WorldWideScience

Sample records for concerted evolution

  1. Concert

    CERN Multimedia

    Swing de fou

    2011-01-01

    Swing de Fou, JAZZ New Orleans,  en concert Jeudi 24 Novembre - Versoix 20h00 - Les Caves de Bon-Séjour - Sextet 25 Novembre - Chêne-Bourg 20h30 - Salle Point Favre – Octet Concerts exceptionnels, Avec invitée spéciale : Rosana Mancarella, cantatrice Lyrique Mezzo Soprano des théâtres Arena di Verona et La Scala Di Milano Arrangements de Daniele Verdesca, professeur compositeur aux conservatoires de Nyon et Yverdon, & Gérôme Gautschi professeur compositeur de trombone à Genève Info : http://swingdefou.ch/concerts.php

  2. Concert

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Small Capella Friday 2 June at 18.00 CERN Meyrin, Main Auditorium Free admission Moscow chamber choir Small Capella arose within the walls of Children‘s musical school No. 10, and evolved over the years into a mixed choir of people of various age and occupation, open to anyone fond of choral music. The repertoire includes Russian and foreign classical music, sacred music, folk songs, contemporary choral compositions. The concert will include solo vocal and piano pieces.

  3. Non-concerted ITS evolution in Mammillaria (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus Mammillaria representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in Mammillaria. Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of Mammillaria. Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, 'TGGT' within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.

  4. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric D; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2015-01-05

    Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular sound change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concerted evolution of sea anemone neurotoxin genes is revealed through analysis of the Nematostella vectensis genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Sullivan, James C; Reitzel, Adam M; Finnerty, John R; Gurevitz, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Gene families, which encode toxins, are found in many poisonous animals, yet there is limited understanding of their evolution at the nucleotide level. The release of the genome draft sequence for the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of a gene family whose neurotoxin products affect voltage-gated sodium channels. All gene family members are clustered in a highly repetitive approximately 30-kb genomic region and encode a single toxin, Nv1. These genes exhibit extreme conservation at the nucleotide level which cannot be explained by purifying selection. This conservation greatly differs from the toxin gene families of other animals (e.g., snakes, scorpions, and cone snails), whose evolution was driven by diversifying selection, thereby generating a high degree of genetic diversity. The low nucleotide diversity at the Nv1 genes is reminiscent of that reported for DNA encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 2 hsp70 genes from Drosophila, which have evolved via concerted evolution. This evolutionary pattern was experimentally demonstrated in yeast rDNA and was shown to involve unequal crossing-over. Through sequence analysis of toxin genes from multiple N. vectensis populations and 2 other anemone species, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina, we observed that the toxin genes for each sea anemone species are more similar to one another than to those of other species, suggesting they evolved by manner of concerted evolution. Furthermore, in 2 of the species (A. viridis and A. equina) we found genes that evolved under diversifying selection, suggesting that concerted evolution and accelerated evolution may occur simultaneously.

  6. Concerted and nonconcerted evolution of the Hsp70 gene superfamily in two sibling species of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Nei, Masatoshi

    2004-03-01

    We have identified the Hsp70 gene superfamily of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae and investigated the evolution of these genes in comparison with Hsp70 genes from C. elegans, Drosophila, and yeast. The Hsp70 genes are classified into three monophyletic groups according to their subcellular localization, namely, cytoplasm (CYT), endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria (MT). The Hsp110 genes can be classified into the polyphyletic CYT group and the monophyletic ER group. The different Hsp70 and Hsp110 groups appeared to evolve following the model of divergent evolution. This model can also explain the evolution of the ER and MT genes. On the other hand, the CYT genes are divided into heat-inducible and constitutively expressed genes. The constitutively expressed genes have evolved more or less following the birth-and-death process, and the rates of gene birth and gene death are different between the two nematode species. By contrast, some heat-inducible genes show an intraspecies phylogenetic clustering. This suggests that they are subject to sequence homogenization resulting from gene conversion-like events. In addition, the heat-inducible genes show high levels of sequence conservation in both intra-species and inter-species comparisons, and in most cases, amino acid sequence similarity is higher than nucleotide sequence similarity. This indicates that purifying selection also plays an important role in maintaining high sequence similarity among paralogous Hsp70 genes. Therefore, we suggest that the CYT heat-inducible genes have been subjected to a combination of purifying selection, birth-and-death process, and gene conversion-like events.

  7. Concert Club

    CERN Document Server

    Concert Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) Entrée B - Bâtiment 500 - Amphithéâtre Mardi 26 janvier à 20 h 30 Le quintette Liliane JAQUES, flûte traversière Jade AZKOUL, guitare Gaëlle POIRIER, accordéon Mirella VEDEVA, contrebasse Gueorgui POPOV, piano Au programme Portraits d’Astor PIAZZOLLA Entrée libre Nos concerts sur notre site : www.concerts-cern.com et sur les sites : www.whys.org et www.agendadegeneve.ch

  8. CONCERT CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    Concert club

    2010-01-01

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) entrée B - bâtiment 500 - amphithéâtre Mardi 19 janvier 2010 à 20 h 30 Klaus MAURER violon Joanna BRZEZINSKA piano Au programme : Chopin, Rodrigo * * * * * Mardi 26 janvier 2010 à 20 h 30 Le quintette Liliane JAQUES flûte traversière Jade AZKOUL guitare Gaëlle POIRIER accordéon Mirella VEDEVA contrebasse Gueorgui POPOV piano Au programme : Portraits d’Astor Piazzlla   entrée libre Nos concerts sur notre site : www.concerts-cern.com et sur les sites : www.whys.org et www.agendadegeneve.ch

  9. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kristjan Järvi dirigeerimas Vienna Tonkünstler Orchestra't 16. veebr. Leedsis Town Hallis (esitusel ka Arvo Pärdi Symphony No. 3), 20. veebr. Bristolis ja 23. veebr. Basingstoke'is. Neeme Järvi dirigeerimas Royal Scottish National Orcestra't 23. veebr. Glasgowis Royal Concert Hallis ja 24. veebr. Edinburghis Queens Hallis

  10. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Evolutionary and polymorphism analyses reveal the central role of BTN3A2 in the concerted evolution of the BTN3 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrache, Hassnae; Pontarotti, Pierre; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Olive, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) receptors are implicated in the T lymphocytes regulation and present a wide plasticity in mammals. In order to understand how these genes have been diversified, we studied their evolution and show that the three human BTN3 are the result of two successive duplications in Primates and that the three genes are present in Hominoids and the Old World Monkey groups. A thorough phylogenetic analysis reveals a concerted evolution of BTN3 characterized by a strong and recurrent homogenization of the region encoding the signal peptide and the immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain in Hominoids, where the sequences of BTN3A1 or BTN3A3 are replaced by BTN3A2 sequence. In human, the analysis of the diversity of these genes in 1683 individuals representing 26 worldwide populations shows that the three genes are polymorphic, with more than 46 alleles for each gene, and marked by extreme homogenization of the IgV sequences. The same analysis performed for the BTN2 genes shows also a concerted evolution; however, it is not as strong and recurrent as for BTN3. This study shows that BTN3 receptors are marked by extreme concerted evolution at the IgV domain and that BTN3A2 plays a central role in this evolution.

  12. Concert Club

    CERN Document Server

    Concert Club

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) Entrée B - bâtiment 500 - Amphithéâtre Mardi 1er Décembre 2009 à 20 h 30 Patrick VO VANG PHUC piano Au programme : Scarlatti, Mozart, Schubert, Debussy * * * * * Mardi 8 Décembre 2009 à 20 h 30 « CRESCENDO » duo de guitares avec Danielle VILLARD et Luciano ROSSETTI Au programme : Johnson, J.S Bach, Vivaldi, Scheidler, Pujol, Albeniz, Granados, Rizzuti, Satie, Rivoal * * * * * Dimanche 13 décembre 2009 à 17 h 00 piano à 4 mains avec Christel BARBERI et Jean-Pierre VARONE Au programme : Brahms, Schubert, Rachmaninov Entrée libre Nos concerts sur notre site : www.concerts-cern.com et sur les sites : www.whys.org et www.agendadegeneve.ch  

  13. The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; de Jonge, Ronnie; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Liu, Zhaohui; Birla, Keshav; Van de Peer, Yves; Subbarao, Krishna V; Thomma, Bart P H J; Secor, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only isolates of opposite mating type are sexually compatible. In contrast, self-fertile (homothallic) species contain both MAT genes at MAT1. Knowledge of the reproductive capacities of plant pathogens are of particular interest because recombining populations tend to be more difficult to manage in agricultural settings. In this study, we sequenced MAT1 in the heterothallic Dothideomycete fungus Cercospora beticola to gain insight into the reproductive capabilities of this important plant pathogen. In addition to the expected MAT gene at MAT1, each isolate contained fragments of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 at ostensibly random loci across the genome. When MAT fragments from each locus were manually assembled, they reconstituted MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 exons with high identity, suggesting a retroposition event occurred in a homothallic ancestor in which both MAT genes were fused. The genome sequences of related taxa revealed that MAT gene fragment pattern of Cercospora zeae-maydis was analogous to C. beticola. In contrast, the genome of more distantly related Mycosphaerella graminicola did not contain MAT fragments. Although fragments occurred in syntenic regions of the C. beticola and C. zeae-maydis genomes, each MAT fragment was more closely related to the intact MAT gene of the same species. Taken together, these data suggest MAT genes fragmented after divergence of M. graminicola from the remaining taxa, and concerted evolution functioned to homogenize MAT fragments and MAT genes in each species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Concerted evolution rapidly eliminates sequence variation in rDNA coding regions but not in intergenic spacers in Nicotiana tabacum allotetraploid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunerová Bedřichová, Jana; Renny-Byfield, S.; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 8 (2017), s. 1043-1060 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-11642S; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-02149J Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Concerted evolution * Immunomodulation * Neutrophils Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  15. The 5S rDNA family evolves through concerted and birth-and-death evolution in fish genomes: an example from freshwater stingrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ribosomal 5S genes are well known for the critical role they play in ribosome folding and functionality. These genes are thought to evolve in a concerted fashion, with high rates of homogenization of gene copies. However, the majority of previous analyses regarding the evolutionary process of rDNA repeats were conducted in invertebrates and plants. Studies have also been conducted on vertebrates, but these analyses were usually restricted to the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. The recent identification of divergent 5S rRNA gene paralogs in the genomes of elasmobranches and teleost fishes indicate that the eukaryotic 5S rRNA gene family has a more complex genomic organization than previously thought. The availability of new sequence data from lower vertebrates such as teleosts and elasmobranches enables an enhanced evolutionary characterization of 5S rDNA among vertebrates. Results We identified two variant classes of 5S rDNA sequences in the genomes of Potamotrygonidae stingrays, similar to the genomes of other vertebrates. One class of 5S rRNA genes was shared only by elasmobranches. A broad comparative survey among 100 vertebrate species suggests that the 5S rRNA gene variants in fishes originated from rounds of genome duplication. These variants were then maintained or eliminated by birth-and-death mechanisms, under intense purifying selection. Clustered multiple copies of 5S rDNA variants could have arisen due to unequal crossing over mechanisms. Simultaneously, the distinct genome clusters were independently homogenized, resulting in the maintenance of clusters of highly similar repeats through concerted evolution. Conclusions We believe that 5S rDNA molecular evolution in fish genomes is driven by a mixed mechanism that integrates birth-and-death and concerted evolution. PMID:21627815

  16. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  17. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  18. Brain scaling in mammalian evolution as a consequence of concerted and mosaic changes in numbers of neurons and average neuronal cell size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enough species have now been subject to systematic quantitative analysis of the relationship between the morphology and cellular composition of their brain that patterns begin to emerge and shed light on the evolutionary path that led to mammalian brain diversity. Based on an analysis of the shared and clade-specific characteristics of 41 modern mammalian species in 6 clades, and in light of the phylogenetic relationships among them, here we propose that ancestral mammal brains were composed and scaled in their cellular composition like modern afrotherian and glire brains: with an addition of neurons that is accompanied by a decrease in neuronal density and very little modification in glial cell density, implying a significant increase in average neuronal cell size in larger brains, and the allocation of approximately 2 neurons in the cerebral cortex and 8 neurons in the cerebellum for every neuron allocated to the rest of brain. We also propose that in some clades the scaling of different brain structures has diverged away from the common ancestral layout through clade-specific (or clade-defining changes in how average neuronal cell mass relates to numbers of neurons in each structure, and how numbers of neurons are differentially allocated to each structure relative to the number of neurons in the rest of brain. Thus, the evolutionary expansion of mammalian brains has involved both concerted and mosaic patterns of scaling across structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first mechanistic model that explains the generation of brains large and small in mammalian evolution, and it opens up new horizons for seeking the cellular pathways and genes involved in brain evolution.

  19. Duplication and concerted evolution of MiSp-encoding genes underlie the material properties of minor ampullate silks of cobweb weaving spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau-Hathaway, Jannelle M; Brassfield, Elizabeth R; Lane, Amanda Kelly; Collin, Matthew A; Correa-Garhwal, Sandra M; Clarke, Thomas H; Schwager, Evelyn E; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2017-03-14

    Orb-web weaving spiders and their relatives use multiple types of task-specific silks. The majority of spider silk studies have focused on the ultra-tough dragline silk synthesized in major ampullate glands, but other silk types have impressive material properties. For instance, minor ampullate silks of orb-web weaving spiders are as tough as draglines, due to their higher extensibility despite lower strength. Differences in material properties between silk types result from differences in their component proteins, particularly members of the spidroin (spider fibroin) gene family. However, the extent to which variation in material properties within a single silk type can be explained by variation in spidroin sequences is unknown. Here, we compare the minor ampullate spidroins (MiSp) of orb-weavers and cobweb weavers. Orb-web weavers use minor ampullate silk to form the auxiliary spiral of the orb-web while cobweb weavers use it to wrap prey, suggesting that selection pressures on minor ampullate spidroins (MiSp) may differ between the two groups. We report complete or nearly complete MiSp sequences from five cobweb weaving spider species and measure material properties of minor ampullate silks in a subset of these species. We also compare MiSp sequences and silk properties of our cobweb weavers to published data for orb-web weavers. We demonstrate that all our cobweb weavers possess multiple MiSp loci and that one locus is more highly expressed in at least two species. We also find that the proportion of β-spiral-forming amino acid motifs in MiSp positively correlates with minor ampullate silk extensibility across orb-web and cobweb weavers. MiSp sequences vary dramatically within and among spider species, and have likely been subject to multiple rounds of gene duplication and concerted evolution, which have contributed to the diverse material properties of minor ampullate silks. Our sequences also provide templates for recombinant silk proteins with tailored

  20. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  1. Cyclization in concert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The berberine bridge enzyme catalyzes the crucial step in the biosynthesis of an important class of alkaloids through a reaction that cannot be carried out using conventional organic chemistry tools. Characterization of the enzyme demonstrates a concerted mechanism that couples two distinct chemical

  2. Concerts-club

    CERN Multimedia

    Concerts-club

    2012-01-01

      Avis à tous les musiciens et mélomanes Le Concerts-Club du CERN reprend du service ! Après une longue pause due, entre autres, aux travaux de rénovation de l’Amphithéâtre, une nouvelle équipe s’est lancée dans la reprise de l’organisation du Concerts-Club, à raison d’un concert par mois. 1er concert : mardi 20 mars à 20h30 Lieu : CERN-Meyrin : Entrée B – Bâtiment 500 – Amphithéâtre Prochaines dates : Mardi 24 avril 2012 Mardi 15 mai  2012 Mardi 19 juin  2012 Pour donner au Club l’élan nécessaire au redémarrage, les changements suivants ont été mis en place : – Possibilité d’être membre du Club : carte à Fr 25.00 par an. – Entr&e...

  3. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya L Goodman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

  4. Film in concert

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    From the very beginning of cinema, music always played an important role in the history of filmmaking. Nonetheless, film music is judged by critics as a kind of low-grade art form. However, the majority of film score composers enjoyed a classical education and composed as well for the silver screen as for the concert hall. Film music also has its roots in the musical era of romanticism. Therefore, symphonic film scores can be regarded as program music in a broader sense. These scores were inf...

  5. Concert: Harvestehuder Kammersymphonie

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harvestehuder Kammersymphonie (Hamburg) Tuesday 23 May at 18.00 Main Auditorium (CERN Meyrin)   Tradition et modernité constituent le lien entre tous les musiciens de l’orchestre. La littérature orchestrale de la période classique à l’époque moderne figure régulièrement à leurs programmes. Composé de près d’une centaine d’instrumentistes de toutes professions, l'enthousiasme et la qualité musicale constituent la priorité absolue de leur activité. Après des voyages gagnant en Brésil et Angleterre, une délégation de cet ensemble est de passage dans la région. Ils sont très heureux de pouvoir donner un concert au CERN.

  6. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  7. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  8. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  9. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  10. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  11. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  12. Concert Viewing Headphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Atsuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An audiovisual interface equipped with a projector, an inclina-tion sensor, and a distance sensor for zoom control has been developed that enables a user to selectively view and listen to specific performers in a video-taped group performance. Dubbed Concert Viewing Headphones, it has both image and sound processing functions. The image processing extracts the portion of the image indicated by the user and projects it free of distortion on the front and side walls. The sound processing creates imaginary microphones for those performers without one so that the user can hear the sound from any performer. Testing using images and sounds captured using a fisheye-lens camera and 37 lavalier microphones showed that sound locali-zation was fastest when an inverse square function was used for the sound mixing and that the zoom function was useful for locating the desired sound performance.

  13. Concertation rather than Consultation or Negotiation!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, the Concertation between the Management and the Personnel has been in effect since 1983, the year in which the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) came to replace the Standing Consultation Committee. Since then, the concertation process has been enshrined in the Staff Rules and Regulations, which define its scope of application: “Any proposed measures of a general nature regarding the conditions of employment or association of members of the personnel shall be the subject of discussion within the SCC” (S VII 1.08). More generally, all questions relating to the employment and working conditions of the members of personnel are discussed in the SCC, including in particular issues of remuneration, social protection (CHIS and Pension Fund), career evolution... In Article S VII 1.07 of the Staff Rules and Regulations it is also stated that: “Discussion shall mean a procedure whereby the Director-General and the Staff Association concert together to try to reach a common po...

  14. Choeur du CERN : Concert

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Choir

    2017-01-01

    Une œuvre à découvrir! La grande Missa pro defunctis de François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829) est le chef-d’œuvre tôt venu (à vingt-cinq ans) d’un compositeur qui vivra encore 70 ans après sa création. Elle a connu la gloire, puis s’est fait un peu oublier. Pas du tout le monde cependant : des musicologues ont montré ce que le Requiem de Mozart lui devait ; et il suffit de l’avoir entendue pour comprendre pourquoi Berlioz (qui avait vingt-six ans à la mort de Gossec) en a été impressionné : les nombreux cuivres et bois répartis dans des endroits plus ou moins cachés de la salle de concert pour exprimer les frayeurs du Jugement dernier annoncent son Requiem – et celui de Verdi. Mais « plus encore que par...

  15. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  16. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  17. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  18. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  19. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 29 SEPTEMBER 2003 Original: English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1 Follow-up from the meetings of TREF and the Finance Committee in September 2003 The last meeting of TREF had been devoted to presentations and clarifications on the 5-Yearly Review process. The content and planning of the 2005 Review are matters for the next Management, which will be presented to TREF next year. Underlining that due account has to be taken of the limited resources available to conduct such an exercise, the Staff Association stated that it looks forward to the concertation process at the SCC in preparing the next 5-Yearly Review to define an optimum set of topics in order to ensure that CERN can attract, retain and motivate the personnel that it needs to remain a centre of excellence. The Chairman of the SCC recalled that an information document on the Cost-Variation Index for 2004 had been transmitted to the Finance Committee last September and that complete information o...

  20. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  1. A Concert with Striking Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    An hour before the percussion concert, members of the audience are already filling the foyer of the Copenhagen Opera House. Something special is to happen before the doors to the concert hall open. Percussion instruments—bass drums, bongos, and even a marimba—are exhibited, and people are encoura...

  2. Chinese Islam: A Complete Concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthew S. Erie, China and Islam: The Prophet, the Party, and Law. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 472 pp. $140 (cloth/e-book. Jonathan Lipman, ed., Islamic Thought in China: Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 20th Century. Edinburgh University Press, 2016. 288 pp. £70 (cloth; e-book. Roberta Tontini, Muslim Sanzijing: Shifts and Continuities in the Definition of Islam in China. Brill, 2016. 238 pp. $125 (cloth. Why study a Chinese “minority” and its history? The task of scholars of Chinese Islam since the 1990s has been twofold: on the one hand, we have wanted to study Islam in China in its Chinese social and cultural context, as opposed to imagining it as a single separate entity, and to show that its history is relevant and meaningful for Chinese history in general. One could almost say that this goal was achieved a while ago. The next task has been to make the study of Chinese Islam and its history meaningful and useful for the greater community of scholars of Islam in general. It seems to me that with the books reviewed here, and with others in the making, we are getting close to reaching this target. In 1910, Marshall Broomhall’s Islam in China declared that Chinese Islam was a “neglected problem.” These books show that it is no longer neglected, and no longer a “problem”; rather, it is an exciting topic. Indeed, a complete, even if not harmonious, concert.

  3. E-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The 8th e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was held in the Globe from 4 to 5 November to discuss the development of Europe’s distributed computing and storage resources.   Project leaders attend the E-Concertation Meeting at the Globe on 5 November 2010. © Corentin Chevalier E-Infrastructures have become an indispensable tool for scientific research, linking researchers to virtually unlimited e-resources like the grid. The recent e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting brought together e-Science project leaders to discuss the development of this tool in the European context. The meeting was part of an ongoing initiative to develop a world-class e-infrastructure resource that would establish European leadership in e-Science. The e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was organised by the Commission Services (EC) with the support of e-ScienceTalk. “The Concertation meeting at CERN has been a great opportunity for e-ScienceTalk to meet many of the 38 new proje...

  4. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2004-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  5. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  6. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  7. Concertation or Consultation. That is the question.

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    In April 2017 (as reported in Echo No. 268), the Staff Association, when invited to an Enlarged Directorate meeting, stressed that “concertation requires a positive attitude and mutual trust. […] The Staff Association is firmly committed in this respect but does not consider that the concertation process is as effective as we should like”. The continued lack, for the Staff Association, of an effective concertation process led to a revisiting of the situation in June 2017 (Echo No. 271), in an article that stressed the importance of the concertation process at CERN since it was introduced in 1983, the year in which the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) replaced the Standing Consultation Committee. The importance of concertation was also highlighted by Mr Bernard Dormy, Chair of TREF, in an interview he gave to the Staff Association at the end of January 2018 (Echo No. 284), when he retired from his position as the Chair of the Forum. “To sum it up, I would certainl...

  8. Trends in preference, programming and design of concert halls for symphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution in taste regarding concert hall acoustics and how this can be reflected in the new halls being built today. The clients' and listener's preferences are not only based on listening in existing halls; but also on listening to reproduced music recorded with microph......This paper discusses the evolution in taste regarding concert hall acoustics and how this can be reflected in the new halls being built today. The clients' and listener's preferences are not only based on listening in existing halls; but also on listening to reproduced music recorded...

  9. CONCERT MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA: OBSTACLES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Basara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of concert management in the Republic of Croatia encounters numerous obstacles in any attempt to institutionalize it. Unlike other countries in the European Union, there is no register of the concert stages, venues as well as facilities for the provision of hearing / consumption of music in the form of performances. Process management organization is incomplete, and institutions that are closely associated with such events do not carry out the classification, categorization and analysis of events that are within the concerts' domain. Commercial music, economically far most cost-effective, is completely ignored and within the framework of cultural events not even the slightest attention is given to it. On the contrary, it is considered the music of poor quality and completely irrelevant. This paper tries to frame the mentioned genre, which includes various musical directions that economically bring significant benefits and help the survival of these related activities indirectly, and ultimately have a positive impact on the economy. Comparing global trends it speaks about the position of the Croatian music industry and lists the main obstacles for setting up a solid foundation for the construction of an adequate system of indexation of concert businesses that, as part of the creative industries records a meteoric economic growth.

  10. Room acoustic properties of concert halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1996-01-01

    A large database of values of various room acoustic parameters has provided the basis for statistical analyses of how and how much the acoustic properties of concert halls are influenced by their size, shape, and absorption area (as deduced from measured reverberation time). The data have been...

  11. Concerted evolution of the tandemly repeated genes encoding primate U2 small nuclear RNA (the RNU2 locus) does not prevent rapid diversification of the (CT){sub n} {center_dot} (GA){sub n} microsatellite embedded within the U2 repeat unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.; Weiner, A.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1995-12-10

    The RNU2 locus encoding human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is organized as a nearly perfect tandem array containing 5 to 22 copies of a 5.8-kb repeat unit. Just downstream of the U2 snRNA gene in each 5.8-kb repeat unit lies a large (CT){sub n}{center_dot}(GA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat (n {approx} 70). This form of genomic organization, in which one repeat is embedded within another, provides an unusual opportunity to study the balance of forces maintaining the homogeneity of both kinds of repeats. Using a combination of field inversion gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, we have been able to study the CT microsatellites within individual U2 tandem arrays. We find that the CT microsatellites within an RNU2 allele exhibit significant length polymorphism, despite the remarkable homogeneity of the surrounding U2 repeat units. Length polymorphism is due primarily to loss or gain of CT dinucleotide repeats, but other types of deletions, insertions, and substitutions are also frequent. Polymorphism is greatly reduced in regions where pure (CT){sub n} tracts are interrupted by occasional G residues, suggesting that irregularities stabilize both the length and the sequence of the dinucleotide repeat. We further show that the RNU2 loci of other catarrhine primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, ogangutan, and baboon) contain orthologous CT microsatellites; these also exhibit length polymorphism, but are highly divergent from each other. Thus, although the CT microsatellite is evolving far more rapidly than the rest of the U2 repeat unit, it has persisted through multiple speciation events spanning >35 Myr. The persistence of the CT microsatellite, despite polymorphism and rapid evolution, suggests that it might play a functional role in concerted evolution of the RNU2 loci, perhaps as an initiation site for recombination and/or gene conversion. 70 refs., 5 figs.

  12. “The Concert of Europe” In 20th Century British and American Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a critical analysis of the interpretations of the Concert of Europe by British and American historians of the XXth century. The interest in the study of this phenomenon is rooted in its relation to the problems of the maintenance of international order and stability. It is not only academic, being partly determined by the fact that throughout the XX century first Britain and then the USA was at the top of the world hierarchy, and accordingly played a leading role in the construction and maintenance of the European order. Current international environment, the experience of the two World Wars of the XXth century determined the angle from which the phenomenon of the Concert of Europe was studied. Whereas in the second half of the 1910s - early 1920s historians pointed to the deficiencies of the international system of the preceding century (and in particular, the institution of the Concert of Europe, the students of the Vienna system working after the Second World War regarded the period of 1815-1914 as relatively stable, compared to the short interwar interlude. The Concert of Europe was named as one of the factors contributing to stability and peace. Certain logic can be discerned in the development of the historiography of the problem, which to some degree reflected the evolution of ideas about international relations management. At the same time, the differences in the interpretations of the Concert of Europe derive from the fact that this very concept in the XIXth century was not fixed and static. Great Powers' readiness to cooperation did not mean that there were no conflicts of interests. They struggled for leadership within the Concert and sought to impart to it their own interpretation.

  13. ANALYSIS MUSIC CONCERTS ADOPTING THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HIT PHENOMENA

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahata Yasuko; Genda Etsuo; Ishii Akira

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model for the hit phenomenon in entertainment within a society is presented as a stochastic process of interactions of human dynamics. In this paper, we analyzed music to the concert.Knowing the cost of advertising the concert is difficult. But exposure to the media of the artist can be seen. We tried to analysis of music concert itself by performing a prediction of reputation of artists during the concert tour from this exposure.In this paper, The world most pop...

  14. The Flux Database Concerted Action (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.; Donnelly, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The background to the IUR action on the development of a flux database for radionuclide transfer in soil-plant systems is summarised. The action is discussed in terms of the objectives, the deliverables and the progress achieved by the flux database working group. The paper describes the background to the current initiative, outlines specific features of the database and supporting documentation, and presents findings from the working group's activities. The aim of the IUR flux database working group is to bring together researchers to collate data from current experimental studies investigating aspects of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant systems. The database will incorporate parameters describing the time-dependent transfer of radionuclides between soil, plant and animal compartments. Work under the EC Concerted Action considers soil-plant interactions. This initiative has become known as the radionuclide flux database. It is emphasised that the word flux is used in this case simply to indicate the flow of radionuclides between compartments in time. (author)

  15. Acoustic investigations of concert halls for rock music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective measurement data and subjective evaluations have been collected from 20 small-/medium-sized halls in Denmark used for amplified rhythmic music concerts (pop, rock, jazz). The purpose of the study was to obtain knowledge about optimum acoustic conditions for this type of hall. The study...... is motivated by the fact that most concert tickets sold in Denmark relate to concerts within these genres in this kind of venue. The subjective evaluations were carried out by professional musicians and sound engineers who responded on the basis of their experiences working in these (and other) halls. From...

  16. Cosmos in Concert: Combining astronomy and classical music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos in Concert is an outreach initiative designed to combine astronomy education with classical music. Over the past several years, this program has presented large-scale multimedia shows for symphony orchestras, educational programs at K-12 schools, and research-oriented university collaborations designed to develop techniques for the sonification of data. Cosmos in Concert has collaborated with institutions including Fermi National Lab, the Adler Planetarium, the Bienen School of Music, and the Colburn School of Music. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of some of the main Cosmos in Concert initiatives and discuss ways these initiatives may be implemented at other institutions.

  17. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  19. Native Frames: Disentangling Sequential from Concerted Three-Body Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Severt, T.; Berry, Ben; Jochim, Bethany; Feizollah, Peyman; Kaderiya, Balram; Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Ziaee, Farzaneh; Raju P., Kanaka; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2018-03-01

    A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O++C++S+ and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO2 + or CS2 + , before its unimolecular dissociation. This native-frame method works for any projectile (electrons, ions, or photons), provides details on each step of the sequential breakup, and enables the retrieval of the relevant spectra for sequential and concerted breakup separately. Specifically, this allows the determination of the branching ratio of all these processes in OCS3 + breakup. Moreover, we find that the first step of sequential breakup is tightly aligned along the laser polarization and identify the likely electronic states of the intermediate dication that undergo unimolecular dissociation in the second step. Finally, the separated concerted breakup spectra show clearly that the central carbon atom is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the laser field.

  20. Gala Concert for the 50th Anniversary of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN 50th Anniversary celebrations will wrap up with music on 18 December with a Gala Concert by the Philharmonic Orchestra of London in Victoria Hall, Geneva. The orchestra will be directed by Tommaso Placidi, a young talented conductor, and will also enjoy the presence of Maxim Vengerov as first violin. This evening is organised by Mrs Suzanne Hurter, with the support of private companies as well as of the city and the canton of Geneva. The concert will begin with the Overture of Wagner's Flying Dutchman. Maxim Vengerov will then interpret Beethoven's Concert for violin and orchestra. The second part of the concert will be devoted to Tschaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. Tickets cost between 35CHF and 140 CHF according to the seat. People working at CERN will have a 10% discount. You may buy your tickets at the Kiosque FK inside the building Pfister Meubles in Meyrin (ch de Rianbosson 5-9) and get your discount by showing your CERN card. Find out more about the seats available, go to the Resaplus Ticket Book...

  1. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  2. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  3. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  4. Electronic Performance Monitoring: An Organizational Justice and Concertive Control Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, G. Stoney; Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Applies theories of organizational justice/concertive control to account for contradictions inherent in electronic monitoring of workers by organizations. Argues that results are usually positive when workers are involved in the design and implementation of monitoring systems, and monitoring is restricted to performance-related activities with…

  5. THE ORIGIN OF CONCERT MUSIC IN NIGERIA, 1850 - 1920 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitch

    Studies on the origins of concert music in Nigeria often dwell on aspects of the ... chronicle its development from its earliest beginnings to the present. ... their children, trying to live as much as possible like Victoria gentlemen.' (Ajayi .... entertainment began in 1822 the movement for a public hall that bore fruit in the building.

  6. Prehospital severity scoring at major rock concert events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T B; Koenigsberg, M; Bunney, E B; Schurgin, B; Levy, P; Willens, J; Tanner, L

    1997-01-01

    Rock and contemporary music concerts are popular, recurrent events requiring on-site medical staffing. To describe a novel severity score used to stratify the level of acuity of patients presenting to first-aid stations at these events. Retrospective review of charts generated at the first-aid stations of five major rock concerts within a 60,000 spectator capacity, outdoor, professional sports stadium. Participants included all concert patrons presenting to the stadium's first-aid stations as patients. Data were collected on patient demographics, history of drug or ethanol usage while at the concert event, first-aid station time, treatment rendered, diagnosis, and disposition. All patients evaluated were retrospectively assigned a "DRUG-ROCK" Injury Severity Score (DRISS) to stratify their level of acuity. Individual concert events and patient dispositions were compared statistically using chi-square, Fisher's exact, and the ANOVA Mean tests. Approximately 250,000 spectators attended the five concert events. First-aid stations evaluated 308 patients (utilization rate of 1.2 per 1,000 patrons). The most common diagnosis was minor trauma (130; 42%), followed in frequency by ethanol/illicit drug intoxication (98; 32%). The average time in the first-aid station was 23.5 +/- 22.5 minutes (+/- standard deviation; range: 5-150 minutes). Disposition of patients included 100 (32.5%) who were treated and released; 98 (32%) were transported by paramedics to emergency departments (EDs); and 110 (35.5%) signed-out against medical advise (AMA), refusing transport. The mean DRISS was 4.1 (+/- 2.65). Two-thirds (67%) of the study population were ranked as mild by DRISS criteria (score = 1-4), with 27% rated as moderate (score = 5-9), and 6% severe (score > 10). The average of severity scores was highest (6.5) for patients transported to hospitals, and statistically different from the scores of the average of the treated and released and AMA groups (p rock concerts.

  7. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed...... background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L-90 of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended...

  8. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Pierre; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed...... background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L90 of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended....

  9. Standing Concertation Committee: Ordinary Meeting on 1 September 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Original: English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. Preparation for the 5-Yearly Review 2005 The Committee took note that preparatory work had started over the summer months on various topics for the 5-Yearly Review, in line with the internal planning presented to the SCC last June. Concertation process and working procedures Referring to its recent publications, the Staff Association raised this subject in connection with the organization and procedures of the HR study teams and CFO discussion group working on the various topics which are to be covered in the 5-Yearly Review. After some debate, both the Management and the Staff Association underlined the importance that they attach to an efficient concertation process. Both parties agreed to continue the discussion after the meeting. Data collection questionnaire The SCC discussed the content of the questionnaire for the data collection enquiry to be launched this autumn. Subject to some further clarifications and improv...

  10. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE: ORDINARY MEETING ON 5 FEBRUARY 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Original : English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-The internal concertation process Responding to various questions in this connection raised by the Staff Association, the Chairman stated that the Management wishes to diminish in no way the role of the SCC in the internal concertation process, as set out in chapter VII of the Staff Rules and Regulations. On the contrary, he underlined the importance of ensuring this process to debate strategic issues concerning employment conditions, prior to decisions taken by the Director-General. On a point of clarification, he confirmed that, as discussed at the January meeting of the Executive Board, the Management wishes to abolish the Long-Term Contract Board and the Senior Staff Advancement Committee; the SCC took note of this intention. Simplified procedures without the Committees would be presented as soon as possible to the SCC, together with amendments to the relevant Administrative Circulars. 2-MAPS The Committee discussed th...

  11. Blind Concert: The World and Its Transformation through Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Milović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a Blind Concert held in Belgrade. In a Blind Concert performance, the concept of “space” transforms not for the sake of transformation itself, but because of the effect it strives to achieve. This eliminates the predominance of an institution of art dictating how a musical work should be approached. Accompanying the interpretation of piano compositions, the vocalist let out screams, voices, and noises, which, one may say, could not be summoned inside us, because they have yet to be articulated. I will articulate the effects of the desired transitional forms that have remained trapped and unrepresented in social standardization in terms of Badiou’s inaesthetics.

  12. Practicing perfection: How concert soloists prepare for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chaffin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical performances by concert soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally memorized. For memory to work reliably under the pressures of the concert stage, the performance must be practiced until it is thoroughly automatic. At the same time, the performance must be fresh and spontaneous in order to communicate emotionally with the audience. The resolution of this apparent contradiction is provided by longitudinal case studies of concert soloists preparing new works for performance. Like expert memorists in other domains, experienced musicians use highly practiced retrieval schemes to accomplish their extraordinary feats of memory. Performers have a mental map of the piece in mind as they perform that tells them where they are and what comes next - a series of landmarks, hierarchically organized by the sections and subsections of the music. The musician attends to these performance cues in order to ensure that the performance unfolds as planned. Performance cues are established by thinking about a particular feature of the music during practice so that it later comes to mind automatically. Performance cues help the soloist consciously monitor and control the rapid, automatic actions of playing, while adjusting to the needs of the moment. During practice, the musician attends mostly to basic performance cues representing critical technical features (e.g., fingerings,andinterpretive performance cues, representing phrasings, and changes in dynamics, tempo, and timbre. During performance, the musician hopes to attend mainly to expressive performance cues representing the musical feelings to be conveyed to the audience (e.g. excitement. We illustrate this analysis with a typical case study of a concert pianist learning J.S. Bach's Italian Concerto (Presto.

  13. Concerted orientation induced unidirectional water transport through nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Lu, Hangjun; Li, Jinyuan; Bao, Jingdong; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2009-11-14

    The dynamics of water inside nanochannels is of great importance for biological activities as well as for the design of molecular sensors, devices, and machines, particularly for sea water desalination. When confined in specially sized nanochannels, water molecules form a single-file structure with concerted dipole orientations, which collectively flip between the directions along and against the nanotube axis. In this paper, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we observed a net flux along the dipole-orientation without any application of an external electric field or external pressure difference during the time period of the particular concerted dipole orientations of the molecules along or against the nanotube axis. We found that this unique special-directional water transportation resulted from the asymmetric potential of water-water interaction along the nanochannel, which originated from the concerted dipole orientation of the water molecules that breaks the symmetry of water orientation distribution along the channel within a finite time period. This finding suggests a new mechanism for achieving high-flux water transportation, which may be useful for nanotechnology and biological applications.

  14. “AGREEMENTS”, “DECISIONS” AND “CONCERTED PRACTICES”: KEY CONCEPTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF ANTICOMPETITIVE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CUCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In their economic activity, undertakings conclude many agreements between them. But agreements between undertakings which can distort the competition -anticompetitive agreements- are prohibited. The Romanian and EU law prohibit “all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition”. However, the terms ”agreements”, ”decisions” or ”concerted practices” are nowhere defined in the EU Treaties or in the Romanian law. These terms are key concepts in the analysis of anticompetitive agreements which can distort the competition. In the lack of a legal definition, these concepts have generated a complex body of jurisprudence, which has to be identified. The analysis of these key concepts necessarily entails the conceptual delimitation of the notions. On this purpose, the relevant legal provisions will be identified in the Romanian and EU law, as well as the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this matter. The present paper intends to present the conceptual evolution of the analysed notions, paying special attention to concerted practices and to parallel behaviour in price fixing on the market.

  15. Statistics regarding the concerted work stoppage of 28 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following the concerted work stoppage of Friday, 28 April, HR Department sent out a questionnaire to all staff members in order to determine the number of those who participated. Questionnaires sent out : 2665 Staff members asked not to return the questionnaire: (on official duty/special leave/sick leave/annual leave) -1006 of which, those who took one day only of annual leave linked to the weekend of 1st May [430] Staff members called upon to perform their duties: -217 Total number of forms expected to be returned 1442 It was presumed that all those who had not returned their forms had not taken part in the work stoppage. After a count and verification of the questionnaires (returned up to 11 May) together with a representative of the Staff Association, the results are the following: Those who specifically indicated that they took part in the concerted work stoppage: 166 11.5% YES Non-participation 1276 88.5% NO of which, those who wanted to indicate that they did not ta...

  16. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  17. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  18. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 26 JUNE 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 June 2007 included: Mutual Aid Fund The Committee took note of the annual report for 2006 by the Chairman of the Mutual Aid Fund and approved contributions to the Fund’s budget from the Management and the Staff Association and thanked the members of the Fund for their work. Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The Committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A entitled "Education Fees" to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited from 1st January 2007 and to staff who were recruited as Local Staff before that date. Further details of reimbursement of school fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) - International Indemnity and Non-Resident Allowance The Committee agreed to reco...

  19. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 3 September 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 3 September 2008 included: Education fees: Indexation of the amounts for accommodation and meals The Committee approved the indexation calculations for accommodation and meals for the academic year 2008-2009. With the indexation of the lump sum payments, accommodation costs for the academic year 2007-2008 will be reimbursed at 529 CHF per month (previously CHF 500). Meals will be reimbursed at 17.50 CHF per meal (unchanged). The ceiling for school transport has been increased from 600 CHF to 622 CHF. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) The Committee took note of the modifications to Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) ‘Recognition of merit of staff members’, concerning provision for the award of exceptional advancement outside the annual advancement exercise to recognize, for example, the completion of a major project. HR Survey The Committee took note of the Head of HR Department...

  20. Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jason B; Crudo, Christine

    2015-01-01

    How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted.

  1. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 28 AUGUST 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 28 August 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The Committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A, "Education Fees", to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited before 1 January 2007 (except for local staff). Administrative Circular No. 12 B applies to those recruited from 1 January 2007 and was examined by the Committee in June 2007. It was noted that, at the initiative of HR Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover, in particular, lump-sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Further details of payment of education fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. The Chairman thanked HR Department as well as "Team 7" members for init...

  2. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 28 AUGUST 2007

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 28 August 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A, Education Fees, to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited before 1 January 2007 (except for local staff). Administrative Circular No. 12 B applies to those recruited from 1 January 2007 and was considered by the committee in June 2007. It was noted that, at the initiative of HR Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover in particular lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Further details of payment of education fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. The Chairman thanked HR Department as well as "Team 7" members for initiating these simp...

  3. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 10 May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 10 May 2007, the Standing Concertation Committee discussed the Management’s proposal for the revision of Annex A 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. Annex A 1 sets out the principles for future periodic reviews of the personnel’s financial and social conditions and the revision reflects the modifications to review methods decided by the CERN Council in December 2006. The aim is to simplify the processes involved and rationalize the use of resources. The data collection process will be outsourced to a greater extent. The new methods also aim to reduce the overall time required to complete future reviews. Details of procedure will be addressed in subsequent discussions. The Committee approved the document for submission to the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) at its meeting on 31 May and 1 June 2007.

  4. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled 'MARS Guidelines 2007' and the 'Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007'. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff member's retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement semi...

  5. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled MARS Guidelines 2007 and the Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff members retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement seminars It...

  6. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 10 May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 10 May 2007, the Standing Concertation Committee discussed the Management's proposal for the revision of Annex A 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. Annex A 1 sets out the principles for future periodic reviews of the personnel's financial and social conditions and the revision reflects the modifications to review methods decided by the CERN Council in December 2006. The aim is to simplify the processes involved and rationalize the use of resources. The data collection process will be outsourced to a greater extent. The new methods also aim to reduce the overall time required to complete future reviews. Details of procedure will be addressed in subsequent discussions. The Committee approved the document for submission to the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) at its meeting on 31 May and 1 June 2007.

  7. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  8. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  9. Muddle or march: China and the 21st century Concert of Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhun Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concert of Powers has emerged as an attractive modality in global governance. As an emerging power, China must seriously take this template into account. This article seeks to analyze the incentives, possibilities, and uncertainties for China to participate in Concert with reference to China's history memory on Concert, China's intellectual endeavors, as well as China's evolving foreign preferences. It concludes that China is generally qualified and capable of being a key participant in Concert of Powers with increasing willingness. Yet, China's involvement depends on 1 if Concert template can overcome its own deficiencies; 2 if Concert have competitive advantages compared with other governance alternatives for China; and 3 if China can keep its momentum on both willingness and capacity in power transition.

  10. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms in cycloaddition reactions: potential surfaces and isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, K.N.; Yi Li; Storer, Joey; Raimondi, Laura; Beno, Brett

    1994-01-01

    CASSCF/6-31G * calculations have been performed on concerted and stepwise Diels-Alder reactions of butadiene with ethene, the dimerization of butadiene, and the dimerization of cyclobutadiene. The relative energies of concerted and stepwise mechanisms are compared, and the factors influencing these ''energies of concert'' are discussed. The comparison of calculated isotope effects to experimental data provides support for theoretical results. (Author)

  11. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 4 December 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 4 December 2007 included: 2006 Medical Service Annual Report The Committee took note of the report by the head of the Medical Service, Dr V. Fassnacht, (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/index.html) and of a number of points raised during the discussion, including the importance of further prevention measures. The Committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work in 2006 and over the past year. Short-Term Saved leave Scheme As announced in Weekly Bulletins Nos. 28/2007 and 51/2007, the Saved Leave Scheme will be succeeded from 1 January 2008 by the Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme (see also https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp). The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to adopt the relevant procedure. It was noted that staff could apply immediately to participate from 1 January 2008 and that applications to pa...

  12. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 3 APRIL 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 3 April 2008 included: External mobility The Committee took note of a progress report on external mobility after a run-in period of about six months. Based on the experience gained, it was agreed to broaden the scope of the programme and in particular to extend eligibility conditions to include: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts; Fellows who have been employed by CERN for more than 18 months; Doctoral students who have been in the CERN doctoral programme for more than 2.5 years; Apprentices in the final year of their apprenticeship; Ex-members of the personnel who are receiving CERN unemployment benefits. An article in the Weekly Bulletin will follow and the relevant web pages will be updated. LHC achievement awards The Committee took note of the outcome of discussions between the Management and t...

  13. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE: ORDINARY MEETING ON 15 JANUARY 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Original: English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-Introduction by the Director-General Conveying his best wishes for the New Year to SCC members, the Director-General underlined the importance which he attaches to good relations with the staff and their representatives in the Staff Association. He would ensure open dialogue and make every effort to attend the SCC, at the request of the Staff Association or the Management representatives. The concertation process at the SCC and TREF is a most useful and necessary one for the Management in drawing up strategies that are clearly announced and understood by all parties. He trusted that the SCC would play a vital role in realising related programmes and in optimising their implementation. He also wished to pass a message to the staff at large on the importance of good, efficient management, understood in its widest sense and at all levels. The role of supervisors is not only to lead their teams in the scientific and technical doma...

  14. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary meeting on 25 June 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 25 June 2008 included: Mutual Aid Fund The committee took note of the annual report for 2007 by the chairman of the Mutual Aid Fund and approved contributions to the Fund’s 2008 budget from the Management and the Staff Association. Results of 2008 MARS exercise and LHC achievement awards The committee took note of the Head of HR Department’s presentation of the results of the 2008 MARS exercise and the distribution of LHC achievement awards. It was noted that these awards would be granted with effect from 1 October 2008 (see Bulletin 18&19). The results show agreement with the 2008 MARS guidelines (see Bulletin 10&11) for the advancement ceilings per career path, the number of awards for extraordinary service, as well as the distribution of steps for the recognition of merit as shown in the SCC of 27 February (see Bulletin 14&15). Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council...

  15. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETING ON 24 JANUARY 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    This meeting was mainly devoted to follow-up from the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in December 2000, as well as to the work planning of the SCC for 2001. The newly-appointed Chairman of SCC, J. van der Boon, welcomed the Director-General and members to this first meeting of the new year, underlining his objective of maintaining a positive climate of concertation in the best interests of the Organization and its personnel. The President of the Staff Association declared that the latter would actively pursue its role in the same spirit. 1. Follow-up from the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in December 2000 The Director-General, underlining the positive outcome of the 5-yearly review, conveyed his thanks to all parties that had taken part and, in particular, to the Staff Association for its constructive contribution to reach the compromise accepted by the three parties. After discussion of decisions on the package of measures approved by Council last December and on related impleme...

  16. Distinct mechanisms act in concert to mediate cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toettcher, Jared E; Loewer, Alexander; Ostheimer, Gerard J; Yaffe, Michael B; Tidor, Bruce; Lahav, Galit

    2009-01-20

    In response to DNA damage, cells arrest at specific stages in the cell cycle. This arrest must fulfill at least 3 requirements: it must be activated promptly; it must be sustained as long as damage is present to prevent loss of genomic information; and after the arrest, cells must re-enter into the appropriate cell cycle phase to ensure proper ploidy. Multiple molecular mechanisms capable of arresting the cell cycle have been identified in mammalian cells; however, it is unknown whether each mechanism meets all 3 requirements or whether they act together to confer specific functions to the arrest. To address this question, we integrated mathematical models describing the cell cycle and the DNA damage signaling networks and tested the contributions of each mechanism to cell cycle arrest and re-entry. Predictions from this model were then tested with quantitative experiments to identify the combined action of arrest mechanisms in irradiated cells. We find that different arrest mechanisms serve indispensable roles in the proper cellular response to DNA damage over time: p53-independent cyclin inactivation confers immediate arrest, whereas p53-dependent cyclin downregulation allows this arrest to be sustained. Additionally, p21-mediated inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity is indispensable for preventing improper cell cycle re-entry and endoreduplication. This work shows that in a complex signaling network, seemingly redundant mechanisms, acting in a concerted fashion, can achieve a specific cellular outcome.

  17. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETING ON 4 SEPTEMBER 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1. Information on the Organization's Human Resources Plan The SCC took note of the Chairman's presentation summarising the content of the HR Plan and the internal process that had been followed in drawing it up for approval by Council at the end of last year. The Staff Association expressed criticism concerning the lack of concertation in this process and, in particular, the Management's declared objective of achieving an overall 2:1 ratio of indefinite contracts to limited contracts of the staff by 2010, which it considers is not based on objective grounds. More importantly, the Staff Association criticised the fact that this ratio can only be arrived at under the assumption that no new project is initiated before 2010. The Management, recalling that planning issues are not in the remit of the SCC, underlined that this ratio concerning staff contracts is indeed the result of an analysis in the Divisions and, in any case, is considered as a guidel...

  18. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 30 September 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 September 2008 included: Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to extend the scheme of part-time work as a pre-retirement measure by one year, i.e. until 31 December 2009. Preparation of TREF on 7 October 2008 The Committee took note that the TREF agenda would cover: Annual salary adjustment; Voluntary programmes; Five-yearly review of financial & social conditions of members of the personnel; Update on 2005 review; Preparation for 2010 review; TREF workplan 2009; Update on CHIS actuarial study. The proposals and presentations which the Management planned to present to TREF were discussed and some clarifications were agreed. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council The Committee took note of a report by the Chairman of points related to personnel matters discussed in those committees. He mentioned in particular the annu...

  19. Interrupting the Symphony: Unpacking the Importance Placed on Classical Concert Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2018-01-01

    The Toronto Symphony Orchestra presents a series of youth concerts each year to introduce and attract younger audiences to the symphony. Music teachers often attend these concerts with students, and the importance of such experiences is frequently emphasised and normalised. This article explores the historical roots of the following relations,…

  20. Sound Design in Virtual Reality Concert Experiences using a Wave Field Synthesis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rasmus Bloustrød; Milesen, Victor; Smed, Dina Madsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose an experiment that evaluates the influence of audience noise on the feeling of presence and the perceived quality in a virtual reality concert experience delivered using Wave Field Synthesis. A 360 degree video of a live rock concert from a local band was recorded. Single...

  1. Concerted evolution of 18-5.8-26S rDNA repeats in Nicotiana allotetraploids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovařík, Aleš; Matyášek, Roman; Lim, K. Y.; Skalická, Kamila; Koukalová, Blažena; Knapp, S.; Chase, M. W.; Leitch, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2004), s. 615-625 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : gene conversion * intergenic spacer diversity * intergenomic interaction Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.935, year: 2004

  2. Substance use patterns and in-hospital care of adolescents and young adults attending music concerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruest, Stephanie M; Stephan, Alexander M; Masiakos, Peter T; Biddinger, Paul D; Camargo, Carlos A; Kharasch, Sigmund

    2018-01-09

    Few studies describe medical complaints and substance use patterns related to attending music concerts. As such, the objective of this study is to describe patient demographics, substance use and intoxication patterns, and medical interventions provided to adolescents and young adults assessed in an emergency department (ED) for complaints directly related to concert attendance. A retrospective chart review of patients 13-30 years old who were transported to the ED directly from music concerts between January 2011 and December 2015 was conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze patient demographic, intervention, and substance use data. There were 115 concerts identified, of which 48 (42%) were linked to 142 relevant ED visits; the total number of attendees at each concert is unknown. The mean age of the 142 described patients was 19.5 years (SD 3.3) with 72% pop and electronic dance music concerts was associated with the widest ranges of GCS scores (8-15 and 6-14 respectively), mass casualty incident declarations, and among the highest mean blood alcohol levels (246 and 244 mg/dL, respectively). Substance use is the predominant reason for music concert related ED visits and patients may have serious levels of intoxication, receiving multiple medical interventions. These data demonstrate the need for additional large-scale studies to confirm trends and increase awareness of this important public health problem.

  3. [Public music concerts in a psychiatric hospital: effects on public opinion and as therapy for patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.

  4. Women's Month 2006 to include a tribute concert to women composers

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech will commemorate Women's Month 2006 in March with a variety of events and programs. Festivities will include a special concert to be held Wednesday, March 1 at 8 p.m. in the Squires Student Center Recital Salon. This concert will pay tribute to 400 years of women composers by featuring performances by Virginia Tech faculty, students, and guests. Admission to the concert is free, though a free-will donation will be taken to support the work of the Women's Resource Center of the N...

  5. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE: ORDINARY MEETING ON 18 FEBRUARY 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Original : English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-Circulars • Administrative Circular no.26 - Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members (Revision 4) The Committee took note of textual amendments to this circular concerning mainly implementation aspects of Management's decision to abolish the Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC). Henceforth, proposed advancement and promotion actions previously examined by the SSAC will be examined by the Executive Board, which will submit its recommendations to the Director-General. This revised document replaces the previous version of Revision 4 (dated January 2004), as published on the web. • Operational Circular no.8 - Dealing with alcohol-related problems This new operational circular was agreed subject to some minor amendments and additions to the text. It was pointed out that it replaces previous administrative circular no. 28 and brochures on the subject, and is applicable to all persons worki...

  6. Consumers’ Attitude to the Protest Against Lady Gaga’s Concert: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresno Agus Hendarto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lady gaga is an American singer who has won 5 Grammy Awards. In the middle of 2012, she was requested to have concert in Jakarta with the contract value of tens billion. The concert was protested by a number of groups. The promoter had approached the pressure groups and negotiated the dressing. However, Lady Gaga’s management canceled the concert for security consideration. The objectives of the study are: (1 to explore consumers’ attitude to the protest for the cancelation of Lady Gaga’s concert; and (2 using classical conditioning and expectancy-value theory, to explain consumers’ attitude to the protest. The study used focus group to collect data. The collected data was then transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The results show that informants’ opinions can be classified into two groups: agreement and disagreement with the protest for the cancelation of Lady Gaga’s concert. Informants either agree or disagree for some reasons. Classical conditioning theory can explain either consumer’s attitude. The difference is the object of consumers’ attitude who agreed was Lady Gaga herself, while the object of disagreement was the pressure group that sponsored the protest. The attitude of the disagreement can also be explained by expectancy-value theory.

  7. Exploring the impact of music concerts in promoting well-being in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Kagari; Marshall, Nigel A

    2017-05-01

    This study explores the specific effects of live music concerts on the clients with dementia, their families and nursing staff/caregivers. Researchers attended 22 concerts in care facilities in England and Japan. Interviews were carried out with clients with dementia, nursing staff and family members. Observations were also carried out before, during and after the concerts. All observations were recorded in field notes. The effect of the concerts in both countries was seen to be beneficial to all clients and nursing staff, whether or not they attended the concert. Interviews with clients with mild to mid-stage dementia noted increased levels of cooperation, interaction and conversation. Those with more advanced forms of dementia exhibited decreased levels of agitation and anti-social behaviour. Staff members reported increased levels of care, cooperation and opportunities for assessment. Family members noted an increase in the levels of well-being in their partner/parent as well as in themselves. The study also suggested that the knowledge of musical components, an awareness of the rules of music and specific musical preferences appear to remain well beyond the time when other cognitive skills and abilities have disappeared. This initial study provided some further indication in terms of the uses of music as a non-pharmacological intervention for those living with all stages of dementia. These included opportunities for assessment of physical abilities as well as facilitating an increasing level of care.

  8. Between Two Worlds: Concert-giving and Rioting in the Post-Yugoslav Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petrov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the late 1990s, some musicians from the territory of former Yugoslavia gradually embarked on the project of giving concerts in Belgrade, the capital of the former country. Others refused to perform in Serbia after the wars, which fuelled a negative attitude toward these musicians. In this paper I deal with the reception of those concerts, pointing to the ways they have become specific affective sites of memory. I focus on two major issues: the discourse produced in the concerts by the performers themselves and members of the audience and the discourse produced by various protest groups (which resulted in the organization of protests in Belgrade against performances by musicians who ‘hate Serbs’.

  9. Christian rock concerts as a meeting between religion and popular culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Häger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of artistic expression play a vital role in religious practices of the most diverse traditions. One very important such expression is music. This paper deals with a contemporary form of religious music, Christian rock. Rock or popular music has been used within Christianity as a means for evangelization and worship since the end of the 1960s. The genre of "contemporary Christian music", or Christian rock, stands by definition with one foot in established institutional (in practicality often evangelical Christianity, and the other in the commercial rock musicindustry. The subject of this paper is to study how this intermediate position is manifested and negotiated in Christian rock concerts. Such a performance of Christian rock music is here assumed to be both a rock concert and a religious service. The paper will examine how this duality is expressed in practices at Christian rock concerts.

  10. Music Genre as a Predictor of Resource Utilization at Outdoor Music Concerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrol, Michael S; Koneru, Susmith; McIntyre, Norah; Caruso, Andrew T; Arshad, Faizan H; Merlin, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders. A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded. The primary outcomes were associations of genres with the medical usage rate (MUR). Secondary outcomes investigated were the association of confounders and the influences on the level of care provided, the transport rate, and the nature of medical complaint. A total of 2,399,864 concert attendees, of which 4,546 patients presented to venue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during 403 concerts with an average of 11.4 patients (annual range 7.1-17.4) each concert. Of potential confounders, only the heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C) and whether the event was a festival were significant (P=.027 and .001, respectively). After adjustment, the genres with significantly increased MUR in decreasing order were: alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music (Pmusic (P=.033). Alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music concerts had higher levels of medical resource utilization. High heat indices and music festivals also increase the MUR. This information can assist event planners with preparation and resource utilization. Future research should focus on prospective validation of the regression equation. Westrol MS , Koneru S , McIntyre N , Caruso AT , Arshad FH , Merlin MA . Music genre as a predictor of resource utilization at outdoor music concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):289-296.

  11. The impact of local government cultural policies on the sales of tickets for private music concerts in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    谷口, みゆき

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the effect of public cultural policy on the sales of tickets for private music concerts in Japan. In particular, it focuses on how the introduction of the Designated Manager System (DMS) in 2006 influenced the sales of tickets for private music concerts. The hypothesis that both local governments' cultural investments and the DMS have increased the sales of tickets for private music concerts is examined. Data from the Private Music Live Entertainment 2000-2008 i...

  12. Concerted action on the retrievability of long lived radioactive waste in deep underground repositories - progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Within the EURATOM Framework Programme: Nuclear Fission Safety, a Concerted Action on the retrievability of long lived radioactive waste in deep underground repositories is being carried out. This Concerted Action commenced on the 1st of January 1998 and involves experts from nine different European countries. The Concerted Action will be completed by the 31st of December 1999. This paper gives a brief overview of the objectives of the Concerted Action, the work programme that has been defined to meet these objectives, the work performed to date, and the remaining work programme. (author)

  13. A tablet app to enrich the live and post-live experience of classical concerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; Van der Sterren, R.; Arzt, A.; Martorell, A.; Liem, C.C.S.

    2015-01-01

    This demonstration paper describes a tablet application that is developed to make classical concerts more accessible and more enjoyable for a broader audience. The app offers interactive visualizations of a symphony’s instrumentation and its score. It also offers timed background information about

  14. Unequal Academic Achievement in High School: The Mediating Roles of Concerted Cultivation and Close Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Building from the classic Wisconsin model of status attainment, this study examines whether a specific style of parenting, concerted cultivation, and a close friend's school-related attitudes and behaviors mediate the relationship between a family's socioeconomic status and their child's academic achievement in the United States. Using a recursive…

  15. Density functional theory study of the concerted pyrolysis mechanism for lignin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Ariana Beste

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Studies on the pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds have largely focused on initial homolytic cleavage reactions. It has been noted, however, that concerted mechanisms may also account for observed product formation. In the current work, the latter processes are examined and compared to the former, by the application of density functional theory...

  16. Stepwise or concerted? DFT study on the mechanism of ionic Diels-Alder reaction of chromanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghdadi Mina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stepwise and concerted Ionic Diels-Alder reaction between phenyl (pyridin-2-ylmethylene oxonium and styrene derivatives are explored using theoretical method. The results support using computational method via persistent intermediates. The DFT method was essential to reproduce a reasonable potential energy surface for these challenging systems.

  17. The virtual reconstruction of the ancient Roman concert hall in Aphrodisias, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    About two thousand years ago one of the world’s earliest and most beautiful concert halls were built in the city Aphrodisias, named after the goddess Aphrodite. It was a rich society, renowned for its marble and mastery in sculptures. Like many other cities in the Roman Empire there was an open...

  18. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  19. Statistical relations among architectural features and objective acoustical measurements of concert halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Siebein, G. W.; Chiang, W.

    1993-01-01

    as for entire rooms. Measurements data from all three teams were used in the models to assess the sensitivity of the models to expect variations in measurements. The results were compared to the previous work of Barron, Gade, and Hook among others. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation and Concert...

  20. Design of concert hall in uremia based on notification to hidden role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of sound in a concert hall is reviewed with emphasis on hearing the direct sound clearly. Architecture in its daily means provides renewed space and is replaced within a larger space and people are moving in it and in it's around. Music is purely mechanical conception, organized and deliberate scattering of ...

  1. An adaptive, data driven sound field control strategy for outdoor concerts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuchel, Franz Maria; Caviedes Nozal, Diego; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    One challenge of outdoor concerts is to ensure adequate levels for the audience while avoiding disturbance of the surroundings. We outline the initial concept of a sound field control (SFC) system for tackling this issue using sound-zoning. The system uses Bayesian inference to update a sound...

  2. Tightening the Iron Cage: Concertive Control in Self-Managing Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes how an (industrial) organization's control system evolved in response to a managerial change from hierarchical, bureaucratic control to concertive control via self-management teams. The organization's members developed a system of value-based normative rules that controlled their actions more powerfully and completely than did the former…

  3. A new concert hall for the city of Eindhoven : design and model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat-Eggen, P.E.; van Luxemburg, Renz; Booy, L.G.; de Lange, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    A music centre containing a large (1300 seats) and a small (400 seats) concert hall has been built in the city of Eindhoven. The music centre is integrated into a larger building complex, called the ‘Heuvel-Galerie’, with shopping area (malls), recreational facilities, parking, offices and

  4. CONCERT. ''European joint programme for the integration of radiation protection research''; CONCERT. Gemeinsame Europaeische Forschungsfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Birschwilks, M.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    CONCERT is a joint project of the EU and its member states which assume joint financing: Over the next five years the largest European radiation protection programme so far will have available about 28 Million Euros for research and integrative measures, whereby the European Commission will bear 70 per cent of the costs. Integrative measures include, among others, targeted vocational education and training of junior researchers in radiation protection, better access to research and irradiation facilities for scientists, as well as a stronger connection of universities and research centres in radiation protection research.

  5. Interactive painting. An evolving study to facilitate reduced exclusion from classical music concerts for the deaf community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Exclusion from the joy of experiencing music, especially in concert venues, is especially applicable to those with an auditory impairment. There have been limited investigations into how to reduce the exclusion for this community in attending classical orchestra music concerts. Through utilizing ...

  6. 100 million years of multigene family evolution: origin and evolution of the avian MHC class IIB

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goebel, J.; Promerová, Marta; Bonadonna, F.; McCoy, K. D.; Serbielle, C.; Strandh, M.; Yannic, G.; Burri, R.; Fumagalli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 460 (2017), s. 1-9 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Birth -death evolution * Concerted evolution * Gene duplication * Gene conversion * Major histocompatibility complex * Recombination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  7. 100 million years of multigene family evolution: origin and evolution of the avian MHC class IIB

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goebel, J.; Promerová, Marta; Bonadonna, F.; McCoy, K. D.; Serbielle, C.; Strandh, M.; Yannic, G.; Burri, R.; Fumagalli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 460 (2017), s. 1-9 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Birth-death evolution * Concerted evolution * Gene duplication * Gene conversion * Major histocompatibility complex * Recombination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  8. Concert Club

    CERN Document Server

    Concert Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) entrée B - bâtiment 500 - amphithéâtre Mardi 9 Février 2010 à 20 h 30 ”La fontaine aux larmes” Les pays de l’est et le choeur féminin Ensemble vocal féminin Polhymnia Célia Perrard, harpe Camille Girod, flûte Christophe Sturzenegger, piano Quartet Elixir Eléonore Giroud, violon Delphine Touzery, violon Priscille Oehninger, alto Elsa Dorbath, violoncelle Direction : Franck Marcon Au programme : Kodaly – Bartok – Donceanu - Janacek Francesco Hoch (création) ...

  9. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi teos "Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten" esitusel 2. dets. Aldeburghis, Pärdi "Annum per annum" 7. dets. Birminghamis, Kristjan Järvi dirigeerimas 7. dets. Liverpoolis, Neeme Järvi diregeerimas 15. dets. Edinburghis ja 16. dets. Glasgowis

  10. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kammerorkestri Kremerata Baltica kontserdid: 19. apr. Londonis LSO St Lukesis, 21. apr. Oxfordis Sheldonian Theatre'is, 17. apr. Aldeburghis, 20. apr. Manchesteris Bridgewater Hallis, 23. apr. Wales Millennium Centre'is, 22. apr. Edinburghis Usher Hallis

  11. Concert club

    CERN Multimedia

    Concert club

    2010-01-01

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) entrée B - bâtiment 500 - amphithéâtre mardi 23 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 Eric Schmid, clarinette Muriel Slatkine, piano Au programme : Danzi, Delibes, Gounod, Lovreglio (Verdi), Poulenc, Rossini, Schubert * * * * * samedi 27 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 « Quart de ton » Orchestre et solistes Au programme : Leung Xiao, Lan www.myspace.com/lecardethon * * * * * Dimanche 28 mars 2010 à 17 h 00 et 19 h 00 Rachel Kolly d’Alba, violon Au programme : Bach, Ysaïe * * * * * mardi 30 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 ...

  12. Concert club

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    CERN MEYRIN (terminus bus 56-CERN) entrée B - bâtiment 500 - amphithéâtre mardi 9 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 Le trio «Impressions» avec Liliane Jaques, flûte traversière Isabelle Martin-Achard, harpe John Devore, violoncelle Au programme : Bolling, Dewey, Ibert, Vellon, Vellones, Molnar, Andres * * * * * mardi 16 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 Irina Chkourindina, piano Au programme : Chopin, Liszt, Schumann * * * * * vendredi 19 mars 2010 à 20 h 30 Pascal Salomon, piano Au programme : J. Brahms, F.Chopin, M. Ravel, S. Rachmaninoff * * * * * ...

  13. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi muusika esitusel 4. mail Londonis St Giles Cripplegate'is, 14. mail Queen Elizabeth Hallis, 3. mail Oxfordis; Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor esitab Cyrillus Kreegi "Requiemi" 11. mail Manchesteris Bridgewater Hallis; Olari Elts dirigeerimas 10. mail Edinburghis Usher Hallis, 11. mail Glasgowis ja 12. mail Aberdeenis

  14. Concert | The CERN Choir hits the high notes | Victoria Hall | 30 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    60 – 40 – 25: a series of numbers that have inspired an exceptional concert. They refer to the 60th anniversary of CERN, the 40th anniversary of the CERN Choir and the 25th anniversary of its direction by Gonzalo Martinez. On the occasion of this collision of anniversaries, the Committee of this CERN club decided to organise an appropriately significant event to celebrate the important worldwide role that CERN has played for 60 years, the fact that the CERN Choir has brought together amateur singers for 40 years, and finally the decisive role in the Choir’s history of its director, Gonzalo Martinez.   The work chosen for this concert also had to be something exceptional. A work which, through its monumental status, its brilliance, its innovation, its originality and its energy, symbolises CERN’s scientific discoveries, reflects the genius of its creator and represents the highest creative ambitions: Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis.  Perfor...

  15. Concert | The CERN Choir hits the high notes | Victoria Hall | 30 September

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    60 – 40 – 25: a series of numbers that have inspired an exceptional concert. They refer to the 60th anniversary of CERN, the 40th anniversary of the CERN Choir and the 25th anniversary of its direction by Gonzalo Martinez. On the occasion of this collision of anniversaries, the Committee of this CERN club decided to organise an appropriately significant event to celebrate the important worldwide role that CERN has played for 60 years, the fact that the CERN Choir has brought together amateur singers for 40 years, and finally the decisive role in the Choir’s history of its director, Gonzalo Martinez.   The work chosen for this concert also had to be something exceptional. A work which, through its monumental status, its brilliance, its innovation, its originality and its energy, symbolises CERN’s scientific discoveries, reflects the genius of its creator and represents the highest creative ambitions: Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis.  Perfo...

  16. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  17. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  18. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  19. Optimal Volume for Concert Halls Based on Ando’s Subjective Preference and Barron Revised Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cerdá

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ando-Beranek’s model, a linear version of Ando’s subjective preference theory, obtained by the authors in a recent work, was combined with Barron revised theory. An optimal volume region for each reverberation time was obtained for classical music in symphony orchestra concert halls. The obtained relation was tested with good agreement with the top rated halls reported by Beranek and other halls with reported anomalies.

  20. Ethanol dehydration in HZSM-5 studied by density functional theory: evidence for a concerted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J; Beckham, Gregg T; Paton, Robert S; Nimlos, Mark R

    2015-04-16

    Dehydration over acidic zeolites is an important reaction class for the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbon fuels or to precursors for myriad chemical products. Here, we examine the dehydration of ethanol at a Brønsted acid site, T12, found in HZSM-5 using density functional theory (DFT). The geometries of both cluster and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models are prepared from the ZSM-5 crystal structure. Comparisons between these models and different DFT methods are conducted to show similar results among the models and methods used. Inclusion of the full catalyst cavity through a QM:MM approach is found to be important, since activation barriers are computed on average as 7 kcal mol(-1) lower than those obtained with a smaller cluster model. Two different pathways, concerted and stepwise, have been considered when examining dehydration and deprotonation steps. The current study shows that a concerted dehydration process is possible with a lower (4-5 kcal mol(-1)) activation barrier while previous literature studies have focused on a stepwise mechanism. Overall, this work demonstrates that fairly high activation energies (∼50 kcal mol(-1)) are required for ethanol dehydration. A concerted mechanism is favored over a stepwise mechanism because charge separation in the transition state is minimized. QM:MM approaches appear to provide superior results to cluster calculations due to a more accurate representation of charges on framework oxygen atoms.

  1. Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact on the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty

    2005-06-01

    How does sound decay when one room is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact sound fields in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall is conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption levels are established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) materiality, as defined by the sound absorptance in the coupled volume. The theoretical, mathematical predictions are compared with coupled-volume concert hall field measurements and guidelines are suggested for future designs of coupled-volume concert halls.

  2. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  3. Ventilating plant in the large concert hall of the music centre at Vredenburg/Utrecht, Holland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmeyer, H.; Detzer, R.; van Dijk, A.E.; Kouffeld, R.W.J.

    1979-01-01

    To form an opinion on the thermo-dynamic and flow-pattern conditions in large halls for air conditioning like e.g. concert halls, one will refer to the study of models which normally are prepared in a reduced scale. Comparisons between model studies and the executed object indicate that, even with difficult boundary conditions, reproducible data can be prepared the deviations being only minute. Presented are the results of a model study and the data of the executed plant of a large music centre in the Netherlands.

  4. Early reflection energy in concert halls: how much, how early, and from where (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    2001-01-01

    Today, the importance of distributing early reflection energy to listeners and performers in concert halls is well understood and accepted—also among architects. Still, implementation in the practical design of a large hall is not easy, partly because we still have difficulties quantifying...... to decide how far to promote the good cause on the basis of his/her experience, taste, and talent in influencing the decision process. The aural presentation will focus on the current limitations in our knowledge regarding the musicians' need for early reflections, which is a special challenge in the design...

  5. The heterothallic sugarbeet pathogen Cercospora beticola contains exon fragments of both MAT genes that are homogenized by concerted evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Jonge, de R.; Inderbitzin, P.; Liu, Z.; Birla, K.; Peer, Van de Y.; Subbarao, K.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Secor, G.

    2014-01-01

    Dothideomycetes is one of the most ecologically diverse and economically important classes of fungi. Sexual reproduction in this group is governed by mating type (MAT) genes at the MAT1 locus. Self-sterile (heterothallic) species contain one of two genes at MAT1 (MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1) and only

  6. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While education!

  7. CONCERT-'European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research'; CONCERT-''European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Internationale und Nationale Zusammenarbeit im Strahlenschutz; Jung, Thomas [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2016-08-01

    In 2009 the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on low dose research recommended the development of a scientific platform for low dose radiation research. The foundation of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) occurred in 2010. In 2015 a new project on radiation protection research was established: CONCERT (European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research). The aim is the coordination of the already existing scientific platforms MELODI (radiation effects and interactions), ALLIANCE (radioecology), NERIS (nuclear and radiological emergency protection) and EURADOS (radiation dosimetry). With CONCERT an efficient use of this infrastructure for research cooperation and transparency is intended.

  8. State-of-the-art research: Reflections on a concerted Nordic-Baltic nuclear energy effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Lars; Tveit, Jesper; Vaagen, Jan S; Ridikas, Danas

    2009-09-15

    Quite a few hold the view that nuclear energy will have its renaissance in the not too distant future. Technology is, however, a necessary, but not sufficient condition. The needed prerequisites represent a complex issue. With increasing energy demand and depletion of non-renewable energy resources, nuclear will have to prove its role in an increasing energy mix, globally, regionally and often also nationally. Based on its history, experience with coordinated interplay in electricity production from a variety of energy sources, and science engagements, we argue for a future Nordic/Baltic SHOWCASE: A nuclear weapons free and proliferation safe nuclear energy supplier in the region, with a concerted role in competence building and in international ventures, and with focus on operation, safety, economy and societal aspects. (Author)

  9. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: Are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2006-01-01

    that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations......In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar...... to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations...

  10. DRAWING MUSIC! ANAL Y Z ING AN EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITY OF VISUALI Z ING A CONCERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váradi, Judit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature and recent studies, a high number of encounters with classical music during childhood and adolescence in the context of positive feelings closely correlates with the formation of classical music competencies. During the investigation of primary students’ attitudes towards classical music, it has been revealed that those who have more opportunities to enter music education will come closer to understanding classical music. At the University of Debrecen Faculty of Music, we have organised and staged various educational youth performances in the last decades. Our goal is to get elementary school children acquainted with live music, classical instruments. A key element of our mission is to form the preferences of children and young people who do not participate in art education, so that they may become interested and sophisticated adults. In our paper we analysis the creations of the drawing competition what connects in theme with the youth concert.

  11. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  12. Music Audiences 3.0: Concert-Goers’ Psychological Motivations at the Dawn of Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Charron

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing consumers’ motivations to attend performances in a continuously evolving social and technological context is essential because live concerts generate an important and growing share of revenues for the music industry. Evolving fans’ preferences and technological innovations constantly alter the way music is distributed and consumed. In a marketing 3.0 era, what consumers do with music is becoming more significant than simply owning or listening to a song. These changes are not only blurring the lines between production and consumption (i.e., co-creation, but also distorting the concept of live attendance altogether. Although mediated performances typically lack presence and authenticity, recent advances in immersive technologies, such as spherical videos and virtual reality goggles, could represent a new form of experiencing live music.

  13. Music Audiences 3.0: Concert-Goers' Psychological Motivations at the Dawn of Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Reviewing consumers' motivations to attend performances in a continuously evolving social and technological context is essential because live concerts generate an important and growing share of revenues for the music industry. Evolving fans' preferences and technological innovations constantly alter the way music is distributed and consumed. In a marketing 3.0 era, what consumers do with music is becoming more significant than simply owning or listening to a song. These changes are not only blurring the lines between production and consumption (i.e., co-creation), but also distorting the concept of live attendance altogether. Although mediated performances typically lack presence and authenticity, recent advances in immersive technologies, such as spherical videos and virtual reality goggles, could represent a new form of experiencing live music.

  14. Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  15. State-of-the-art research: Reflections on a concerted Nordic-Baltic nuclear energy effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husdal, Lars; Tveit, Jesper; Vaagen, Jan S.; Ridikas, Danas

    2009-09-01

    Quite a few hold the view that nuclear energy will have its renaissance in the not too distant future. Technology is, however, a necessary, but not sufficient condition. The needed prerequisites represent a complex issue. With increasing energy demand and depletion of non-renewable energy resources, nuclear will have to prove its role in an increasing energy mix, globally, regionally and often also nationally. Based on its history, experience with coordinated interplay in electricity production from a variety of energy sources, and science engagements, we argue for a future Nordic/Baltic SHOWCASE: A nuclear weapons free and proliferation safe nuclear energy supplier in the region, with a concerted role in competence building and in international ventures, and with focus on operation, safety, economy and societal aspects. (Author)

  16. CONCERT A high power proton accelerator driven multi-application facility concept

    CERN Document Server

    Laclare, J L

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being made available. It opens new avenues to a long series of scientific applications in fundamental and applied research, which can make use of the boosted flux of secondary particles. Presently, in Europe, several disciplines are preparing their project of dedicated facility, based on the upgraded performances of HPPAs. Given the potential synergies between these different projects, for reasons of cost effectiveness, it was considered appropriate to look into the possibility to group a certain number of these applications around a single HPPA: CONCERT project left bracket 1 right bracket . The ensuing 2-year feasibility study organized in collaboration between the European Spallation Source and the CEA just started. EURISOL left bracket 2 right bracket project and CERN participate in the steering committee.

  17. Parametrization in models of subcritical glass fracture: Activation offset and concerted activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno Poletto; Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Sierka, Marek; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    There are two established but fundamentally different empirical approaches to parametrize the rate of subcritical fracture in brittle materials. While both are relying on a thermally activated reaction of bond rupture, the difference lies in the way as to how the externally applied stresses affect the local energy landscape. In the consideration of inorganic glasses, the strain energy is typically taken as an off-set on the activation barrier. As an alternative interpretation, the system’s volumetric strain-energy is added to its thermal energy. Such an interpretation is consistent with the democratic fiber bundle model. Here, we test this approach of concerted activation against macroscopic data of bond cleavage activation energy, and also against ab initio quantum chemical simulation of the energy barrier for cracking in silica. The fact that both models are able to reproduce experimental observation to a remarkable degree highlights the importance of a holistic consideration towards non-empirical understanding.

  18. Hierarchical Oct4 Binding in Concert with Primed Epigenetic Rearrangements during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core pluripotency factor Oct4 plays key roles in somatic cell reprogramming through transcriptional control. Here, we profile Oct4 occupancy, epigenetic changes, and gene expression in reprogramming. We find that Oct4 binds in a hierarchical manner to target sites with primed epigenetic modifications. Oct4 binding is temporally continuous and seldom switches between bound and unbound. Oct4 occupancy in most of promoters is maintained throughout the entire reprogramming process. In contrast, somatic cell-specific enhancers are silenced in the early and intermediate stages, whereas stem cell-specific enhancers are activated in the late stage in parallel with cell fate transition. Both epigenetic remodeling and Oct4 binding contribute to the hyperdynamic enhancer signature transitions. The hierarchical Oct4 bindings are associated with distinct functional themes at different stages. Collectively, our results provide a comprehensive molecular roadmap of Oct4 binding in concert with epigenetic rearrangements and rich resources for future reprogramming studies.

  19. Music Audiences 3.0: Concert-Goers’ Psychological Motivations at the Dawn of Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Reviewing consumers’ motivations to attend performances in a continuously evolving social and technological context is essential because live concerts generate an important and growing share of revenues for the music industry. Evolving fans’ preferences and technological innovations constantly alter the way music is distributed and consumed. In a marketing 3.0 era, what consumers do with music is becoming more significant than simply owning or listening to a song. These changes are not only blurring the lines between production and consumption (i.e., co-creation), but also distorting the concept of live attendance altogether. Although mediated performances typically lack presence and authenticity, recent advances in immersive technologies, such as spherical videos and virtual reality goggles, could represent a new form of experiencing live music. PMID:28588528

  20. An efficient algorithm to perform local concerted movements of a chain molecule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zamuner

    Full Text Available The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the "local backbone volume", related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations.

  1. A concerted kinase interplay identifies PPARgamma as a molecular target of ghrelin signaling in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Demers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor PPARgamma plays an essential role in vascular biology, modulating macrophage function and atherosclerosis progression. Recently, we have described the beneficial effect of combined activation of the ghrelin/GHS-R1a receptor and the scavenger receptor CD36 to induce macrophage cholesterol release through transcriptional activation of PPARgamma. Although the interplay between CD36 and PPARgamma in atherogenesis is well recognized, the contribution of the ghrelin receptor to regulate PPARgamma remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ghrelin triggers PPARgamma activation through a concerted signaling cascade involving Erk1/2 and Akt kinases, resulting in enhanced expression of downstream effectors LXRalpha and ABC sterol transporters in human macrophages. These effects were associated with enhanced PPARgamma phosphorylation independently of the inhibitory conserved serine-84. Src tyrosine kinase Fyn was identified as being recruited to GHS-R1a in response to ghrelin, but failure of activated Fyn to enhance PPARgamma Ser-84 specific phosphorylation relied on the concomitant recruitment of docking protein Dok-1, which prevented optimal activation of the Erk1/2 pathway. Also, substitution of Ser-84 preserved the ghrelin-induced PPARgamma activity and responsiveness to Src inhibition, supporting a mechanism independent of Ser-84 in PPARgamma response to ghrelin. Consistent with this, we found that ghrelin promoted the PI3-K/Akt pathway in a Galphaq-dependent manner, resulting in Akt recruitment to PPARgamma, enhanced PPARgamma phosphorylation and activation independently of Ser-84, and increased expression of LXRalpha and ABCA1/G1. Collectively, these results illustrate a complex interplay involving Fyn/Dok-1/Erk and Galphaq/PI3-K/Akt pathways to transduce in a concerted manner responsiveness of PPARgamma to ghrelin in macrophages.

  2. Music and politics after the Holocaust: Menuhin’s Berlin concerts of 1947 and their aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frühauf, Tina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Between September 27 and October 3, 1947, Yehudi Menuhin gave six performances in Berlin, two of them together with Wilhelm Furtwängler, who had just been cleared by the denazification tribunals in Austria and Germany. Because of the German audience and the Furtwängler collaboration, these concerts led to a scandal in the Jewish community and the Displaced Persons camp in Germany as well as Jewish communities abroad. I turn first to the historical background of these performances, specifically the position of Menuhin and Furtwängler toward each other and their roles in postwar Germany. I will then chronicle the events of September and October 1947 through the lenses of Abraham S. Hyman, legal consultant to the American Advisers on Jewish Affairs in Germany, and Yehudi Menuhin and his biographers, to reveal the complexity of the events. Lastly, I will scrutinize the reception of the concerts to shed light on the reasons for and impact of the scandal. I argue that these concerts were mishandled in their organization and aims, in that politics played too large a role in the events during a time when the Jewish people suffered severe trauma in the aftermath of the Holocaust.

    Entre el 27 de septiembre y el 3 de octubre del 1947, Yehudi Menuhin ofreció seis conciertos en Berlín, dos de ellos con Wilhelm Furtwängler, quien acababa de ser declarado inocente por los tribunales de “desnazificación” en Austria y Alemania. Debido a que el público era alemán y a la participación de Furtwängler, estos conciertos provocaron un fuerte escándalo entre la comunidad judía y la población desplazada de los campos en Alemania, así como entre las comunidades judías en el extranjero. Mi investigación se centra, primero, en el contexto histórico de estos conciertos y, concretamente, la posición de Menuhin y Furtwängler hacia el uno al otro, así como sus respectivos papeles en la Alemania de la postguerra. Posteriormente ofrezco una relaci

  3. The American Board of Emergency Medicine ConCert Examination: Emergency Physicians' Perceptions of Learning and Career Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Wahl, Robert P; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Harvey, Anne L; Joldersma, Kevin B; Kowalenko, Terry; Coombs, Andrea B; Reisdorff, Earl J

    2016-09-01

    As part of the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program, ABEM-certified physicians are required to pass the Continuous Certification (ConCert) examination at least every 10 years. With the 2015 ConCert examination, ABEM sought to better understand emergency physicians' perceptions of the benefits of preparing for and taking the examination and the career benefits of staying ABEM-certified. This was a prospective survey study. A voluntary postexamination survey was administered at the end of the 2015 ABEM ConCert examination (September 21-26, 2015). Physicians were asked about the benefits of preparing for the examination and maintaining ABEM certification. Examination performance was compared to perceptions of learning and career benefits. Of the 2,601 on-time test takers, 2,511 respondents participated (96.5% participation rate). The majority of participants (92.0%) identified a benefit to preparing for the ConCert examination, which included reinforced medical knowledge (73.9%), increased knowledge (66.8%), and making them a better clinician (39.4%). The majority of respondents (90.8%) identified a career benefit of maintaining ABEM certification, which included more employment options (73.8%), more positively viewed by other physicians (56.8%), and better financial outcomes (29.8%). There was a statistically significant association between the perception of knowledge reinforcement and examination performance (p Medicine.

  4. Creating personalized memories from social events: community-based support for multi-camera recordings of school concerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); V. Zsombori; I. Kegel

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wide availability of relatively high-quality cameras makes it easy for many users to capture video fragments of social events such as concerts, sports events or community gatherings. The wide availability of simple sharing tools makes it nearly as easy to upload individual fragments

  5. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  6. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  7. In-situ observations of young contrails – overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Voigt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lineshaped contrails were detected with the research aircraft Falcon during the CONCERT – CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT – campaign in October/November 2008. The Falcon was equipped with a set of instruments to measure the particle size distribution, shape, extinction and chemical composition as well as trace gas mixing ratios of sulfur dioxide (SO2, reactive nitrogen and halogen species (NO, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCl, ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO. During 12 mission flights over Europe, numerous contrails, cirrus clouds and a volcanic aerosol layer were probed at altitudes between 8.5 and 11.6 km and at temperatures above 213 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft were observed near and below ice saturation. The observed NO mixing ratios, ice crystal and soot number densities are compared to a process based contrail model. On 19 November 2008 the contrail from a CRJ-2 aircraft was penetrated in 10.1 km altitude at a temperature of 221 K. The contrail had mean ice crystal number densities of 125 cm−3 with effective radii reff of 2.6 μm. The presence of particles with r>50 μm in the less than 2 min old contrail suggests that natural cirrus crystals were entrained in the contrail. Mean HONO/NO (HONO/NOy ratios of 0.037 (0.024 and the fuel sulfur conversion efficiency to H2SO4S of 2.9 % observed in the CRJ-2 contrail are in the range of previous measurements in the gaseous aircraft exhaust. On 31 October 2010 aviation NO emissions could have contributed by more than 40% to the regional scale NO levels in the mid-latitude lowest stratosphere. The CONCERT observations help to better quantify the climate impact from contrails and will be used to investigate the chemical processing of trace gases on contrails.

  8. Mutational analyses of the core domain of Avian Leukemia and Sarcoma Viruses integrase: critical residues for concerted integration and multimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Karen; Faure, Claudine; Violot, Sebastien; Gouet, Patrice; Verdier, Gerard; Ronfort, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    During replicative cycle of retroviruses, the reverse-transcribed viral DNA is integrated into the cell DNA by the viral integrase (IN) enzyme. The central core domain of IN contains the catalytic site of the enzyme and is involved in binding viral ends and cell DNA as well as dimerization. We previously performed single amino acid substitutions in the core domain of an Avian Leukemia and Sarcoma Virus (ALSV) IN [Arch. Virol. 147 (2002) 1761]. Here, we modeled the resulting IN mutants and analyzed the ability of these mutants to mediate concerted DNA integration in an in vitro assay, and to form dimers by protein-protein cross-linking and size exclusion chromatography. The N197C mutation resulted in the inability of the mutant to perform concerted integration that was concomitant with a loss of IN dimerization. Surprisingly, mutations Q102G and A106V at the dimer interface resulted in mutants with higher efficiencies than the wild-type IN in performing two-ended concerted integration of viral DNA ends. The G139D and A195V mutants had a trend to perform one-ended DNA integration of viral ends instead of two-ended integration. More drastically, the I88L and L135G mutants preferentially mediated nonconcerted DNA integration although the proteins form dimers. Therefore, these mutations may alter the formation of IN complexes of higher molecular size than a dimer that would be required for concerted integration. This study points to the important role of core domain residues in the concerted integration of viral DNA ends as well as in the oligomerization of the enzyme

  9. Radical Abstraction Reactions with Concerted Fragmentation in the Chain Decay of Nitroalkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E. T.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2018-05-01

    Reactions of the type X• + HCR2CH2NO2 → XH + R2C=CH2 + N•O2 are exothermic, due to the breaking of weak C-N bonds and the formation of energy-intensive C=C bonds. Quantum chemistry calculations of the transition state using the reactions of Et• and EtO• with 2-nitrobutane shows that such reactions can be categorized as one-step, due to the extreme instability of the intermediate nitrobutyl radical toward decay with the formation of N•O2. Kinetic parameters that allow us to calculate the energy of activation and rate constant of such a reaction from its enthalpy are estimated using a model of intersecting parabolas. Enthalpies, energies of activation, and rate constants are calculated for a series of reactions with the participation of Et•, EtO•, RO•2, N•O2 radicals on the one hand and a series of nitroalkanes on the other. A new kinetic scheme of the chain decay of nitroalkanes with the participation of abstraction reactions with concerted fragmentation is proposed on the basis of the obtained data.

  10. Standing Concertation Committee - Meetings held on 6, 20 & 22 May 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 6 May 2008 included: Carry-forward of leave The Committee discussed a proposal to increase, for the period 2008-2009, the carry forward of leave days at the end of the 2008 leave year (30 September 2008) so that staff members working on LHC installation and commissioning do not lose leave. It was agreed that departments would be consulted before finalizing a proposal on the number of extra days of carry-forward. Revision of CHIS Rules The Committee discussed a number of outstanding issues relating to the current revision of the CHIS Rules. This revision should be finalized before a market survey is launched for the service contract for the administration of the CHIS that is foreseen by the end of the year. Preparation for TREF on 28 May The following items were to be discussed at TREF on 28 May 2008: Equal Opportunities Report The Committee took note of the report for 2007 presented by the Equ...

  11. [A concertation experience: prevention of WMSDs in workmanship of Parmigiano-Reggiano].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchi, G

    2012-01-01

    The dairy industry of Parmigiano-Reggiano represents in Emilia a resource and an important source of employment. A Protected Designation of Origin (DOP) regulates all stages of processing of milk into cheese "forms" in excess of 40 kg weight, favouring a "traditional" working which involves various manual steps tiring and stressful. From 2002 to 2008 the Service in charge of the Azienda USL of Reggio Emilia has developed a plan focused on musculoskeletal risks in this sector. The need for comparison on the conservation "craftsmanship" of the complex manufacturing process maintaining high attention to health and safety brought the AUSL of Reggio E. and later the AUSL of Modena and Parma, to choose the path of concertation with the social partners, aiming at substantial and non-formal application of the law. It is thus obtained the adoption of preventive measures in a sector so peculiar, complex and constantly changing. Conciliation remains privileged tool in relations between social partners and AUSL of Reggio E. in dairies.

  12. Folding and membrane insertion of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin occur as a concerted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew R; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Rodger, Alison; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2008-11-07

    Many antibiotic peptides function by binding and inserting into membranes. Understanding this process provides an insight into the fundamentals of both membrane protein folding and antibiotic peptide function. For the first time, in this work, flow-aligned linear dichroism (LD) is used to study the folding of the antibiotic peptide gramicidin. LD provides insight into the combined processes of peptide folding and insertion and has the advantage over other similar techniques of being insensitive to off-membrane aggregation events. By combining LD data with conventional measurements of protein fluorescence and circular dichroism, the mechanism of gramicidin insertion is elucidated. The mechanism consists of five separately assignable steps that include formation of a water-insoluble gramicidin aggregate, dissociation from the aggregate, partitioning of peptide to the membrane surface, oligomerisation on the surface and concerted insertion and folding of the peptide to the double-helical form of gramicidin. Measurement of the rates of each step shows that although changes in the fluorescence signal cease 10 s after the initiation of the process, the insertion of the peptide into the membrane is actually not complete for a further 60 min. This last membrane insertion phase is only apparent by measurement of LD and circular dichroism signal changes. In summary, this study demonstrates the importance of multi-technique approaches, including LD, in studies of membrane protein folding.

  13. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  14. Concerted practice and/or conscious parallelism on an oligopolistic market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Jovana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition represents a desirable state of the market in every society. Putting a lot of effort in trying to be better than each other, the competitors of the market, where there is a fair competition, contribute to making that market more advanced than the other one with the weaker competition. However it has become quite frequent to come across the violation of the competition in modern society. It is usually done by making different agreements or with explicit or tacit coordination of conduct on the market. Apart from these, there are many other ways for doing so, with the aim of getting certain benefits, especially making extra profit. In addition to that, there are some restrictions on the competition on oligopolistic markets too, yet, those markets are covered with different market forms which cannot be easily distinguished from the forbidden ones. This paper defines the relation between the concerted practice and conscious parallelism on an oligopolistic market, which is the example of a restricted market conduct, and the one which just seems to be legal, according to the practice of the European Court of Justice.

  15. Conditioning Methodologies for DanceSport: Lessons from Gymnastics, Figure Skating, and Concert Dance Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outevsky, David; Martin, Blake Cw

    2015-12-01

    Dancesport, the competitive branch of ballroom dancing, places high physiological and psychological demands on its practitioners, but pedagogical resources in these areas for this dance form are limited. Dancesport competitors could benefit from strategies used in other aesthetic sports. In this review, we identify conditioning methodologies from gymnastics, figure skating, and contemporary, modern, and ballet dance forms that could have relevance and suitability for dancesport training, and propose several strategies for inclusion in the current dancesport curriculum. We reviewed articles derived from Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis Online, and Web of Science search engines and databases, with publication dates from 1979 to 2013. The keywords included MeSH terms: dancing, gymnastics, physiology, energy metabolism, physical endurance, and range of motion. Out of 47 papers examined, 41 papers met the inclusion criteria (validity of scientific methods, topic relevance, transferability to dancesport, publication date). Quality and validity of the data were assessed by examining the methodologies in each study and comparing studies on similar populations as well as across time using the PRISMA 2009 checklist and flowchart. The relevant research suggests that macro-cycle periodization planning, aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, range of motion and muscular endurance training, and performance psychology methods have potential for adaptation for dancesport training. Dancesport coaches may help their students fulfill their ambitions as competitive athletes and dance artists by adapting the relevant performance enhancement strategies from gymnastics, figure skating, and concert dance forms presented in this paper.

  16. Evolution of homeobox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter W H

    2013-01-01

    Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the well-known Hox genes, plus other genes implicated in development including ParaHox (Cdx, Xlox, Gsx), Evx, Dlx, En, NK4, NK3, Msx, and Nanog. Genomic data suggest that the ANTP class diversified by extensive tandem duplication to generate a large array of genes, including an NK gene cluster and a hypothetical ProtoHox gene cluster that duplicated to generate Hox and ParaHox genes. Expression and functional data suggest that NK, Hox, and ParaHox gene clusters acquired distinct roles in patterning the mesoderm, nervous system, and gut. The PRD class is also diverse and includes Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, Pax4/6, Gsc, Hesx, Otx, Otp, and Pitx genes. PRD genes are not generally arranged in ancient genomic clusters, although the Dux, Obox, and Rhox gene clusters arose in mammalian evolution as did several non-clustered PRD genes. Tandem duplication and genome duplication expanded the number of homeobox genes, possibly contributing to the evolution of developmental complexity, but homeobox gene loss must not be ignored. Evolutionary changes to homeobox gene expression have also been documented, including Hox gene expression patterns shifting in concert with segmental diversification in vertebrates and crustaceans, and deletion of a Pitx1 gene enhancer in pelvic-reduced sticklebacks. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:31-45. doi: 10.1002/wdev.78 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C–Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J., E-mail: a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br{sup ∗}), and C{sub 3}H{sub 5} hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br{sup ∗} atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br{sup ∗} images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C{sub 3}H{sub 5} fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br{sup ∗}, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C{sub 3}H{sub 5} signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C–Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C{sub 3}H{sub 5} radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +} from the photodissociation of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br{sup +} molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  18. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  19. Concerted bis-alkylating reactivity of clerocidin towards unpaired cytosine residues in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sara N.; Menegazzo, Ileana; Fabris, Daniele; Palumbo, Manlio

    2004-01-01

    Clerocidin (CL) is a topoisomerase II poison, which cleaves DNA irreversibly at guanines (G) and reversibly at cytosines (C). Furthermore, the drug can induce enzyme-independent strand breaks at the G and C level. It has been previously shown that G-damage is induced by alkylation of the guanine N7, followed by spontaneous depurination and nucleic acid cleavage, whereas scission at C is obtained only after treatment with hot alkali, and no information is available to explain the nature of this damage. We present here a systematic study on the reactivity of CL towards C both in the DNA environment and in solution. Selected synthetic derivatives were employed to evaluate the role of each chemical group of the drug. The structure of CL–dC adduct was then characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and NMR: the adduct is a stable condensed ring system resulting from a concerted electrophilic attack of the adjacent carbonyl and epoxide groups of CL towards the exposed NH2 and N3, respectively. This reaction mechanism, shown here for the first time, is characterized by faster kinetic rates than alkylation at G, due to the fact that the rate-determining step, alkylation at the epoxide, is an intramolecular process, provided a Schiff base linking CL and C can rapidly form, whereas the corresponding reaction of G N7 is intermolecular. These results provide helpful hints to explain the reversible/irreversible nature of topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage produced by CL at C/G steps. PMID:15494453

  20. Following Musical Shows: A Study with Focal Groups on Satisfaction of Musical Concerts Regular Visitors and Socialization between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúmia Massa Garcia Pires

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify which attributes impact more significantly on the satisfaction of concerts’ regular visitors and socialization between them when inserted in these kinds of events. Thus, we used a qualitative methodology, performing focus groups. Among the main results of this study, we found, regarding satisfaction of concerts’ visitors, the attributes that most influence the public are related to services - especially for beverage supply, cleaning of bathrooms and lines formed inside the event - organization, show infrastructure and performance artists. Furthermore, considering the socialization of the visitors, we found that most respondents often go to concerts together with other people, but some did not exclude the possibility to attend the concerts alone when it comes to a familiar artist.

  1. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  2. Creating personalized memories from social events: Community-based support for multi-camera recordings of school concerts

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes R.L.; Cesar P.; Bulterman D.C.A.; Zsombori V.; Kegel I.

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wide availability of relatively high-quality cameras makes it easy for many users to capture video fragments of social events such as concerts, sports events or community gatherings. The wide availability of simple sharing tools makes it nearly as easy to upload individual fragments to on-line video sites. Current work on video mashups focuses on the creation of a video summary based on the characteristics of individual media fragments, but it fails to address the interpersona...

  3. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE AND TEXTURE IN THE CONCERT WALTZ FOR TWO PIANOS BY OLEG NEGRUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMALÂGA MARINA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the Concert Waltz by Oleg Negruta written for piano duet. This work is considered in terms of form and content. Special attention is given to identifying the specificity of the musical language and texture. As a result, the conclusion is that the originality of the composer’s style is manifested in bright melody, relying on the classic-romantic harmony, enriched by jazz elements.

  4. GENESIS OF KHARKOV MUSIC CULTURE IN THE HIGHLIGHT OF THE CITY’S EDUCATION AND CONCERT LIFE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kononova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the genesis of Kharkov musical culture from the late 18th to the first half of the 19th century, studying it in terms of two aspects, the formation of education and the emergence of the city’s concert life.The relevance of the research subject chosen by the author is determined by the wish to give the fullest description of the multi-layered process of formation of Kharkov musical culture which played one of the leading roles in the history of Ukrainian culture, and to acquaint the Western public with the most interesting facts of the formation and development of a reputable East-European centre. The main range of issues discussed in the article covers the period of the innitial foundation of artistic education, and its influence on the expansion and perception of music in different social circles, presenting the structures and forms of the nascent musical life of Kharkov. The section "Specific features of the Ukrainian system of education" brings out the facts which indicate the progressive tendencies in education, especially, on the territory of Sloboda Ukraine. The formation of artistic education in the religious schools of the city is covered in the section "Genesis of musical education in Kharkov". One of the most productive periods of the city’s cultivation of concert life associated with the functioning of the University is analyzed in the section "The impact of the University music activities on the city's concert going." The Conclusion emphasizes the interaction of traditional and nontraditional in the musical culture of Kharkov that was clearly manifested in the concert activities of the University, in particular, in popularization of oratorios. Furthermore, it discusses the factors which participated in the development in the field of compositional achievement as well as the performing arts and opened new perspectives in the dynamics of the artistic life of the Ukrainian city.

  5. Information concerning the results of the concerted work stoppage on 22 June 2011 (from 8-30 to 12-30)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

     Following the concerted work stoppage called by the Staff Association for 22 June 2011 concerning the measures aimed at restoring the financial equilibrium of the Pension Fund, HR Department invited staff members and fellows to declare whether or not they had participated in this action. As indicated in the communication sent to the persons concerned, it was assumed that those who did not complete the electronic declaration form did not take part in the work stoppage. The results are as follows:     Staff and fellows Declarations: Yes (took part in the concerted work stoppage) 373 Declarations: No (did not take part in the concerted work stoppage) 386 Those requisitioned 120 Those not able to participate in the concerted work stoppage (leave, absence, training…) ...

  6. Les concerts européens à la radio dans l'entre-deux-guerres : mise en ondes d'une métaphore diplomatique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborie, L.; Lommers, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    L’expression « concert européen » s’applique à la fois aux relations diplomatiques tissées entre les Etats au xixe siècle et à la diffusion d’émissions musicales à l’échelle continentale entre 1929 et 1939. Au-delà des prouesses techniques, l’ambition culturelle et pacifiste de ces concerts

  7. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  8. CONCERT. ''European joint programme for the integration of radiation protection research''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Birschwilks, M.; Jung, T.

    2016-01-01

    CONCERT is a joint project of the EU and its member states which assume joint financing: Over the next five years the largest European radiation protection programme so far will have available about 28 Million Euros for research and integrative measures, whereby the European Commission will bear 70 per cent of the costs. Integrative measures include, among others, targeted vocational education and training of junior researchers in radiation protection, better access to research and irradiation facilities for scientists, as well as a stronger connection of universities and research centres in radiation protection research.

  9. Computations on the primary photoreaction of Br2 with CO2: stepwise vs concerted addition of Br atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kewei; Korter, Timothy M; Braiman, Mark S

    2015-04-09

    It was proposed previously that Br2-sensitized photolysis of liquid CO2 proceeds through a metastable primary photoproduct, CO2Br2. Possible mechanisms for such a photoreaction are explored here computationally. First, it is shown that the CO2Br radical is not stable in any geometry. This rules out a free-radical mechanism, for example, photochemical splitting of Br2 followed by stepwise addition of Br atoms to CO2-which in turn accounts for the lack of previously observed Br2+CO2 photochemistry in gas phases. A possible alternative mechanism in liquid phase is formation of a weakly bound CO2:Br2 complex, followed by concerted photoaddition of Br2. This hypothesis is suggested by the previously published spectroscopic detection of a binary CO2:Br2 complex in the supersonically cooled gas phase. We compute a global binding-energy minimum of -6.2 kJ mol(-1) for such complexes, in a linear geometry. Two additional local minima were computed for perpendicular (C2v) and nearly parallel asymmetric planar geometries, both with binding energies near -5.4 kJ mol(-1). In these two latter geometries, C-Br and O-Br bond distances are simultaneously in the range of 3.5-3.8 Å, that is, perhaps suitable for a concerted photoaddition under the temperature and pressure conditions where Br2 + CO2 photochemistry has been observed.

  10. Switching of the positive feedback for RAS activation by a concerted function of SOS membrane association domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Hibino, Kayo; Yanagida, Toshio; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Son of sevenless (SOS) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that regulates cell behavior by activating the small GTPase RAS. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that an interaction between SOS and the GTP-bound active form of RAS generates a positive feedback loop that propagates RAS activation. However, it remains unclear how the multiple domains of SOS contribute to the regulation of the feedback loop in living cells. Here, we observed single molecules of SOS in living cells to analyze the kinetics and dynamics of SOS behavior. The results indicate that the histone fold and Grb2-binding domains of SOS concertedly produce an intermediate state of SOS on the cell surface. The fraction of the intermediated state was reduced in positive feedback mutants, suggesting that the feedback loop functions during the intermediate state. Translocation of RAF, recognizing the active form of RAS, to the cell surface was almost abolished in the positive feedback mutants. Thus, the concerted functions of multiple membrane-associating domains of SOS governed the positive feedback loop, which is crucial for cell fate decision regulated by RAS.

  11. Conference-concert with Frédéric Bernachon on Thursday, 8 March at 6 pm

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    The Staff Association is pleased to invite you to an educational conference-concert of classical piano by Frédéric Bernachon « Beethoven : sa vie et son destin au cœur de la sonate Pathétique » on Thursday, 8 March at 6 pm Main Auditorium (500-1-001) Length: 60-90 minutes. Free entrance, cocktails served after the concert. External visitors, please contact the Staff Association for a visitor card: staff.association@cern.ch or +41 22 76 63738 With the help of a piano, Frédéric Bernachon proposes to explain the tragedy of Beethoven, as transmitted in his musical legacy. The listeners will get to experience Ludwig van Beethoven's destiny, suspense, drama and great questions in all their range and variety. After a careful introduction to listening to Sonate Pathétique, Frédéric Bernachon himself interprets this unique piece, through which Beethowen has chosen...

  12. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  13. Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas are considered concerning the evolution of galaxies which are closely related to those of stellar evolution and the origin of elements. Using information obtained from stellar spectra, astronomers are now able to consider an underlying process to explain the distribution of various elements in the stars, gas and dust clouds of the galaxies. (U.K.)

  14. Darwinian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter; Koelewijn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a

  15. Mechanisms of oxygen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmer, R; Cheniae, G

    1976-08-01

    The production of O/sub 2/ from water requires the collaboration of four oxidizing equivalents. When dark-adapted O/sub 2/ evolving photosynthetic material is illuminated by a sequence of short (less than 2 ..mu..sec) saturating flashes, the amount of O/sub 2/ evolved per flash oscillates with a period of four. This indicates that a charge-collector, operating with its own reaction center, successively collects and stores four oxidizing equivalents, which are used in a concerted oxidation of two water molecules. Luminescence, fluorescence, and pH changes also reflect this cycle of four. The O/sub 2/ precursor states are quite stable; under some conditions they can have a lifetime of several minutes. The O/sub 2/-yielding reactions and reactions associated with trap recovery are fast relative to the rate-limiting step of photosynthesis. The molecular identity of the charge-collector is unknown, but correlative evidence suggests that a manganese containing catalyst (approximately 4 Mn/charge collector) participates, possibly directly. Formation of the active Mn-containing catalyst occurs via a multi-quantum process occurring within the System II reaction center. The photoactivated catalyst, located on the inner face of the thylakoid membrane, remains permanently active and essentially inaccessible to chemicals other than analogs of H/sub 2/O (e.g., NH/sub 3/, NH/sub 2/OH). This O/sub 2/ evolving catalyst can be deactivated by a variety of treatments that do not alter the system II reaction center. Anions such as chloride seem to participate rather directly in the O/sub 2/ evolution process via unknown mechanism(s).

  16. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  17. Molecular evolution of the keratin associated protein gene family in mammals, role in the evolution of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2008-08-23

    Hair is unique to mammals. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), which contain two major groups: high/ultrahigh cysteine and high glycine-tyrosine, are one of the major components of hair and play essential roles in the formation of rigid and resistant hair shafts. The KRTAP family was identified as being unique to mammals, and near-complete KRTAP gene repertoires for eight mammalian genomes were characterized in this study. An expanded KRTAP gene repertoire was found in rodents. Surprisingly, humans have a similar number of genes as other primates despite the relative hairlessness of humans. We identified several new subfamilies not previously reported in the high/ultrahigh cysteine KRTAP genes. Genes in many subfamilies of the high/ultrahigh cysteine KRTAP genes have evolved by concerted evolution with frequent gene conversion events, yielding a higher GC base content for these gene sequences. In contrast, the high glycine-tyrosine KRTAP genes have evolved more dynamically, with fewer gene conversion events and thus have a lower GC base content, possibly due to positive selection. Most of the subfamilies emerged early in the evolution of mammals, thus we propose that the mammalian ancestor should have a diverse KRTAP gene repertoire. We propose that hair content characteristics have evolved and diverged rapidly among mammals because of rapid divergent evolution of KRTAPs between species. In contrast, subfamilies of KRTAP genes have been homogenized within each species due to concerted evolution.

  18. Visualization of multivalent histone modification in a single cell reveals highly concerted epigenetic changes on differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattori, Naoko; Niwa, Tohru; Kimura, Kana

    2013-01-01

    . Bivalent modification was clearly visualized by iChmo in wild-type embryonic stem cells (ESCs) known to have it, whereas rarely in Suz12 knockout ESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts known to have little of it. iChmo was applied to analysis of epigenetic and phenotypic changes of heterogeneous cell......Combinations of histone modifications have significant biological roles, such as maintenance of pluripotency and cancer development, but cannot be analyzed at the single cell level. Here, we visualized a combination of histone modifications by applying the in situ proximity ligation assay, which...... population, namely, ESCs at an early stage of differentiation, and this revealed that the bivalent modification disappeared in a highly concerted manner, whereas phenotypic differentiation proceeded with large variations among cells. Also, using this method, we were able to visualize a combination...

  19. Human breast cancer: concerted role of diet, prolactin and adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J B

    1992-04-01

    The low incidence of breast cancer in Japan disappears within 2 generations in migrant Japanese in the USA. This is of fundamental importance if we are to understand, and perhaps reverse, the high rate seen in Western countries. Diet is the most likely factor involved, and a review of the topic of diet, body mass index, and gain in adult body mass, supports a relationship between these factors and breast-cancer risk in post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal, women. A direct link between nutritional factors and secretion of the hormones prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is proposed. An estrogen 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol is formed peripherally from the latter steroid, and in Western women attains a blood concentration at which it is biologically active. Thus diet/fat provides factors, viz., fatty acids, prolactin and estrogen, which in concerted fashion provide a milieu conducive to mammary tumorigenesis.

  20. Concerted in vitro trimming of viral HLA-B27-restricted ligands by human ERAP1 and ERAP2 aminopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen; Jiménez, Mercedes; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen processing and presentation pathway, the antigenic peptides are generated from viral proteins by multiple proteolytic cleavages of the proteasome (and in some cases other cytosolic proteases) and transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen where they are exposed to aminopeptidase activity. In human cells, two different ER-resident enzymes, ERAP1 and ERAP2, can trim the N-terminally extended residues of peptide precursors. In this study, the possible cooperative effect of generating five naturally processed HLA-B27 ligands by both proteases was analyzed. We identified differences in the products obtained with increased detection of natural HLA-B27 ligands by comparing double versus single enzyme digestions by mass spectrometry analysis. These in vitro data suggest that each enzyme can use the degradation products of the other as a substrate for new N-terminal trimming, indicating concerted aminoproteolytic activity of ERAP 1 and ERAP2.

  1. Concerted evolution of rDNA in recently formed Tragopogon allotetraploids is typically associated with an inverse correlation between gene copy number and expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matyášek, Roman; Tate, J. A.; Lim, Y.K.; Šrubařová, Hana; Koh, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 4 (2007), s. 2509-2519 ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0687; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : rDNA silencing * nucleolar dominance * allopolyploidy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2007

  2. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  3. COMMUNICATIONAL THINKING IN THE STATE ORCHESTRA OF MATO GROSSO AND THE FIELD OF CONCERT MUSIC IN CUIABÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Gushiken

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Na perspectiva da “comunicação como cultura”, este artigo tem como questão central a relação entre pensamento comunicacional e a formação da música de concerto como campo artístico-cultural, num estudo de caso da Orquestra do Estado de Mato Grosso (OEMT. Criada em 2005, a OEMT instituiu um novo momento para a música de concerto em Cuiabá, capital de Mato Grosso, estado do Centro-Oeste com parte de seu território na Amazônia Legal. O funcionamento da OEMT na primeira década de atividade (2005-2015 atualiza-se com o desenvolvimento paralelo de estratégias de comunicação organizacional que redimensionam as relações da orquestra junto a seus diversos públicos. A interface entre distintos campos profissionais evidencia a dimensão comunicacional das práticas artísticas e culturais na contemporaneidade.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Comunicação; Música de concerto; Orquestra do Estado de Mato Grosso; Cuiabá.     ABSTRACT In the perspective of “communication as culture”, this article has as its central question the relationship between communicational thinking and the formation of concert music as an artistic-cultural field, in a case study of the State Orchestra of Mato Grosso (OEMT. Created in 2005, OEMT instituted a new moment for concert music in Cuiabá, capital of Mato Grosso, state of the Midwest with part of its territory in the Legal Amazon. The operation of OEMT in the first decade of activity (2005-2015 is updated with the parallel development of organizational communication strategies that reshape the relations of the orchestra with its different audiences. The interface between different professional fields evidences the communicational dimension of the artistic and cultural practices in the contemporaneity.   KEYWORDS: Communication; Concert music; State Orchestra of  Mato Grosso; Cuiabá.     RESUMEN Desde la perspectiva de la “comunicación como cultura”, este artículo tiene como cuestión central la

  4. An European concerted action investigating the validity of perinatal mortality as an outcome indicator for the quality of antenatal and perinatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardus, J.H.; Graafmans, W.C.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the concepts, objectives, design, and data analysis procedures of the EuroNatal study are described. This sutdy started in 1996 and is a concerted action including 14 countries in Europe. The EuroNatal study aims at determining the validity of national perinatal mortality rates as an

  5. Pilot study: Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact in the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.

    2002-05-01

    What does one room sound like when it is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact aural impressions in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall was conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound-absorption levels were established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) Architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) Materiality, as defined by the sound absorbance in the coupled volume. Preliminary calculations indicate that the double-sloped sound decay condition only appears when the total aperture area is less than 1.5% of the total shoebox surface area and the average absorption coefficient of the coupled volume is less than 0.07.

  6. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  7. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  8. Cepheid evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1984-05-01

    A review of the phases of stellar evolution relevant to Cepheid variables of both Types I and II is presented. Type I Cepheids arise as a result of normal post-main sequence evolutionary behavior of many stars in the intermediate to massive range of stellar masses. In contrast, Type II Cepheids generally originate from low-mass stars of low metalicity which are undergoing post core helium-burning evolution. Despite great progress in the past two decades, uncertainties still remain in such areas as how to best model convective overshoot, semiconvection, stellar atmospheres, rotation, and binary evolution as well as uncertainties in important physical parameters such as the nuclear reaction rates, opacity, and mass loss rates. The potential effect of these uncertainties on stellar evolution models is discussed. Finally, comparisons between theoretical predictions and observations of Cepheid variables are presented for a number of cases. The results of these comparisons show both areas of agreement and disagreement with the latter result providing incentive for further research

  9. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Therefore, the platypus sequence was studied to quantify the role of gene duplication in the evolution of venom. ... Platypus venom is present only in males and is used for asserting dominance over com- petitors during the ... Certain toxin gene families are known to re- peatedly evolve through gene duplications. The rapidly ...

  10. Philippine Tourism: Evolution towards Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilapil-Añasco Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippine tourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972; 2] martial law era (1972-1986; 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000; and 4] 21st century era (2001-present. The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippine tourism.

  11. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  12. Offshore Wind Energy Ready to Power a Sustainable Europe. Final Report. Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the project Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe [CA-OWEE] is to define the current state of the art of offshore wind energy in Europe through gathering and evaluation of information from across Europe and to disseminate the resulting knowledge to all interested, in order to help stimulate the development of the industry. The project is being funded by the European Commission and will be completed at the end of 2001. The knowledge gathered will be freely available through an internet site, a workshop and a printed report. This project divides offshore wind energy into five clusters of subjects and reviews the recent history and summarise the current state of affairs, relating to: Cluster 1 offshore technology, of the wind turbines and the support structures, Cluster 2 grid integration, energy supply and financing, Cluster 3 resources and economics, Cluster 4 activities and prospects, Cluster 5 social acceptance, environmental impact and politics. The conclusions from these surveys are then used to define recommendations for the future RTD strategy for Europe. The project's 17 partners come from 13 countries, thus covering the majority of the European Community's coastline. The partners cover a wide range of expertise and include developers, utilities, consultants, research institutes and universities

  13. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohgi Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA, which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  14. Concerted in vitro trimming of viral HLA-B27-restricted ligands by human ERAP1 and ERAP2 aminopeptidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lorente

    Full Text Available In the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I antigen processing and presentation pathway, the antigenic peptides are generated from viral proteins by multiple proteolytic cleavages of the proteasome (and in some cases other cytosolic proteases and transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lumen where they are exposed to aminopeptidase activity. In human cells, two different ER-resident enzymes, ERAP1 and ERAP2, can trim the N-terminally extended residues of peptide precursors. In this study, the possible cooperative effect of generating five naturally processed HLA-B27 ligands by both proteases was analyzed. We identified differences in the products obtained with increased detection of natural HLA-B27 ligands by comparing double versus single enzyme digestions by mass spectrometry analysis. These in vitro data suggest that each enzyme can use the degradation products of the other as a substrate for new N-terminal trimming, indicating concerted aminoproteolytic activity of ERAP 1 and ERAP2.

  15. Paul Wittgenstein's right arm and his phantom: the saga of a famous concert pianist and his amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein crystal growth on board Shenzhou 3: a concerted effort improves crystal diffraction quality and facilitates structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.; Cang, H.-X.; Zhou, J.-X.; Wang, Y.-P.; Bi, R.-C.; Colelesage, J.; Delbaere, L.T.J.; Nahoum, V.; Shi, R.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, D.-W.; Lin, S.-X.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization of 16 proteins was carried out using 60 wells on board Shenzhou 3 in 2002. Although the mission was only 7 days, careful and concerted planning at all stages made it possible to obtain crystals of improved quality compared to their ground controls for some of the proteins. Significantly improved resolutions were obtained from diffracted crystals of 4 proteins. A complete data set from a space crystal of the PEP carboxykinase yielded significantly higher resolution (1.46 A vs. 1.87 A), I/sigma (22.4 vs. 15.5), and a lower average temperature factor (29.2 A 2 vs. 42.9 A 2 ) than the best ground-based control crystal. The 3-D structure of the enzyme is well improved with significant ligand density. It has been postulated that the reduced convection and absence of macromolecule sedimentation under microgravity have advantages/benefits for protein crystal growth. Improvements in experimental design for protein crystal growth in microgravity are ongoing

  17. Acetic acid can catalyze succinimide formation from aspartic acid residues by a concerted bond reorganization mechanism: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-12

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  18. Nudging Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine N. Farrell; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institut...

  19. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Main points examined at the meeting of 24 June 2009 Results of the 2009 MARS exercise The Committee took note of the results of the 2009 MARS exercise presented by the Head of the HR Department, expressing satisfaction for the early availability of the statistics and for the fact that the analysis of the results covered the last three years. Status report on the work on the five-yearly review The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Gildemyn on the data collection procedure for the 2010 five-yearly review (staff, fellows, associate members of the personnel, CHIS) and of the proposed work schedule. Implications for employment conditions of the discussions at the Finance Committee and Council on 17 and 18 June 2009 The Chairman briefly reported on the discussions at the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in June 2009, on the 2010-2014 medium-term plan and the 2010 preliminary draft budget, as well as on the modified strategy and goals for 2009. The Committee ...

  1. Towards a Concerted Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...

  2. Thinking-in-Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  3. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  4. Stakeholder Analysis for Sharing Agro-environment Issues Towards Concerted Action: A Case Study on Diffuse Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Roggero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing need for participatory approaches to support the development of sustainable farming systems, based on the active involvement of stakeholders in the definition of research objectives and priorities. This paper reports the experience of a team of agronomy researchers involved in the SLIM project (http://slim.open.ac.uk, around a case study of nitrate pollution. The agro-ecosystem analysis included biophysical processes at microcatchment scale and the stakeholders’ perceptions, interests and practices related to the nitrate issue (stakeholders analysis. The conceptual SLIM framework model supported new interactions among stakeholders, that were facilitated by researchers, using dialogical tools to enable them to use scientific data and to integrate their own knowledge on the farming system. The agro-environment policies, based on compulsory prescriptions, revealed weak assumptions and insufficient integration of scientific knowledge. The stakeholder analysis contributed to the identification of priorities both for scientific research and agro-environment policies. Researchers provided the site-specific scientific knowledge, in a way that enabled stakeholders to identify the relationships between agricultural practices, landscape values and the nitrate pollution issue and to elaborate shared strategies to develop concerted actions. New spaces for interaction between researchers and stakeholders should be created to face complex agro-environment issues at catchment scale, such as the nitrate pollution of groundwater. The implication for agronomy research is that the experiments should be designed to produce suitable results to facilitate participatory sessions and that it is worthwhile to invest in specific skills of communication science and group dynamics management within the agronomy researchers’ community, in order to integrate agronomy knowledge into high quality participatory processes.

  5. Stakeholder Analysis for Sharing Agro-environment Issues Towards Concerted Action: A Case Study on Diffuse Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toderi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing need for participatory approaches to support the development of sustainable farming systems, based on the active involvement of stakeholders in the definition of research objectives and priorities. This paper reports the experience of a team of agronomy researchers involved in the SLIM project (http://slim.open.ac.uk, around a case study of nitrate pollution. The agro-ecosystem analysis included biophysical processes at microcatchment scale and the stakeholders’ perceptions, interests and practices related to the nitrate issue (stakeholders analysis. The conceptual SLIM framework model supported new interactions among stakeholders, that were facilitated by researchers, using dialogical tools to enable them to use scientific data and to integrate their own knowledge on the farming system. The agro-environment policies, based on compulsory prescriptions, revealed weak assumptions and insufficient integration of scientific knowledge. The stakeholder analysis contributed to the identification of priorities both for scientific research and agro-environment policies. Researchers provided the site-specific scientific knowledge, in a way that enabled stakeholders to identify the relationships between agricultural practices, landscape values and the nitrate pollution issue and to elaborate shared strategies to develop concerted actions. New spaces for interaction between researchers and stakeholders should be created to face complex agro-environment issues at catchment scale, such as the nitrate pollution of groundwater. The implication for agronomy research is that the experiments should be designed to produce suitable results to facilitate participatory sessions and that it is worthwhile to invest in specific skills of communication science and group dynamics management within the agronomy researchers’ community, in order to integrate agronomy knowledge into high quality participatory processes.

  6. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-09-01

    BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The concerted impact of galaxies and QSOs on the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Meiksin, Avery; Compostella, Michele; Eide, Marius B.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2017-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionization and thermal structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around a high-redshift (z = 10) QSO, using a large suite of cosmological, multifrequency radiative transfer simulations, exploring the contribution from galaxies as well as the QSO, and the effect of X-rays and secondary ionization. We show that in high-z QSO environments both the central QSO and the surrounding galaxies concertedly control the reionization morphology of hydrogen and helium and have a non-linear impact on the thermal structure of the IGM. A QSO imprints a distinctive morphology on H II regions if its total ionizing photon budget exceeds that of the surrounding galaxies since the onset of hydrogen reionization; otherwise, the morphology shows little difference from that of H II regions produced only by galaxies. In addition, the spectral shape of the collective radiation field from galaxies and QSOs controls the thickness of the I-fronts. While a UV-obscured QSO can broaden the I-front, the contribution from other UV sources, either galaxies or unobscured QSOs, is sufficient to maintain a sharp I-front. X-ray photons from the QSO are responsible for a prominent extended tail of partial ionization ahead of the I-front. QSOs leave a unique imprint on the morphology of He II/He III regions. We suggest that, while the physical state of the IGM is modified by QSOs, the most direct test to understand the role of galaxies and QSOs during reionization is to perform galaxy surveys in a region of sky imaged by 21 cm tomography.

  8. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  9. Computational Investigation of the Competition between the Concerted Diels-Alder Reaction and Formation of Diradicals in Reactions of Acrylonitrile with Non-Polar Dienes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Natalie C.; Um, Joann M.; Padias, Anne B.; Hall, H. K.; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data. For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene with acrylonitrile is preferred computationally over the stepwise pathway by 5.9 kcal/mol; experimentally, only the Diels-Alder adduct is formed. For the reactions of (E)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, both cycloaddition and copolymerization were observed experimentally; these trends were mimicked by the computational results, which showed only a 1.2 kcal/mol preference for the concerted pathway. For the reactions of (Z)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, the stepwise pathway is preferred by 3.9 kcal/mol, in agreement with previous experimental findings that only polymerization occurs. M06-2X is known to give more accurate activation and reaction energetics but the energies of diradicals are too high. PMID:23758325

  10. Aperture size, materiality of the secondary room and listener location: Impact on the simulated impulse response of a coupled-volume concert hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.; Harrison, Byron W.

    2003-04-01

    By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume concert hall based on an existing performing arts center is conceived and computer-modeled. It has a fixed geometric volume, form and primary-room sound absorption. Ray-tracing software simulates impulse responses, varying both aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption level, across a grid of receiver (listener) locations. The results are compared with statistical analysis that suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and the architecture of the space. This line of study aims to quantitatively and spatially correlate the double-sloped condition with (1) aperture size exposing the chamber, (2) sound absorptance in the coupled volume, and (3) listener location.

  11. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  12. Neutral and Non-Neutral Evolution of Duplicated Genes with Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Fawcett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is one of the major mutational mechanisms involved in the DNA sequence evolution of duplicated genes. It contributes to create unique patters of DNA polymorphism within species and divergence between species. A typical pattern is so-called concerted evolution, in which the divergence between duplicates is maintained low for a long time because of frequent exchanges of DNA fragments. In addition, gene conversion affects the DNA evolution of duplicates in various ways especially when selection operates. Here, we review theoretical models to understand the evolution of duplicates in both neutral and non-neutral cases. We also explain how these theories contribute to interpreting real polymorphism and divergence data by using some intriguing examples.

  13. Om religion og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    for kulturens kausale virkning på den menneskelige kognition og ikke mindst den hominine evolution. Ud fra, hvad vi ved om den menneskelige evolution, ses det, at den hominine evolution har en dybde, som sjældent medtænkes i teorier og hypoteser om den menneskelige evolution. Den menneskelige evolution er...

  14. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  15. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  16. The Concert of Europe and Great Power Governance Today: What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    13 These differences became alarmingly clear once liberal revolutions broke out across multiple European polities in 1820.61 The eastern powers ...dealings with that eastern power that they had so often worked with in concert. For in that treat- ment, the western powers ultimately “ broke the first...KYLE LASCURETTES The Concert of Europe and Great- Power Governance Today What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About

  17. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible damaging sound intensities in rehearsals or performances.

  18. Nudging Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institutional "fit" might play a role in helping to develop better understanding of the social components of interlinkages between the socioeconomic-cultural and ecological dynamics of social-ecological systems. Two clearly discernible patterns provide a map of this Special Feature: (1 One pattern is the authors' positions regarding the place and role of normativity within their studies and assessment of institutional fit. Some place this at the center of their studies, exploring phenomena endogenous to the process of defining what constitutes institutional fit, whereas others take the formation of norms as a phenomenon exogenous to their study. (2 Another pattern is the type of studies presented: critiques and elaborations of the theory, methods for judging qualities of fit, and/or applied case studies using the concept. As a body of work, these contributions highlight that self-understanding of social-ecological place, whether explicit or implicit, constitutes an important part of the study object, i.e., the role of institutions in social-ecological systems, and that this is, at the same time, a crucial point of reference for the scholar wishing to evaluate what constitutes institutional fit and how it might be brought into being.

  19. Control of concerted two bond versus single bond dissociation in CH3Co(CO)4 via an intermediate state using pump-dump laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, David; González, Leticia

    2007-10-01

    Wavepacket propagations on ab initio multiconfigurational two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for CH3Co(CO)4 indicate that after irradiation to the lowest first and second electronic excited states, concerted dissociation of CH3 and the axial CO ligand takes place. We employ a pump-dump sequence of pulses with appropriate frequencies and time delays to achieve the selective breakage of a single bond by controlling the dissociation angle. The pump and dump pulse sequence exploits the unbound surface where dissociation occurs in a counterintuitive fashion; stretching of one bond in an intermediate state enhances the single dissociation of the other bond.

  20. Control of concerted two bond versus single bond dissociation in CH(3)Co(CO)(4) via an intermediate state using pump-dump laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, David; González, Leticia

    2007-10-07

    Wavepacket propagations on ab initio multiconfigurational two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for CH(3)Co(CO)(4) indicate that after irradiation to the lowest first and second electronic excited states, concerted dissociation of CH(3) and the axial CO ligand takes place. We employ a pump-dump sequence of pulses with appropriate frequencies and time delays to achieve the selective breakage of a single bond by controlling the dissociation angle. The pump and dump pulse sequence exploits the unbound surface where dissociation occurs in a counterintuitive fashion; stretching of one bond in an intermediate state enhances the single dissociation of the other bond.

  1. Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Gomolka, Maria; Haylock, Richard; Blanchardon, Eric; Giussani, Augusto; Atkinson, Will; Baatout, Sarah; Bingham, Derek; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Tomasek, Ladislav; Ancelet, Sophie; Badie, Christophe; Bethel, Gary; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Bouet, Ségolène; Bull, Richard; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cécile; Cockerill, Rupert; Davesne, Estelle; Ebrahimian, Teni; Engels, Hilde; Gillies, Michael; Grellier, James; Grison, Stephane; Gueguen, Yann; Hornhardt, Sabine; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Kabacik, Sylwia; Kotik, Lukas; Kreuzer, Michaela; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Marsh, James; Nosske, Dietmar; O'Hagan, Jackie; Pernot, Eileen; Puncher, Matthew; Rage, Estelle; Riddell, Tony; Roy, Laurence; Samson, Eric; Souidi, Maamar; Turner, Michelle C; Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium has biological effects, but their implications for human health are not clear. New studies that would combine the strengths of large, well-designed epidemiological datasets with those of state-of-the-art biological methods would help improve the characterization of the biological and health effects of occupational uranium exposure. The aim of the European Commission concerted action CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) was to develop protocols for such a future collaborative research project, in which dosimetry, epidemiology and biology would be integrated to better characterize the effects of occupational uranium exposure. These protocols were developed from existing European cohorts of workers exposed to uranium together with expertise in epidemiology, biology and dosimetry of CURE partner institutions. The preparatory work of CURE should allow a large scale collaborative project to be launched, in order to better characterize the effects of uranium exposure and more generally of alpha particles and low doses of ionizing radiation.

  2. Concerted Practice-Based Actions in Intimate Partner and Family Violence: When the Children’s Well-Being Is the Central Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Lessard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the exposure of children to intimate partner violence is, along with negligence, one of the most frequent forms of maltreatment. Intimate partner violence raises important issues with regard to child custody and to the exercising of parental roles. The aid provided for children exposed to intimate partner violence covers a range of programs, in particular community services specializing in intimate partner violence, frontline social and health services, and child protection. However, these resource services do not share the same missions, or the same understanding of the problems and possible solutions, since they often operate in parallel networks. The complex situations of families confronted with intimate partner violence present considerable challenges in terms of collaboration between the different organizations. Action research was employed to develop an innovative concertation strategy that fostered collaboration between practitioners from different family resource services. The strategy, which was implemented in the Québec City region between 2011 and 2013, was then evaluated. This article presents the results of this evaluation as well as the positive outcomes that the concertation strategy had for the practitioners’ practice and for the improvement of family services.

  3. Niš music festival and avant-garde music: Case studies concert of the Radio Belgrade Electronic Studio and 'John Cage's Evening'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Sonja S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period of domination of socialist realism and moderate modernism, which meant for the Serbian post-war musical creativity isolation from the European and world trends of musical avant-garde, during the sixties and seventies of the twentieth century music of the Serbian and Yugoslav composers of the younger generation becomes more open to a new sound concepts of serialism, aleatory, electronic media and minimalism. A radical break with tradition and changes in almost all aspects of the new music - aesthetics, notation, sound realization - made difficult to establish a clear criteria for its evaluation and therefore, the general reception of the most actual tendencies. Beside two institutional musical places where the contemporary world and national music was performed and promoted - International Music Biennale Zagreb, founded in 1961 and annual Review of Yugoslav Music in Opatija, founded in 1964 (since 1979 under the name Review of Musical Creativity of Yugoslavia, concert and festival stages in the leading musical centers in former Yugoslavia have shown considerable restraint to the contemporary music. In the case of the reception of electro-acoustic compositions created in the Radio Belgrade Electronic Studio and John Cage's sonatas for prepared piano that were performed at the Niš (October Music Festival during the eighties of the 20th century, the paper discusses about the representation of avant-garde music at this manifestation and openness of the local public towards the contemporary compositional streams. At the concert held in 1981 in the hall of the Niš Symphony Orchestra were presented the latest achievements of the composers Miloš Petrović (Anton with or without Webern, 1981, Paul Pignon (Cartoon, 1980, Janez Matičič (Fusions, 1979, Vladan Radovanović (Audiospacial, 1975-78 and Dragoslav Ortakov (Eleorp, 1976 realized in the Radio Belgrade Electronic Studio founded in 1971. Serbian pianist Nada Kolundžija performed in

  4. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  5. Design and evaluation of a higher-order spherical microphone/ambisonic sound reproduction system for the acoustical assessment of concert halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Samuel W.

    Previous studies of the perception of concert hall acoustics have generally employed two methods for soliciting listeners' judgments. One method is to have listeners rate the sound in a hall while physically present in that hall. The other method is to make recordings of different halls and seat positions, and then recreate the environment for listeners in a laboratory setting via loudspeakers or headphones. In situ evaluations offer a completely faithful rendering of all aspects of the concert hall experience. However, many variables cannot be controlled and the short duration of auditory memory precludes an objective comparison of different spaces. Simulation studies allow for more control over various aspects of the evaluations, as well as A/B comparisons of different halls and seat positions. The drawback is that all simulation methods suffer from limitations in the accuracy of reproduction. If the accuracy of the simulation system is improved, then the advantages of the simulation method can be retained, while mitigating its disadvantages. Spherical microphone array technology has received growing interest in the acoustics community in recent years for many applications including beamforming, source localization, and other forms of three-dimensional sound field analysis. These arrays can decompose a measured sound field into its spherical harmonic components, the spherical harmonics being a set of spatial basis functions on the sphere that are derived from solving the wave equation in spherical coordinates. Ambisonics is a system for two- and three-dimensional spatialized sound that is based on recreating a sound field from its spherical harmonic components. Because of these shared mathematical underpinnings, ambisonics provides a natural way to present fully spatialized renderings of recordings made with a spherical microphone array. Many of the previously studied applications of spherical microphone arrays have used a narrow frequency range where the array

  6. Correlated evolution of body and fin morphology in the cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L

    2016-10-01

    Body and fin shapes are chief determinants of swimming performance in fishes. Different configurations of body and fin shapes can suit different locomotor specializations. The success of any configuration is dependent upon the hydrodynamic interactions between body and fins. Despite the importance of body-fin interactions for swimming, there are few data indicating whether body and fin configurations evolve in concert, or whether these structures vary independently. The cichlid fishes are a diverse family whose well-studied phylogenetic relationships make them ideal for the study of macroevolution of ecomorphology. This study measured body, and caudal and median fin morphology from radiographs of 131 cichlid genera, using morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods to determine whether these traits exhibit correlated evolution. Partial least squares canonical analysis revealed that body, caudal fin, dorsal fin, and anal fin shapes all exhibited strong correlated evolution consistent with locomotor ecomorphology. Major patterns included the evolution of deep body profiles with long fins, suggestive of maneuvering specialization; and the evolution of narrow, elongate caudal peduncles with concave tails, a combination that characterizes economical cruisers. These results demonstrate that body shape evolution does not occur independently of other traits, but among a suite of other morphological changes that augment locomotor specialization. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Legami curati – Legami curanti "Cliniche della Concertazione" e violenze di quartiere / Liens soignés, liens soignant. « Cliniques de Concertation » et violences de quartiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Lemaire

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mahdi is twenty-six years old, he is tall and athletic. He is blind, because he was attacked. This kind of situation puts at work a complex network of professionals of help, care, education and control, beyond everything they can expect. The methodology of the « Clinic of Concertation », as a « Laboratory of applied communicational ethics », recognises that Mahdi and the members of his family are directly part of this network. If the professionals do not resist to this collective construction, they will see laying out different relational systems in balance from which they can exploit the resources in the process of reconstructive links. More than a narrative device, the "Clinic of Concertation" is a creative therapeutic device governed by random rules beyond an absolute mastery. It is, in a collective discussion that does not exclude any member of the collective, but on the contrary, that promotes every extensive step, about differentiating without dissociating, with all interested persons, what will belong to the private sphere and what will belong to the public sphere, while recognizing the legitimacy of the compensatory dynamics of revenge and the protective dynamics of future generations, by identifying their joints, their compatibilities and their incompatibilities, by developing preferentially those reconstructive and preventive.Mahdi a vingt-six ans, il est grand et de stature athlétique. Il est aveugle. Il a été victime d’une agression qui lui a ôté la vue. Une situation comme celle de Mahdi met au travail un réseau complexe associant des professionnels de l’aide, du soin, de l’éducation et du contrôle, au-delà de ce que ces mêmes professionnels peuvent imaginer. La Méthodologie de la « Clinique de Concertation », en tant que « Laboratoire d’éthique communicationelle appliquée», reconnaît que Mahdi et les membres de sa famille font d’emblée partie des architectes de ce réseau. Si les professionnels ne r

  8. Diathesis sotto tensione. La sala per concerti del Centro culturale di Atene di Jan Despo / Diathesis under Tension. Concert Theatre of the Athens Cultural Center by Jan Despo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilemachos Adrianopoulos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1959, l'architetto greco Jan Despo (1903-1992 fu insignito del primo premio nella competizione per il Centro culturale di Atene, rimasto irrealizzato eccezion fatta per il Conservatorio di Atene. La sala circolare per concerti, danza e conferenze era l'edificio nodale di una ambiziosa composizione urbana: la sbalorditiva forma geometrica della sala, la funzione tipicamente composita e l'ingegnosa conformazione strutturale furono integralmente concepite all'interno di una "diathesis spaziale". / In 1959, Greek architect Jan Despo (1903-1992 was awarded First Prize in the competition for the Athens Cultural Centre -that remained unrealized, however, with the exception of the Athens Conservatory. The circular concert, dance and conference theatre was the nodal building of an ambitious urban composition: the theatre’s stunning geometric form, distinctively composite function and ingenious structural conformation were all integrally conceived—within an essentially tense spatial diathesis.

  9. Visiting the cinema, concerts, museums or art exhibitions as determinant of survival: a Swedish fourteen-year cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlaan, B B; Bygren, L O; Johansson, S E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible influence of attending various kinds of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. A cohort of individuals aged 25-74 years from a random sample were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers in 1982 and 1983. The interviews covered standard-of-living variables. Our independent variables covered visiting cultural institutions and attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and music making. The non-response rate was about 25%. The cohort was followed with respect to survival for 14 years up to 31st December 1996. The background covariates that were used for control purposes were age, sex, cash buffer, educational standard, long-term disease, smoking, and physical exercise. Our setting was the Swedish survey of living conditions among the adult Swedish population aged 25-74 years. About 10,609 individuals were interviewed in 1982 and 1983. The outcome measure was survival until 31st December 1996. In all, 916 men and 600 women died during this period. We found a higher mortality risk for those people who rarely visited the cinema, concerts, museums, or art exhibitions compared with those visiting them most often. The significant relative risks ranging between RR 1.14 (95% CI. 1.01-1.31) of attending art exhibitions, and RR 1.42 (CI. 1.25-1.60) of attending museums, when adjusting for the nine other variables. Visits to the cinema and concerts gave significant RR in between. We could not discern any beneficial effect of attending the theatre, church service or sports event as a spectator or any effect of reading or music making. Our conclusion is that attendance at certain kinds of cultural events may have a beneficial effect on longevity.

  10. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inlet Geomorphology Evolution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Std Z39-18 Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP evaluates

  11. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  12. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  13. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  14. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  15. Stellar structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  16. Adaptability and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2017-10-06

    The capacity of organisms to respond in their own lifetimes to new challenges in their environments probably appeared early in biological evolution. At present few studies have shown how such adaptability could influence the inherited characteristics of an organism's descendants. In part, this has been because organisms have been treated as passive in evolution. Nevertheless, their effects on biological evolution are likely to have been important and, when they occurred, accelerated the pace of evolution. Ways in which this might have happened have been suggested many times since the 1870s. I review these proposals and discuss their relevance to modern thought.

  17. Two small RNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, act in concert to sequester the Crc global regulator in Pseudomonas putida, modulating catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Fonseca, Pilar; Rojo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Crc protein is a translational repressor that recognizes a specific target at some mRNAs, controlling catabolite repression and co-ordinating carbon metabolism in pseudomonads. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of free Crc protein are controlled by CrcZ, a sRNA that sequesters Crc, acting as an antagonist. We show that, in Pseudomonas putida, the levels of free Crc are controlled by CrcZ and by a novel 368 nt sRNA named CrcY. CrcZ and CrcY, which contain six potential targets for Crc, were able to bind Crc specifically in vitro. The levels of CrcZ and CrcY were low under conditions generating a strong catabolite repression, and increased strongly when catabolite repression was absent. Deletion of either crcZ or crcY had no effect on catabolite repression, but the simultaneous absence of both sRNAs led to constitutive catabolite repression that compromised growth on some carbon sources. Overproduction of CrcZ or CrcY significantly reduced repression. We propose that CrcZ and CrcY act in concert, sequestering and modulating the levels of free Crc according to metabolic conditions. The CbrA/CbrB two-component system activated crcZ transcription, but had little effect on crcY. CrcY was detected in P. putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas syringae, but not in P. aeruginosa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilhav Shem-Ad

    Full Text Available The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  19. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Irit, Orr; Yifrach, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  20. Intercorrência audiológica em músicas após um show de rock Hearing incidents in musicians after a rock concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pfeiffer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar mudança temporária do limiar de audição de músicos, após exposição a níveis de pressão sonora elevados de um show de rock. MÉTODOS: foi utilizada uma amostra com seis músicos componentes da banda. Foram feitos: anamnese ocupacional, determinação dos níveis mínimos de audição e reflexos acústicos, antes e após o show de rock. A mensuração do ruído da sala do exame e do palco foi realizada por meio de um dosímetro. Os resultados foram comparados e analisados estatisticamente, utilizando-se o teste t Student, com critério para determinação de significância de p maior do que 0,05. RESULTADOS: para a dosimetria, foi encontrada a exposição ao ruído do show com valor de LAVG igual a 98,5 dB. Dentre os aspectos comportamentais relacionados ao ruído, o zumbido foi a queixa mais presente entre os integrantes. Na audiometria tonal, as maiores diferenças pré e pós-exposição, foram encontradas nas freqüências altas, sendo a orelha direita a que apresentou maiores mudanças temporárias de limiar. Os resultados foram significantes nas freqüências de 2000, 3000, 4000 e 6000 Hz, na orelha direita (p=2,7; p=2,59; p=3,7 e p=2,86 e, na freqüência de 4000 Hz, na orelha esquerda (p=2,87. Na medida do reflexo acústico após o show, a orelha direita obteve o maior índice de ausência de reflexo, com o índice de 40%; entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes, na presença de reflexo acústico na comparação pré e pós-exposição, apenas na orelha esquerda (p=3,64. CONCLUSÃO: músicos expostos a níveis de pressão sonora intensos apresentaram alteração temporária do limiar e alteração do reflexo acústico.PURPOSE: verifying the temporary threshold shift in musicians after a high sound pressure level music exposure in a rock concert. METHODS: the sample has been made up of six band's musicians, who underwent an occupational anamnesis, pure tone audiometry and

  1. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kongmeng; Lindborg, PerMagnus; Rodrigues, Ruth; Styles, Suzy J

    2018-01-01

    Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio-visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  2. Cross-Modal Perception of Noise-in-Music: Audiences Generate Spiky Shapes in Response to Auditory Roughness in a Novel Electroacoustic Concert Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongmeng Liew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama, a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction. These sounds were then embedded as musical drones within the overall sound design of a multimedia performance with live musicians, Audience members listened to these sounds, and collectively voted to create the shape of a visual graphic, presented as part of the audio–visual performance. The results of the concert setting were replicated in a controlled laboratory environment to corroborate the findings. Results show a consistent effect of auditory roughness on shape design, with rougher sounds corresponding to spikier shapes. We discuss the implications, as well as evaluate the audience interface.

  3. To a cultural perspective of mixed reality events: a case study of event overflow in operas and concerts in mixed reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jean-François; Cornish, Tracy; Margolis, Todd

    2012-12-01

    Mixed reality defines the sharing of a space-time between the real and the virtual world. The definition of this concept is further extended when virtual worlds such as Second Life® (SL) are included. Through cultural events such as concerts and operas, we will see that the main goal of these kinds of projects is not simply to offer a video and audio broadcast of these events in the digital dimension. The current challenge is to create interactions between the individuals who are in different shared spaces. By studying the unfolding of these events in its various phases-before, during, and after-we examine the culture of the event. We question how the culture of the event can be transposed in a mixed reality display, and how this kind of event can affect people on both sides of the "membrane" made by the technical configuration. Beyond the alignments and adjustments that we can see between the different individuals involved in these events, we examine more broadly the changes and mutations of the culture of the event in this specific configuration.

  4. Evolution of Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu Chih; Chen, I Ju

    2010-01-01

    The contrast between social constructivism and cognitive constructivism are depicted in different ways in many studies. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the evolution of constructivism and put a focus on social constructivism from the perception of Vygotsky. This study provides a general idea of the evolution of constructivism for people…

  5. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, William V.

    In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

  6. Kognition, evolution og Bibel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2012-01-01

    En opfordring til, at Bibelvidneskaberne oprienterer sig i retning af aktuelle teorier om bio-kulturel evolution (Merlin Donald, aksetids-teori hos fx Robert Bellah)......En opfordring til, at Bibelvidneskaberne oprienterer sig i retning af aktuelle teorier om bio-kulturel evolution (Merlin Donald, aksetids-teori hos fx Robert Bellah)...

  7. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  8. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  9. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the ...

  10. Evolution of complex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilds, Roy; Kauffman, Stuart A.; Glass, Leon

    2008-09-01

    We study the evolution of complex dynamics in a model of a genetic regulatory network. The fitness is associated with the topological entropy in a class of piecewise linear equations, and the mutations are associated with changes in the logical structure of the network. We compare hill climbing evolution, in which only mutations that increase the fitness are allowed, with neutral evolution, in which mutations that leave the fitness unchanged are allowed. The simple structure of the fitness landscape enables us to estimate analytically the rates of hill climbing and neutral evolution. In this model, allowing neutral mutations accelerates the rate of evolutionary advancement for low mutation frequencies. These results are applicable to evolution in natural and technological systems.

  11. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  12. Sintering and microstructure evolution in columnar thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramanathan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sintering of thermal barrier coatings changes their key properties, such as thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance, thus adversely impacting their reliability. We present a novel modeling approach to study the evolution of coating structure during sintering. We model the sintering of individual columns using a thermodynamic principle, and incorporate the center-to-center approach rates for the columns calculated using this principle in a larger scale discrete dynamics model for the evolution of a large number of columns. Surface energies, grain boundary energies and strain energies associated with the deformation of the columns are all included in this framework, while sintering is assumed to occur by the concerted action of surface and grain boundary diffusion. Two sets of initial conditions corresponding to different extents of pre-sintering among neighboring columns are considered. When the extent of pre-sintering is small, we observe that small clusters containing 5-20 columns are formed. In contrast, where a larger amount of pre-sintering exists, we observe, especially at large column densities, that clusters containing 50-100 columns separated by large inter-cluster pores/channels that appear to organize themselves into a network are formed. These observations are in good agreement with recently published experimental observations. We also explain how these results can explain the development of a 'mud-crack'-like pattern

  13. Brain evolution and development: adaptation, allometry and constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic traits are products of two processes: evolution and development. But how do these processes combine to produce integrated phenotypes? Comparative studies identify consistent patterns of covariation, or allometries, between brain and body size, and between brain components, indicating the presence of significant constraints limiting independent evolution of separate parts. These constraints are poorly understood, but in principle could be either developmental or functional. The developmental constraints hypothesis suggests that individual components (brain and body size, or individual brain components) tend to evolve together because natural selection operates on relatively simple developmental mechanisms that affect the growth of all parts in a concerted manner. The functional constraints hypothesis suggests that correlated change reflects the action of selection on distributed functional systems connecting the different sub-components, predicting more complex patterns of mosaic change at the level of the functional systems and more complex genetic and developmental mechanisms. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but make different predictions. We review recent genetic and neurodevelopmental evidence, concluding that functional rather than developmental constraints are the main cause of the observed patterns. PMID:27629025

  14. The flux database concerted action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.; Donnelly, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the background to the UIR action on the development of a flux database for radionuclide transfer in soil-plant systems. The action is discussed in terms of the objectives, the deliverables and the progress achieved so far by the flux database working group. The paper describes the background to the current initiative and outlines specific features of the database and supporting documentation. Particular emphasis is placed on the proforma used for data entry, on the database help file and on the approach adopted to indicate data quality. Refs. 3 (author)

  15. HIGH IMPACT HEAT WAVES OVER THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGION AND TURKEY - IN CONCERT WITH ATMOSPHERIC BLOCKING AND LARGE DYNAMICAL AND PHYSICAL ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demirtaş

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in high impact heat waves in the Euro-Mediterranean region and Turkey is related to a number of concurring factors that include the persistent anticyclonic weather regimes. The present study investigates the June-July-August (JJA of 2000, 2007 and 2010 heat wave events in concert with some meteorological anomalies (the 500 hPa geopotential height, 850 hPa temperature, sea surface temperature and soil wetness and blocking anticyclones, focusing on heat wave occurrences on a grid point base. Detection methods for atmospheric blocking and heat wave are introduced and applied for the mentioned years. During the 2000 JJA very high temperatures were recorded over the Balkan Peninsula and in Turkey where 42 cities had breaking all time highest temperature records for June, but the duration of heat wave was the shortest. The 2007 summer was also abnormally hot for the region and record breaking temperatures were observed in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey where 34 cities had highest temperature records for June and July, and the highest total heat wave duration was 60-70 days. The 2010 JJA period was extremely hot over Russia and nearby countries including Turkey where 9 cities had highest temperature records for August. The 2010 case was marked for; large anomalies, the longest heat wave duration and the highest heat wave intensity. In all cases, heat wave occurrences found to be particularly high over the western part of Turkey. The abnormally hot summers of 2000, 2007 and 2010 could reflect summers to come. The results indicate that summer climate might experience a pronounced increase in year-to-year variability. Increase in variability might be able to explain the high impact heat waves, and would strongly affect their incidence in the future. The results may also contribute to a better understanding of heat waves in context of climate variability.

  16. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgGPP, is secreted into host cells and undergoes glycosylation in concert with proteolysis to suppress plant defenses and promote parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen effectors can recruit the host post-translational machinery to mediate their post-translational modification (PTM and regulate their activity to facilitate parasitism, but few studies have focused on this phenomenon in the field of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, we show that the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has evolved a novel effector, MgGPP, that is exclusively expressed within the nematode subventral esophageal gland cells and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of M. graminicola. The effector MgGPP plays a role in nematode parasitism. Transgenic rice lines expressing MgGPP become significantly more susceptible to M. graminicola infection than wild-type control plants, and conversely, in planta, the silencing of MgGPP through RNAi technology substantially increases the resistance of rice to M. graminicola. Significantly, we show that MgGPP is secreted into host plants and targeted to the ER, where the N-glycosylation and C-terminal proteolysis of MgGPP occur. C-terminal proteolysis promotes MgGPP to leave the ER, after which it is transported to the nucleus. In addition, N-glycosylation of MgGPP is required for suppressing the host response. The research data provide an intriguing example of in planta glycosylation in concert with proteolysis of a pathogen effector, which depict a novel mechanism by which parasitic nematodes could subjugate plant immunity and promote parasitism and may present a promising target for developing new strategies against nematode infections.

  17. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN HISPANIC COMMUNITIES: a concerted South American approach could identify the aetiology of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research we remain ignorant of the cause of both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The dramatic rise in incidence, particularly of Crohn’s disease, points towards environmental factors as playing a significant role. A major purpose of this review is to stimulate a co-ordinated international effort to establish an on-going data base in Central and South America in which new cases are registered and through which investigations into aetiology can be conducted. In both Brazil and Mexico there is evidence that the incidence of ulcerative colitis is increasing, as also is the case for Crohn’s disease in Brazil. The pattern of disease is, therefore, directly comparable to that reported from Europe and the USA during the 1970s and 1980s, but much lower than contemporary data from Spain. Although the incidence is similar to that reported from Portugal, the studies from Almada and Braga were conducted a decade before that from Sao Paulo. The situation in Brazil compares dramatically with Uruguay and Argentina where the reported incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is significantly less. However, with growing industrialisation it is likely that there will be an explosion of inflammatory bowel disease in some areas of Central and South America over the next 20 years. The creation of a network of researchers across South and Central America is a real possibility and through a Concerted Action there is the possibility that major strides could be made towards understanding the cause of inflammatory bowel disease and so develop preventive strategies.

  18. The GDP-switched GAF domain of DcpA modulates the concerted synthesis/hydrolysis of c-di-GMP in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jie; Li, Na; Luo, Ye; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Chen, Yuxing; Li, Qiong

    2018-04-09

    The second messenger c-di-GMP [bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate] plays a key role in bacterial growth, survival and pathogenesis, and thus its intracellular homeostasis should be finely maintained. Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes a GAF (mammalian c G MP-regulated phosphodiesterases, Anabaena a denylyl cyclases and Escherichia coli transcription activator F hlA) domain containing bifunctional enzyme DcpA ( d iguanylate c yclase and p hosphodiesterase A ) that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP . Here, we found that M. smegmatis DcpA catalyzes the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP at a higher velocity, compared with synthetic activity, resulting in a sum reaction from the ultimate substrate GTP to the final product pGpG [5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3'-5')-guanosine]. Fusion with the N-terminal GAF domain enables the GGDEF (Gly-Gly-Asp-Glu-Phe) domain of DcpA to dimerize and accordingly gain synthetic activity. Screening of putative metabolites revealed that GDP is the ligand of the GAF domain. Binding of GDP to the GAF domain down-regulates synthetic activity, but up-regulates hydrolytic activity, which, in consequence, might enable a timely response to the transient accumulation of c-di-GMP at the stationary phase or under stresses. Combined with the crystal structure of the EAL (Glu-Ala-Leu) domain and the small-angle X-ray scattering data, we propose a putative regulatory model of the GAF domain finely tuned by the intracellular GTP/GDP ratio. These findings help us to better understand the concerted control of the synthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP in M. smegmatis in various microenvironments. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Genetic studies in Drosophila and humans support a model for the concerted function of CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. WFS1 and WFS2 are caused by recessive mutations in the genes Wolfram Syndrome 1 (WFS1 and CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2, respectively. To explore the function of CISD2, we performed genetic studies in flies with altered expression of its Drosophila orthologue, cisd2. Surprisingly, flies with strong ubiquitous RNAi-mediated knockdown of cisd2 had no obvious signs of altered life span, stress resistance, locomotor behavior or several other phenotypes. We subsequently found in a targeted genetic screen, however, that altered function of cisd2 modified the effects of overexpressing the fly orthologues of two lysosomal storage disease genes, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1 in humans, Ppt1 in flies and ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 3 (CLN3 in humans, cln3 in flies, on eye morphology in flies. We also found that cln3 modified the effects of overexpressing Ppt1 in the eye and that overexpression of cln3 interacted with a loss of function mutation in cisd2 to disrupt locomotor ability in flies. Follow-up multi-species bioinformatic analyses suggested that a gene network centered on CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 might impact disease through altered carbohydrate metabolism, protein folding and endopeptidase activity. Human genetic studies indicated that copy number variants (duplications and deletions including CLN3, and possibly another gene in the CISD2/PPT1/CLN3 network, are over-represented in individuals with developmental delay. Our studies indicate that cisd2, Ppt1 and cln3 function in concert in flies, suggesting that CISD2, PPT1 and CLN3 might also function coordinately in humans. Further, our studies raise the possibility that WFS2 and some lysosomal storage disorders might be influenced by common mechanisms and that the underlying genes might have previously unappreciated effects on

  20. Initiation and Propagation of Vascular Calcification Is Regulated by a Concert of Platelet- and Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J. Schurgers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain. In fact, one-fifth of deaths are directly attributable to thrombotic rupture of a vulnerable plaque. Atherosclerotic lesion formation is caused by a concert of interactions between circulating leukocytes and platelets, interacting with the endothelial barrier, signalling into the arterial wall by the release of cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs. Both platelet- and cell-derived EVs represent a novel mechanism of cellular communication, particularly by the transport and transfer of cargo and by reprogramming of the recipient cell. These interactions result in phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs causing migration and proliferation, and subsequent secretion of EVs. Loss of VSMCs attracts perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs from the adventitia, which are a source of VSMCs and contribute to repair after vascular injury. However, continuous stress stimuli eventually switch phenotype of cells into osteochondrogenic VSMCs facilitating vascular calcification. Although Virchow’s triad is over 100 years old, it is a reality that is accurate today. It can be briefly summarised as changes in the composition of blood (platelet EVs, alterations in the vessel wall (VSMC phenotypic switching, MSC infiltration and EV release and disruption of blood flow (atherothrombosis. In this paper, we review the latest relevant advances in the identification of

  1. Concerted actions of insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and estradiol on peripubertal bone growth: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leiting; Wang, Qin; Wang, Qingju; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Mikkola, Tuija; Völgyi, Eszter; Cheng, Shumei; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Nicholson, Patrick; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2011-09-01

    A better understanding of how bone growth is regulated during peripuberty is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass and for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. In this report we used hierarchical models to evaluate the associations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), estradiol (E(2) ), and testosterone (T) with peripubertal bone growth in a 7-year longitudinal study. Two-hundred and fifty-eight healthy girls were assessed at baseline (mean age 11.2 years) and at 1, 2, 3.5, and 7 years. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, E(2) , and T were determined. Musculoskeletal properties in the left lower leg were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum levels of IGF-1, E(2) , and T increased dramatically before menarche, whereas they decreased, plateaued, or increased at a lower rate, respectively, after menarche. IGF-1 level was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) and total bone mineral content (tBMC) throughout peripuberty but not after adjustment for muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA). On the other hand, IGF-1 was associated with tibial length (TL) independently of mCSA before menarche. T was positively associated with TL, PC, tBMC, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density, independent of mCSA, before menarche but not after. E(2) was associated with TL positively before menarche but negatively after menarche. These findings suggest that during puberty, circulating IGF-1 promotes bone periosteal apposition and mass accrual indirectly, probably through stimulating muscle growth, whereas the effects of sex steroids on bone growth differ before and after menarche, presenting a biphasic pattern. Hence the concerted actions of these hormones are essential for optimal bone development in peripuberty. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-10-13

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  3. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  4. Contemporary evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bäck, Thomas; Krause, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies have more than 50 years of history in the field of evolutionary computation. Since the early 1990s, many algorithmic variations of evolution strategies have been developed, characterized by the fact that they use the so-called derandomization concept for strategy parameter adaptation. Most importantly, the covariance matrix adaptation strategy (CMA-ES) and its successors are the key representatives of this group of contemporary evolution strategies. This book provides an overview of the key algorithm developments between 1990 and 2012, including brief descriptions of the a

  5. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  6. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  7. Science, evolution, and creationism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Revising Science and Creationism

    ... are more comfortable. In the book Science, Evolution, and Creationism, a group of experts assembled by the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine explain the fundamental methods of science, document...

  8. Co-Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of techniques of DNA analysis in assessing the genetic relationships between various species. Focuses on wolf-dog evolution using DNA evidence and historical data about human/wolf-dog relationships. (DDR)

  9. Evolution of dosimetric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this oration evolution of the dosimetric phantoms for radiation protection and for medical use is briefly reviewed. Some details of the development of Indian Reference Phantom for internal dose estimation are also presented

  10. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  11. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  12. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  13. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  14. Evolution of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, A. E.; Ferreira, N.; Schut, M.; Kernbach, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively mastering evolution. As of today, the only area where human experimenters can design and manipulate evolutionary processes in full is that of Evolutionary Computing, where evolutionary processes are carried out in a digital space, inside computers, in simulat...

  15. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  16. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati

    1989-01-01

    In principle, a good model of galactic chemical evolution should fulfil the majority of well established observational constraints. The goal of this paper is to review the observational data together with the existing chemical evolution models for the Milky Way (the disk), Blue Compact and Elliptical galaxies and to show how well the models can account for the observations. Some open problems and future prospects are also discussed. (author)

  17. Developing theology for evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wiltsher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This speculative paper explores one idea for approaching some of the problems which arise when the doctrines of Christian theology meet the current scientific understanding of evolution through natural selection. The main suggestion is that Christian theology should relax the requirement that God controls everything. Some implications of this move are explored, with a brief look at how similar ideas might be of use for non-Christian religions entering into dialogue with the theory of evolution

  18. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in our...... case study. Handling variants and tracing the impact of variants across the development lifecycle is a challenge. This chapter shows how we can maintain different versions of software in a reuse-based way....

  19. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  20. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  1. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  2. The Concerted Action of Type 2 and Type 3 Deiodinases Regulates the Cell Cycle and Survival of Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Caterina; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria Angela; Di Girolamo, Daniela; Di Cicco, Emery; Cicatiello, Annunziata Gaetana; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Raia, Maddalena; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Salvatore, Domenico; Dentice, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) mediate pleiotropic cellular processes involved in metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The intracellular hormonal environment can be tailored by the type 1 and 2 deiodinase enzymes D2 and D3, which catalyze TH activation and inactivation respectively. In many cellular systems, THs exert well-documented stimulatory or inhibitory effects on cell proliferation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which they control rates of cell cycle progression have not yet been entirely clarified. We previously showed that D3 depletion or TH treatment influences the proliferation and survival of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Surprisingly, we also found that BCC cells express not only sustained levels of D3 but also robust levels of D2. The aim of the present study was to dissect the contribution of D2 to TH metabolism in the BCC context, and to identify the molecular changes associated with cell proliferation and survival induced by TH and mediated by D2 and D3. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically deplete D2 and D3 in BCC cells and studied the consequences of depletion on cell cycle progression and on cell death. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of synchronized cells, and the apoptosis rate by annexin V incorporation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that D2 inactivation accelerates cell cycle progression thereby enhancing the proportion of S-phase cells and cyclin D1 expression. Conversely, D3 mutagenesis drastically suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of BCC cells. Furthermore, the basal apoptotic rate was oppositely regulated in D2- and D3-depleted cells. Our results indicate that BCC cells constitute an example in which the TH signal is finely tuned by the concerted expression of opposite-acting deiodinases. The dual regulation of D2 and D3 expression plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and cell death by influencing cyclin D1-mediated

  3. Scharoun versus Gehry : dos opciones metodológicas personales explícitas a partir del análisis de la Filarmónica de Berlín y el Walt Disney Concert Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Besa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Estudio de la Filarmónica de Berlín como ejemplo de las  diferentes aproximaciones y contradicciones que la arquitectura “traba” a través del argumento que la constituye. Acuerdo tenso entre interior‐exterior, lugar‐programa, simetría‐asimetría,  unidad sintética ‐ complejidad múltiple, continuidad orgánica ‐ discontinuidad fragmentada.
    Comparativa con el edificio Walt Disney Concert Hall, en el que  se utiliza la misma tipología de sala de conciertos. Sin embargo y al contrario que Scharoun, Gehry evita cualquier acuerdo sintético de unidad, constituyendo el edificio a partir de la pura  fragmentación y diversidad per se. Pues en su caso, la unidad necesaria para constituir la autonomía y ser de la obra, se buscará a través de la imagen y expresión del concepto de  belleza que el edificio alcanza.

    Palabras clave

    sala de conciertos, lugar, unidad, exterior, fragmento

    Abstract

    This article is a study of the Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall as an example of the different approximations and contradictions that Architecture ties together as a result of the reasoning that makes it up. A tense agreement between interior and exterior, place and program, symmetry and asymmetry, synthetic unity and multiple complexity, organic continuity and fragmented discontinuity.
    A comparison to Walt Disney Concert Hall is made, where the same concert hall typology is used. Nevertheless, in contrast to Scharoun, Gehry avoids any kind of synthetic agreement of unity, conceiving the building out of pure fragmentation and  diversity per se. In Gehry’s case, the unity necessary to constitute the autonomy and essence of the building is sought  through the image and expression of the concept of beauty that it reaches.

    Key words

    concert hall, place, unity, exterior, fragment

  4. The theory of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The book The Theory of Evolution: from the Space Vacuum to Neural Ensembles and Moving Forward, an edition of 100 copies, was published in Russian language, in December 2014 in Kiev. Its Russian version is here: http://en.bazaluk.com/journals.html. Introduction, Chapter 10 and Conclusion published in English for the first time. Since 2004 author have been researching in the field of theory of Evolution, Big History. The book was written on the base of analysis of more than 2000 primary sources of this research topic. The volume is 90,000 words (with Reference. The book is for a wide range of professionals, from students to professors and researchers working in the fields of: philosophical anthropology, philosophy, Big History, cosmology, biology, neuroscience and etc. In the book, the author defines the evolution as continuous and nonlinear complication of the structure of matter, the types of interaction and environments; analyzes existing in modern science and philosophy approaches to the research of the process of evolution, degree of development of the factors and causes of evolution. Unifying interdisciplinary researches of evolution in cosmology, biology, neuroscience and philosophy, the author presents his vision of the model of «Evolving Matter», which allows us to consider not only the laws of transition of space vacuum in neural ensembles but also to see our Universe as a complication, heterogeneous organization. Interdisciplinary amount of information on the theory of evolution is systematized and a new method of world perception is proposed in the book.

  5. Evolution: from cosmogenesis to biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, Sz.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1990-11-01

    The volume contains the material of an interdisciplinary evolution symposium. The purpose was to shed some light on possible connections between steps of evolution of matter on different levels of organisation. The topics involved are as follow: cosmogenesis; galactic and stellar evolution; formation and evolution of the solar system; global atmospheric and tectonic changes of Earth; viral evolution; phylogeny and evolution of terrestrial life; evolution of neural system; hominization. The material also includes some discussions of the underlying phenomena and laws of nature. (author)

  6. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  7. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  8. Education and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Herbert Spencer’s ideas were first introduced to a Scandinavian audience in the early 1870s when the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding published and lectured on his evolutionary philosophy. At this time, Høffding also played an important role in disseminating Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution...... and in discussing the philosophical consequences of an evolutionary worldview. In the late 1870s and 1880s several of Spencer’s works were translated into Danish and Swedish and he became a household name among liberal intellectuals who primarily discussed his views on education and evolution. His most influential...... known foreign thinkers in the general public at the time of his death in 1903. Moreover, in the decades around 1900 Spencer’s thoughts on education were part of the curricula at many colleges of education. Spencer’s ideas on evolution and education were thus widely circulated and positively received...

  9. Quantum evolution across singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)

  10. Boussinesq evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model for wave...

  11. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  12. Validering av Evolution 220

    OpenAIRE

    Krakeli, Tor-Arne

    2013-01-01

    - Det har blitt kjøpt inn et nytt spektrofotometer (Evolution 220, Thermo Scientific) til BioLab Nofima. I den forbindelsen har det blitt utført en validering som involverer kalibreringsstandarder fra produsenten og en test på normal distribusjon (t-test) på to metoder (Total fosfor, Tryptofan). Denne valideringen fant Evolution 220 til å være et akseptabelt alternativ til det allerede benyttede spektrofotometeret (Helios Beta). På bakgrunn av noen instrumentbegrensninger må de aktuelle an...

  13. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alesio Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  14. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  15. Evolution 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Bek-Thomsen, Jakob; Clasen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Studies in the history of science and education have documented that the reception and understanding of evolutionary theory is highly contingent on local factors such as school systems, cultural traditions, religious beliefs, and language. This has important implications for teaching evolution...... audiences readily available. As more and more schools require teachers to use low cost or free web-based materials, in the research community we need to take seriously how to facilitate that demand in communication strategies on evolution. This article addresses this challenge by presenting the learning...

  16. Methylome evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-12-20

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over long timescales is largely a byproduct of genomic changes. By contrast, methylome evolution over short timescales appears to be driven mainly by spontaneous epimutational events. We argue that novel methods based on analyses of the methylation site frequency spectrum (mSFS) of natural populations can provide deeper insights into the evolutionary forces that act at each timescale.

  17. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  18. Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in regulatory network interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Roberto, Raphaël B; Chang, Belinda; Trusina, Ala

    2016-01-01

    All cellular functions depend on the concerted action of multiple proteins organized in complex networks. To understand how selection acts on protein networks, we used the yeast mating receptor Ste2, a pheromone-activated G protein-coupled receptor, as a model system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae......, Ste2 is a hub in a network of interactions controlling both signal transduction and signal suppression. Through laboratory evolution, we obtained 21 mutant receptors sensitive to the pheromone of a related yeast species and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this newfound sensitivity. While...... demonstrate that a new receptor-ligand pair can evolve through network-altering mutations independently of receptor-ligand binding, and suggest a potential role for such mutations in disease....

  19. Evolution of housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, C.; Mohammadi, S.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Perfection means something is complete and stands still and what stands still doesn’t change or evolve and is automatically dead. Everything in the universe changes, evolution implies that the creation is not complete hence the possibility of evolving’ (Osho, 1985). Our society and economy are

  20. The Evolution of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Therapeutic empathy has been an often-used construct by counseling professionals. Through that usage, the term has evolved in meaning and significance from its original presentation by Carl Rogers. This article traces that evolution by identifying its users and contributors over the past 20 years. (Author)

  1. Evolution Perception with Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to find out how the teacher candidates who graduated from the Faculty of Theology and study in pedagogical formation program perceive the theory of evolution. Having a descriptive characteristic, this research is conducted with 63 Faculty of Theology graduate teacher candidates of which 36 is women and 27 is…

  2. Evolution of Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle C.; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The ERP industry has undergone dramatic changes over the past decades due to changing market demands, thereby creating new challenges and opportunities, which have to be managed by ERP vendors. This paper inquires into the necessary evolution of business models in a technology-intensive industry (e...

  3. Evolution of subsidiary competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben; Dhanaraj, Charles

    of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution...

  4. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  5. Kinship and Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergendorff, Steen

    This book offers a exiting new explanation of human evolution. Based on insight from Anthropology is shows that human became 'cultured' beings capable of symbolic thought by developing rasting kinship based between groups that could not other wise survive in the harah climate condition during...

  6. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  7. Open-Ended Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Tim; Bedau, Mark A.; Channon, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the First Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones (OEE1), held during the ECAL 2015 conference at the University of York, U.K., in July 2015. We briefly summarise the content of the talks and discussions and the workshop, and provide links...

  8. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. MDSplus evolution continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Fredian, T.W.; Stillerman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the recent evolution of the MDSplus data system. ► It presents a Use Case to explain MDSplus expressions. ► It presents the features recently developed. ► It presents the features under development. - Abstract: The MDSplus data system has been in operation on several fusion machines since 1991 and it is currently in use at over 30 sites spread over 5 continents. A consequence is the extensive feedback provided by the MDSplus user community for bug fixes and improvements and therefore the evolution of MDSplus is keeping pace with the evolution in data acquisition and management techniques. In particular, the recent evolution of MDSplus has been driven by the change in the paradigm for data acquisition in long lasting plasma discharges, where a sustained data stream is transferred from the acquisition devices into the database. Several new features are currently available or are being implemented in MDSplus. The features already implemented include a comprehensive Object-Oriented interface to the system, the python support for data acquisition devices and the full integration in EPICS. Work is in progress for the integration of multiple protocols and security systems in remote data access, a new high level data view layer and a new version of the jScope tool for online visualization and the optimized visualization of very large signals.

  10. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  11. Methylome evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over

  12. The Evolution of Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard; Ayala, Francisco J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and new interpretations of the fossil record are gradually altering and adding to Charles Darwin's theory, which has been the standard view of the process of evolution for 40 years. Several of these developments and interpretations are identified and discussed. (JN)

  13. Darwinism: Evolution or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Niles R.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution was more than a science versus religion debate; rather it was a revolutionary concept that influenced numerous social and political ideologies and movements throughout western history. Traces the impact of Darwin's work historically, utilizing a holistic approach. (RW)

  14. Modeling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  15. Modelling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, Marcel J.F.; de Vriend, Huib J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  16. The Idea of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The idea of evolution is examined in a historical perspective in this article. Considerable discussion is given to the works of Lamarck and Darwin. The evolutionary process is also examined with respect to philosophy, art and music history, and man's place in nature. References are included. (MA)

  17. Evolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Education should give an understanding of the world and of man, as well as offer the vocational training, at which the university excells. The use of case studies to provide immediate insight into advancing knowledge and the study of evolution have important instructional and educational implication for the goal of understanding man. (JH)

  18. Evolution, Insight and Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has been positioned at the centre of conflict between scientific and religious explanations of the workings of the world. However, little research has examined other possible reasons for some people rejecting scientific explanations. The author's research indicates that for some people, irrespective of faith, the ideas associated with…

  19. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  20. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  1. The organization and evolution of the Responder satellite in species of the Drosophila melanogaster group: dynamic evolution of a target of meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larracuente, Amanda M

    2014-11-25

    Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Rsp is well-known for being the target of Segregation Distorter (SD)- an autosomal meiotic drive system in D. melanogaster. I present an evolutionary genetic analysis of the Rsp family of repeats in D. melanogaster and its closely-related species in the melanogaster group (D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. erecta, and D. yakuba) using a combination of available BAC sequences, whole genome shotgun Sanger reads, Illumina short read deep sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. I show that Rsp repeats have euchromatic locations throughout the D. melanogaster genome, that Rsp arrays show evidence for concerted evolution, and that Rsp repeats exist outside of D. melanogaster, in the melanogaster group. The repeats in these species are considerably diverged at the sequence level compared to D. melanogaster, and have a strikingly different genomic distribution, even between closely-related sister taxa. The genomic organization of the Rsp repeat in the D. melanogaster genome is complex-it exists of large blocks of tandem repeats in the heterochromatin and small blocks of tandem repeats in the euchromatin. My discovery of heterochromatic Rsp-like sequences outside of D. melanogaster suggests that SD evolved after its target satellite and that the evolution of the Rsp satellite family is highly dynamic over a short evolutionary time scale (<240,000 years).

  2. Biological information systems: Evolution as cognition-based information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William B

    2018-05-01

    An alternative biological synthesis is presented that conceptualizes evolutionary biology as an epiphenomenon of integrated self-referential information management. Since all biological information has inherent ambiguity, the systematic assessment of information is required by living organisms to maintain self-identity and homeostatic equipoise in confrontation with environmental challenges. Through their self-referential attachment to information space, cells are the cornerstone of biological action. That individualized assessment of information space permits self-referential, self-organizing niche construction. That deployment of information and its subsequent selection enacted the dominant stable unicellular informational architectures whose biological expressions are the prokaryotic, archaeal, and eukaryotic unicellular forms. Multicellularity represents the collective appraisal of equivocal environmental information through a shared information space. This concerted action can be viewed as systematized information management to improve information quality for the maintenance of preferred homeostatic boundaries among the varied participants. When reiterated in successive scales, this same collaborative exchange of information yields macroscopic organisms as obligatory multicellular holobionts. Cognition-Based Evolution (CBE) upholds that assessment of information precedes biological action, and the deployment of information through integrative self-referential niche construction and natural cellular engineering antecedes selection. Therefore, evolutionary biology can be framed as a complex reciprocating interactome that consists of the assessment, communication, deployment and management of information by self-referential organisms at multiple scales in continuous confrontation with environmental stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Victor A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These

  4. Effective Strategies for Teaching Evolution: The Primary Evolution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    When Chris Hatcher joined the Primary Evolution Project team at the University of Reading, his goal was to find effective strategies to teach evolution in a way that keeps children engaged and enthused. Hatcher has collaborated with colleagues at the University's Institute of Education to break the evolution unit down into distinct topics and…

  5. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  6. The physics of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Manfred

    1988-12-01

    The Darwinian concept of evolution through natural selection has been revised and put on a solid physical basis, in a form which applies to self-replicable macromolecules. Two new concepts are introduced: sequence space and quasi-species. Evolutionary change in the DNA- or RNA-sequence of a gene can be mapped as a trajectory in a sequence space of dimension ν, where ν corresponds to the number of changeable positions in the genomic sequence. Emphasis, however, is shifted from the single surviving wildtype, a single point in the sequence space, to the complex structure of the mutant distribution that constitutes the quasi-species. Selection is equivalent to an establishment of the quasi-species in a localized region of sequence space, subject to threshold conditions for the error rate and sequence length. Arrival of a new mutant may violate the local threshold condition and thereby lead to a displacement of the quasi-species into a different region of sequence space. This transformation is similar to a phase transition; the dynamical equations that describe the quase-species have been shown to be analogous to those of the two-dimensional Ising model of ferromagnetism. The occurrence of a selectively advantageous mutant is biased by the particulars of the quasi-species distribution, whose mutants are populated according to their fitness relative to that of the wild-type. Inasmuch as fitness regions are connected (like mountain ridges) the evolutionary trajectory is guided to regions of optimal fitness. Evolution experiments in test tubes confirm this modification of the simple chance and law nature of the Darwinian concept. The results of the theory can also be applied to the construction of a machine that provides optimal conditions for a rapid evolution of functionally active macromolecules. An introduction to the physics of molecular evolution by the author has appeared recently.1 Detailed studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of replication of RNA, the most

  7. Toward Documentation of Program Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The documentation of a program often falls behind the evolution of the program source files. When this happens it may be attractive to shift the documentation mode from updating the documentation to documenting the evolution of the program. This paper describes tools that support the documentatio....... It is concluded that our approach can help revitalize older documentation, and that discovery of the fine grained program evolution steps help the programmer in documenting the evolution of the program....

  8. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  9. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  10. Evolution and transitions in complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses several recent theoretic advancements in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary integration in the field of evolution. While exploring novel views, the text maintains a close link with one of the most broadly held views on evolution, namely that of "Darwinian evolution." This

  11. The evolution of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, P C

    1999-06-25

    The ascendancy of dinosaurs on land near the close of the Triassic now appears to have been as accidental and opportunistic as their demise and replacement by therian mammals at the end of the Cretaceous. The dinosaurian radiation, launched by 1-meter-long bipeds, was slower in tempo and more restricted in adaptive scope than that of therian mammals. A notable exception was the evolution of birds from small-bodied predatory dinosaurs, which involved a dramatic decrease in body size. Recurring phylogenetic trends among dinosaurs include, to the contrary, increase in body size. There is no evidence for co-evolution between predators and prey or between herbivores and flowering plants. As the major land masses drifted apart, dinosaurian biogeography was molded more by regional extinction and intercontinental dispersal than by the breakup sequence of Pangaea.

  12. Evolution of energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  13. Evolution of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongtraychack Anachack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we can see the rapid evolution of mobile technology, which involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Features of mobile phones largely depend on software. In contemporary information and communication age [1–4], mobile application is one of the most concerned and rapidly developing areas. At the same time, the development of mobile application undergoes great changes with the introduction of new software, service platforms and software development kits (SDK. These changes lead to appearance of many new service platforms such as Google with Android and Apple with iOS. This article presents the information about the evolution of mobile application, gives some statistical data on the past and present situation, demonstrates how individual users of mobile devices can benefit, and shows how mobile applications affect society from the ethical perspective.

  14. Evolution to Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horace Lockwood Fairlamb

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Since both modern moral theory and evolutionary theory arose in the shadow of Newtonian and Humean conceptions of nature, debates about evolutionary ethics have typically been vexed by deeper problems with the nature of evolution itself as well as meta-ethical questions about the link between facts and values. Humean skepticism and mechanistic selectionism have recently coincided in postmodern attacks on essentialism,on meta-narratives of progress, on models of human nature, and on moral collectivism. Against this most recent wave of skepticism, however, contemporary reconstructions of evolution in light of complex systems science suggest useful ways of reinterpreting both evolutionary causation, the biology of human nature, and their implications for ethics.

  15. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  16. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  17. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  18. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  19. Epigenetics and brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, Eric B

    2011-04-01

    Fundamental aspects of mammalian brain evolution occurred in the context of viviparity and placentation brought about by the epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes. Since the fetal placenta hormonally primes the maternal brain, two genomes in one individual are transgenerationally co-adapted to ensure maternal care and nurturing. Advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution has shown very few genetic changes between monkeys and humans. Although these lineages diverged at approximately the same time as the rat and mouse (20 million years ago), synonymous sequence divergence between the rat and mouse is double that when comparing monkey with human sequences. Paradoxically, encephalization of rat and mouse are remarkably similar, while comparison of the human and monkey shows the human cortex to be three times the size of the monkey. This suggests an element of genetic stability between the brains of monkey and man with a greater emphasis on epigenetics providing adaptable variability.

  20. The metaphysics of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John

    2017-10-06

    This paper briefly describes process metaphysics, and argues that it is better suited for describing life than the more standard thing, or substance, metaphysics. It then explores the implications of process metaphysics for conceptualizing evolution. After explaining what it is for an organism to be a process, the paper takes up the Hull/Ghiselin thesis of species as individuals and explores the conditions under which a species or lineage could constitute an individual process. It is argued that only sexual species satisfy these conditions, and that within sexual species the degree of organization varies. This, in turn, has important implications for species' evolvability. One important moral is that evolution will work differently in different biological domains.

  1. Kamikazes and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Hermanson, Sean

    2017-02-01

    Is cultural evolution needed to explain altruistic selfsacrifice? Some contend that cultural traits (e.g. beliefs, behaviors, and for some "memes") replicate according to selection processes that have "floated free" from biology. One test case is the example of suicide kamikaze attacks in wartime Japan. Standard biological mechanisms-such as reciprocal altruism and kin selection-might not seem to apply here: The suicide pilots did not act on the expectation that others would reciprocate, and they were supposedly sacrificing themselves for country and emperor, not close relatives. Yet an examination of both the historical record and the demands of evolutionary theory suggest the kamikaze phenomenon does not cry out for explanation in terms of a special non-biological selection process. This weakens the case for cultural evolution, and has interesting implications for our understanding of altruistic self-sacrifice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...

  3. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  4. Electroweak evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, Paolo; Comelli, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Enlarging a previous analysis, where only fermions and transverse gauge bosons were taken into account, we write down infrared-collinear evolution equations for the Standard Model of electroweak interactions computing the full set of splitting functions. Due to the presence of double logs which are characteristic of electroweak interactions (Bloch-Nordsieck violation), new infrared singular splitting functions have to be introduced. We also include corrections related to the third generation Yukawa couplings

  5. Embodied artificial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, A. E.; Kernbach, S.; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-01-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement a...

  6. Evolution of microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J

    2000-01-01

    Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...

  7. Ontology evolution in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of reasoning problems in dynamic environments, there is an increasing need for automated reasoning systems to automatically adapt to unexpected changes in representations. In particular, the automation of the evolution of their ontologies needs to be enhanced without substantially sacrificing expressivity in the underlying representation. Revision of beliefs is not enough, as adding to or removing from beliefs does not change the underlying formal language. Gene...

  8. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  9. On protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Tarter, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the evolution of spherically symmetric protostars with initial masses in the range 0.1less than or equal toM/M/sub sun/less than or equal to50 has been carried out. In order to perform the calculations, a numerical technique has been developed in which rapid dynamical motions in one region of the star and quasi-static evolution in another region can be simultaneously computed. The general evolutionary features are similar to those found by other workers: an initial free-fall collapse is followed by the creation of a core in hydrostatic equilibrium, and the core's subsequent accretion of the surrounding envelope. However, our final hydrostatic-equilibrium configurations have radii large compared with those of the protostellar models of Larson (but in reasonable agreement with those of conventional pre-main-sequence models). For low-mass protostars (Mless than or equal toM/sub sun/) the luminosity remains relatively small until late evolutionary times and the evolution is very sensitive to the treatment of convective energy transport. For large-mass protostars (Mgreater than or equal to3M/sub sun/) a convective phase never exists, and a fraction (increasing with mass) of the initial mass is ejected by the combined effects of heating and radiation pressure in the envelope

  10. ENVIRONMENT AND PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: yczhang.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  11. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  12. The evolution of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L; Strimling, P; Laland, K N

    2011-10-01

    Teaching, alongside imitation, is widely thought to underlie the success of humanity by allowing high-fidelity transmission of information, skills, and technology between individuals, facilitating both cumulative knowledge gain and normative culture. Yet, it remains a mystery why teaching should be widespread in human societies but extremely rare in other animals. We explore the evolution of teaching using simple genetic models in which a single tutor transmits adaptive information to a related pupil at a cost. Teaching is expected to evolve where its costs are outweighed by the inclusive fitness benefits that result from the tutor's relatives being more likely to acquire the valuable information. We find that teaching is not favored where the pupil can easily acquire the information on its own, or through copying others, or for difficult to learn traits, where teachers typically do not possess the information to pass on to relatives. This leads to a narrow range of traits for which teaching would be efficacious, which helps to explain the rarity of teaching in nature, its unusual distribution, and its highly specific nature. Further models that allow for cumulative cultural knowledge gain suggest that teaching evolved in humans because cumulative culture renders otherwise difficult-to-acquire valuable information available to teach. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Consciousness and biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, B I

    1997-08-21

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  14. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  15. Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Michael

    2008-09-01

    transposition of the PKD1 gene and further amplification and evolution of the PKD1 pseudogenes may have arisen in a common ancestor of Homo, Pan and Gorilla ~8 MYA. Reticulate evolutionary processes such as gene conversion and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR may have resulted in concerted evolution of PKD1 family members in human and chimpanzee and, thus, simulate an independent evolution of the PKD1 pseudogenes from their master PKD1 genes in human and chimpanzee.

  16. Anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film......Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film...

  17. Constrained evolution in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew William

    The strongest potential source of gravitational radiation for current and future detectors is the merger of binary black holes. Full numerical simulation of such mergers can provide realistic signal predictions and enhance the probability of detection. Numerical simulation of the Einstein equations, however, is fraught with difficulty. Stability even in static test cases of single black holes has proven elusive. Common to unstable simulations is the growth of constraint violations. This work examines the effect of controlling the growth of constraint violations by solving the constraints periodically during a simulation, an approach called constrained evolution. The effects of constrained evolution are contrasted with the results of unconstrained evolution, evolution where the constraints are not solved during the course of a simulation. Two different formulations of the Einstein equations are examined: the standard ADM formulation and the generalized Frittelli-Reula formulation. In most cases constrained evolution vastly improves the stability of a simulation at minimal computational cost when compared with unconstrained evolution. However, in the more demanding test cases examined, constrained evolution fails to produce simulations with long-term stability in spite of producing improvements in simulation lifetime when compared with unconstrained evolution. Constrained evolution is also examined in conjunction with a wide variety of promising numerical techniques, including mesh refinement and overlapping Cartesian and spherical computational grids. Constrained evolution in boosted black hole spacetimes is investigated using overlapping grids. Constrained evolution proves to be central to the host of innovations required in carrying out such intensive simulations.

  18. Evolution of sexual asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekstra Rolf F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clear dominance of two-gender sex in recent species is a notorious puzzle of evolutionary theory. It has at least two layers: besides the most fundamental and challenging question why sex exists at all, the other part of the problem is equally perplexing but much less studied. Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system? Even if sex confers an evolutionary advantage (through whatever genetic mechanism, why does it manifest that advantage in two, and exactly two, genders (or mating types? Why not just one, and why not more than two? Results Assuming that sex carries an inherent fitness advantage over pure clonal multiplication, we attempt to give a feasible solution to the problem of the evolution of dimorphic sexual asymmetry as opposed to monomorphic symmetry by using a spatial (cellular automaton model and its non-spatial (mean-field approximation. Based on a comparison of the spatial model to the mean-field approximation we suggest that spatial population structure must have played a significant role in the evolution of mating types, due to the largely clonal (self-aggregated spatial distribution of gamete types, which is plausible in aquatic habitats for physical reasons, and appears to facilitate the evolution of a binary mating system. Conclusions Under broad ecological and genetic conditions the cellular automaton predicts selective removal from the population of supposedly primitive gametes that are able to mate with their own type, whereas the non-spatial model admits coexistence of the primitive type and the mating types. Thus we offer a basically ecological solution to a theoretical problem that earlier models based on random gamete encounters had failed to resolve.

  19. Evolution before genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasas Vera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our current understanding of evolution is so tightly linked to template-dependent replication of DNA and RNA molecules that the old idea from Oparin of a self-reproducing 'garbage bag' ('coacervate' of chemicals that predated fully-fledged cell-like entities seems to be farfetched to most scientists today. However, this is exactly the kind of scheme we propose for how Darwinian evolution could have occurred prior to template replication. Results We cannot confirm previous claims that autocatalytic sets of organic polymer molecules could undergo evolution in any interesting sense by themselves. While we and others have previously imagined inhibition would result in selectability, we found that it produced multiple attractors in an autocatalytic set that cannot be selected for. Instead, we discovered that if general conditions are satisfied, the accumulation of adaptations in chemical reaction networks can occur. These conditions are the existence of rare reactions producing viable cores (analogous to a genotype, that sustains a molecular periphery (analogous to a phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that only when a chemical reaction network consists of many such viable cores, can it be evolvable. When many cores are enclosed in a compartment there is competition between cores within the same compartment, and when there are many compartments, there is between-compartment competition due to the phenotypic effects of cores and their periphery at the compartment level. Acquisition of cores by rare chemical events, and loss of cores at division, allows macromutation, limited heredity and selectability, thus explaining how a poor man's natural selection could have operated prior to genetic templates. This is the only demonstration to date of a mechanism by which pre-template accumulation of adaptation could occur. Reviewers This article was reviewed by William Martin and Eugene Koonin.

  20. Glucosinolate structures in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2012-05-01

    By 2000, around 106 natural glucosinolates (GSLs) were probably documented. In the past decade, 26 additional natural GSL structures have been elucidated and documented. Hence, the total number of documented GSLs from nature by 2011 can be estimated to around 132. A considerable number of additional suggested structures are concluded not to be sufficiently documented. In many cases, NMR spectroscopy would have provided the missing structural information. Of the GSLs documented in the past decade, several are of previously unexpected structures and occur at considerable levels. Most originate from just four species: Barbarea vulgaris, Arabidopsis thaliana, Eruca sativa and Isatis tinctoria. Acyl derivatives of known GSLs comprised 15 of the 26 newly documented structures, while the remaining exhibited new substitution patterns or chain length, or contained a mercapto group or related thio-functionality. GSL identification methods are reviewed, and the importance of using authentic references and structure-sensitive detection methods such as MS and NMR is stressed, especially when species with relatively unknown chemistry are analyzed. An example of qualitative GSL analysis is presented with experimental details (group separation and HPLC of both intact and desulfated GSLs, detection and structure determination by UV, MS, NMR and susceptibility to myrosinase) with emphasis on the use of NMR for structure elucidation of even minor GSLs and GSL hydrolysis products. The example includes identification of a novel GSL, (R)-2-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)ethylglucosinolate. Recent investigations of GSL evolution, based on investigations of species with well established phylogeny, are reviewed. From the relatively few such investigations, it is already clear that GSL profiles are regularly subject to evolution. This result is compatible with natural selection for specific GSL side chains. The probable existence of structure-specific GSL catabolism in intact plants suggests

  1. Gas evolution from spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1991-04-01

    Gas evolution from spherical solids or liquids where no convective processes are active is analyzed. Three problem classes are considered: (1) constant concentration boundary, (2) Henry's law (first order) boundary, and (3) Sieverts' law (second order) boundary. General expressions are derived for dimensionless times and transport parameters appropriate to each of the classes considered. However, in the second order case, the non-linearities of the problem require the presence of explicit dimensional variables in the solution. Sample problems are solved to illustrate the method.

  2. Evolution of atherectomy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khoury, G; Chaer, R

    2011-08-01

    Percutaneous atherectomy provides an alternative approach to the endovascular treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic occlusive disease beyond angioplasty and stenting, and has the theoretical advantage of lesion debulking and minimizing barotrauma to the vessel wall. Atherectomy has evolved greatly during the last decade, with currently four FDA approved devices for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Several reports have focused on the initial technical success rates, and demonstrated the safety and short as well as mid-term efficacy of atherectomy devices. This article will review the evolution of current atherectomy devices and the associated literature.

  3. Microphysics evolution and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A few general features of microscopics evolution and their relationship with microscopics methodology are briefly surveyed. Several pluri-disciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects of microscopics research are also discussed in the present scientific context. The need for an equilibrium between individual tendencies and collective constraints required by team work, already formulated thirty years ago by Frederic Joliot, is particularly stressed in the present conjuncture of Nuclear Research favouring very large team projects and discouraging individual initiatives. The increasing importance of the science of science (due to their multiple social, economical, ecological aspects) and the stronger competition between national and international tendencies of scientific (and technical) cooperation are also discussed. (author)

  4. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial conditions are probably set by results of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBNS) without intervening complications affecting the composition of visible matter so that extrapolation of observed abundances to BBNS products seems fairly secure. Primordial helium and deuterium abundances deduced in this way place upper and lower limits on baryonic density implying that both baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter exist and predicting no more than 3 neutrino flavours as recently confirmed in accelerator experiments. The validity of simple galactic chemical evolution models assumed in extrapolating back to the Big Bang is examined in the light of the frequency distribution of iron or oxygen abundances in the Galactic halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment...... catalysts based on this. Suited for upper-level high school and first-year university students, this exercise involves using a basic two-cell electrochemical setup to test multiple electrode materials as catalysts at one applied potential, and then constructing a volcano curve with the resulting currents...

  6. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  7. A new evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laenen, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolution equation for the gluon density relevant for the region of small x B . It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multigluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed α s . We find that the effects of multigluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (orig.)

  8. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, D C.V. [Indian Inst. of Astrophysics, Bangalore

    1980-05-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nucleosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of /sup 4/He, /sup 12/C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of /sup 14/N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally.

  9. Chemical evolution coefficients for the study of galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, D.C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A new evaluation of chemical evolution coefficients has been made using recent stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis data. The role of the low and intermediate mass stars in galactic nuclosynthesis has been emphasized. A significant amount of 4 He, 12 C and neutron-rich species is found to be contributed by these stars. Comparison with observed abundances suggests a primary origin of 14 N. The simple model of galactic evolution with the new coefficients has been used to derive the ratio of helium to heavy element enrichment in the Galaxy. The new stellar evolution data do not explain the large value of this ratio that has been determined observationally. (orig.)

  10. Concrete Chemical Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Tang

    1998-07-31

    The objectives of this analysis are to discuss and evaluate testing results that were performed for the M&O by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to evaluate the potential long-term evolution of organic admixtures in cementitious materials at elevated temperatures. The testing was designed to help provide a basis for a determination by the Performance Assessment group (PA) of the long-term acceptability and longevity of cementitious materials for repository use. The main purpose of the testing was to assess the evolution of gases (especially CO{sub 2}) from hydrated cement paste at elevated temperatures and to determine the impact on alkalinity, i.e., the pH value of cement paste pore solution. This information in turn can be used as scoping information to determine if further tests of this nature are needed to support PA. As part of this discussion and evaluation of the PSU results, an assessment of alkalinity in a ''cementitious repository'' and an evaluation of organic materials are presented.

  11. The Evolution of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    This Review was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian Chemist and Physicist, on February the 10th 1976. The merits of the inductive and the deductive approach in tracing the pathways of evolution are discussed. Using the latter approach, it is concluded that photosynthesis followed fermentation as a method of obtaining energy-rich compounds, especially ATP. Photosynthesis probably arose by utilization of membranes for bioenergetic processes. Originally photosynthesis served photophosphorylation (ATP production), later reducing power was also made, either by open-ended, light-powered, electron flow or driven by ATP; ultimate electron donors were at first hydrogen or sulfur compounds, and later water, the last-named capability Was acquired by prokaryotic algae the earliest plants, similar to the recent blue-greens. When free oxygen entered the atmosphere for the first time, various forms of respiration (oxidative phosphorylation) became possible. Mechanistically, respiration evolved from photosynthesis (‘conversion hypotheses’). Prokaryotic algae are probably the ancestors of the chloroplasts in the eukaryotes, In the evolution of the eukaryotes, not much change in the basic processes of photosynthesis occurred.(author)

  12. Concrete Chemical Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.H. Tang

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis are to discuss and evaluate testing results that were performed for the M andO by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) to evaluate the potential long-term evolution of organic admixtures in cementitious materials at elevated temperatures. The testing was designed to help provide a basis for a determination by the Performance Assessment group (PA) of the long-term acceptability and longevity of cementitious materials for repository use. The main purpose of the testing was to assess the evolution of gases (especially CO 2 ) from hydrated cement paste at elevated temperatures and to determine the impact on alkalinity, i.e., the pH value of cement paste pore solution. This information in turn can be used as scoping information to determine if further tests of this nature are needed to support PA. As part of this discussion and evaluation of the PSU results, an assessment of alkalinity in a ''cementitious repository'' and an evaluation of organic materials are presented

  13. Evolution of stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vader, P.

    1981-01-01

    The stellar systems of which the evolution will be considered in this thesis, are either galaxies, which contain about 10 11 stars, or binary systems, which consist of only two stars. It is seen that binary systems can give us some insight into the relative age of the nucleus of M31. The positive correlation between the metal content of a galaxy and its mass, first noted for elliptical galaxies, seems to be a general property of galaxies of all types. The observed increase of metallicity with galaxy mass is too large to be accounted for by differences in the evolutionary stage of galaxies. To explain the observed correlation it is proposed that a relatively larger proportion of massive stars is formed in more massive galaxies. The physical basis is that the formation of massive stars seems to be tied to the enhanced gas-dynamical activity in more massive galaxies. A specific aspect of the production of heavy elements by massive stars is investigated in some detail. In 1979 a cluster of 18 point X-ray sources within 400 pc of the centre of M31 was detected with the Einstein satellite. This is a remarkable result since no equivalent of this cluster has been observed in the nucleus of our own Galaxy, which otherwise is very similar to that of M31. An explanation for this phenomenon is proposed, suggesting that X-ray binaries are the products of the long-term evolution of nova systems. (Auth.)

  14. Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbutina, B.

    2017-12-01

    This book, both a monograph and a graduate textbook, is based on my original research and partly on the materials prepared earlier for the 2007 and 2008 IARS Astrophysics Summer School in Istanbul, AstroMundus course 'Supernovae and Their Remnants' that was held for the first time in 2011 at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and a graduate course 'Evolution of Supernova Remnants' that I teach at the aforementioned university. The first part Supernovae (introduction, thermonuclear supernovae, core-collapse supernovae) provides introductory information and explains the classification and physics of supernova explosions, while the second part Supernova remnants (introduction, shock waves, cosmic rays and particle acceleration, magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation, hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants), which is the field I work in, is more detailed in scope i.e. technical/mathematical. Special attention is paid to details of mathematical derivations that often cannot be found in original works or available literature. Therefore, I believe it can be useful to both, graduate students and researchers interested in the field.

  15. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  16. Ultrastructure, macromolecules, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Lawrence S

    1981-01-01

    Thus far in the history of biology, two, and only two, fundamental principles have come to light that pervade and unify the entire science-the cell theory and the concept of evolution. While it is true that recently opened fields of inves­ tigation have given rise to several generalizations of wide impact, such as the universality of DNA and the energetic dynamics of ecology, closer inspection reveals them to be part and parcel of either of the first two mentioned. Because in the final analysis energy can act upon an organism solely at the cellular level, its effects may be perceived basically to represent one facet of cell me­ tabolism. Similarly, because the DNA theory centers upon the means by which cells build proteins and reproduce themselves, it too proves to be only one more, even though an exciting, aspect of the cell theory. In fact, if the matter is given closer scrutiny, evolution itself can be viewed as being a fundamental portion of the cell concept, for its effects arise only as a consequence ...

  17. Modeling Protein Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Pollock, David

    The study of biology is fundamentally different from many other scientific pursuits, such as geology or astrophysics. This difference stems from the ubiquitous questions that arise about function and purpose. These are questions concerning why biological objects operate the way they do: what is the function of a polymerase? What is the role of the immune system? No one, aside from the most dedicated anthropist or interventionist theist, would attempt to determine the purpose of the earth's mantle or the function of a binary star. Among the sciences, it is only biology in which the details of what an object does can be said to be part of the reason for its existence. This is because the process of evolution is capable of improving an object to better carry out a function; that is, it adapts an object within the constraints of mechanics and history (i.e., what has come before). Thus, the ultimate basis of these biological questions is the process of evolution; generally, the function of an enzyme, cell type, organ, system, or trait is the thing that it does that contributes to the fitness (i.e., reproductive success) of the organism of which it is a part or characteristic. Our investigations cannot escape the simple fact that all things in biology (including ourselves) are, ultimately, the result of an evolutionary process.

  18. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical evolution of disk galaxies is discussed with special reference to results obtained from studies of the oxygen abundance in H II regions. Normal spirals (including our own) display the by now well known radial abundance gradient, which is discussed on the basis of the simple enrichment model and other models. The Magellanic Clouds, on the other hand, and the barred spiral NGC 1365, have been found to have little or no abundance gradient, implying a very different sort of evolution that may involve large-scale mixing. Finally, the simple model is tested against a number of results in H II regions where the ratio of total mass to mass of residual gas can be estimated. It turns out to fit adequately the Magellanic Clouds and a number of H II regions in the outer parts of spiral galaxies, but in more inner parts it fails, as do more sophisticated models involving infall during the formation of galactic disks that have proved very successful in other respects. (Auth.)

  19. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  20. Student Visual Communication of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin

    2017-06-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of visual representations to science education, previous research has given attention mostly to verbal modalities of evolution instruction. Visual aspects of classroom learning of evolution are yet to be systematically examined by science educators. The present study attends to this issue by exploring the types of evolutionary imagery deployed by secondary students. Our visual design analysis revealed that students resorted to two larger categories of images when visually communicating evolution: spatial metaphors (images that provided a spatio-temporal account of human evolution as a metaphorical "walk" across time and space) and symbolic representations ("icons of evolution" such as personal portraits of Charles Darwin that simply evoked evolutionary theory rather than metaphorically conveying its conceptual contents). It is argued that students need opportunities to collaboratively critique evolutionary imagery and to extend their visual perception of evolution beyond dominant images.

  1. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  2. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  3. The evolution of Lean organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Serafinas, Dalius; Ruželė, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Remiantis evoliucijos tyrimų modeliais bei autorių sudarytu evoliucionuojančios organizacijos modeliu,straipsnyje analizuojama Lean vadybos metodologija ir tiriama, kaip evoliucionuoja ją įgyvendinančios Lietuvosgamybinės organizacijos. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of Lean organizations.Design/methodology/approach: a conceptual literature on the evolution of species, organisms and organizations was reviewed and an original model (framework) of the evolution of orga...

  4. Tracing Cultural Evolution Through Memetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tiktik Dewi Sartika

    2004-01-01

    Viewing human being, as a part of evolution process is still a controversial issue for some people, in fact the evolution runs. As a sociocultural entity, human being has distinctive characters in its evolution process. A Theory inherited from Darwin may have only been able to answer how a simple unit such genes evolve to such complex animal like human. Yet, how among those complex animals interact, communicate, and replicate idea in so forth formed a such self-organized sociocultural complex...

  5. Evolution of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular

  6. Micro-droplet based directed evolution outperforms conventional laboratory evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjostrom, Staffan L.; Huang, Mingtao; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We present droplet adaptive laboratory evolution (DrALE), a directed evolution method used to improve industrial enzyme producing microorganisms for e.g. feedstock digestion. DrALE is based linking a desired phenotype to growth rate allowing only desired cells to proliferate. Single cells are con...... a whole-genome mutated library of yeast cells for α-amylase activity....

  7. On Yi Concert "China' s memory, A Torch in the cloud"%浅谈《中国记忆·云中火把》彝族音乐会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎

    2012-01-01

    《中国记忆·云中火把》在上海音乐厅的成功演出,标志着楚雄彝族音乐走向世界的开始,音乐会的演出成功是楚雄、上海两地艺术家们交流、合作、共同努力的结果。以此为契机,努力打造更加优秀的音乐作品,来赢得人们对彝族音乐的认可。%The successful performance of "China' s memory, a torch in the cloud" in Shanghai concert hall marks the beginning of Yi music going global, to which the artists contribute through their communication, cooperation and joint effort. Taking this opportunity, we should create more good music works to win the world' s recognition.

  8. Evolution of filament barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within periods as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes, only one overlays a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward, and then departed from, each other in Halpha , with the barb endpoints migrating as far as ˜ 10 arcsec. We conclude that the evolution of the barbs was driven by flux emergence and cancellation of small bipolar units at the EFC border.

  9. ABWR evolution program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.; Tanabe, A.; Moriya, K.; Dillmann, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The ABWR plant is becoming a commercial reality in Japan where the first two units are being built by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Although these units are scheduled to come on line in 1996 and '97, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, jointly with NSSS vendors (General Electric, Toshiba and Hitachi) and Japanese BWR utilities, initiated a program for a new plant design. This program is aimed at the further evolution of the ABWR to take advantage of new technological developments and to meet possible social changes in the years to come. The expected time for the first-of-a-kind plant to come on line is in the 2010's when the first generation plants in Japan may approach the time for replacement. This paper presents the ouline of this program with focus on the utility requirements and candidate technologies. (orig.)

  10. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  11. Evolution of paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the concepts and methods used for describing neutronics through the last thirty years is reviewed, with the important role attributed to computer technology and the capacity to perform more precise calculations and models; the various codes such as HETAIRE and APOLLO, used for the Boltzmann equation, are discussed, together with the calculation methods and theories that gain interest or those which were more or less discarded depending on the modelling capacities and nuclear industry choices. The role of experimentations is still essential for neutronics, in order to supply data when theory or data are limited or to validate models and codes. Trends are with structured and modular codes integrating all the know-how of a domain and with increased cooperation with other sectors such as thermohydraulics, thermomechanics, etc

  12. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    is a precondition for a flexible semantics that allows to correctly answer general queries over evolving schemas. The key challenge is to handle attribute mismatches between the intended and recorded schema in a consistent way. We provide a parametric approach to resolve mismatches according to the needs......Conditional schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation changes some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core...... of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  13. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  14. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  15. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  16. Monitoring Evolution at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, P; Murphy, S; Pigueiras, L; Santos, M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two years, the operation of the CERN Data Centres went through significant changes with the introduction of new mechanisms for hardware procurement, new services for cloud provisioning and configuration management, among other improvements. These changes resulted in an increase of resources being operated in a more dynamic environment. Today, the CERN Data Centres provide over 11000 multi-core processor servers, 130 PB disk servers, 100 PB tape robots, and 150 high performance tape drives. To cope with these developments, an evolution of the data centre monitoring tools was also required. This modernisation was based on a number of guiding rules: sustain the increase of resources, adapt to the new dynamic nature of the data centres, make monitoring data easier to share, give more flexibility to Service Managers on how they publish and consume monitoring metrics and logs, establish a common repository of monitoring data, optimise the handling of monitoring notifications, and replace the previous ...

  17. Evolution of Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Vasiliu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Roofs are constructive subassembles that are located at the top of buildings, which toghether with perimetral walls and some elements of the infrastructure belongs to the subsystem elements that close the building. Roofs must meet resistance requirements to mechanical action, thermal insulating, waterproofing and acoustic, fire resistance, durability, economy and aesthetics. The man saw the need to build roofs from the oldest ancient times. Even if the design of buildings has an empirical character, are known and are preserved until today constructions that are made in antiquity, by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans with architectural achievements, worthy of admiration and in present time. General composition of civil construction has been influenced throughout the evolution of construction history by the level of production forces and properties of building materials available in every historical epoch. For over five millennia, building materials were stone, wood and ceramic products (concrete was used by theRomans only as filling material.

  18. Allergy in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-01-01

    The 'foreignness' of proteins that we encounter in our homes and outdoors is in large part dependent on their evolutionary distance from man. This is relevant to understanding the differences between mammalian allergens, e.g. cats, and arthropod allergens, e.g. mites and cockroaches, as well as to understanding responses to a wide range of food allergens. On the other hand, allergic disease has gone through a major evolution of its own from a prehygiene state where there is minimal production of allergen-specific IgE, to the production of high-titer IgE, and then to the dramatic increase in asthma. The challenge is to understand how changes in both hygiene and lifestyle have contributed to the changes in allergic disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The evolution of 'bricolage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboule, D; Wilkins, A S

    1998-02-01

    The past ten years of developmental genetics have revealed that most of our genes are shared by other species throughout the animal kingdom. Consequently, animal diversity might largely rely on the differential use of the same components, either at the individual level through divergent functional recruitment, or at a more integrated level, through their participation in various genetic networks. Here, we argue that this inevitably leads to an increase in the interdependency between functions that, in turn, influences the degree to which novel variations can be tolerated. In this 'transitionist' scheme, evolution is neither inherently gradualist nor punctuated but, instead, progresses from one extreme to the other, together with the increased complexity of organisms.

  1. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Student Visual Communication of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of visual representations to science education, previous research has given attention mostly to verbal modalities of evolution instruction. Visual aspects of classroom learning of evolution are yet to be systematically examined by science educators. The present study attends to this issue by exploring…

  3. Evolution of the TOR Pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.J.P. van; Zwartkruis, F.J.; Bos, J.L.; Snel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and

  4. Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide. R.J.G. Savage and M.R. Long. British Museum of Natural ... structural anatomy of fossils can be related to their probable function. The body of the text discusses the ... gnawers, rooters and browsers, mammals on island continents, hoofed herbivores and ftnally primate evolution,.

  5. Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)

  6. Mechanisms of Evolution in High-Consequence Drug Resistance Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Susu; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro M; Hickman, Alison B; Dekker, John P; Dyda, Fred

    2016-12-06

    The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts were overwhelmingly driven by genetic rearrangements carried out by replicative transposons working in concert with the process of homologous recombination. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving rearrangements in resistance plasmids may lead to fundamentally new strategies to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The spread of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a serious public health threat, as it can critically limit the types of drugs that can be used to treat infected patients. In particular, carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are responsible for a significant and growing burden of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of several plasmids carried by previously sequenced clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC). Our ability to track genetic rearrangements that occurred within resistance plasmids was dependent on accurate annotation of the mobile genetic elements within the plasmids, which was greatly aided by access to long-read DNA sequencing data and knowledge of their mechanisms. Mobile genetic elements such as

  7. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  8. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.

  9. Distinctive patterns of evolution of the δ-globin gene (HBD in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moleirinho

    Full Text Available In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE-γ(HBG-ψβ(HBBP1, and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD and β (HBB. While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively, these estimates

  10. Chess Evolution Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Li; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Lin, Wen-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    We present a chess visualization to convey the changes in a game over successive generations. It contains a score chart, an evolution graph and a chess board, such that users can understand a game from global to local viewpoints. Unlike current graphical chess tools, which focus only on highlighting pieces that are under attack and require sequential investigation, our visualization shows potential outcomes after a piece is moved and indicates how much tactical advantage the player can have over the opponent. Users can first glance at the score chart to roughly obtain the growth and decline of advantages from both sides, and then examine the position relations and the piece placements, to know how the pieces are controlled and how the strategy works. To achieve this visualization, we compute the decision tree using artificial intelligence to analyze a game, in which each node represents a chess position and each edge connects two positions that are one-move different. We then merge nodes representing the same chess position, and shorten branches where nodes on them contain only two neighbors, in order to achieve readability. During the graph rendering, the nodes containing events such as draws, effective checks and checkmates, are highlighted because they show how a game is ended. As a result, our visualization helps players understand a chess game so that they can efficiently learn strategies and tactics. The presented results, evaluations, and the conducted user studies demonstrate the feasibility of our visualization design.

  11. Evolution of reticular pseudodrusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, John; Arnold, Jennifer; Ho, I-Van; Sarks, Shirley; Killingsworth, Murray

    2011-07-01

    To report observations relating to the clinical recognition and possible basis of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD). This retrospective study reports the evolution of RPD in 166 patients who had follow-up of over 1 year using multiple imaging techniques. Mean age when first seen was 73.3 years and the mean period of observation was 4.9 years (range 1-18 years). Associated macular changes were recorded. RPD were first identified in the upper fundus as a reticular network, which then became less obvious, developing a diffuse yellowish appearance. RPD also faded around choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). RPD therefore could be transient but the pattern often remained visible outside the macula or nasal to the discs. Manifestations of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were present in nearly all eyes and there was a particularly high association with CNV (52.1%). In one clinicopathological case abnormal material was found in the subretinal space. The prevalence of RPD may be underestimated because their recognition depends upon the imaging method used, the area of fundus examined and the confusion with typical drusen. The pathology of one eye suggests that RPD may correspond to material in the subretinal space.

  12. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  13. Thioredoxin and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, B. B.

    1991-01-01

    Comparisons of primary structure have revealed significant homology between the m type thioredoxins of chloroplasts and the thioredoxins from a variety of bacteria. Chloroplast thioredoxin f, by comparison, remains an enigma: certain residues are invariant with those of the other thioredoxins, but a phylogenetic relationship to bacterial or m thioredoxins seems distant. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of thioredoxin f is, nevertheless, of interest because of its role in photosynthesis. Therefore, we have attempted to gain information on the evolutionary history of chloroplast thioredoxin f, as well as m. Our goal was first to establish the utility of thioredoxin as a phylogenetic marker, and, if found suitable, to deduce the evolutionary histories of the chloroplast thioredoxins. To this end, we have constructed phylogenetic (minimal replacement) trees using computer analysis. The results show that the thioredoxins of bacteria and animals fall into distinct phylogenetic groups - the bacterial group resembling that derived from earlier 16s RNA analysis and the animal group showing a cluster consistent with known relationships. The chloroplast thioredoxins show a novel type of phylogenetic arrangement: one m type aligns with its counterpart of eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria and other bacteria, whereas the second type (f type) tracks with animal thioredoxin. The results give new insight into the evolution of photosynthesis.

  14. Freud and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharbert, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The essay analyzes the influence of evolutionary thought in the work of Sigmund Freud. Based on Freud's initial occupation as a neuro-anatomist and physiologist certain aspects stemming from the history of nature and developmental biological reasoning that played a role in his endeavours to find a new basis for medical psychology will be pointed out. These considerations are to be regarded as prolegomena of the task to reread Freud once again, and in doing so avoiding the verdict that holds his neuro-anatomic and comparative-morphological works as simply "pre-analytic." In fact, the time seems ripe to reconsider in a new context particularly those evolutionary, medical, and cultural-scientific elements in Freud's work that appear inconsistent at first sight. The substantial thesis is that Freud, given the fact that he was trained in comparative anatomy and physiology in the tradition of Johannes Müller, had the capability of synthesizing elements of this new point of view with the findings and interrogations concerning developmental history and the theory of evolution. More over, this was perceived not merely metaphoric, as he himself stressed it (Freud 1999, XIII, 99), but in the sense of Ubertragung, that inscribed terms and methods deriving from the given field into the realm of psychology. The moving force behind this particular Ubertragung came from a dynamically-neurological perception of the soul that emerged in France since 1800, which Freud came to know trough the late work of Charcot.

  15. Evolution, reproduction and autopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Durand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term autopoiesis was coined to describe the regenerating and self-maintaining chemical systems of cells. The term has subsequently been applied to many different fields, including sociology, systems theory and information systems. This theory postulates that an autopoietic unity (cell, machine is an organised network of processes that exists in a delimited space, which produces components which in turn continuously regenerate and create the network of processes that produced them. The Santiago Theory of Cognition grew from the Theory of Allopoiesis stating that all living systems are cognitive systems, and the process of living is a process of cognition. Cognition is the ability to adapt to a certain environment and cognition emerges because of a continuous bilateral interaction between the system and its environment. The resultant complexity seen in living systems is caused by this interaction between the system and its environment. Autopoiesis and cognition are however opposing concepts because cognition can only exist when the system is open and not closed as autopoiesis suggests. It is also difficult to see how autopoietic systems could originate if they are closed and how the continuous change which we see in evolution can be explained if life consists of autopoietic systems. It is postulated that cells and organisms are in fact open systems relating genetically to ancestors before them and their ever-changing descendants after them and the flow of molecules and energy through an ever-changing ecology.

  16. SRP reactor safety evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant reactors have operated for over 100 reactor years without an incident of significant consequence to on or off-site personnel. The reactor safety posture incorporates a conservative, failure-tolerant design; extensive administrative controls carried out through detailed operating and emergency written procedures; and multiple engineered safety systems backed by comprehensive safety analyses, adapting through the years as operating experience, changes in reactor operational modes, equipment modernization, and experience in the nuclear power industry suggested. Independent technical reviews and audits as well as a strong organizational structure also contribute to the defense-in-depth safety posture. A complete review of safety history would discuss all of the above contributors and the interplay of roles. This report, however, is limited to evolution of the engineered safety features and some of the supporting analyses. The discussion of safety history is divided into finite periods of operating history for preservation of historical perspective and ease of understanding by the reader. Programs in progress are also included. The accident at Three Mile Island was assessed for its safety implications to SRP operation. Resulting recommendations and their current status are discussed separately at the end of the report. 16 refs., 3 figs

  17. Schramm–Loewner evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppainen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    This book is a short, but complete, introduction to the Loewner equation and the SLEs, which are a family of random fractal curves, as well as the relevant background in probability and complex analysis. The connection to statistical physics is also developed in the text in an example case. The book is based on a course (with the same title) lectured by the author. First three chapters are devoted to the background material, but at the same time, give the reader a good understanding on the overview on the subject and on some aspects of conformal invariance. The chapter on the Loewner equation develops in detail the connection of growing hulls and the differential equation satisfied by families of conformal maps. The Schramm–Loewner evolutions are defined and their basic properties are studied in the following chapter, and the regularity properties of random curves as well as scaling limits of discrete random curves are investigated in the final chapter. The book is aimed at graduate students or researcher...

  18. Sponsorship in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M K

    1990-09-01

    Sponsorship appears to be evolving from an original model in which the sponsoring religious institute related to its facilities in a manner resembling a family business, to a model of sponsorship akin to a franchise, to a ministerial partnership. Factors leading to this evolution include tremendous changes within the religious institute itself, including decreases in the number of members and financial stability. Changes within healthcare itself--such as greater competition and declining revenues-have forced hospitals to diversify. One result of these developments has been a radical change in the "rules" of the game. Historically independent entities--hospitals, sponsors, physicians--now have to value interdependence and mutuality. In the family-run model the family (sponsor) had special privileges, as though they "owned" the business. When the number of family members dropped below that necessary to govern, administer, and staff the institute's facilities, they began to move away from the family model to the franchise model, which has more open communication, greater input to decision making by non-family members, and a shift in the family's attention from actual operations to oversight and accountability. Eventually, the franchise model began to give way to the ministerial partnership, characterized by mutuality. Both family and others have roles not only in carrying out the mission, but in actually shaping and forming it.

  19. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  20. The evolution of programs

    CERN Document Server

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    1983-01-01

    -Ecclesiastes 12:12 Programs are invariably subjected to many rorms or transrormation. After an initial version of a program has been designed and developed, it undergoes debugging and certification. In addition, most long-lived pro­ grams have a liCe-cycle that includes modifications to meet amended specifications and extensions for expanded capabilities. Such evolution­ ary aspects of programming are the topic of this monograph. We present rormal methods for manipulating programs and illustrate their applica­ tion with numerous examples. Such methods could be incorporated in semi-automated programming environments, where they would serve to ease the burden on the programmer. We begin by describing a method whereby a given program that achieves one goal can be modified to achieve a different goal or a pro­ gram that computes wrong results can be debugged to achieve the 2 Preface intended results. The abstraction of a set of cognate programs to obtain a program schema, and the instantiation of abstract sc...

  1. Universal pacemaker of genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental observation of comparative genomics is that the distribution of evolution rates across the complete sets of orthologous genes in pairs of related genomes remains virtually unchanged throughout the evolution of life, from bacteria to mammals. The most straightforward explanation for the conservation of this distribution appears to be that the relative evolution rates of all genes remain nearly constant, or in other words, that evolutionary rates of different genes are strongly correlated within each evolving genome. This correlation could be explained by a model that we denoted Universal PaceMaker (UPM) of genome evolution. The UPM model posits that the rate of evolution changes synchronously across genome-wide sets of genes in all evolving lineages. Alternatively, however, the correlation between the evolutionary rates of genes could be a simple consequence of molecular clock (MC). We sought to differentiate between the MC and UPM models by fitting thousands of phylogenetic trees for bacterial and archaeal genes to supertrees that reflect the dominant trend of vertical descent in the evolution of archaea and bacteria and that were constrained according to the two models. The goodness of fit for the UPM model was better than the fit for the MC model, with overwhelming statistical significance, although similarly to the MC, the UPM is strongly overdispersed. Thus, the results of this analysis reveal a universal, genome-wide pacemaker of evolution that could have been in operation throughout the history of life.

  2. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  3. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  6. Evolution of rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S K

    2008-06-01

    The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid -4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used "around and beyond" the nose.

  7. The evolution of alliance capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, K.H.; Duysters, G.M.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness and differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the evolution of alliance capabilities. Relying on the concept of capability lifecycles, prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which different

  8. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  9. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  10. Evolution of ageing since Darwin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... causes of senescence in terms of evolution by natural selec- tion. He rejected the historical ... ism's longevity was somehow determined by its physiolog- ..... Gavrilov L. A. and Gavrilova N. S. 1991 The biology of life span: a.

  11. Towards an alternative evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waesberghe, H

    1982-01-01

    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of genes is replaced by a cybernetical interpretation of the genotype. As nature does jump, exclusive gradualism is dismissed. Saltatory evolution is a natural phenomenon, provided by a sudden collapse of the thresholds which resist against evolution. The fossil record and the taxonomic system call for a macromutational interpretation. As Lamarck and Darwin overlooked the resistance of evolutionary thresholds, an alternative evolution model is needed, the first to be constructed on a palaeontological and taxonomic basis.

  12. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2013-12-08

    Dec 8, 2013 ... cept of evolution, viz. genetic memory and evolutionary variations, genomic adaptations to stress .... or codons, along the transcript without giving attention to whether they are ... They do not affect the genome in a straightfor-.

  13. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York

    1991-01-01

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  14. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  15. Evolution, religions and global Bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Perbal, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Creationist theories are still present in the United States and in Europe. The Darwinian theory of evolution is often considered as the starting point of important debates between religions and evolutionists. In this paper, we are principally interested in evolutionary creationism (or theistic evolutionism). The existence of a divine design in nature, the spiritual status of human beings and the emergence of human species as the purpose of evolution are some of those debates. The post-Darwini...

  16. Physical Complexity and Cognitive Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Peter

    Our intuition tells us that there is a general trend in the evolution of nature, a trend towards greater complexity. However, there are several definitions of complexity and hence it is difficult to argue for or against the validity of this intuition. Christoph Adami has recently introduced a novel measure called physical complexity that assigns low complexity to both ordered and random systems and high complexity to those in between. Physical complexity measures the amount of information that an organism stores in its genome about the environment in which it evolves. The theory of physical complexity predicts that evolution increases the amount of `knowledge' an organism accumulates about its niche. It might be fruitful to generalize Adami's concept of complexity to the entire evolution (including the evolution of man). Physical complexity fits nicely into the philosophical framework of cognitive biology which considers biological evolution as a progressing process of accumulation of knowledge (as a gradual increase of epistemic complexity). According to this paradigm, evolution is a cognitive `ratchet' that pushes the organisms unidirectionally towards higher complexity. Dynamic environment continually creates problems to be solved. To survive in the environment means to solve the problem, and the solution is an embodied knowledge. Cognitive biology (as well as the theory of physical complexity) uses the concepts of information and entropy and views the evolution from both the information-theoretical and thermodynamical perspective. Concerning humans as conscious beings, it seems necessary to postulate an emergence of a new kind of knowledge - a self-aware and self-referential knowledge. Appearence of selfreflection in evolution indicates that the human brain reached a new qualitative level in the epistemic complexity.

  17. Evolution of the European region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeger, Eh.

    1984-01-01

    The problem on geochronological study of the European region is covered. The most ancient age values are determined by U-Pb methods by zircones from paragneisses. The model of evolution, being in agreement with the data obtained by U-Pb and Rb-Sr methods, is considered. The history of the Schwarzwald development is typical for the continent as a whole. The diagram of evolution of primary 87 Sr/ 86 Sr for orthogneisses and granites in France is given

  18. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Mohammad Saad Zaghloul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The concept of biological evolution has long been accepted as a palatable theory aiming at explaining how life began and how creatures diverged so widely along the life span of the earth. Meticulous analysis and criticism of the different postulations of this concept, however, reveals that evolution is an illogic concept based on theoretical hypotheses that can never be tested. Creation, on the other hand, represents the other side of the coin, and up till now debates confronting ...

  19. Qutrit squeezing via semiclassical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Andrei B; Dinani, Hossein Tavakoli; Medendorp, Zachari E D; Guise, Hubert de

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a concept of squeezing in collective qutrit systems through a geometrical picture connected to the deformation of the isotropic fluctuations of su(3) operators when evaluated in a coherent state. This kind of squeezing can be generated by Hamiltonians nonlinear in the generators of su(3) algebra. A simplest model of such a nonlinear evolution is analyzed in terms of semiclassical evolution of the SU(3) Wigner function. (paper)

  20. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  1. Entanglement and inhibited quantum evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschek, P E; Balzer, Chr; Hannemann, Th; Wunderlich, Ch; Neuhauser, W

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum system is impeded by the system's state being observed. A test on an ensemble neither proves the causal nexus nor discloses the nature of the inhibition. Two recent experiments that make use of sequential optical or microwave-optical double resonance on an individual trapped ion disprove a dynamical effect of back action by meter or environment. They rather indicate the ionic states involved in the evolution being entangled with the potentially recorded bivalued scattered-light signal

  2. Thermodynamic evolution far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantuleva, Tatiana A.

    2018-05-01

    The presented model of thermodynamic evolution of an open system far from equilibrium is based on the modern results of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the nonlocal theory of nonequilibrium transport developed by the author and the Speed Gradient principle introduced in the theory of adaptive control. Transition to a description of the system internal structure evolution at the mesoscopic level allows a new insight at the stability problem of non-equilibrium processes. The new model is used in a number of specific tasks.

  3. The evolution of single stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The general outline of the evolution of single stars is well understood but at most stages of evolution important uncertainties remain. This paper contains a very personal view of what are the major uncertainties and of what problems remain to be solved before one can be satisfied with the theory. It is suggested that some problems may be essentially insoluble even with the very large and fast computers that are currently available. (author)

  4. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  5. Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review our recent results on evolution and properties of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the Galaxy. As the first step we discuss stochastic period evolution of INSs. We briefly discuss how an INS's spin period evolves under influence of interaction with turbulized interstellar medium. To investigate statistical properties of the INS population we calculate a {\\it census} of INSs in our Galaxy. Then we show that for exponential field decay the range of minimum value ...

  6. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  7. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-05

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  9. Factorizing the time evolution operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quijas, P C; Arevalo Aguilar, L M

    2007-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in the quantum physical community, and textbooks used to teach quantum mechanics, that it is a difficult task to apply the time evolution operator e itH-hat/h on an initial wavefunction. Because the Hamiltonian operator is, generally, the sum of two operators, then it is not possible to apply the time evolution operator on an initial wavefunction ψ(x, 0), for it implies using terms like (a-hat + b-hat). A possible solution is to factorize the time evolution operator and then apply successively the individual exponential operator on the initial wavefunction. However, the exponential operator does not directly factorize, i.e. e a-hat+b-hat ≠ e a-hat e b-hat . In this study we present a useful procedure for factorizing the time evolution operator when the argument of the exponential is a sum of two operators, which obey specific commutation relations. Then, we apply the exponential operator as an evolution operator for the case of elementary unidimensional potentials, like a particle subject to a constant force and a harmonic oscillator. Also, we discuss an apparent paradox concerning the time evolution operator and non-spreading wave packets addressed previously in the literature

  10. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  12. Evolution of plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mike

    2009-07-01

    characteristics of senescence-related genes allow a framework to be constructed of decisive events in the evolution of the senescence syndrome of modern land-plants. Combining phylogenetic, comparative sequence, gene expression and morphogenetic information leads to the conclusion that biochemical, cellular, integrative and adaptive systems were progressively added to the ancient primary core process of senescence as the evolving plant encountered new environmental and developmental contexts.

  13. t2prhd: a tool to study the patterns of repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The models developed to characterize the evolution of multigene families (such as the birth-and-death and the concerted models have also been applied on the level of sequence repeats inside a gene/protein. Phylogenetic reconstruction is the method of choice to study the evolution of gene families and also sequence repeats in the light of these models. The characterization of the gene family evolution in view of the evolutionary models is done by the evaluation of the clustering of the sequences with the originating loci in mind. As the locus represents positional information, it is straightforward that in the case of the repeats the exact position in the sequence should be used, as the simple numbering according to repeat order can be misleading. Results We have developed a novel rapid visual approach to study repeat evolution, that takes into account the exact repeat position in a sequence. The "pairwise repeat homology diagram" visualizes sequence repeats detected by a profile HMM in a pair of sequences and highlights their homology relations inferred by a phylogenetic tree. The method is implemented in a Perl script (t2prhd available for downloading at http://t2prhd.sourceforge.net and is also accessible as an online tool at http://t2prhd.brc.hu. The power of the method is demonstrated on the EGF-like and fibronectin-III-like (Fn-III domain repeats of three selected mammalian Tenascin sequences. Conclusion Although pairwise repeat homology diagrams do not carry all the information provided by the phylogenetic tree, they allow a rapid and intuitive assessment of repeat evolution. We believe, that t2prhd is a helpful tool with which to study the pattern of repeat evolution. This method can be particularly useful in cases of large datasets (such as large gene families, as the command line interface makes it possible to automate the generation of pairwise repeat homology diagrams with the aid of scripts.

  14. The need for New In Situ Measurements to Understand the Climate, Geology and Evolution of Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Many measurements needed to address outstanding questions about current processes and evolution of Venus can only be made from in situ platforms such as entry probes, balloons or landers. Among these are precise determination of the value and altitude dependence of the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio, an important tracer of water history which, while clearly greatly elevated compared to the terrestrial ratio, is still unknown within a large range of uncertainty and appears, based on Venus Express results, to display an enigmatic altitude dependence. Rare gas abundances and isotopes provide clues to volatile sources and histories of outgassing and exospheric escape. Modern mass spectrometry at Venus would yield abundances of the eight stable xenon isotopes, bulk abundances of krypton, and isotopes of neon. Altitude profiles of sulfur-containing chemical species would illuminate global geochemical cycles, including cloud formation, outgassing rates and surface-atmosphere interactions. The altitude profile of wind speeds and radiation fluxes, interpreted in light of the Venus Express and Akatsuki data, would enrich understanding of the global circulation and climate dynamics of Venus. Descent and surface images of carefully chosen locations would lend ground truth to interpretations of the near-global Magellan data sets and provide context for global remote sensing data obtained by future orbiter missions. Landed instruments would provide refinement and calibration for chemical abundance measurements by historical missions as well as direct mineralogical measurements of Venusian surface and subsurface rocks. In concert with atmospheric measurements these would greatly constrain geologic history as well as the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions. Such a suite of measurements will deepen our understanding of the origin and evolution of Venus in the context of Solar System and extrasolar terrestrial planets, determine the level and style of current geological activity

  15. Phenotypic integration and the evolution of signal repertoires: A case study of treefrog acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael S; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2018-03-01

    Animal signals are inherently complex phenotypes with many interacting parts combining to elicit responses from receivers. The pattern of interrelationships between signal components reflects the extent to which each component is expressed, and responds to selection, either in concert with or independently of others. Furthermore, many species have complex repertoires consisting of multiple signal types used in different contexts, and common morphological and physiological constraints may result in interrelationships extending across the multiple signals in species' repertoires. The evolutionary significance of interrelationships between signal traits can be explored within the framework of phenotypic integration, which offers a suite of quantitative techniques to characterize complex phenotypes. In particular, these techniques allow for the assessment of modularity and integration, which describe, respectively, the extent to which sets of traits covary either independently or jointly. Although signal and repertoire complexity are thought to be major drivers of diversification and social evolution, few studies have explicitly measured the phenotypic integration of signals to investigate the evolution of diverse communication systems. We applied methods from phenotypic integration studies to quantify integration in the two primary vocalization types (advertisement and aggressive calls) in the treefrogs Hyla versicolor , Hyla cinerea, and Dendropsophus ebraccatus . We recorded male calls and calculated standardized phenotypic variance-covariance ( P ) matrices for characteristics within and across call types. We found significant integration across call types, but the strength of integration varied by species and corresponded with the acoustic similarity of the call types within each species. H. versicolor had the most modular advertisement and aggressive calls and the least acoustically similar call types. Additionally, P was robust to changing social competition

  16. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  17. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…

  18. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David

    2016-07-01

    Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

  19. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  20. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  1. Helicity evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g 1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of α s ln 2  (1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of α s ln (1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-N c and large-N c   N f limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equations map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for the g 1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002880050285.

  2. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  3. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chaos and unpredictability in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Iaroslav

    2014-05-01

    The possibility of complicated dynamic behavior driven by nonlinear feedbacks in dynamical systems has revolutionized science in the latter part of the last century. Yet despite examples of complicated frequency dynamics, the possibility of long-term evolutionary chaos is rarely considered. The concept of "survival of the fittest" is central to much evolutionary thinking and embodies a perspective of evolution as a directional optimization process exhibiting simple, predictable dynamics. This perspective is adequate for simple scenarios, when frequency-independent selection acts on scalar phenotypes. However, in most organisms many phenotypic properties combine in complicated ways to determine ecological interactions, and hence frequency-dependent selection. Therefore, it is natural to consider models for evolutionary dynamics generated by frequency-dependent selection acting simultaneously on many different phenotypes. Here we show that complicated, chaotic dynamics of long-term evolutionary trajectories in phenotype space is very common in a large class of such models when the dimension of phenotype space is large, and when there are selective interactions between the phenotypic components. Our results suggest that the perspective of evolution as a process with simple, predictable dynamics covers only a small fragment of long-term evolution. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. A new paradigma on the plant evolution: from a natural evolution to an artificial evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    After evidencing the great importance of plants for animals and humans in consequence of the photosynthesis, several considerations on plant evolution are made. One of the peculiar characteristics of the plant is the sessile property, due especially to the cell wall. This factor, principally, strengthened by the photosynthetic process, determined the particular developmental pattern of the plant, which is characterized by the continuous formation of new organs. The plant immobility, although negative for its survival, has been, in great part, overcome by the acquisition of the capacity of adaptation (plasticity) to the environmental stresses and changes, and the establishment of more adapted genotypes. This capacity to react to the external signals induced Trewavas to speak of "plant intelligence". The plant movement incapacity and the evolution of the sexual reproduction system were strongly correlated. In this context, the evolution of the flower in the Angiosperms has been particularly important to allow the male gamete to fertilize the immobile female gamete. Moreover, the formation of fruit and seed greatly improved the dispersal and conservation of the progeny in the environment. With the flower, mechanisms to favour the outcrossing among different individuals appeared, which are essential to increase the genetic variability and, then, the plant evolution itself. Although the Angiosperms seem highly evolved, the plant evolution is not surely finished, because many reported morpho-physiological processes may be still considered susceptible of further improvement. In the last years the relationships among humans, plants and environment are becoming closer and closer. This is due to the use of the DNA recombinant techniques with the aim to modify artificially plant characters. Therefore, the risk of a plant evolution strongly directed towards practical or commercial objectives, or "an artificial evolution", may be hypothesized.

  6. GENUSA Fuel Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choithramani, Sylvia; Malpica, Maria [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, GENUSA, Josefa Valcarcel, 26 28027 Madrid (Spain); Fawcett, Russel [Global Nuclear Fuel (United States)

    2009-06-15

    surface specifications to add PCI margin; - Introduction of a debris filter, applied as a standard feature to 10x10 GE14, and as an optional feature in 9x9 fuel, to address debris fretting, as well as advancements to debris filters to achieve even better resistance to debris ingress. GENUSA has always taken the necessary steps to assure the infrastructure and technology are in place to support each product or potential product introduction program. This paper will describe these steps and the evolution of the GENUSA delivered product in Europe starting with the first Garona reload product and finish with a slight description of how our latest product, GNF2, was born. This will include how GENUSA opened to the European market and all the different products that GENUSA has offered and offers nowadays. (authors)

  7. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...... evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending...... computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific...

  8. Evolution of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, J.

    2017-07-01

    In the evolution of the cosmic web dark energy plays an important role. To understand the role of dark energy we investigate the evolution of superclusters in four cosmological models: standard model SCDM, conventional model LCDM, open model OCDM, and a hyper-dark-energy model HCDM. Numerical simulations of the evolution are performed in a box of size 1024 Mpc/h. Model superclusters are compared with superclusters found for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Superclusters are searched using density fields. LCDM superclusters have properties, very close to properties of observed SDSS superclusters. Standard model SCDM has about 2 times more superclusters than other models, but SCDM superclusters are smaller and have lower luminosities. Superclusters as principal structural elements of the cosmic web are present at all cosmological epochs.

  9. Evolution equations for Killing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, B.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of finding necessary and sufficient conditions on the Cauchy data for Einstein equations which insure the existence of Killing fields in a neighborhood of an initial hypersurface has been considered recently by Berezdivin, Coll, and Moncrief. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the evolution equations obtained in all these cases are of nonstrictly hyperbolic type, and, thus, the Cauchy data must belong to a special class of functions. We prove here that, for the vacuum and Einstein--Maxwell space--times and in a coordinate independent way, one can always choose, as evolution equations for the Killing fields, a strictly hyperbolic system: The above theorems can be thus extended to all Cauchy data for which the Einstein evolution problem has been proved to be well set

  10. Modelling microstructural evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation is characterised by some unique features that are not typically present in other application environments. While much understanding has been achieved by experimental studies, the ability to model this microstructural evolution for complex materials states and environmental conditions not only enhances understanding, it also enables prediction of materials behaviour under conditions that are difficult to duplicate experimentally. Furthermore, reliable models enable designing materials for improved engineering performance for their respective applications. Thus, development and application of mesoscale microstructural model are important for advancing nuclear materials technologies. In this chapter, the application of the Potts model to nuclear materials will be reviewed and demonstrated, as an example of microstructural evolution processes. (author)

  11. The evolution of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is believed that only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were created during the 'Big Bang' origin of the Universe and that all heavier elements were synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars, the interstellar medium and possibly in 'little bangs' in the nuclei of galaxies. The composition of the interstellar medium has evolved through enrichment by processed material shed by evolving stars and the composition of the Solar System reflects that of the interstellar medium at the time of its formation. Differentiation processes during the evolution of the Solar System and individual planets account for the different compositions of the Sun and the planets. The measurement of the abundance distribution of the elements has become a very powerful tool in the elucidation of the evolution of the Solar System, stars and the Galaxy. This review attempts to trace the formation of the elements in stars and their subsequent evolution. (author)

  12. Darwinian evolution on a chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Paegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer control of Darwinian evolution has been demonstrated by propagating a population of RNA enzymes in a microfluidic device. The RNA population was challenged to catalyze the ligation of an oligonucleotide substrate under conditions of progressively lower substrate concentrations. A microchip-based serial dilution circuit automated an exponential growth phase followed by a 10-fold dilution, which was repeated for 500 log-growth iterations. Evolution was observed in real time as the population adapted and achieved progressively faster growth rates over time. The final evolved enzyme contained a set of 11 mutations that conferred a 90-fold improvement in substrate utilization, coinciding with the applied selective pressure. This system reduces evolution to a microfluidic algorithm, allowing the experimenter to observe and manipulate adaptation.

  13. Reversible evolution of charged ergoregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, K.; Spyrou, N.

    1987-07-01

    The reversible evolution of a charged rotating ergoregion, due to the injection into it of particles with mass-energy and angular momentum, is studied systematically. As in the uncharged case, a bulge always forms on the outer boundary of the ergoregion due to the latter's angular momentum. The behavior of the bulge's position, relative to the black hole's rotation axis and equatorial plane, is studied, on the basis of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, during the ergoregion's reversible evolution. The range of the permitted values of the ergoregion's linear dimensions along the rotation axis and perpendicular to it is specified. Finally the differences with the evolution of an uncharged ergoregion are pointed out and discussed.

  14. Institutional Evolution and Corporate Boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Victor Zitian; Hobdari, Bersant; Sun, Pei

    2014-01-01

    We argue that corporate boards are a dynamic repository of human- and social capital in response to external institutional evolution. Theoretically, integrating institutional economics, agency theory and resource dependence theory, we explain that evolution of market-, legal- and political......, since the board changes are typically proposed by the block shareholders, whose motivation for doing so is closely associated with a corporation’s financial performance, we further argue that financial performance is a key moderator of the relationships between institutional evolution and changes...... institutions restructures the particular context in which board members play their two primary roles: monitoring the CEO on behalf of the shareholders, suggested by the agency theory, and supporting the CEO by providing resources, knowledge and information, suggested by the resource dependence theory...

  15. The Solvay Council - Concerted voices on strings

    CERN Multimedia

    Greene, Brian

    2005-01-01

    "Quantum mechanics describes the world of the infinitely small, explaining the very special interactions at particle levl. Einstein's theory of general relativity applies to the infinitely big, combining space and time within a single entity (space-time) whose deformation explains the universal gravitational attraction between the large galactic and stellar objects in the universe (2.5 pages)

  16. A tale of two concerts / Paul Goble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goble, Paul Alan, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Lõuna-Osseetias Tskhinvalis 20. augustil 2008 toimunud Peterburi Marinski teatri orkestri kontserdist ja Tallinna lauluväljakul ööl vastu 20. augustit 2008 toimunud öölaulupeost. Tallinna kontserdil esines kõnega president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja avaldati toetust Gruusiale

  17. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE OCTOBER 1999 ORDINARY MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Original: FrenchThe meeting was mainly devoted to the examination of the items below, to which the Committee had allocated two meetings:Preparation for the meeting of TREF on 19 November 1999The SCC took note of the agenda for that meeting which includes additional information on the long-term care insurance project, a second report on staff recruitment and retention, a status report on the voluntary programmes (especially an assessment of the Progressive Retirement Programme), a proposal for the application of the cost-of-living index for 2000, an addendum to the technical amendments to be made to the Staff Rules and Regulations, a balance sheet of CERN's apprenticeship programmes and a status report with regard to guarantees for the pensions of members of the personnel in the event of the dissolution of the Organization.Long-term care: TREF would be given further information following the comments made when the Management's initial proposals were presented to the Forum at its September meeting. The informat...

  18. Comité de concertation permanent

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    (The English version will be available next week)Principaux points examinés lors de la réunion du 24 juin 2009 Résultats de l’exercice MARS 2009 Le Comité a pris note des résultats de l’exercice MARS 2008, présentés par le chef du département HR, en exprimant sa satisfaction tant pour la disponibilité précoce des statistiques, que pour le caractère pluriannuel de l’analyse effectuée. Rapport d’avancement des travaux concernant l’examen quinquennal Le Comité a pris note d’une présentation de P. Gildemyn portant sur la procédure de collecte des données pour l’examen quinquennal 2010 (titulaires, boursiers, membres du personnel associés, CHIS), ainsi que du calendrier proposé. Incidence sur les conditions d’emploi des réunions du Comité des finances et du Conseil des 17 et 18 juin 2009 Le Président a rendu brièvement compte des discussions tenues, lors des réunions du Comité des finances et du Conseil de juin 2009, sur le plan à moyen te...

  19. Healtheatre: Drama and Medicine in Concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ian K; Murphy, Paul

    2017-07-28

    Introduction: Clinical practice includes expressing empathy and understanding key features of humanity, such as mortality and illness. The Stanislavski "System" of actor training negotiates a journey from the unconscious via feeling, will and intellect to a proposed supertask. This study explored these areas during collaborative learning amongst undergraduate medical and drama students. Materials and Methods: Each of two interactive sessions involved teams of final year medical students rotating through challenging simulated clinical scenarios, enacted by undergraduate drama students, deploying key techniques from the Stanslavski system of actor training. Team assessment of performance was via a ratified global scoring system and dynamic debriefing techniques. Results: Medical students reported an enhanced immersive experience within simulated clinical scenarios. Drama students reported increased challenge and immersion within their roles. Medical faculty and standardised patients reported positive utility and value for the approach. Clinical team assessment scores increased by 47% ( p merit and utility of such interdisciplinary learning. All students and faculty appreciated the value of the activity and described enhanced learning. Collaborative dynamic debriefing allowed for a continuation of the immersive experience and allowed for an exploration of arenas such as empathy. Conclusions: The deployment of drama students trained in the Stanislavski system significantly enriched medical and drama student experience and performance. Team assessment scores further demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Feedback from students, faculty and standardised patients was uniformly positive. The approach facilitated exploration of empathy.

  20. In Concert: artistic approach to teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Levi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza es un arte, y los profesores son artistas. Al examinar las fases esenciales en el crecimiento y la formación de un artista -práctica, técnica y teoría, inspiración- podemos descubrir cómo estructurar mejor la formación del profesor. Este artículo recorre la experiencia de su autora, enfatizando el aprendizaje experiencial y estructuras como la que plantean las funciones del aprendiz y el mentor. Explora así la filosofía del programa de orquestas El Sistema en Venezuela, y propugna por una definición multifacética tanto de artistas como de profesores.