of conventional MRI scanners for eddy current compensation. The proposed method was implemented on the gradient driver subsystem, and its real-time use was tested using a series of phantom and in vivo data acquired from two-dimensional Cartesian phase-difference, echo-planar imaging, and spiral acquisitions. The phantom and in vivo results demonstrated that unless accounted for, first-order concomitant fields introduce considerable phase estimation error into the measured data and result in images with spatially dependent blurring/distortion. The resulting artifacts were effectively prevented using the proposed gradient pre-emphasis. We have developed an efficient and effective gradient pre-emphasis framework to counteract the effects of first-order concomitant fields of asymmetric gradient systems. Magn Reson Med 77:2250-2262, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Differentiated treatment of patients with acne and concomitant candida infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakubi Randa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of works, which are devoted to the study of acne, but these data are often contradictory on the issue of interrelationship and interdependence of clinical manifestations, course and some factors in the pathogenesis of acne and candida infection. Aim of the research was to study the effect of the recommended differentiated therapy on the pathogenetic disorders in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. Methods and results. 120 patients with acne were examined. In 100 of them concomitant skin malasseziosis was set in the form of pityriasis rosea, kerosis, comedones, folliculitis, seborrhea, multicolored zoster, with some features, as well as candidiasis. Methods of the research – bacterioscopic, bacteriological, study of skin oiliness and moisture, skin pH, the level of Ca ++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. In patients with acne significant shifts in the composition of water-lipid mantle, increased oiliness and decreased moisture of skin, pH changes with a shift to the alkaline side were revealed, the most pronounced – in acne patients with Candida infection. The content of Ca ++ in the organism, as well as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin was increased and also the most indicative it was in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. After the comparative analysis on the basis of different levels of clinical and laboratory violations two clinical-therapeutic groups were distinguished, in accordance with that the differentiated therapy offered by us was conducted. Increased oiliness and Рh of skin, decline of moisture before the treatment, especially in patients with III and IV stages of acne, complicated by Candida infection, were normalized after treatment, unlike in patients treated traditionally. Conclusion. After treatment intensity of microbal colonization and also microbal associations of skin was diminished, the level of Ca++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin went down.

  8. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  10. Presumed Isotretinoin-Induced, Concomitant Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Ocular Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gursoy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many adverse effects that have been described for isotretinoin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible association of oral isotretinoin intake with autoimmune thyroiditis and ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG. Case Presentation: A 19-year-old Caucasian male, who had used oral isotretinoin for severe acne disease for the previous six months, was referred to our clinic. He had a three-week history of diplopia and variable bilateral ptosis. Physical examination showed moderate periorbital edema and limitations of up- and down-gaze in the left eye. Laboratory findings and thyroid ultrasound were consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. Antithyroid therapy did not relieve the clinical symptoms. Concomitant OMG was suspected. Variable ptosis and a positive response to oral prednisolone of 40 mg/day and pyridostigmine of 360 mg/day supported the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis and OMG. Conclusion: Autoimmune disorders may be triggered by oral isotretinoin treatment. Clinicians prescribing isotretinoin should be aware of the possible association between isotretinoin intake and concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis and OMG.

  11. [Concomitant impact of organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in patients with attack-like paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, L Ia; Tagil'tseva, A V; Lifanova, D E; Ganzenko, M A; Gritsevskaia, T M; Ivanov, M B

    2014-01-01

    The study included 47 patients (23 men, 24 women) with ICD-10 diagnosis of attack-like paranoid schizophrenia. Patients were divided into two groups: with- (25 patients) or without (22 patients) a concomitant organic disease. Memory, attention and thinking were assessed with psychometric tests. Inter- and intra-group differences were identified that indicated a considerable impact of a concomitant CNS organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in the schizophrenic process and active antipsychotic therapy. The data obtained can be used in the development of a differentiated approach to the treatment of patients with concomitant organic pathology.

  12. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  13. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication usage among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Keith A; Sikirica, Vanja; Hodgkins, Paul; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Jipan; DeLeon, Anthony; Erder, M Haim; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-06-01

    Stimulants are recommended as a first-line treatment for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, a subset of the patient population augments their stimulant treatment with other medications. The objective of this study was to estimate the 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents with ADHD during 2009. Patients 6-17 years of age with one or more primary ADHD diagnoses between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and one or more stimulant prescription fills during 2009 were identified from a large United States commercial claims database. Concomitant psychotropic medication use, defined as 30 days of continuous medication supply overlap between the augmenting agent and stimulant, was evaluated for 14 distinct psychotropic medication categories (6 with a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication for ADHD, 8 without an indication for ADHD). The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use (both overall and within each medication category) was calculated and compared between patients with and without psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities. Children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) were evaluated separately. A total of 71,201 children and 49,959 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents was 20.3% and 23.4%, with 5.7% and 6.7% augmenting with two or more medication categories, respectively. The most common concomitant medication categories were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (children: 6.2%; adolescents: 11.4%), atypical antipsychotics (5.8%; 6.8%) and clonidine immediate release (5.4%; 2.9%). Children and adolescents with psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities had higher rates of augmentation than did those without comorbidities (all p<0.001). This epidemiologic study found that the prevalence of concomitant psychotropic

  15. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, A H.M.; Hulshof, M C.C.M.; Pieters, B R; Koning, C C.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, F J [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Inst., Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, T.M. de [Dept. of Urology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was {>=} 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  16. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, A.H.M.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Pieters, B.R.; Koning, C.C.E.; Pos, F.J.; Reijke, T.M. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was ≥ 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  17. Water/oil type microemulsion systems containing lidocaine hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrul, Ahmet; Arslan, Seyda Akkus; Tirnaksiz, Figen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a water/oil microemulsion containing lidocaine hydrochloride (4%) and to compare its local anaesthetic efficacy with commercial products. A pseudoternary diagram (Km:1/1 or 1/2) was constructed using lecithin/ethanol/oil/water. The droplet size, viscosity and release of the microemulsions were evaluated. Tail flick tests were conducted for in vivo effectiveness; the initiation time of effect, maximum effect, time to reach maximum effect, and relative efficacy were evaluated. The drug caused a significant increase in droplet size. The use of olive oil resulted in a decrease in the solubilisation parameter, as well as a reduction in the release. The droplet size and viscosity of the microemulsion composed of Miglyol/lecithin/ethanol/water/drug (Km:1/2) was lower than other microemulsions (8.38 nm, 6.9 mPa), and its release rate (1.61 mg/h) was higher. This system had a faster and more efficient anaesthetic effect than the other microemulsions and commercial products. Results indicate that a water/oil type microemulsion (Miglyol/lecithin/ethanol/water) has promising potential to increase the local anaesthetic effect.

  18. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Giménez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. To investigate concomitant reactions between oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool in consecutive dermatitis patients. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides 0.33%) and oxidized linalool 6% (linalool hydroperoxides 1%) in petrolatum were tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. A total of 281 patients reacted to either oxidized R-limonene or oxidized linalool. Of these, 25% had concomitant reactions to both compounds, whereas 29% reacted only to oxidized R-limonene and 46% only to oxidized linalool. Of the 152 patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene, 46% reacted to oxidized linalool, whereas 35% of the 200 patients reacting to oxidized linalool also reacted to oxidized R-limonene. The majority of the patients (75%) reacted to only one of the oxidation mixtures, thus supporting the specificity of the reactions. The concomitant reactions to the two fragrance allergens suggest multiple sensitizations, which most likely reflect the exposure to the different fragrance materials in various types of consumer products. This is in accordance with what is generally seen for patch test reactions to fragrance materials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Atrial fibrillation concomitant with valvular heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with valvular heart disease frequently have atrial fibrillation(AF) due to elevated pressure and dilatation of the left and right atria and pulmonary veins. Guidelines for valvular heart disease and AF recommend that surgical treatment for the valvular heart disease should be performed concomitantly with AF surgery. The Full-Maze procedure has evolved into the gold standard of treatment for medically refractory AF. In addition to the pulmonary vein isolation, the right and left atrial incisions of the Full-Maze procedure are designed to block potential macroreentrant pathways. According to the mechanisms of AF with valvular heart disease, the Full-Maze procedure is more effective for the patients than the pulmonary vein isolation alone.

  20. Lidocaína com vasoconstrictor isolada e associada ao fentanil via peridural em cães Lidocaine with vasoconstrictor isolated and its combination with epidural fentanyl anesthesia in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo cego foi avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos de diferentes doses de fentanil associado à lidocaína com vasoconstrictor via peridural em cães. Foram avaliados 28 cães adultos, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: 5mg kg-1 de lidocaína isolada (L e associada ao fentanil nas doses de 2,5, 5 e 7mg kg-1 (F2,5, F5 e F7, respectivamente. Quinze minutos antes da punção peridural, todos os animais foram tranquilizados por via intravenosa (IV com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, além de um bolus (IV de fentanil (2,5mg kg-1, administrado imediatamente antes da injeção peridural. Foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca (FC, eletrocardiograma (ECG, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, frequência respiratória (f, gases sanguíneos, período de latência, duração e extensão do bloqueio sensitivo. Houve redução da FC após a anestesia peridural em relação ao basal em F2,5, F5 e F7. A FC foi superior no L em relação ao F5 e F7 aos 30 e 60 minutos após a anestesia peridural. O período de latência não variou entre os grupos, enquanto a duração do bloqueio foi superior no F5. Bloqueio sensitivo até a 6ª vértebra lombar foi observado em quatro animais no L. Bloqueio sensitivo até a 1ª vértebra lombar foi observado em cinco cães no F2,5 e F7 e em seis cães no F5. Conclui-se que a adição do fentanil à lidocaína determinou bloqueio sensitivo mais cranial em relação ao uso isolado desse anestésico local. Paralelamente, bloqueio anestésico mais duradouro foi determinado pela adição de 5mg kg-1 de fentanil à lidocaína em relação aos demais tratamentos.The objective of this blind study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of different doses of fentanyl combined with lidocaine by epidural route in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs were distributed in four treatments: 5mg kg-1 of lidocaine with vasoconstrictor alone (L and in combination with 2.5, 5 e 7mg kg-1 of fentanyl (F2

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy following Pleurectomy and Decortication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei or peritoneal mesothelioma, direct extension of disease through the hemidiaphragm may result in an isolated progression of tumor within the pleural space. We monitored the intrapleural and plasma levels of mitomycin C and doxorubicin by HPLC assay in order to determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of this intracavitary use of chemotherapy. Our results showed a persistent high concentration of intrapleural drug as compared to plasma concentrations. The increased exposure for mitomycin C was 96, and the increased exposure for doxorubicin was 241. When the clearance of chemotherapy from the thoracic cavity was compared to clearance from the abdomen and pelvis, there was a considerably more rapid clearance from the abdomen as compared to the thorax. The pharmacologic study of intrapleural chemotherapy in these patients provides a strong pharmacologic rationale for regional chemotherapy in this group of patients.

  2. [Anatomical study and clinical application of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Hao, X; Goan, M

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the blood supply patterns and the clinical liability of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Fresh cadaver legs with thirty-two in infants and two in adults were anatomically examined after the intravenous injection of the red Chlorinated Poly Vingl Choride (CPVC). Five patients with the soft tissue defects were selected for the treatment with the flap pedicle-included with the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Four main cutaneous nerves were found in the leg after they perforated the deep fascia out. They were companioned with their concomitant vessels with different blood-supply pateeerns, which the upper part of the leg was in an axial pattern and the lower part was in a "chain-type anastomosing" pattern. Following the above-mentioned findings, five cases were successfully treated with this led flap. The leg flap should be designed along the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. When the flap is applied in the area of blood supply with "chain-type anastomosing" pattern, the deep fascia should also be included in the flap.

  3. Local anesthesia selection algorithm in patients with concomitant somatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Sokhov, S T; Letunova, N Y; Orekhova, I V; Gromovik, M V; Erilin, E A; Ryazantsev, N A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents basic principles of local anesthesia selection in patients with concomitant somatic diseases. These principles are history taking; analysis of drugs interaction with local anesthetic and sedation agents; determination of the functional status of the patient; patient anxiety correction; dental care with monitoring of hemodynamics parameters. It was found that adhering to this algorithm promotes prevention of urgent conditions in patients in outpatient dentistry.

  4. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  5. Concomitant Glomus Tumor with CRPS in the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Chan Mi; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong

    2013-07-01

    Glomus tumors are benign tumors that account for 1% to 5% of all soft tissue tumors of the hand and are characterized by a triad of sensitivity to cold, localized tenderness and severe paroxysmal pain. Paroxysmal pain is a symptom common not only in glomus tumors but also in CRPS, and the hand is one of the commonly affected sites in patients with both glomus tumors and CRPS. Therefore, it is not easy to clinically diagnose glomus tumors superimposed on already affected region of CRPS patients. We report a case of glomus tumor concomitantly originating with CRPS at the hand.

  6. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - Concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann Therese; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. Objective To investigate concomitant r...

  7. EMLA for pain relief during arterial cannulation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a lidocaine-prilocaine cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Danielson, K; Engberg, G

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a lidocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA cream, Astra) in relieving pain during arterial cannulation. The study had a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and included altogether 90 patients. All the patients were premedicated with an opioid...... before cannulation. An EMLA application time of 60 minutes was used in 60 patients (30 EMLA/30 placebo) and there was no difference in the pain reaction measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) or on an observer's verbal scale. The study was extended with a further 30 patients (15 EMLA/15 placebo......) with an application time exceeding 90 minutes. Between these groups pain experience measured by VAS did not show any significant difference although the mean value was lower in the EMLA group. Observer ratings showed a significant (p less than 0.01) difference in distribution towards lower ratings in the EMLA group...

  8. Anestesia peridural com lidocaína isolada ou associada à clonidina: efeito cardiorrespiratório e analgésico em cães Epidural anesthesia with lidocaine alone or combinated with clonidine: cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Analgesi