Sample records for conceptual model starting

  1. Impact of chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP on health-related quality of life: a conceptual model starting with the patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George James N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, a condition characterized by autoimmune-mediated platelet destruction and suboptimal platelet production, is associated with symptoms such as bruising, epistaxis, menorrhagia, mucosal bleeding from the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts and, rarely central nervous system bleeding. The aim of this research is to develop a conceptual model to describe the impact of ITP and its treatment on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods A literature search and focus groups with adult ITP patients were conducted to identify areas of HRQoL affected by ITP. Published literature was reviewed to identify key HRQoL issues and existing questionnaires used to assess HRQoL. Focus group transcripts were reviewed, and common themes were extracted by grouping conceptual categories that described the impact on HRQoL. Results The literature synthesis and themes from the focus group data suggest that decreased platelet counts, disease symptoms, and treatment side effects influence multiple domains of HRQoL for ITP patients. Key areas affected by ITP and its treatments include emotional and functional health, work life, social and leisure activities, and reproductive health. Conclusion ITP affects various areas of HRQoL. This conceptual model will help inform the evaluation of therapeutic strategies for ITP.

  2. Model Building for Conceptual Change (United States)

    Jonassen, David; Strobel, Johannes; Gottdenker, Joshua


    Conceptual change is a popular, contemporary conception of meaningful learning. Conceptual change describes changes in conceptual frameworks (mental models or personal theories) that learners construct to comprehend phenomena. Different theories of conceptual change describe the reorganization of conceptual frameworks that results from different…

  3. Conceptual IT model (United States)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter


    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  4. Conceptual design of the IFMIF Start-Up monitoring module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouat, Philippe, E-mail: [SCK-CEN – The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Leysen, Willem; Goussarov, Andrei; Galledou, Papa Sally [SCK-CEN – The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Rapisarda, David; Mota, Fernando; Garcia, Angela [CIEMAT – Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: ► IFMIF test module conceptual design. ► IFMIF test module foreseen instrumentation. ► Cerenkov photon flux monitor. -- Abstract: The preliminary engineering design of the test facilities, including the various test modules to be used in the IFMIF plant is a part of the IFMIF/EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) project from the Broader Approach to fusion. One presents the current status of the conceptual development of the IFMIF Start-Up Monitoring Module, a dedicated device used in the IFMIF test cell during the commissioning phase of the installation, in order to completely characterise the irradiation conditions behind the target on which the beam of deuterons will be focused. This STUMM embarks a lot of instrumentation to precisely characterise the neutron field, the nuclear heating and the temperatures in the test cell. One briefly describes the measuring instruments (including a specific radiation flux monitor under development), the possible layouts and the possible positioning. One also defines which types of measurements are expected by this especially dedicated commissioning module.

  5. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  6. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.


    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  7. Conceptual Models for Search Engines (United States)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  8. Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming (United States)


    CONCEPTUAL MODELING VIA LOGIC PROGRAMaNG 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John Burge, Bill Noah, Las Smith 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...interpreter and named it Prolog for middle. He found that his program got into an "Programmation en logique ." It provided the infinite loop unless he used... lA N C I WA v Cruse Mle Submartine 44 0 0 0 0 0835 I 9 33 ICC 33 High F.e cruise Misaile 640 0 8S S44 0 0 High Post cruise missile 840 2 7S 440 too

  9. On the evolution of conceptual modeling


    Kaschek, Roland H.


    Since the 1980s the need increased for overcoming idiosyncrasies of approaches to modeling in the various sub-disciplines of computing. The theoretical model of evolution is used in this paper for analyzing how computing and conceptual modeling have changed. It is concluded that computing has changed into a social phenomenon with a technical core and that therefore relying on (formal) model semantics as the sole tool for the discussion of conceptual modeling is no more adequate. A number of l...

  10. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy


    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  11. Conceptual Models Core to Good Design

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jeff


    People make use of software applications in their activities, applying them as tools in carrying out tasks. That this use should be good for people--easy, effective, efficient, and enjoyable--is a principal goal of design. In this book, we present the notion of Conceptual Models, and argue that Conceptual Models are core to achieving good design. From years of helping companies create software applications, we have come to believe that building applications without Conceptual Models is just asking for designs that will be confusing and difficult to learn, remember, and use. We show how Concept

  12. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  13. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event-based mod......The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...

  14. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph


    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  15. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother...

  16. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...

  17. FRSAD conceptual modeling of aboutness

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Marcia; Žumer, Maja


    The first comprehensive exploration of the development and use of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions' (IFLA) newly released model for subject authority data, covering everything from the rationale for creating the model to practical steps for implementing it.

  18. Assessing alternative conceptual models of fracture flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.


    The numerical code TOUGH2 was used to assess alternative conceptual models of fracture flow. The models that were considered included the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model. A one-dimensional, layered, unsaturated domain was studied with a saturated bottom boundary and a constant infiltration at the top boundary. Two different infiltration rates were used in the studies. In addition, the connection areas between the fracture and matrix elements in the dual permeability model were varied. Results showed that the two conceptual models of fracture flow produced different saturation and velocity profiles-even under steady-state conditions. The magnitudes of the discrepancies were sensitive to two parameters that affected the flux between the fractures and matrix in the dual permeability model: (1) the fracture-matrix connection areas and (2) the capillary pressure gradients between the fracture and matrix elements

  19. Conceptual modeling in social and physical contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The history of the computing sciences shows a shift in attention from the syntactic properties of computation to the semantics of computing in the real world. A large part of this shift has been brought about by the introduction of conceptual modeling languages. In this paper I review this history

  20. Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise


    This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...

  1. The conceptualization model problem—surprise (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John


    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  2. Conceptual geohydrological model of the separations area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.; Marine, I.W.


    Subsurface drilling in and around the Separations Areas (F-Area and H-Area of the Savannah River Plant) is providing detailed information for a conceptual model of the geology and hydrology underlying these areas. This conceptual model will provide the framework needed for a mathematical model of groundwater movement beneath these areas. Existing information substantiates the presence of two areally extensive clay layers and several discontinuous clay and sandy-clay layers. These layers occur in and between beds of clayey and silty sand that make up most of the subsurface material. Within these sand beds are geologic units of differing hydraulic conductivity. For the present scale of the model, the subsurface information is considered adequate in H-Area, but additional drilling is planned in F-Area

  3. User verification of the FRBR conceptual model


    Pisanski, Jan; Žumer, Maja


    Purpose - The paper aims to build on of a previous study of mental model s of the bibliographic universe, which found that the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) conceptual model is intuitive. Design/ methodology/approach - A total 120 participants were presented with a list of bibliographic entities and six graphs each. They were asked to choose the graph they thought best represented the relationships between entities described. Findings - The graph bas ed on the FRBR ...



    Alexandra Luciana GUÞÃ


    Throught this paper, our main objective is to propose a conceptual model that links the notions of organizational learning (as capability and as a process) and organizational performance. Our contribution consists in analyzing the literature on organizational learning and organizational performance and in proposing an integrated model, that comprises: organizational learning capability, the process of organizational learning, organizational performance, human capital (the value and uniqueness...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Čoh


    Full Text Available The study analysed and identifi ed the major kinematic parameters of the phases of sprint start and block acceleration that infl uence the results of sprint running. The biomechanical measurements and kinematic analysis were performed on the best world’s best sprinters during his preparation for the European Athletics Championship in Geteborg 2006. In this competition Matic Osovnikar won the bronze medal in a 100- metre run set the Slovenian national record with 10.14 s. The kinematic parameters of the sprint start were established on the basis of a 2-D kinematic analysis, using a high-speed camera with a frequency of 200 F/s. The measurements of block acceleration were made by means of the OPTO TRACK technology and an infra-red photo cell system. The athlete performed fi ve, 20m low-start sprints in constant and controlled measurement conditions. The subject of the study was the set position from the point of view of the height of the total body centre of gravity (TBCG, the block time at the front and rear blocks, block velocity, the block face angle, the velocity of the TBCG in the fi rst three metres and the kinematic parameters of block acceleration in the fi rst ten steps. The study showed the following were the key performance factors in the two phases of sprint running: medium start block distance, block velocity, low block face angles, fi rst step length, low vertical rise in the TBCG in the fi rst three metres of block acceleration, contact phase/fl ight phase index in the fi rst ten steps and the optimal ratio between the length and frequency of steps.

  6. The conceptual model of organization social responsibility


    LUO, Lan; WEI, Jingfu


    With the developing of the research of CSR, people more and more deeply noticethat the corporate should take responsibility. Whether other organizations besides corporatesshould not take responsibilities beyond their field? This paper puts forward theconcept of organization social responsibility on the basis of the concept of corporate socialresponsibility and other theories. And the conceptual models are built based on theconception, introducing the OSR from three angles: the types of organi...

  7. A conceptual model of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.


    . The remaining four constructs are attitudinal, designed to capture the awareness of members to the activities and importance of stakeholder groups in society, both internal and external to the organisation. The model not only allows the level of a party's political market orientation to be assessed, but also......This article proposes eight constructs of a conceptual model of political market orientation, taking inspiration from the business and political marketing literature. Four of the constructs are 'behavioural' in that they aim to describe the process of how information flows through the organisation...

  8. Modalities for an Allegorical Conceptual Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Zieliński


    Full Text Available Allegories are enriched categories generalizing a category of sets and binary relations. In this paper, we extend a new, recently-introduced conceptual data model based on allegories by adding support for modal operators and developing a modal interpretation of the model in any allegory satisfying certain additional (but natural axioms. The possibility of using different allegories allows us to transparently use alternative logical frameworks, such as fuzzy relations. Mathematically, our work demonstrates how to enrich with modal operators and to give a many world semantics to an abstract algebraic logic framework. We also give some examples of applications of the modal extension.

  9. Summarization of clinical information: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Feblowitz, Joshua C; Wright, Adam; Singh, Hardeep; Samal, Lipika; Sittig, Dean F


    To provide high-quality and safe care, clinicians must be able to optimally collect, distill, and interpret patient information. Despite advances in text summarization, only limited research exists on clinical summarization, the complex and heterogeneous process of gathering, organizing and presenting patient data in various forms. To develop a conceptual model for describing and understanding clinical summarization in both computer-independent and computer-supported clinical tasks. Based on extensive literature review and clinical input, we developed a conceptual model of clinical summarization to lay the foundation for future research on clinician workflow and automated summarization using electronic health records (EHRs). Our model identifies five distinct stages of clinical summarization: (1) Aggregation, (2) Organization, (3) Reduction and/or Transformation, (4) Interpretation and (5) Synthesis (AORTIS). The AORTIS model describes the creation of complex, task-specific clinical summaries and provides a framework for clinical workflow analysis and directed research on test results review, clinical documentation and medical decision-making. We describe a hypothetical case study to illustrate the application of this model in the primary care setting. Both practicing physicians and clinical informaticians need a structured method of developing, studying and evaluating clinical summaries in support of a wide range of clinical tasks. Our proposed model of clinical summarization provides a potential pathway to advance knowledge in this area and highlights directions for further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro


    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  11. Achievements and Problems of Conceptual Modelling (United States)

    Thalheim, Bernhard

    Database and information systems technology has substantially changed. Nowadays, content management systems, (information-intensive) web services, collaborating systems, internet databases, OLAP databases etc. have become buzzwords. At the same time, object-relational technology has gained the maturity for being widely applied. Conceptual modelling has not (yet) covered all these novel topics. It has been concentrated for more than two decades around specification of structures. Meanwhile, functionality, interactivity and distribution must be included into conceptual modelling of information systems. Also, some of the open problems that have been already discussed in 1987 [15, 16] still remain to be open. At the same time, novel models such as object-relational models or XML-based models have been developed. They did not overcome all the problems but have been sharpening and extending the variety of open problems. The open problem presented are given for classical areas of database research, i.e., structuring and functionality. The entire are of distribution and interaction is currently an area of very intensive research.

  12. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Perši


    Full Text Available Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system levels and views, allowing system representations for developing computer models.Complex systems, such as business systems with a continuous-discrete production process, require a well organised supply chain highly reactive to production assortment changes. Aligning two different production components distinctive in their behaviour is especially delicate at the production parameters transition point. Such system performances require distinctive designing methods that can follow the double nature of the production process behaviour in accordance with their entities dynamics caused by assortment changes. Consequently, such systems need different conceptual presentations for their purpose to be realized from different views and aspects.

  13. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model (United States)

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn


    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  14. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.


    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  15. A conceptual model of referee efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix eGuillén


    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction.

  16. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.


    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  17. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham


    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.

  18. [The concepts and conceptual models of psychopharmacology]. (United States)

    Gor'kov, V A


    The present approaches to the testing and use of drugs, psychotropic ones in particular, are characterized by inadequate efficiency: the ratio of agents successfully undergone preclinical, clinical, and postclinical tests is 100:5:1 and in clinical psychopharmacotherapy, the proportion of drug-resistant patients and the incidence of side effects are rather high. The groundless supposition that interspecies- and intraspecies-specific sensitivity to drugs is equal may explain this notion, which contradicts the concept of the biochemical stability of species and to the principle of molecular economy in species-specific ratios. To enhance the efficiency of tests and pharmacotherapy, it is suggested that the existing conceptual model "concentration-effect" should be replaced by the extended one "sensitivity-concentration-effect" as it is more scientifically substantiated. Increases in the efficiency of psychopharmacotherapy may be, among other things, reached by individually predicting the most effective psychotropic agents with clinical, paraclinical, pharmacokinetic, and other predictors.

  19. Front-end conceptual platform modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik


    Platform thinking has been the subject of investigation and deployment in many projects in both academia and industry. Most contributions involve the restructuring of product programs, and only a few support front-end development of a new platform in parallel with technology development. This con......Platform thinking has been the subject of investigation and deployment in many projects in both academia and industry. Most contributions involve the restructuring of product programs, and only a few support front-end development of a new platform in parallel with technology development....... The conclusion is that the Conceptual Product Platform model supports stakeholders in achieving an overview of the development tasks and communicating these across multidisciplinary development teams, as well as making decisions on the contents of the platform and providing a link between technical solutions...

  20. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    of entrepreneurial management? The paper builts on the seminal work by Stevenson (1983, 1990) and proposes a discussion and elaboration of the understanding and definition of entrepreneurial management in terms of the relationship between entrepreneurial opportunities and firm resources.......This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...... disagreements, managerial dilemmas and paradoxes. On the basis of the findings and conclusions of the study, the article contributes with and overview of the entrepreneurial management field, and offers an answer to the overall research question: What constitutes the most essential areas and challenges...

  1. Development of conceptual groundwater flow model for Pali Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also extensively uses GIS for preprocessing of hydrological, hydrogeological and geological data. In our view, the methodology presented here provides better tools for building a conceptual model for tackling groundwater modeling problems. Keywords: Groundwater flow model, conceptual model, groundwater ...

  2. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè


    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  3. Creating a Universe, a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Johnson


    Full Text Available Space is something. Space inherently contains laws of nature: universal rules (mathematics, space dimensions, types of forces, types of fields, and particle species, laws (relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism and symmetries (Lorentz, Gauge, and symmetry breaking. We have significant knowledge about these laws of nature because all our scientific theories assume their presence. Their existence is critical for developing either a unique theory of our universe or more speculative multiverse theories. Scientists generally ignore the laws of nature because they “are what they are” and because visualizing different laws of nature challenges the imagination. This article defines a conceptual model separating space (laws of nature from the universe’s energy source (initial conditions and expansion (big bang. By considering the ramifications of changing the laws of nature, initial condition parameters, and two variables in the big bang theory, the model demonstrates that traditional fine tuning is not the whole story when creating a universe. Supporting the model, space and “nothing” are related to the laws of nature, mathematics and multiverse possibilities. Speculation on the beginning of time completes the model.

  4. A Conceptual Modeling Approach for OLAP Personalization (United States)

    Garrigós, Irene; Pardillo, Jesús; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehouses rely on multidimensional models in order to provide decision makers with appropriate structures to intuitively analyze data with OLAP technologies. However, data warehouses may be potentially large and multidimensional structures become increasingly complex to be understood at a glance. Even if a departmental data warehouse (also known as data mart) is used, these structures would be also too complex. As a consequence, acquiring the required information is more costly than expected and decision makers using OLAP tools may get frustrated. In this context, current approaches for data warehouse design are focused on deriving a unique OLAP schema for all analysts from their previously stated information requirements, which is not enough to lighten the complexity of the decision making process. To overcome this drawback, we argue for personalizing multidimensional models for OLAP technologies according to the continuously changing user characteristics, context, requirements and behaviour. In this paper, we present a novel approach to personalizing OLAP systems at the conceptual level based on the underlying multidimensional model of the data warehouse, a user model and a set of personalization rules. The great advantage of our approach is that a personalized OLAP schema is provided for each decision maker contributing to better satisfy their specific analysis needs. Finally, we show the applicability of our approach through a sample scenario based on our CASE tool for data warehouse development.

  5. Guiding principles for conceptual model creation in manufacturing simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Durk-Jouke; Van der Vorst, Jack G. A. J.; Henderson, S.G.; Biller, B.; Hsieh, M.-H.; Shortle, J.; Tew, J.D.; Barton, R.R.


    Conceptual models serve as abstractions of user's perceptions of a system. The choice and detailing of these abstractions are key to model use and understanding for analyst and project stakeholders. In this article we consider guidance for the analyst in his creative job of conceptual modeling. More

  6. On the foundation for roles in RM-ODP: contributions from conceptual modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Andrade Almeida, João; Linington, P.F.; Vallecillo, A.; Wood, B.


    In this paper, we attempt to provide a semantic foundation for the role-related concepts in the RM-ODP. We believe that some theories of conceptual modelling may help us to provide a well-founded underpinning for these concepts, and to harmonize competing proposals for them. As a starting point of

  7. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell (United States)

    Balliet, Ryan James

    Polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are electrochemical devices that create electricity by consuming hydrogen and oxygen, forming water and heat as byproducts. PEFCs have been proposed for use in applications that may require start-up in environments with temperatures below 0 degrees C. Doing so requires that the cell heat up, and when its own waste heat is used to do so, the process is referred to here as "cold start.'' However, at low temperatures the cell's product water freezes, and if the temperature does not rise fast enough, the accumulation of ice in the cathode catalyst layer (cCL) can reduce cell performance significantly, extending the time required to heat up. In addition to reducing performance during cold start, under some conditions the accumulation of ice can lead to irreversible structural degradation of the cCL. The objective of this dissertation is to construct and verify a cold-start model for a single PEFC, use it to improve understanding of cold-start behavior, and to demonstrate how this understanding can lead to better start protocols and material properties. The macrohomogeneous model that has been developed to meet the objective is two-dimensional, transient, and nonisothermal. A key differentiating feature is the inclusion of water in all four of the possible phases: ice, liquid, gas, and membrane. In order to predict water content in the ice, liquid, and gas phases that are present in the porous media, the thermodynamics of phase equilibrium are revisited, and a method for relating phase pressures to water content in each of these phases is developed. Verification of the model is performed by comparing model predictions for cell behavior during parametric studies to measured values taken from various sources. In most cases, good agreement is observed between the model and the experiments. Results from the simulations are used to explain the trends that are observed. The verified cold-start model is deployed to determine a cold-start

  8. Strategic Management: Business Model Canvas for Start-Up Company


    Sonninen, Anna


    Thesis is written about development of Kakunpala as a Start-Up Company, because development processes and ideas are the key factors for future success of the company. The aim of this thesis is to understand Strategic Management of the Company and Development processes,by using the SWOT analysis before and after development and by applying Business Model Canvas template to the Start-Up Company, and by describing Customer Journey: what relations Kakunpala has with clients and its processes...

  9. Conceptual models of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, S.S.; Marshall, D.P.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline

  10. On the general ontological foundations of conceptual modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Herre, Heinrich; Wagner, Gerd; Spaccapietra, Stefano; March, Salvatore T.; Kambayashi, Yahiko


    As pointed out in the pioneering work of [WSW99,EW01], an upper level ontology allows to evaluate the ontological correctness of a conceptual model and to develop guidelines how the constructs of a conceptual modeling language should be used. In this paper we adopt the General Ontological Language

  11. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 8 ... Conceptual hydrological NAM model; calibration; sensitivity analysis; validation; Tapi basin; Purna catchment. ... In present study, a lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM (MIKE11), is calibrated while optimizing the runoff simulations on the basis of minimization of ...

  12. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.


    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  13. Conceptualizing Telehealth in Nursing Practice: Advancing a Conceptual Model to Fill a Virtual Gap. (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel A; Penner, Jamie L


    Increasingly nurses use various telehealth technologies to deliver health care services; however, there has been a lag in research and generation of empirical knowledge to support nursing practice in this expanding field. One challenge to generating knowledge is a gap in development of a comprehensive conceptual model or theoretical framework to illustrate relationships of concepts and phenomena inherent to adoption of a broad range of telehealth technologies to holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature revealed eight published conceptual models, theoretical frameworks, or similar entities applicable to nursing practice. Many of these models focus exclusively on use of telephones and four were generated from qualitative studies, but none comprehensively reflect complexities of bridging nursing process and elements of nursing practice into use of telehealth. The purpose of this article is to present a review of existing conceptual models and frameworks, discuss predominant themes and features of these models, and present a comprehensive conceptual model for telehealth nursing practice synthesized from this literature for consideration and further development. This conceptual model illustrates characteristics of, and relationships between, dimensions of telehealth practice to guide research and knowledge development in provision of holistic person-centered care delivery to individuals by nurses through telehealth technologies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Models to predict the start of the airborne pollen season (United States)

    Siniscalco, Consolata; Caramiello, Rosanna; Migliavacca, Mirco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Mercalli, Luca; Colombo, Roberto; Richardson, Andrew D.


    Aerobiological data can be used as indirect but reliable measures of flowering phenology to analyze the response of plant species to ongoing climate changes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of several phenological models for predicting the pollen start of season (PSS) in seven spring-flowering trees ( Alnus glutinosa, Acer negundo, Carpinus betulus, Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Alnus viridis, and Castanea sativa) and in two summer-flowering herbaceous species ( Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by using a 26-year aerobiological data set collected in Turin (Northern Italy). Data showed a reduced interannual variability of the PSS in the summer-flowering species compared to the spring-flowering ones. Spring warming models with photoperiod limitation performed best for the greater majority of the studied species, while chilling class models were selected only for the early spring flowering species. For Ambrosia and Artemisia, spring warming models were also selected as the best models, indicating that temperature sums are positively related to flowering. However, the poor variance explained by the models suggests that further analyses have to be carried out in order to develop better models for predicting the PSS in these two species. Modeling the pollen season start on a very wide data set provided a new opportunity to highlight the limits of models in elucidating the environmental factors driving the pollen season start when some factors are always fulfilled, as chilling or photoperiod or when the variance is very poor and is not explained by the models.

  15. Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models

  16. Conceptualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap


    In the second chapter a conceptual analysis of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) is given, covering also related terms, such as instructional alignment and test preparation. The OTL issue is highlighted from three educational research traditions: educational effectiveness research, curriculum research and

  17. Using Conceptual Change Theories to Model Position Concepts in Astronomy (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chiang; Hung, Jeng-Fung


    The roles of conceptual change and model building in science education are very important and have a profound and wide effect on teaching science. This study examines the change in children's position concepts after instruction, based on different conceptual change theories. Three classes were chosen and divided into three groups, including a…

  18. An ontologically well-founded profile for UML conceptual models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Wagner, Gerd; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Guarino, Nicola; Persson, Anne; Stirna, Janis


    UML class diagrams can be used as a language for expressing a conceptual model of a domain. In a series of papers [1,2,3] we have been using the General Ontological Language (GOL) and its underlying upper level ontology, proposed in [4,5], to evaluate the ontological correctness of a conceptual UML

  19. Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling (TCM): User's Guide and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehne, F.; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    The Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling (TCM) is a suite of graphical editors for a number of graphical notation systems that are used in software specification methods. The notations can be used to represent the conceptual structure of the software - hence the name of the suite. This manual describes

  20. Vulnerability Assessment Models to Drought: Toward a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumars Zarafshani


    Full Text Available Drought is regarded as a slow-onset natural disaster that causes inevitable damage to water resources and to farm life. Currently, crisis management is the basis of drought mitigation plans, however, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies are based on risk management. As a primary tool in mitigating the impact of drought, vulnerability assessment can be used as a benchmark in drought mitigation plans and to enhance farmers’ ability to cope with drought. Moreover, literature pertaining to drought has focused extensively on its impact, only awarding limited attention to vulnerability assessment as a tool. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for designing a vulnerability model in order to assess farmers’ level of vulnerability before, during and after the onset of drought. Use of this developed drought vulnerability model would aid disaster relief workers by enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers when facing the impacts of drought. The paper starts with the definition of vulnerability and outlines different frameworks on vulnerability developed thus far. It then identifies various approaches of vulnerability assessment and finally offers the most appropriate model. The paper concludes that the introduced model can guide drought mitigation programs in countries that are impacted the most by drought.

  1. The Model Vision Project: A Conceptual Framework for Service Delivery (United States)

    Bourgeault, Stanley E.; And Others


    Described are the conceptualization, implementation, and results to date of the George Peabody College for Teachers Model Center for Severely Handicapped Multi-impaired Children with Visual Impairment as a Primary Handicapping Condition. (Author/IM)

  2. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    graphical information system (GIS) based hydrological models are becoming increasingly useful in prediction of ... models are preferred over lumped conceptual models in prediction of runoff provided exten- sive data ..... high values of CQOF may be ascribed due to presence of certain low permeable soil like clay and bare ...

  3. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: Defining modifying factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Schneider, T.; Goede, H.; Tischer, M.; Warren, N.; Kromhout, H.; Tongeren, M. van; Hemmen, J. van; Cherrie, J.W.


    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is

  4. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.


    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W., II


    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs.

  6. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W., II.


    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs

  7. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  8. A Conceptual Framework of Business Model Emerging Resilience


    Goumagias, Nikolaos; Fernandes, Kiran; Cabras, Ignazio; Li, Feng; Shao, Jianhua; Devlin, Sam; Hodge, Victoria; Cowling, Peter; Kudenko, Daniel


    In this paper we introduce an environmentally driven conceptual framework of Business Model change. Business models acquired substantial momentum in academic literature during the past decade. Several studies focused on what exactly constitutes a Business Model (role model, recipe, architecture etc.) triggering a theoretical debate about the Business Model’s components and their corresponding dynamics and relationships. In this paper, we argue that for Business Models as cognitive structures,...

  9. Educational game models: conceptualization and evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between educational theories, game design and game development are used to develop models for the creation of complex learning environments. The Game Object Model (GOM), that marries educational theory and game design, forms the basis for the development of the Persona Outlining Model (POM) ...

  10. Menthor Editor: An Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João Luiz; Sales, Tiago Prince; Guerson, John; Braga, Bernardo F.B; Brasileiro, Freddy; Sobral, Vinicius


    The lack of well-founded constructs in ontology tools can lead to the construction of non-intended models. In this demonstration we present the Menthor Editor, an ontology-driven conceptual modelling platform which incorporates the theories of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO). We illustrate

  11. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  12. Conceptual astronomy: A novel model for teaching postsecondary science courses (United States)

    Zeilik, Michael; Schau, Candace; Mattern, Nancy; Hall, Shannon; Teague, Kathleen W.; Bisard, Walter


    An innovative, conceptually based instructional model for teaching large undergraduate astronomy courses was designed, implemented, and evaluated in the Fall 1995 semester. This model was based on cognitive and educational theories of knowledge and, we believe, is applicable to other large postsecondary science courses. Major components were: (a) identification of the basic important concepts and their interrelationships that are necessary for connected understanding of astronomy in novice students; (b) use of these concepts and their interrelationships throughout the design, implementation, and evaluation stages of the model; (c) identification of students' prior knowledge and misconceptions; and (d) implementation of varied instructional strategies targeted toward encouraging conceptual understanding in students (i.e., instructional concept maps, cooperative small group work, homework assignments stressing concept application, and a conceptually based student assessment system). Evaluation included the development and use of three measures of conceptual understanding and one of attitudes toward studying astronomy. Over the semester, students showed very large increases in their understanding as assessed by a conceptually based multiple-choice measure of misconceptions, a select-and-fill-in concept map measure, and a relatedness-ratings measure. Attitudes, which were slightly positive before the course, changed slightly in a less favorable direction.

  13. Motivation to Improve Work through Learning: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kueh Hua Ng


    Full Text Available This study aims to enhance our current understanding of the transfer of training by proposing a conceptual model that supports the mediating role of motivation to improve work through learning about the relationship between social support and the transfer of training. The examination of motivation to improve work through motivation to improve work through a learning construct offers a holistic view pertaining to a learner's profile in a workplace setting, which emphasizes learning for the improvement of work performance. The proposed conceptual model is expected to benefit human resource development theory building, as well as field practitioners by emphasizing the motivational aspects crucial for successful transfer of training.

  14. Problem Solving, Modeling, and Local Conceptual Development. (United States)

    Lesh, Richard; Harel, Guershon


    Describes similarities and differences between modeling cycles and stages of development. Includes examples of relevant constructs underlying children's developing ways of thinking about fractions, ratios, rates, proportions, or other mathematical ideas. Concludes that modeling cycles appear to be local or situated versions of the general stages…

  15. Geologic Conceptual Model of Mosul Dam (United States)


    geomechanical characteristics or geotechnical properties. As an example, if the locations and depths of zones of high grout-take are known, these zones can...Dam safety Foundation grout Geologic model GIS Gypsum Hydrogeology Iraq geology Karst 3-D modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  16. Evaluating and Refining the Conceptual Model Used in the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) Intervention. (United States)

    Saunders, Ruth P; Pfeiffer, Karin; Brown, William H; Howie, Erin K; Dowda, Marsha; O'Neill, Jennifer R; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell R


    This study investigated the utility of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) conceptual model, which targeted physical activity (PA) behavior in preschool children, by examining the relationship between implementation monitoring data and child PA during the school day. We monitored implementation completeness and fidelity based on multiple elements identified in the conceptual model. Comparing high-implementing, low-implementing, and control groups revealed no association between implementation and outcomes. We performed post hoc analyses, using process data, to refine our conceptual model's depiction of an effective preschool PA-promoting environment. Results suggest that a single component of the original four-component conceptual model, providing opportunities for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through recess for 4-year-old children in preschool settings, may be a good starting place for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Interventions that are implemented with optimal levels of completeness and fidelity are more likely to achieve behavior change if they are based on accurate conceptual models. Examining the mechanisms through which an intervention produces its effects, as articulated in the conceptual model that guides it, is particularly important for environmentally focused interventions because they are guided by emerging frameworks. The results of this study underscore the utility of using implementation monitoring data to examine the conceptual model on which the intervention is based.

  17. The ACTIVE conceptual framework as a structural equation model. (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Payne, Brennan R; Casanova, Ramon; Davoudzadeh, Pega; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Farias, Sarah; Giovannetti, Tania; Ip, Edward H; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W; Schaie, K Warner; Thomas, Kelsey; Willis, Sherry; Jones, Richard N


    Background/Study Context: Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility). Measurement models for each proximal, primary, and secondary outcome were developed and tested using baseline data. Each construct was then combined in one model to evaluate fit (RMSEA, CFI, normalized residuals of each indicator). To expand the conceptual model and potentially inform future trials, evidence of modification of structural model parameters was evaluated by age, years of education, sex, race, and self-rated health status. Preconceived measurement models for memory, reasoning, speed of processing, everyday problem-solving, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulty, everyday speed, driving difficulty, and health-related quality of life each fit well to the data (all RMSEA .95). Fit of the full model was excellent (RMSEA = .038; CFI = .924). In contrast with previous findings from ACTIVE regarding who benefits from training, interaction testing revealed associations between proximal abilities and primary outcomes are stronger on average by nonwhite race, worse health, older age, and less education (p conceptual model. Findings suggest that the types of people who show intervention effects on cognitive performance potentially may be different from

  18. A nursing conceptual model for contamination. (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Polk, Laura V


    To propose a nursing model of contamination that describes the key features of contamination at a level of abstraction needed for clinical decision making. Relevant literature on contamination, biopreparedness, and classic epidemiologic literature were reviewed and analyzed. A model of contamination was created along with a description of benefits of use in practice, education, and research. The nursing profession is called to respond to contamination incidents on a local, national, and global level. Achieving optimum health outcomes while managing contamination incidents is enhanced by nurses' use of a model that incorporates six elements to identify and name instances of contamination and select suitable outcomes and interventions. © 2011, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2011, NANDA International.

  19. Modelling students' knowledge organisation: Genealogical conceptual networks (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Nousiainen, Maija


    Learning scientific knowledge is largely based on understanding what are its key concepts and how they are related. The relational structure of concepts also affects how concepts are introduced in teaching scientific knowledge. We model here how students organise their knowledge when they represent their understanding of how physics concepts are related. The model is based on assumptions that students use simple basic linking-motifs in introducing new concepts and mostly relate them to concepts that were introduced a few steps earlier, i.e. following a genealogical ordering. The resulting genealogical networks have relatively high local clustering coefficients of nodes but otherwise resemble networks obtained with an identical degree distribution of nodes but with random linking between them (i.e. the configuration-model). However, a few key nodes having a special structural role emerge and these nodes have a higher than average communicability betweenness centralities. These features agree with the empirically found properties of students' concept networks.

  20. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lovric (Milan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); J. Spronk (Jaap)


    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is

  1. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.


    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  2. Designing Public Library Websites for Teens: A Conceptual Model (United States)

    Naughton, Robin Amanda


    The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in human-computer…

  3. Exploring conceptual models for community engagement at higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical conceptual analysis of the South African Higher Education context reflects the lack of a structural and functional framework for the conceptualisation of community engagement (CE) in higher education. The purpose of this article is to explore a framework and model for the conceptualisation of CE for a better ...

  4. LCM 3.0: A Language for describing Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    The syntax of the conceptual model specification language LCM is defined. LCM uses equational logic to specify data types and order-sorted dynamic logic to specify objects with identity and mutable state. LCM specifies database transactions as finite sets of atomic object transitions.

  5. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.


    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  6. A conceptual framework for a mentoring model for nurse educators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation in South Africa resulted in changes in the mandate of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Therefore, the need to design a mentoring model for recruiting and retaining nurse educators to meet the demands of teaching and learning became evident. The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual ...

  7. A New Conceptual Model for Understanding International Students' College Needs (United States)

    Alfattal, Eyad


    This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…

  8. Developing a Conceptual Model of STEAM Teaching Practices (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani; Jamil, Faiza M.


    STEAM, where the "A" represents arts and humanities, is considered a transdisciplinary learning process that has the potential to increase diverse participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. However, a well-defined conceptual model that clearly articulates essential components of the STEAM approach is…

  9. Conceptualizations of Creativity: Comparing Theories and Models of Giftedness (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.


    This article reviews seven different theories of giftedness that include creativity as a component, comparing and contrasting how each one conceptualizes creativity as a part of giftedness. The functions of creativity vary across the models, suggesting that while the field of gifted education often cites the importance of creativity, the…

  10. Conceptual basis for developing of trainig models in complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents conceptual basis for developing of training models of interactive assembling system for automatic building of application software systems, obtained during practical works over "Design and architecture of software systems" and "Object-oriented analysis and design" courses. The system is intended for ...

  11. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior


    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.


    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is influenced by a number of interdependent variables and driven by dual mental systems, the interplay of which contributes to boundedly rational behavior where investors use various heuristics and may exh...

  12. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail


    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  13. Conceptual design interpretations, mindset and models

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Cash, Philip


    Maximising reader insights into the theory, models, methods and fundamental reasoning of design, this book addresses design activities in industrial settings, as well as the actors involved. This approach offers readers a new understanding of design activities and related functions, properties and dispositions. Presenting a ‘design mindset’ that seeks to empower students, researchers, and practitioners alike, it features a strong focus on how designers create new concepts to be developed into products, and how they generate new business and satisfy human needs.   Employing a multi-faceted perspective, the book supplies the reader with a comprehensive worldview of design in the form of a proposed model that will empower their activities as student, researcher or practitioner. We draw the reader into the core role of design conceptualisation for society, for the development of industry, for users and buyers of products, and for citizens in relation to public systems. The book also features original con...

  14. Conceptual Models as Tools for Communication Across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heemskerk


    Full Text Available To better understand and manage complex social-ecological systems, social scientists and ecologists must collaborate. However, issues related to language and research approaches can make it hard for researchers in different fields to work together. This paper suggests that researchers can improve interdisciplinary science through the use of conceptual models as a communication tool. The authors share lessons from a workshop in which interdisciplinary teams of young scientists developed conceptual models of social-ecological systems using data sets and metadata from Long-Term Ecological Research sites across the United States. Both the process of model building and the models that were created are discussed. The exercise revealed that the presence of social scientists in a group influenced the place and role of people in the models. This finding suggests that the participation of both ecologists and social scientists in the early stages of project development may produce better questions and more accurate models of interactions between humans and ecosystems. Although the participants agreed that a better understanding of human intentions and behavior would advance ecosystem science, they felt that interdisciplinary research might gain more by training strong disciplinarians than by merging ecology and social sciences into a new field. It is concluded that conceptual models can provide an inspiring point of departure and a guiding principle for interdisciplinary group discussions. Jointly developing a model not only helped the participants to formulate questions, clarify system boundaries, and identify gaps in existing data, but also revealed the thoughts and assumptions of fellow scientists. Although the use of conceptual models will not serve all purposes, the process of model building can help scientists, policy makers, and resource managers discuss applied problems and theory among themselves and with those in other areas.

  15. Examination of a conceptual model of child neglect. (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Newton, Rae R; Litrownik, Alan J; Lewis, Terri; Briggs, Ernestine C; Thompson, Richard; English, Diana; Lee, Li-Ching; Feerick, Margaret M


    This study attempted to provide empirical support for conceptual definitions of child neglect. We identified 12 types of needs, conceptualizing neglect as occurring when children's basic needs are not adequately met. We examined measures administered to 377 children and caregivers at ages 4 and 6 years participating in longitudinal studies on child mal-treatment to identify potential indicators of these needs. Indicators were found for latent constructs, operationalizing three of the basic needs (emotional support and/or affection, protection from family conflict and/or violence, and from community violence). These latent constructs were used in a measurement model; this supported the conceptual definitions of neglect. A structural equation model then assessed whether the latent constructs were associated with child adjustment at age 8 years. Low level of perceived support from mother was associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Exposure to family conflict was also linked to these problems, and to social difficulties. Finally, children's sense of experiencing little early affection was associated with subsequent externalizing behavior and social problems. The approach of conceptualizing neglect in terms of unmet child needs, developing a measurement model to define latent neglect constructs, and relating these constructs to subsequent adjustment can build our understanding of neglect.

  16. Conceptual model innovation management: market orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Ya. Maljuta


    Full Text Available The article highlights issues that determine the beginning of the innovation process. Determined that until recently in Ukraine at all levels of innovation management (regional, sectoral, institutional dominated grocery orientation innovation that focus on production innovation and found that the transition to a market economy, the restructuring of production and complexity of social needs led to the strengthening of the consumer. It is proved that innovation itself – not the ultimate goal, but only a means of satisfying consumer needs. It proved that changing production conditions, complications of social needs and the need to improve the competitiveness of innovations require finding new forms of innovation. In this regard, proposed to allocate such basic scheme (model of innovation in small businesses, individual entrepreneurs, venture capital firms, eksplerents, patients, violents and commutants, spin-offs and spin-out company, network (or shell company and a network of small businesses.

  17. Collaborative Rural Healthcare Network: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raja


    Full Text Available Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of equipment and facilities often force rural residents to travel long distances to receive needed medical treatment. Researchers and practitioners are in search of solutions to address these unique challenges. In this research, we present a proposed collaborative model of a health information system for rural communities and the challenges and opportunities of this global issue.

  18. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Three versions of a site descriptive model (SDM) have been completed for the Forsmark area. Version 0 established the state of knowledge prior to the start of the site investigation programme. Version 1.1 was essentially a training exercise and was completed during 2004. Version 1.2 was a preliminary site description and concluded the initial site investigation work (ISI) in June 2005. Three modelling stages are planned for the complete site investigation work (CSI). These are labelled stage 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. An important component of each of these stages is to address and continuously try to resolve discipline-specific uncertainties of importance for repository engineering and safety assessment. Stage 2.1 included an updated geological model for Forsmark and aimed to provide a feedback from the modelling working group to the site investigation team to enable completion of the site investigation work. Stage 2.2 described the conceptual understanding and the numerical modelling of the bedrock hydrogeology in the Forsmark area based on data freeze 2.2. The present report describes the modelling based on data freeze 2.3, which is the final data freeze in Forsmark. In comparison, data freeze 2.3 is considerably smaller than data freeze 2.2. Therefore, stage 2.3 deals primarily with model confirmation and uncertainty analysis, e.g. verification of important hypotheses made in stage 2.2 and the role of parameter uncertainty in the numerical modelling. On the whole, the work reported here constitutes an addendum to the work reported in stage 2.2. Two changes were made to the CONNECTFLOW code in stage 2.3. These serve to: 1) improve the representation of the hydraulic properties of the regolith, and 2) improve the conditioning of transmissivity of the deformation zones against single-hole hydraulic tests. The changes to the modelling of the regolith were made to improve the consistency with models made with the MIKE SHE code, which involved the introduction

  19. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma. (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L


    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Radicalization into Violent Extremism II: A Review of Conceptual Models and Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Borum


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, analysts have proposed several frameworks to explain the process of radicalization into violent extremism (RVE. These frameworks are based primarily on rational, conceptual models which are neither guided by theory nor derived from systematic research. This article reviews recent (post-9/11 conceptual models of the radicalization process and recent (post-9/11 empirical studies of RVE. It emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between ideological radicalization and terrorism involvement, though both issues deserve further empirical inquiry. Finally, it summarizes some recent RVE-related research efforts, identifies seven things that social science researchers and operational personnel still need to know about violent radicalization, and offers a set of starting assumptions to move forward with a research agenda that might help to thwart tomorrow's terrorists.

  1. Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions: A conceptual model


    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.


    This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent–offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are ...

  2. A Traceability-based Method to Support Conceptual Model Evolution


    Ruiz Carmona, Luz Marcela


    Renewing software systems is one of the most cost-effective ways to protect software investment, which saves time, money and ensures uninter- rupted access to technical support and product upgrades. There are several mo- tivations to promote investment and scientific effort for specifying systems by means of conceptual models and supporting its evolution. As an example, the software engineering community is addressing solutions for supporting model traceability, continuous improvement of busi...

  3. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling : 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to

  4. Conceptual Commitments of the LIDA Model of Cognition (United States)

    Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; McCall, Ryan; Baars, Bernard


    Significant debate on fundamental issues remains in the subfields of cognitive science, including perception, memory, attention, action selection, learning, and others. Psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence each contribute alternative and sometimes conflicting perspectives on the supervening problem of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Current efforts toward a broad-based, systems-level model of minds cannot await theoretical convergence in each of the relevant subfields. Such work therefore requires the formulation of tentative hypotheses, based on current knowledge, that serve to connect cognitive functions into a theoretical framework for the study of the mind. We term such hypotheses "conceptual commitments" and describe the hypotheses underlying one such model, the Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent (LIDA) Model. Our intention is to initiate a discussion among AGI researchers about which conceptual commitments are essential, or particularly useful, toward creating AGI agents.

  5. Promoting Conceptual Coherence in Quantum Learning through Computational Models (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun


    In order to explain phenomena at the quantum level, scientists use multiple representations in verbal, pictorial, mathematical, and computational forms. Conceptual coherence among these multiple representations is used as an analytical framework to describe student learning trajectories in quantum physics. A series of internet-based curriculum modules are designed to address topics in quantum mechanics, semiconductor physics, and nano-scale engineering applications. In these modules, students are engaged in inquiry-based activities situated in a highly interactive computational modeling environment. This study was conducted in an introductory level solid state physics course. Based on in-depth interviews with 13 students, methods for identifying conceptual coherence as a function of students' level of understanding are presented. Pre-post test comparisons of 20 students in the course indicate a statistically significant improvement in students' conceptual coherence of understanding quantum phenomena before and after the course, Effect Size = 1.29 SD. Additional analyses indicate that students who responded to the modules more coherently improved their conceptual coherence to a greater extent than those who did less to the modules after controlling for their course grades.

  6. An eigenexpansion technique for modelling plasma start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D.


    An algorithm has been developed and implemented in a computer program that allows the estimation of PF coil voltages required to start-up an axisymmetric plasma in a tokamak in the presence of eddy currents in toroidally continuous conducting structures. The algorithm makes use of an eigen-expansion technique to solve the lumped parameter circuit loop voltage equations associated with the PF coils and passive (conducting) structures. An example of start-up for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) is included

  7. Proposal for a parametric conceptual CAD model of a mono-modular inertial fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezzani, M.; Cerullo, N.; Lanza, S.


    The present work tries to solve the problem of realizing a parametric conceptual CAD model of a modular reactor for future inertial fusion power plants. The choice of a modular structure seems to be a good solution for efficiency and economic requirements. On the other hand, the realization of a parametric-variational CAD model is very useful to optimize nuclear and mechanical parameters and to permit the shift from the conceptual to the final model. First, geometric solutions for a modular reactor are analysed; the most interesting is that of a 20-face regular polyhedron (icosahedron). The subdivision of each face into six equal triangles consents to obtain a mono-modular reactor with 120 modules (called 'ICO120'). This solution should be easy, efficient and cheap. Secondly, the work proposes a conceptual CAD model of the ICO120 reactor in which special attention is put on the parametrization. Starting from such parametric model it will be possible to develop and optimize icosahedral reactors with different features, sizes and performances

  8. Conceptual Model of the Globalization for Domain-Specific Languages


    Clark, Tony; Van Den Brand, Mark; Combemale, Benoit; Rumpe, Bernhard


    International audience; Domain Specific Languages (DSL) have received some prominence recently. Designing a DSL and all their tools is still cumbersome and lots of work. Engineering of DSLs is still at infancy, not even the terms have been coined and agreed on. In particular globalization and all its consequences need to be precisely defined and discussed. This chapter provides a definition of the relevant terms and relates them, such that a conceptual model emerges. The authors think that th...

  9. Advanced practice nursing and conceptual models of nursing. (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Newman, Diana M L; McAllister, Margaret


    This column focuses on advanced practice nursing. A definition and central competency of advanced practice are given and four roles assumed by advanced practice nurses are identified. Questions related primarily to the advanced practice role of nurse practitioner are raised. Two nurse scholars who teach and practice discuss their experiences as advanced practice nurses, with an emphasis on the importance of using a conceptual model of nursing as a guide for their practice.

  10. Fatigue in fibromyalgia: a conceptual model informed by patient interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Louise; Arbuckle, Rob; Mease, Philip


    Fatigue is increasingly recognized as an important symptom in fibromyalgia (FM). Unknown however is how fatigue is experienced by individuals in the context of FM. We conducted qualitative research in order to better understand aspects of fatigue that might be unique to FM as well as the impact...... it has on patients' lives. The data obtained informed the development of a conceptual model of fatigue in FM....

  11. Identification of Chemistry Learning Problems Viewed From Conceptual Change Model


    Redhana, I. W; Sudria, I. B. N; Hidayat, I; Merta, L. M


    This study aimed at describing and explaining chemistry learning problems viewed from conceptual change model and misconceptions of students. The study was qualitative research of case study type conducted in one class of SMAN 1 Singaraja. Subjects of the study were a chemistry teacher and students. Data were obtained through classroom observation, interviews, and conception tests. The chemistry learning problems were grouped based on aspects of necessity, intelligibility, plausibility, and f...

  12. Conceptual Model of Climate Change Impacts at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Goal 9 of the LANL FY15 Site Sustainability Plan (LANL 2014a) addresses Climate Change Adaptation. As part of Goal 9, the plan reviews many of the individual programs the Laboratory has initiated over the past 20 years to address climate change impacts to LANL (e.g. Wildland Fire Management Plan, Forest Management Plan, etc.). However, at that time, LANL did not yet have a comprehensive approach to climate change adaptation. To fill this gap, the FY15 Work Plan for the LANL Long Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability (LANL 2015) included a goal of (1) establishing a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts at LANL and (2) establishing specific climate change indices to measure climate change and impacts at Los Alamos. Establishing a conceptual model of climate change impacts will demonstrate that the Laboratory is addressing climate change impacts in a comprehensive manner. This paper fulfills the requirement of goal 1. The establishment of specific indices of climate change at Los Alamos (goal 2), will improve our ability to determine climate change vulnerabilities and assess risk. Future work will include prioritizing risks, evaluating options/technologies/costs, and where appropriate, taking actions. To develop a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts, we selected the framework provided in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Resilience Toolkit (

  13. Incorporating agricultural land cover in conceptual rainfall runoff models (United States)

    Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert


    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi) distributed conceptual rainfall runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using these spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. This study tests whether the incorporation of an additional agricultural HRU in a conceptual hydrological model can better reflect the spatial differences in runoff generation and therefore improve the simulation of the wetting phase in autumn. The study area is the meso-scale Ourthe catchment in Belgium. A previous study in this area showed that spatial patterns in runoff generation were already better represented by incorporation of a wetland and a hillslope HRU, compared to a lumped model structure. The influences which are considered by including an agriculture HRU are increased drainage speed due to roads, plough pans and increased infiltration excess overland flow (drainage pipes area only limited present), and variable vegetation patterns due to sowing and harvesting. In addition, the vegetation is not modelled as a static resistance towards evaporation, but the Jarvis stress functions are used to increase the realism of the modelled transpiration; in land-surface models the Jarvis stress functions are already often used for modelling transpiration. The results show that an agricultural conceptualisation in addition to wetland and hillslope conceptualisations leads to small improvements in the modelled discharge. However, the influence is larger on the representation of spatial patterns and the modelled contributions of different HRUs to the total discharge.

  14. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar


    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  15. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell


    Balliet, Ryan


    Polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are electrochemical devices that create electricity by consuming hydrogen and oxygen, forming water and heat as byproducts. PEFCs have been proposed for use in applications that may require start-up in environments with temperatures below 0 degrees C. Doing so requires that the cell heat up, and when its own waste heat is used to do so, the process is referred to here as ``cold start.'' However, at low temperatures the cell's product water freezes, and i...

  16. On conceptual differentiation and integration of strategy and business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stefanovic


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop the conceptual integration of strategy and business model. Theoretical method is used in order to achieve this objective. The theory building leads to the construction of conceptual model of strategy and business model, and provides its underlying logic. The main finding is that strategy is a pattern within which a business model changes. Only one strategy may exist for a firm in a concrete time frame, while there may be countless business models in the same period. Therefore, strategy represents the sum of all business models and their changes within a specified period. Each business model matches the set of functional strategies and their interdependencies, making strategic content in some particular moment, i.e. each business model is actually a bisection of the business strategy or a bisection of a set of functional strategies in one concrete moment. This specific contribution can be understood only if one takes an appropriate viewpoint of the process of strategy formation, namely the reactive perspective.

  17. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development. (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina


    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  18. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development (United States)


    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  19. Charity Starts … at Work? Conceptual Foundations for Research with Businesses that Donate to Food Redistribution Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Vlaholias


    Full Text Available As global concern about sustainability, food waste, and poverty increases, there is an urgent need to understand what motivates businesses to adopt pro-social and pro-environmental behaviours. This paper suggests that food redistribution organisations hold both pro-social and pro-environmental aims, due to their concern with reducing food surplus and food insecurity. To achieve this, they must motivate food businesses to donate their surplus food. However, little is known about the values, attitudes, and motives of food industry donors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual overview to set out principles from which empirical data on food redistribution will be analysed or critiqued. Specifically, it explores pro-social and pro-environmental literature, as these fields have examined the motivations behind donations and reducing environmental impact. This review highlights that charitable giving of food is different to other inorganic material, such as money. Thus, future research is needed to capture the unique temporal, emotional, social, and environmental factors that motivate food donations. This information may contribute to the development of strategies that target and motivate people from the food industry to become food donors. Alternatively, it may reveal concerns about food donations, and highlight the need for other approaches to food waste and food insecurity.

  20. Strategies to Move From Conceptual Models to Quantifying Resilience in FEW Systems (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Adam, J. C.; Boll, J.; Barber, M. E.; Cosens, B.; Goldsby, M.; Fortenbery, R.; Fowler, A.; Givens, J.; Guzman, C. D.; Hampton, S. E.; Harrison, J.; Huang, M.; Katz, S. L.; Kraucunas, I.; Kruger, C. E.; Liu, M.; Luri, M.; Malek, K.; Mills, A.; McLarty, D.; Pickering, N. B.; Rajagopalan, K.; Stockle, C.; Richey, A.; Voisin, N.; Witinok-Huber, B.; Yoder, J.; Yorgey, G.; Zhao, M.


    Understanding interdependencies within Food-Energy-Water (FEW) systems is critical to maintain FEW security. This project examines how coordinated management of physical (e.g., reservoirs, aquifers, and batteries) and non-physical (e.g., water markets, social capital, and insurance markets) storage systems across the three sectors promotes resilience. Coordination increases effective storage within the overall system and enhances buffering against shocks at multiple scales. System-wide resilience can be increased with innovations in technology (e.g., smart systems and energy storage) and institutions (e.g., economic systems and water law). Using the Columbia River Basin as our geographical study region, we use an integrated approach that includes a continuum of science disciplines, moving from theory to practice. In order to understand FEW linkages, we started with detailed, connected conceptual models of the food, energy, water, and social systems to identify where key interdependencies (i.e., overlaps, stocks, and flows) exist within and between systems. These are used to identify stress and opportunity points, develop innovation solutions across FEW sectors, remove barriers to the adoption of solutions, and quantify increases in system-wide resilience to regional and global change. The conceptual models act as a foundation from which we can identify key drivers, parameters, time steps, and variables of importance to build and improve existing systems dynamic and biophysical models. Our process of developing conceptual models and moving to integrated modeling is critical and serves as a foundation for coupling quantitative components with economic and social domain components and analyses of how these interact through time and space. This poster provides a description of this process that pulls together conceptual maps and integrated modeling output to quantify resilience across all three of the FEW sectors (a.k.a. "The Resilience Calculator"). Companion posters

  1. National Identity: Conceptual models, discourses and political change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter


    Cognitive Linguistics has demonstrated the applicability of a conceptual approach to the understanding of political issues, cf. Lakoff (2008) and many others. From a different perspective, critical discourse analysis has approached political concepts with a focus on issues involving potentially...... in Harder (2010), however, both the analytic stance of critical discourse analysis (based on the hermeneutics of suspicion), and the cognitivist stance of Lakoff (2008) are too narrow: The understanding of political language requires a wider framework of social cognitive linguistics. Essential features...... of conceptual models or discourses. This is especially important in cases that involve conflictive political issues such as national and ethnic identity. The article reports on a historical project with a linguistic dimension in my department (PI Stuart Ward, cf. Ward 2004), which aims to throw light...

  2. Conceptual Modeling in the Time of the Revolution: Part II (United States)

    Mylopoulos, John

    Conceptual Modeling was a marginal research topic at the very fringes of Computer Science in the 60s and 70s, when the discipline was dominated by topics focusing on programs, systems and hardware architectures. Over the years, however, the field has moved to centre stage and has come to claim a central role both in Computer Science research and practice in diverse areas, such as Software Engineering, Databases, Information Systems, the Semantic Web, Business Process Management, Service-Oriented Computing, Multi-Agent Systems, Knowledge Management, and more. The transformation was greatly aided by the adoption of standards in modeling languages (e.g., UML), and model-based methodologies (e.g., Model-Driven Architectures) by the Object Management Group (OMG) and other standards organizations. We briefly review the history of the field over the past 40 years, focusing on the evolution of key ideas. We then note some open challenges and report on-going research, covering topics such as the representation of variability in conceptual models, capturing model intentions, and models of laws.

  3. A Conceptual Model of eLearning Adoption

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    Muneer Abbad


    Full Text Available Internet-based learning systems are being used in many universities and firms but their adoption requires a solid understanding of the user acceptance processes. The technology acceptance model (TAM has been used to test the acceptance of various technologies and software within an e-learning context. This research aims to discuss the main factors of a successful e-learning adoption by students. A conceptual research framework of e-learning adoption is proposed based on the TAM model.

  4. A Conceptual Model for Multidimensional Analysis of Documents (United States)

    Ravat, Franck; Teste, Olivier; Tournier, Ronan; Zurlfluh, Gilles

    Data warehousing and OLAP are mainly used for the analysis of transactional data. Nowadays, with the evolution of Internet, and the development of semi-structured data exchange format (such as XML), it is possible to consider entire fragments of data such as documents as analysis sources. As a consequence, an adapted multidimensional analysis framework needs to be provided. In this paper, we introduce an OLAP multidimensional conceptual model without facts. This model is based on the unique concept of dimensions and is adapted for multidimensional document analysis. We also provide a set of manipulation operations.

  5. Conceptual modelling of evapotranspiration for simulations of climate change effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G.; Gardelin, M.; Persson, Magnus


    The evapotranspiration routines in existing conceptual hydrological models have been identified as one of the weaknesses which appear when these models are used for the simulation of hydrological effects of a changing climate. The hydrological models in operational use today usually have a very superficial description of evapotranspiration. They have, nevertheless, been able to yield reasonable results. The objective of this paper is to analyse and suggest modifications of existing evapotranspiration routines in conceptual hydrological models to make them more appropriate for use in simulation of the effects of a changing climate on water resources. The following modifications of the evapotranspiration routine were formulated and tested in the HBV model: Temperature anomaly correction of evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration by a simplified Thornthwaite type formula, interception submodel, spatially distributed evapotranspiration routine and alternative formulations of lake evapotranspiration. Sensitivity analyses were thereafter made to illustrate the effects of uncertainty in the hydrological model structure versus those of the uncertainty in the climate change predictions. 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs

  6. A Conceptual Culture Model for Design Science Research

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    Thomas Richter


    Full Text Available The aim of design science research (DSR in information systems is the user-centred creation of IT-artifacts with regard to specific social environments. For culture research in the field, which is necessary for a proper localization of IT-artifacts, models and research approaches from social sciences usually are adopted. Descriptive dimension-based culture models most commonly are applied for this purpose, which assume culture being a national phenomenon and tend to reduce it to basic values. Such models are useful for investigations in behavioural culture research because it aims to isolate, describe and explain culture-specific attitudes and characteristics within a selected society. In contrast, with the necessity to deduce concrete decisions for artifact-design, research results from DSR need to go beyond this aim. As hypothesis, this contribution generally questions the applicability of such generic culture dimensions’ models for DSR and focuses on their theoretical foundation, which goes back to Hofstede’s conceptual Onion Model of Culture. The herein applied literature-based analysis confirms the hypothesis. Consequently, an alternative conceptual culture model is being introduced and discussed as theoretical foundation for culture research in DSR.

  7. Conceptual models of microseismicity induced by fluid injection (United States)

    Baro Urbea, J.; Lord-May, C.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Joern, D.


    Variations in the pore pressure due to fluid invasion are accountable for microseismic activity recorded in geothermal systems and during hydraulic fracturing operations. To capture this phenomenon on a conceptual level, invasion percolation models have been suggested to represent the flow network of fluids within a porous media and seismic activity is typically considered to be directly related to the expansion of the percolated area. Although such models reproduce scale-free frequency-magnitude distributions, the associated b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation do not align with observed data. Here, we propose an alternative conceptual invasion percolation model that decouples the fluid propagation from the microseismic events. Instead of a uniform pressure, the pressure is modeled to decay along the distance from the injection site. Wet fracture events are simulated with a stochastic spring block model exhibiting stick-slip dynamics as a result of the variations of the pore pressure. We show that the statistics of the stick-slip events are scale-free, but now the b-values depend on the level of heterogeneity in the local static friction coefficients. Thus, this model is able to reproduce the wide spectrum of b-values observed in field catalogs associated with fluid induced microseismicity. Moreover, the spatial distribution of microseismic events is also consistent with observations.

  8. A Conceptual Model for Engagement of the Online Learner

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    Lorraine M. Angelino


    Full Text Available Engagement of the online learner is one approach to reduce attrition rates. Attrition rates for classes taught through distance education are 10 – 20% higher than classes taught in a face-to-face setting. This paper introduces a Model for Engagement and provides strategies to engage the online learner. The Model depicts various opportunities where student-instructor, student-student, student-content, and student-community engagement can occur. The Model is divided into four strategic areas: (a recruitment, (b coursework, (c post coursework, and (d alumni. The theoretical framework for the model is Tinto‟s student integration model. The conceptual design of the model is based on engagement practices from an online Health Care Management (HCMT certificate program at a university in South Carolina.

  9. Modelling and Predicting Backstroke Start Performance Using Non-Linear And Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesus Karla


    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare non-linear and linear mathematical model responses for backstroke start performance prediction. Ten swimmers randomly completed eight 15 m backstroke starts with feet over the wedge, four with hands on the highest horizontal and four on the vertical handgrip. Swimmers were videotaped using a dual media camera set-up, with the starts being performed over an instrumented block with four force plates. Artificial neural networks were applied to predict 5 m start time using kinematic and kinetic variables and to determine the accuracy of the mean absolute percentage error. Artificial neural networks predicted start time more robustly than the linear model with respect to changing training to the validation dataset for the vertical handgrip (3.95 ± 1.67 vs. 5.92 ± 3.27%. Artificial neural networks obtained a smaller mean absolute percentage error than the linear model in the horizontal (0.43 ± 0.19 vs. 0.98 ± 0.19% and vertical handgrip (0.45 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.30% using all input data. The best artificial neural network validation revealed a smaller mean absolute error than the linear model for the horizontal (0.007 vs. 0.04 s and vertical handgrip (0.01 vs. 0.03 s. Artificial neural networks should be used for backstroke 5 m start time prediction due to the quite small differences among the elite level performances.

  10. Modelling and Predicting Backstroke Start Performance Using Non-Linear and Linear Models. (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; Ayala, Helon V H; de Jesus, Kelly; Coelho, Leandro Dos S; Medeiros, Alexandre I A; Abraldes, José A; Vaz, Mário A P; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo


    Our aim was to compare non-linear and linear mathematical model responses for backstroke start performance prediction. Ten swimmers randomly completed eight 15 m backstroke starts with feet over the wedge, four with hands on the highest horizontal and four on the vertical handgrip. Swimmers were videotaped using a dual media camera set-up, with the starts being performed over an instrumented block with four force plates. Artificial neural networks were applied to predict 5 m start time using kinematic and kinetic variables and to determine the accuracy of the mean absolute percentage error. Artificial neural networks predicted start time more robustly than the linear model with respect to changing training to the validation dataset for the vertical handgrip (3.95 ± 1.67 vs. 5.92 ± 3.27%). Artificial neural networks obtained a smaller mean absolute percentage error than the linear model in the horizontal (0.43 ± 0.19 vs. 0.98 ± 0.19%) and vertical handgrip (0.45 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.30%) using all input data. The best artificial neural network validation revealed a smaller mean absolute error than the linear model for the horizontal (0.007 vs. 0.04 s) and vertical handgrip (0.01 vs. 0.03 s). Artificial neural networks should be used for backstroke 5 m start time prediction due to the quite small differences among the elite level performances.

  11. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman


    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  12. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem (United States)

    Cloern, James E.


    A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly. In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) conceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s. The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton-derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters. Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions. Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world. In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5

  13. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.


    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.

  15. Conceptual Change Texts in Chemistry Teaching: A Study on the Particle Model of Matter (United States)

    Beerenwinkel, Anne; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia


    This study explores the effect of a conceptual change text on students' awareness of common misconceptions on the particle model of matter. The conceptual change text was designed based on principles of text comprehensibility, of conceptual change instruction and of instructional approaches how to introduce the particle model. It was evaluated in…

  16. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

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    Justin Pierce


    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  17. A conceptual model for local content development in petroleum industry

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    Abolfazl Kazzazi


    Full Text Available A novel concept, local content, in oil industry is gradually emerging. Local content should be defined in terms of value addition in local country (by local staff, local materials, local services and facilities rather than in terms of ownership of the company performing the value added activities. Many oil exporting countries have taken a positive approach toward local content development to maximize the benefits from oil and gas extraction. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model for local content development in petroleum industry. Local content can generally be defined in terms of the ownership and/ or location of the enterprises involved in production and/ or the value-added in the production process. Local content promotion will have to vary significantly between countries, depending on the current status of their economic, political and social development. This model is useful for state governments to consider all aspects and factors affecting local content development generally. Local content development outcomes are economic growth, industrial growth and spillover effects. The paper begins with examining the factors accommodated in literature believed to influence the local content promotion. Based on our review, the conceptual model derived includes key factors of local content that evaluate local content development, and examine interrelations between local policies, local infrastructure, local environment, and local capability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA


    Full Text Available Now a day, sustainable supply chain is the crucially considerable matter for future focused industries. As a result, attention in supply chain management has increasingly amplified since the 1980s when firms discovered its benefits of mutual relationships within and beyond their own organization. This is why, concern researchers are trying hard to develop new theory or model which might help the corporate sector for achieving sustainability in their supply chains. This kind of reflection can be seen by the number of papers published and in particular by journal since 1980. The objectives of this paper are twofold. First, it offers a literature review on sustainable supply chain management taking papers published in last three decades. Second, it offers a conceptual sustainable supply chain process model in light of triple bottom line theory. The model has been developed by taking in-depth interview of an entrepreneur from a Poultry case industry in Bangladesh.

  19. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.


    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  20. A conceptual model of people's vulnerability to floods (United States)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto


    Hydraulic risk maps provide the baseline for land use and emergency planning. Accordingly, they should convey clear information on the potential physical implications of the different hazards to the stakeholders. This paper presents a vulnerability criterion focused on human stability in a flow specifically devised for rapidly evolving floods where life, before than economic values, might be threatened. The human body is conceptualized as a set of cylinders and its stability to slipping and toppling is assessed by forces and moments equilibrium. Moreover, a depth threshold to consider drowning is assumed. In order to widen its scope of application, the model takes the destabilizing effect of local slope (so far disregarded in the literature) and fluid density into account. The resulting vulnerability classification could be naturally subdivided in three levels (low, medium, and high) that are limited by two stability curves for children and adults, respectively. In comparison with the most advanced literature conceptual approaches, the proposed model is weakly parameterized and the computed thresholds fit better the available experimental data sets. A code that implements the proposed algorithm is provided.

  1. Importance of incorporating agriculture in conceptual rainfall-runoff models (United States)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert


    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi-)distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using this spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. In large parts of Europe the original forested land cover is replaced by an agricultural land cover. This change in land cover probably affects the dominant runoff processes in the area, for example by increasing the Hortonian overland flow component, especially on the flatter and higher elevated parts of the catchment. A change in runoff processes implies a change in HRUs as well. A previous version of our model distinguished wetlands (areas close to the stream) from the remainder of the catchment. However, this configuration was not able to reproduce all fast runoff processes, both in summer as in winter. Therefore, this study tests whether the reproduction of fast runoff processes can be improved by incorporating a HRU which explicitly accounts for the effect of agriculture. A case study is carried out in the Ourthe catchment in Belgium. For this case study the relevance of different process conceptualisations is tested stepwise. Among the conceptualisations are Hortonian overland flow in summer and winter, reduced infiltration capacity due to a partly frozen soil and the relative effect of rainfall and snow smelt in case of this frozen soil. The results show that the named processes can make a large difference on event basis, especially the Hortonian overland flow in summer and the combination of rainfall and snow melt on (partly) frozen soil in winter. However, differences diminish when the modelled period of several years is evaluated based on standard metrics like Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. These results emphasise on one hand the importance of incorporating the effects of agricultural in conceptual models and on the other hand the importance of more event

  2. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program's service model? (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program's comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children's pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed.

  3. A conceptual model for translating omic data into clinical action

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    Timothy M Herr


    Full Text Available Genomic, proteomic, epigenomic, and other "omic" data have the potential to enable precision medicine, also commonly referred to as personalized medicine. The volume and complexity of omic data are rapidly overwhelming human cognitive capacity, requiring innovative approaches to translate such data into patient care. Here, we outline a conceptual model for the application of omic data in the clinical context, called "the omic funnel." This model parallels the classic "Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom pyramid" and adds context for how to move between each successive layer. Its goal is to allow informaticians, researchers, and clinicians to approach the problem of translating omic data from bench to bedside, by using discrete steps with clearly defined needs. Such an approach can facilitate the development of modular and interoperable software that can bring precision medicine into widespread practice.

  4. GEOQUIMICO : an interactive tool for comparing sorption conceptual models (surface complexation modeling versus K[D])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy


    Within reactive geochemical transport, several conceptual models exist for simulating sorption processes in the subsurface. Historically, the K D approach has been the method of choice due to ease of implementation within a reactive transport model and straightforward comparison with experimental data. However, for modeling complex sorption phenomenon (e.g. sorption of radionuclides onto mineral surfaces), this approach does not systematically account for variations in location, time, or chemical conditions, and more sophisticated methods such as a surface complexation model (SCM) must be utilized. It is critical to determine which conceptual model to use; that is, when the material variation becomes important to regulatory decisions. The geochemical transport tool GEOQUIMICO has been developed to assist in this decision-making process. GEOQUIMICO provides a user-friendly framework for comparing the accuracy and performance of sorption conceptual models. The model currently supports the K D and SCM conceptual models. The code is written in the object-oriented Java programming language to facilitate model development and improve code portability. The basic theory underlying geochemical transport and the sorption conceptual models noted above is presented in this report. Explanations are provided of how these physicochemical processes are instrumented in GEOQUIMICO and a brief verification study comparing GEOQUIMICO results to data found in the literature is given

  5. A conceptual ENSO model under realistic noise forcing

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    J. Saynisch


    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of atmospheric noise on the generation of interannual El Niño variability. Therefore, we perturbed a conceptual ENSO delay model with surrogate windstress data generated from tropical windspeed measurements. The effect of the additional stochastic forcing was studied for various parameter sets including periodic and chaotic regimes. The evaluation was based on a spectrum and amplitude-period relation comparison between model and measured sea surface temperature data. The additional forcing turned out to increase the variability of the model output in general. The noise-free model was unable to reproduce the observed spectral bandwidth for any choice of parameters. On the contrary, the stochastically forced model is capable of producing a realistic spectrum. The weakly nonlinear regimes of the model exhibit a proportional relation between amplitude and period matching the relation derived from measurement data. The chaotic regime, however, shows an inversely proportional relation. A stability analysis of the different regimes revealed that the spectra of the weakly nonlinear regimes are robust against slight parameter changes representing disregarded physical mechanisms, whereas the chaotic regime exhibits a very unstable realistic spectrum. We conclude that the model including stochastic forcing in a parameter range of moderate nonlinearity best matches the real conditions. This suggests that atmospheric noise plays an important role in the coupled tropical pacific ocean-atmosphere system.

  6. A conceptual model to improve performance in virtual teams

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    Shopee Dube


    Full Text Available Background: The vast improvement in communication technologies and sophisticated project management tools, methods and techniques has allowed geographically and culturally diverse groups to operate and function in a virtual environment. To succeed in this virtual environment where time and space are becoming increasingly irrelevant, organisations must define new ways of implementing initiatives. This virtual environment phenomenon has brought about the formation of virtual project teams that allow organisations to harness the skills and knowhow of the best resources, irrespective of their location. Objectives: The aim of this article was to investigate performance criteria and develop a conceptual model which can be applied to enhance the success of virtual project teams. There are no clear guidelines of the performance criteria in managing virtual project teams. Method: A qualitative research methodology was used in this article. The purpose of content analysis was to explore the literature to understand the concept of performance in virtual project teams and to summarise the findings of the literature reviewed. Results: The research identified a set of performance criteria for the virtual project teams as follows: leadership, trust, communication, team cooperation, reliability, motivation, comfort and social interaction. These were used to conceptualise the model. Conclusion: The conceptual model can be used in a holistic way to determine the overall performance of the virtual project team, but each factor can be analysed individually to determine the impact on the overall performance. The knowledge of performance criteria for virtual project teams could aid project managers in enhancing the success of these teams and taking a different approach to better manage and coordinate them.

  7. Getting Started and Working with Building Information Modeling (United States)

    Smith, Dana K.


    This article will assume that one has heard of Building Information Modeling or BIM but has not developed a strategy as to how to get the most out of it. The National BIM Standard (NBIMS) has defined BIM as a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such, it serves as a shared knowledge resource for…

  8. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is the formulation of a conceptual site model. The conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modelling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. A conceptual model should...... therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behaviour at the site. The development of a conceptual model will always be associated with uncertainties due to lack of data and understanding of the site conditions, and often many...... different conceptual models may describe the same contaminated site equally well. In many cases, conceptual model uncertainty has been shown to be one of the dominant sources for uncertainty and is therefore essential to account for when quantifying uncertainties in risk assessments. We present here...

  9. Formulations of transport in catchment-scale conceptual models (United States)

    De Vos, Lotte; Hrachowitz, Markus


    Standard conceptual hydrological models can rarely accommodate stream tracer dynamics at the catchment scale. They rely on the generation of runoff through the propagation of a pressure wave and do not account for the actual advective movement of particles. Over the last years different model frameworks have been developed to account for this shortcoming. The difference between the frameworks lies in whether they are based on mixing coefficients or storage age selection functions. Both methods have shown their ability to capture the stream chemistry response. It is however not clear how these distinct approaches compare to each other and to reality. The object of this research is to provide clarification in this matter. To achieve this, the hydrological and stream water chemistry response for a set of contrasting research catchments is modelled, using both the mixing coefficient and the storage age selection approach. The results are analysed using the concept of transit times, where information on the fluxes and states in all model components is used to generate distributions that describe the age structure of water. By comparing the distributions generated by both methods and by evaluating the overall model performances, more insight is gained on how mixing occurs at the catchment scale. This contributes to the understanding of the integrated system dynamics of catchments, which is relevant for the development of good water quality models that accurately describe the integrated response of a hydrological system.

  10. The structure of conceptual models with application to the Aespoe HRL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Baeckblom, G.; Wikberg, P.; Gustafson, G.; Stanfors, R.


    In performance assessment a sequence of models is used to describe the function of the geological barrier. This report proposes a general structure and terminology for description of these models. A model description consists of the following components: A conceptual model which defines the geometric framework in which the problem is solved, the dimensions of the modelled volume, descriptions of the processes included in the model, and the boundary conditions; Data which are introduced into the conceptual model, and a mathematical or numerical tool used to produce output data. Contradictory to common practice in geohydrologic modelling it is proposed that the term conceptual model is restricted to define in what way the model is constructed, and that this is separated from any specific application of the conceptual model. Hence, the conceptual model should not include any specific data. 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Geophysical Conceptual Model for Benthic Flux and Submarine Groundwater Discharge (United States)

    King, J. N.


    Numerous investigators characterize benthic flux and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) using a geochemical conceptual model that relies on the estimation of tracer fluxes into and out of a control volume. (Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of any water body, per unit area of bed. Benthic flux is a vector that includes both discharge and recharge components. SGD is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body.) For the geochemical approach, benthic discharge flux or SGD is estimated by summing the flux of tracer into or out of the control volume---a water body or portion of a water body---and deducing that tracer deficiency within the control volume must be explained by SGD. Typically, estimated or measured fluxes include advection and mixing in surface-water, diffusion, evasion across the air-water interface, production, and decay. The geochemical model, however, does not account for fluxes that do not transport tracer. For example, investigators found equivalent (the upper 30 cm of sediment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, in June and July 2003. At this location, a surface-gravity wave with a five-centimeter amplitude and one-second period in 0.5 m of water forced a 12-cm-per-day SGD. The radon tracer technique may not characterize SGD forced by the one-second wave due to the time scale of the wave, the absence of a radon activity gradient between bed medium and surface water, and the the wave affects the flow field within the porous medium. A new geophysical conceptual model for benthic flux is proposed. The model parses benthic flux into components driven by individual forcing mechanisms. The model recognizes that benthic flux components may interact in a constructive or destructive manner, such that benthic flux generated by multiple forcing mechanisms at the same location may not be equivalent to the linear sum of benthic flux generated by single forcing mechanisms. Restated: the whole may be different than the sum of the parts

  12. Climate stability and sensitivity in some simple conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. Ray [University College Dublin, Meteorology and Climate Centre, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin (Ireland)


    A theoretical investigation of climate stability and sensitivity is carried out using three simple linearized models based on the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget. The simplest is the zero-dimensional model (ZDM) commonly used as a conceptual basis for climate sensitivity and feedback studies. The others are two-zone models with tropics and extratropics of equal area; in the first of these (Model A), the dynamical heat transport (DHT) between the zones is implicit, in the second (Model B) it is explicitly parameterized. It is found that the stability and sensitivity properties of the ZDM and Model A are very similar, both depending only on the global-mean radiative response coefficient and the global-mean forcing. The corresponding properties of Model B are more complex, depending asymmetrically on the separate tropical and extratropical values of these quantities, as well as on the DHT coefficient. Adopting Model B as a benchmark, conditions are found under which the validity of the ZDM and Model A as climate sensitivity models holds. It is shown that parameter ranges of physical interest exist for which such validity may not hold. The 2 x CO{sub 2} sensitivities of the simple models are studied and compared. Possible implications of the results for sensitivities derived from GCMs and palaeoclimate data are suggested. Sensitivities for more general scenarios that include negative forcing in the tropics (due to aerosols, inadvertent or geoengineered) are also studied. Some unexpected outcomes are found in this case. These include the possibility of a negative global-mean temperature response to a positive global-mean forcing, and vice versa. (orig.)

  13. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide


    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dubovyk


    Full Text Available In the article the conceptual model of the major factors that influence consumers trust in online shop: reliability of online store, reliable information system for making purchases online, factors of ethic interactiveness (security, third-party certification, internet-marketing communications of online-shop and other factors – that is divided enterprises of trade and consumers (demographic variables, psychological perception of internet-marketing communications, experience of purchase of commodities are in the Internet. The degree of individual customer trust propensity which reflects the personality traits, culture and previous experience. An implement signs of consumer confidence due to site elements online shop – graphic design, structured design, design of content, design harmonized with perception of target audience.

  15. Assessment of private hospital portals: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital portals, as the first virtual entry, play an important role in connecting people with hospital and also presenting hospital virtual services. The main purpose of this article was to suggest a conceptual model to improve Tehran private hospital portals. The suggested model can be used by all the health portals that are in the same circumstances and all the health portals which are in progress. Method: This is a practical research, using evaluative survey research method. Research population includes all the private hospital portals in Tehran, 34 portals, and ten top international hospital portals. Data gathering tool used in this research was a researcher-made checklist including 14 criteria and 77 sub-criteria with their weight score. In fact, objective observation with the mentioned checklist was used to gather information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and tables and graphs were used to present the organized data. Also, data were analyzed using independent t-test. Conceptual modeling technique was used to design the model and demonstration method was used to evaluate the proposed model. In this regard, SPSS statistical software was used to perform the tests. Results:The comparative study between the two groups of portals, TPH and WTH, in the 14 main criteria showed that the value of t-test in contact information criteria was 0.862, portal page specification was -1.378, page design criteria -1.527, updating pages -0.322, general information and access roads -3.161, public services -7.302, patient services -4.154, patient data -8.703, research and education -9.155, public relationship -3.009, page technical specifications -4.726, telemedicine -7.488, pharmaceutical services -6.183, and financial services -2.782. Finally, the findings demonstrated that Tehran private hospital portals in criterion of contact information were favorable; page design criteria were relatively favorable; page technical

  16. Modelling in Primary School: Constructing Conceptual Models and Making Sense of Fractions (United States)

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit


    This article describes sixth-grade students' engagement in two model-eliciting activities offering students the opportunity to construct mathematical models. The findings show that students utilized their knowledge of fractions including conceptual and procedural knowledge in constructing mathematical models for the given situations. Some students…

  17. An empirical conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs (United States)

    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.


    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ≤ 1.5 m a - 1 , due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels have cut through the cliffs to create deeply (≤ 45 m) incised gullies, known locally as 'Chines'. The Chines are unusual in that their formation is associated with dynamic shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas existing models of incised channel evolution emphasise the significance of base level lowering. This paper develops a conceptual model of Chine evolution by applying space for time substitution methods using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys and remotely sensed data. The model identifies a sequence of evolutionary stages, which are classified based on a suite of morphometric indices and associated processes. The extent to which individual Chines are in a state of growth or decay is estimated by determining the relative rates of shoreline retreat and knickpoint recession, the former via analysis of historical aerial images and the latter through the use of a stream power erosion model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Viljoen


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Project portfolio management processes are often designed and operated as a series of stages (or project phases and gates. However, the flow of such a process is often slow, characterised by queues waiting for a gate decision and by repeated work from previous stages waiting for additional information or for re-processing. In this paper the authors propose a conceptual model that applies supply chain and constraint management principles to the project portfolio management process. An advantage of the proposed model is that it provides the ability to select and prioritise projects without undue changes to project schedules. This should result in faster flow through the system.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Prosesse om portefeuljes van projekte te bestuur word normaalweg ontwerp en bedryf as ’n reeks fases en hekke. Die vloei deur so ’n proses is dikwels stadig en word gekenmerk deur toue wat wag vir besluite by die hekke en ook deur herwerk van vorige fases wat wag vir verdere inligting of vir herprosessering. In hierdie artikel word ‘n konseptuele model voorgestel. Die model berus op die beginsels van voorsieningskettings sowel as van beperkingsbestuur, en bied die voordeel dat projekte geselekteer en geprioritiseer kan word sonder onnodige veranderinge aan projekskedules. Dit behoort te lei tot versnelde vloei deur die stelsel.

  19. BIM-Enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee


    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC's schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs' schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  20. A conceptual mitigation model for asymmetric information of supply chain in seaweed cultivation (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Betaubun, Kamilius D.; Marimin; Djatna, Taufik


    Seaweed cultivation has a better advantage over other fisheries activity in terms of easiness on conducting the production and multiplier effect on coastal community welfare. The effect of seaweed farming on the prosperity of coastal community in Southeast Maluku started to take place in 2008, although in 2012 either number of production and workforce is declining rapidly. By solving this problem, this article also provided with identifying and analyzing the supply chain of seaweed cultivation in Southeast Maluku. Based on this analysis we have found that one of the main reasons of declining seaweed production and the number seaweed farmers was asymmetric information that occurred on seaweed supply chain in Southeast Maluku. The component of asymmetric risk was the quality of the seeds, price, information and technology and the knowledge of actual market of seaweed, especially by seaweed farmers. Therefore, it is essential to make a conceptual model on mitigation of asymmetric information on the supply chain of seaweed production. We proposed a conceptual model based on four perspectives, first was goal, criteria and sub-criteria, actor and the solution to mitigate asymmetric information supply chain on seaweed cultivation.

  1. Testing a Conceptual Change Model Framework for Visual Data (United States)

    Finson, Kevin D.; Pedersen, Jon E.


    An emergent data analysis technique was employed to test the veracity of a conceptual framework constructed around visual data use and instruction in science classrooms. The framework incorporated all five key components Vosniadou (2007a, 2007b) described as existing in a learner's schema: framework theory, presuppositions, conceptual domains,…

  2. [How does collective violence shape the health status of its victims? Conceptual model and design of the ISAVIC study]. (United States)

    Larizgoitia, Itziar; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Markez, Iñaki; Fernández, Itziar; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Larizgoitia, Arantza; Ballesteros, Javier; Fernández-Liria, Alberto; Moreno, Florentino; Retolaza, Ander; Páez, Darío; Martín-Beristaín, Carlos; Alonso, Jordi


    Epidemiologic research on collective violence (violence exerted by and within groups in pursuit of political, social or economic goals) is very scarce despite its growing recognition as a major public health issue. This paper describes the conceptual model and design of one of the first research studies conducted in Spain aiming to assess the impact of collective violence in the health status of its victims (study known as ISAVIC, based on its Spanish title Impacto en la SAlud de la VIolencia Colectiva). Starting with a comprehensive but non-systematic review of the literature, the authors describe the sequelae likely produced by collective violence and propose a conceptual model to explain the nature of the relationships between collective violence and health status. The conceptual model informed the ISAVIC study design and its measurement instruments. The possible sequelae of collective violence, in the physical, emotional and social dimensions of health, are described. Also, the review distinguishes the likely impact in primary and secondary victims, as well as the interplay with the social environment. The mixed methodological design of the ISAVIC study supports the coherence of the conceptual model described. The ISAVIC study suggests that collective violence may affect the main dimensions of the health status of its victims, in intimate relation to the societal factors where it operates. It is necessary to validate these results with new studies. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. A conceptual magnetic fabric development model for the Paks loess in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradák, B.; Ujvari, Gabor; Seto, Y.


    We describe magnetic fabric and depositional environments of aeolian (loess) deposits from Paks, Hungary, and develop a novel, complex conceptual sedimentation model based on grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data. A plot of shape factor (magnetic fabric parameter) and dry...... deposition velocity estimated from grain-size reveals primary and secondary depositional processes during the sedimentation of loess. Primary ones are driven by gravity, with poorly oriented MF for fine grain materials, and by tangential stress, with flow-aligned or flow-transverse fabric for coarser grain...... sediments. The fabric developed by a primary process is called depositional magnetic fabric. Secondary processes develop in unconsolidated sediments, beginning right after deposition and terminating before the start of diagenesis. Under slow sedimentation conditions, deposited materials are likely...

  4. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 3 (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles E.


    Space vehicles, such as the Space Shuttle, require intensive ground support prior to, during, and after each mission. Maintenance is a significant part of that ground support. All space vehicles require scheduled maintenance to ensure operability and performance. In addition, components of any vehicle are not one-hundred percent reliable so they exhibit random failures. Once detected, a failure initiates unscheduled maintenance on the vehicle. Maintenance decreases the number of missions which can be completed by keeping vehicles out of service so that the time between the completion of one mission and the start of the next is increased. Maintenance also requires resources such as people, facilities, tooling, and spare parts. Assessing the mission capability and resource requirements of any new space vehicle, in addition to performance specification, is necessary to predict the life cycle cost and success of the vehicle. Maintenance and logistics support has been modeled by computer simulation to estimate mission capability and resource requirements for evaluation of proposed space vehicles. The simulation was written with Simulation Language for Alternative Modeling II (SLAM II) for execution on a personal computer. For either one or a fleet of space vehicles, the model simulates the preflight maintenance checks, the mission and return to earth, and the post flight maintenance in preparation to be sent back into space. THe model enables prediction of the number of missions possible and vehicle turn-time (the time between completion of one mission and the start of the next) given estimated values for component reliability and maintainability. The model also facilitates study of the manpower and vehicle requirements for the proposed vehicle to meet its desired mission rate. This is the 3rd part of a 3 part technical report.

  5. Conceptual Modeling Framework for E-Area PA HELP Infiltration Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A conceptual modeling framework based on the proposed E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) closure cap design is presented for conducting Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations of intact and subsided cap infiltration scenarios for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (PA).

  6. Developing a conceptual model for selecting and evaluating online markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Feizollahi


    Full Text Available There are many evidences, which emphasis on the benefits of using new technologies of information and communication in international business and many believe that E-Commerce can help satisfy customer explicit and implicit requirements. Internet shopping is a concept developed after the introduction of electronic commerce. Information technology (IT and its applications, specifically in the realm of the internet and e-mail promoted the development of e-commerce in terms of advertising, motivating and information. However, with the development of new technologies, credit and financial exchange on the internet websites were constructed so to facilitate e-commerce. The proposed study sends a total of 200 questionnaires to the target group (teachers - students - professionals - managers of commercial web sites and it manages to collect 130 questionnaires for final evaluation. Cronbach's alpha test is used for measuring reliability and to evaluate the validity of measurement instruments (questionnaires, and to assure construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis is employed. In addition, in order to analyze the research questions based on the path analysis method and to determine markets selection models, a regular technique is implemented. In the present study, after examining different aspects of e-commerce, we provide a conceptual model for selecting and evaluating online marketing in Iran. These findings provide a consistent, targeted and holistic framework for the development of the Internet market in the country.

  7. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Global Warming Explained by a Conceptual Model (United States)

    Funke, C. S.; Alexeev, V. A.


    Polar Amplification, the process of amplified warming at high latitudes, manifests itself differently in the Arctic and Antarctic. Not only is the temperature increase in the Arctic more pronounced than in the Antarctic but the dramatic sea ice decline in the Arctic over the last few decades also contrasts sharply with trendless to weak positive trend of Antarctic sea ice throughout the same period. This asymmetric behavior is often partly attributed to the differences in configuration of continents in the Arctic and Antarctic: the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by land while the Southern Ocean has a continent in the middle. A simple conceptual energy balance model of Budyko-Sellers type, accounting for differences between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, is applied to study the mechanisms of climate sensitivity to a variety of forcings. Asymmetry in major modes of variability is explained using an eigenmode analysis of the linearized model. Negative forcings over Antarctica such as from ozone depletion were found to have an amplified effect on southern hemisphere climate and may be an important cause of the muted warming and slightly positive Antarctic sea ice trend.

  8. The design of control algorithm for automatic start-up model of HWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wenqi


    The design of control algorithm for automatic start-up model of HWRR (Heavy Water Research Reactor), the calculation of μ value and the application of digital compensator are described. Finally The flow diagram of the automatic start-up and digital compensator program for HWRR are given

  9. Addressing Conceptual Model Uncertainty in the Evaluation of Model Prediction Errors (United States)

    Carrera, J.; Pool, M.


    Model predictions are uncertain because of errors in model parameters, future forcing terms, and model concepts. The latter remain the largest and most difficult to assess source of uncertainty in long term model predictions. We first review existing methods to evaluate conceptual model uncertainty. We argue that they are highly sensitive to the ingenuity of the modeler, in the sense that they rely on the modeler's ability to propose alternative model concepts. Worse, we find that the standard practice of stochastic methods leads to poor, potentially biased and often too optimistic, estimation of actual model errors. This is bad news because stochastic methods are purported to properly represent uncertainty. We contend that the problem does not lie on the stochastic approach itself, but on the way it is applied. Specifically, stochastic inversion methodologies, which demand quantitative information, tend to ignore geological understanding, which is conceptually rich. We illustrate some of these problems with the application to Mar del Plata aquifer, where extensive data are available for nearly a century. Geologically based models, where spatial variability is handled through zonation, yield calibration fits similar to geostatiscally based models, but much better predictions. In fact, the appearance of the stochastic T fields is similar to the geologically based models only in areas with high density of data. We take this finding to illustrate the ability of stochastic models to accommodate many data, but also, ironically, their inability to address conceptual model uncertainty. In fact, stochastic model realizations tend to be too close to the "most likely" one (i.e., they do not really realize the full conceptualuncertainty). The second part of the presentation is devoted to argue that acknowledging model uncertainty may lead to qualitatively different decisions than just working with "most likely" model predictions. Therefore, efforts should concentrate on

  10. Development of Conceptual Benchmark Models to Evaluate Complex Hydrologic Model Calibration in Managed Basins Using Python (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; White, J.


    For many numerical hydrologic models it is a challenge to quantitatively demonstrate that complex models are preferable to simpler models. Typically, a decision is made to develop and calibrate a complex model at the beginning of a study. The value of selecting a complex model over simpler models is commonly inferred from use of a model with fewer simplifications of the governing equations because it can be time consuming to develop another numerical code with data processing and parameter estimation functionality. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to develop and calibrate simple models that can be used to quantitatively demonstrate the increased value of a complex model. We have developed and calibrated a spatially-distributed surface-water/groundwater flow model for managed basins in southeast Florida, USA, to (1) evaluate the effect of municipal groundwater pumpage on surface-water/groundwater exchange, (2) investigate how the study area will respond to sea-level rise, and (3) explore combinations of these forcing functions. To demonstrate the increased value of this complex model, we developed a two-parameter conceptual-benchmark-discharge model for each basin in the study area. The conceptual-benchmark-discharge model includes seasonal scaling and lag parameters and is driven by basin rainfall. The conceptual-benchmark-discharge models were developed in the Python programming language and used weekly rainfall data. Calibration was implemented with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method available in the Scientific Python (SciPy) library. Normalized benchmark efficiencies calculated using output from the complex model and the corresponding conceptual-benchmark-discharge model indicate that the complex model has more explanatory power than the simple model driven only by rainfall.

  11. Three Roles of Conceptual Models in Information System Design and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Falkenberg, Eckhard D.; Lindgreen, Paul


    This paper attempts to draw together results from information systems research, linguistic theory, and methodology in order to present a unified framework in which to understand conceptual models. Three different roles of conceptual models (CM's) in the design and use of information systems (IS's)

  12. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G


    Full Text Available -1 2nd International Workshop on Ontologies and Conceptual Modeling (Onto.Com 2013), Valencia, Spain, 17-21 June 2013 Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal Giovanni Casini1 and Alessandro Mosca2 1...

  13. Applying a Conceptual Model in Sport Sector Work- Integrated Learning Contexts (United States)

    Agnew, Deborah; Pill, Shane; Orrell, Janice


    This paper applies a conceptual model for work-integrated learning (WIL) in a multidisciplinary sports degree program. Two examples of WIL in sport will be used to illustrate how the conceptual WIL model is being operationalized. The implications for practice are that curriculum design must recognize a highly flexible approach to the nature of…

  14. Teacher Emotion Research: Introducing a Conceptual Model to Guide Future Research (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Mansfield, Caroline; Dobozy, Eva


    This article reports on the development of a conceptual model of teacher emotion through a review of teacher emotion research published between 2003 and 2013. By examining 82 publications regarding teacher emotion, the main aim of the review was to identify how teacher emotion was conceptualised in the literature and develop a conceptual model to…

  15. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model. (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M


    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Facets of private practice nursing: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Wilson, Anne; Averis, Andrea


    This paper critically examines the literature relating to private practice nursing. Particular attention is given to the reasons nurses choose private practice and the major issues involved. A conceptual model has been developed based on this information. Nurses' roles are expanding into different work domains. Private practice nursing is one of the advanced practice options available. It also requires the nurse to develop business knowledge and skills. A literature search was conducted of Pub-Med, Cinahl, Medline and InfoTrac databases using the terms 'private practice', 'nurse entrepreneur', 'nurses in business', Inurse practitioners', 'self-employed nurse', 'advanced practice' and 'clinical nurse specialist'. Further relevant articles were identified from the reference lists of papers detected by this literature search. In addition, conference proceedings were examined for any other material on this topic. A thorough search of the existing literature revealed one unpublished theoretically based study which examined limited aspects of private practice nursing in Victoria. A reasonable number of articles and publications that provided anecdotal and personal accounts of being a nurse in business were identified. This review highlights the need for further theoretically based research in this area of nursing, so as to expand nursing knowledge. Suggestions are given for further research in this topical area. Existing research into private practice nursing is limited and not sufficient to inform changes to policy and nurse education. More research is needed.

  17. Virtual Learning Environment for Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sparkes


    Full Text Available The University of Waterloo has a history as an innovative and entrepreneurial university. With increasing demand for entrepreneurship education and venture development support there has been increasing interest in how to provide this support virtually. To address this need, an entrepreneurship platform consisting of four primary components; entrepreneurial team engagement, mentor engagement, provision of 'just-in-time' learning resources, and social network creation is under development. Engagement and social network creation are built around a series of gamified events that provide structure and feedback for the participants, as well as focal points for mentoring and network development. The 'embedding' of these early-stage ventures into a supportive social network aligns with a belief that one does not simply launch new ventures, but rather launch networks. These event gates are supported by a system of 'just-in-time' learning modules allow the participants to develop their own learning program, and may be drawn upon as needed. In this paper we discuss the conceptual model as well as progress on development of its key features. We also discuss some of the early results and lessons learned integrating it into several initiatives underway in Canada and Kenya.

  18. A Conceptual Model of the Relationship between Personal Values and Personal Tax Culture Regarding the Perception of Tax System Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehovar Aleksandra


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between personal values and personal tax culture regarding the perception of a tax system’s fairness. The paper deals with the main theoretical starting points of the fundamental cornerstones of the general tax culture such as tax evasion, tax compliance and tax system. Based on findings in Schwartz's model of personal values, the paper discusses some of individual personal values, categorized into ten groups within a two-dimensional circular design, along two bipolar dimensions. Because this field of research is largely unexplored and based on the previous theoretical research, a conceptual model for analysing this relationship was developed.

  19. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  20. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s−1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s−1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through

  1. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System (United States)

    Rodríguez, L.; Vives, L.; Gomez, A.


    In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s-1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s-1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through the aquifer boundaries, except at the eastern boundary. On average

  2. Modelling public risk evaluation of natural hazards: a conceptual approach (United States)

    Plattner, Th.


    In recent years, the dealing with natural hazards in Switzerland has shifted away from being hazard-oriented towards a risk-based approach. Decreasing societal acceptance of risk, accompanied by increasing marginal costs of protective measures and decreasing financial resources cause an optimization problem. Therefore, the new focus lies on the mitigation of the hazard's risk in accordance with economical, ecological and social considerations. This modern proceeding requires an approach in which not only technological, engineering or scientific aspects of the definition of the hazard or the computation of the risk are considered, but also the public concerns about the acceptance of these risks. These aspects of a modern risk approach enable a comprehensive assessment of the (risk) situation and, thus, sound risk management decisions. In Switzerland, however, the competent authorities suffer from a lack of decision criteria, as they don't know what risk level the public is willing to accept. Consequently, there exists a need for the authorities to know what the society thinks about risks. A formalized model that allows at least a crude simulation of the public risk evaluation could therefore be a useful tool to support effective and efficient risk mitigation measures. This paper presents a conceptual approach of such an evaluation model using perception affecting factors PAF, evaluation criteria EC and several factors without any immediate relation to the risk itself, but to the evaluating person. Finally, the decision about the acceptance Acc of a certain risk i is made by a comparison of the perceived risk Ri,perc with the acceptable risk Ri,acc.

  3. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  4. Cold start-up condition model for heat recovery steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindareh-Esfahani, Peyman; Habibi-Siyahposh, Ehsan; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Ghaffari, Ali; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz


    A dynamic modeling of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) during cold start-up operation in Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) is introduced. In order to characterize the essential dynamic behavior of the HRSG during cold start-up; Dynamic equations of all HRSG's components are developed based on energy and mass balances. To describe precisely the operation of HRSG; a method based on nonlinear estimated functions for thermodynamic properties is applied to estimate the model parameters. Model parameters are evaluated by a designed algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). A wide set of experimental data is used to validate HRSG model during cold start-up operation. The simulation results show the reliability and validity of the developed model for cold start-up operation. - Highlights: •Presenting a mathematical model for HRSGs cold start-up based on energy and mass balances. •A designed parameter identification algorithm based on GA is presented. •Application of experimental data in order to model and validate simulation results

  5. A Scoping Review: Conceptualizations and Pedagogical Models of Learning in Nursing Simulation (United States)

    Poikela, Paula; Teräs, Marianne


    Simulations have been implemented globally in nursing education for years with diverse conceptual foundations. The aim of this scoping review is to examine the literature regarding the conceptualizations of learning and pedagogical models in nursing simulations. A scoping review of peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2013 was…

  6. A conceptual modeling framework for discrete event simulation using hierarchical control structures. (United States)

    Furian, N; O'Sullivan, M; Walker, C; Vössner, S; Neubacher, D


    Conceptual Modeling (CM) is a fundamental step in a simulation project. Nevertheless, it is only recently that structured approaches towards the definition and formulation of conceptual models have gained importance in the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) community. As a consequence, frameworks and guidelines for applying CM to DES have emerged and discussion of CM for DES is increasing. However, both the organization of model-components and the identification of behavior and system control from standard CM approaches have shortcomings that limit CM's applicability to DES. Therefore, we discuss the different aspects of previous CM frameworks and identify their limitations. Further, we present the Hierarchical Control Conceptual Modeling framework that pays more attention to the identification of a models' system behavior, control policies and dispatching routines and their structured representation within a conceptual model. The framework guides the user step-by-step through the modeling process and is illustrated by a worked example.

  7. Complexities and contingencies conceptualized: towards a model of reproductive navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Cohn, S.


    This chapter provides sociocultural evidence for a different conceptualization of reproductive health behaviour. On the basis of long-term anthropological fieldwork in the East Province of Cameroon the author analyses of the social complexities and contingencies of local fertility-related decisions

  8. Mapping the Territory: A Conceptual Model of Scholastic Journalism. (United States)

    Arnold, Mary

    Intended to provide a comprehensive conceptual framework to serve as a scaffold for past, present, and future research on "scholastic journalism" (journalism in the secondary school), a topical content analysis of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) Secondary Education Division research, teaching,…

  9. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled


    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  11. A participative and facilitative conceptual modelling framework for discrete event simulation studies in healthcare


    Kotiadis, Kathy; Tako, Antuela; Vasilakis, Christos


    Existing approaches to conceptual modelling (CM) in discrete-event simulation do not formally support the participation of a group of stakeholders. Simulation in healthcare can benefit from stakeholder participation as it makes possible to share multiple views and tacit knowledge from different parts of the system. We put forward a framework tailored to healthcare that supports the interaction of simulation modellers with a group of stakeholders to arrive at a common conceptual model. The fra...

  12. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B


    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  13. An Evaluation of the Research Evidence on the Early Start Denver Model (United States)

    Baril, Erika M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.


    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) has been gaining popularity as a comprehensive treatment model for children ages 12 to 60 months with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This article evaluates the research on the ESDM through an analysis of study design and purpose; child participants; setting, intervention agents, and context; density and…

  14. Vehicle Sketch Pad: a Parametric Geometry Modeler for Conceptual Aircraft Design (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S.


    The conceptual aircraft designer is faced with a dilemma, how to strike the best balance between productivity and fidelity? Historically, handbook methods have required only the coarsest of geometric parameterizations in order to perform analysis. Increasingly, there has been a drive to upgrade analysis methods, but these require considerably more precise and detailed geometry. Attempts have been made to use computer-aided design packages to fill this void, but their cost and steep learning curve have made them unwieldy at best. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) has been developed over several years to better fill this void. While no substitute for the full feature set of computer-aided design packages, VSP allows even novices to quickly become proficient in defining three-dimensional, watertight aircraft geometries that are adequate for producing multi-disciplinary meta-models for higher order analysis methods, wind tunnel and display models, as well as a starting point for animation models. This paper will give an overview of the development and future course of VSP.

  15. Established Companies meet Start-ups : Case: A service to research developing business models in start-up hot spots around the globe


    Eisenblätter, Simon


    This thesis presents a business model with the aim to improve conversation between traditional companies and newly established start-ups. The assumption that such conversation can be facilitated by scouting for innovation in start-up hot spots around the world, will be discussed throughout the paper. The purpose of this work is to lay out a plan which can be presented to a first range of possible customers, with the goal of negotiating a trial cooperation. Before introducing the busi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Actualmente, gracias a tecnologías como los sistemas de posicionamiento global y dispositivos móviles provistos de sensores, se puede recopilar una gran cantidad de datos sobre objetos móviles, e.g., datos relacionados con la trayectoria seguida por estos objetos. Por otra parte, las Bodegas de Datos (BDs, usualmente modeladas mediante una vista multidimensional de los datos, son bases de datos especializadas para ayudar en la toma de decisiones. Desafortunadamente, las BDs convencionales ofrecen poco soporte para la gestión de trayectorias. Aunque existen algunas propuestas que tratan con BDs de trayectorias, ninguna de ellas se enfoca en su modelamiento conceptual multidimensional. En este artículo se extiende un modelo conceptual multidimensional espacial donde se incorporan las trayectorias como conceptos de primera clase. Con el fi n de mostrar la conveniencia de la propuesta, se presenta un ejemplo relacionado con transporte público.

  17. The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Poumay, M; Leclercq, D


    Please, cite this publication as: Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence

  18. Supporting conceptual modelling of dynamic systems: A knowledge engineering perspective on qualitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, J.


    Research has shown that even students educated in science at prestigious universities have misconceptions about the systems underlying climate change, sustainability and government spending. Interactive conceptual modelling and simulation tools, which are based on Artificial Intelligence techniques,

  19. A conceptual model of channel choice : measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Jager, Wander


    This study tries to understand how consumers evaluate channels for their purchasing. Specifically, it develops a conceptual model that addresses consumer value perceptions of using the Internet versus the traditional (physical) channel. Previous research showed that perceptions of price, product

  20. Conceptual model and economic experiments to explain nonpersistence and enable mechanism designs fostering behavioral change. (United States)

    Djawadi, Behnud Mir; Fahr, René; Turk, Florian


    Medical nonpersistence is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude. Although many fields of studies including epidemiology, sociology, and psychology try to identify determinants for medical nonpersistence, comprehensive research to explain medical nonpersistence from an economics perspective is rather scarce. The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework that augments standard economic choice theory with psychological concepts of behavioral economics to understand how patients' preferences for discontinuing with therapy arise over the course of the medical treatment. The availability of such a framework allows the targeted design of mechanisms for intervention strategies. Our conceptual framework models the patient as an active economic agent who evaluates the benefits and costs for continuing with therapy. We argue that a combination of loss aversion and mental accounting operations explains why patients discontinue with therapy at a specific point in time. We designed a randomized laboratory economic experiment with a student subject pool to investigate the behavioral predictions. Subjects continue with therapy as long as experienced utility losses have to be compensated. As soon as previous losses are evened out, subjects perceive the marginal benefit of persistence lower than in the beginning of the treatment. Consequently, subjects start to discontinue with therapy. Our results highlight that concepts of behavioral economics capture the dynamic structure of medical nonpersistence better than does standard economic choice theory. We recommend that behavioral economics should be a mandatory part of the development of possible intervention strategies aimed at improving patients' compliance and persistence behavior. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Model based analysis of the time scales associated to pump start-ups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazin, Antoine, E-mail: [Arts et métiers ParisTech/LML Laboratory UMR CNRS 8107, 8 bld Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Caignaert, Guy [Arts et métiers ParisTech/LML Laboratory UMR CNRS 8107, 8 bld Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Dauphin-Tanguy, Geneviève, E-mail: [Univ Lille Nord de France, Ecole Centrale de Lille/CRISTAL UMR CNRS 9189, BP 48, 59651, Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex F 59000 (France)


    Highlights: • A dynamic model of a hydraulic system has been built. • Three periods in a pump start-up have been identified. • The time scales of each period have been estimated. • The parameters affecting the rapidity of a pump start-up have been explored. - Abstract: The paper refers to a non dimensional analysis of the behaviour of a hydraulic system during pump fast start-ups. The system is composed of a radial flow pump and its suction and delivery pipes. It is modelled using the bond graph methodology. The prediction of the model is validated by comparison to experimental results. An analysis of the time evolution of the terms acting on the total pump pressure is proposed. It allows for a decomposition of the start-up into three consecutive periods. The time scales associated with these periods are estimated. The effects of parameters (angular acceleration, final rotation speed, pipe length and resistance) affecting the start-up rapidity are then explored.

  2. Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar L. Shrestha


    Full Text Available A conceptual site model (CSM has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant fate and transport. The CSM is initiated at the start of a project, updated during site activities, and used to inform sampling and remediation planning. This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows, astronomical forcing through two tidal straits, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic activities such as navigational dredging. Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, sediment bed properties, and particle-to-particle interactions. Cohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, aggregation, settling, consolidation, and erosion. Noncohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, settling, armoring, and transport in suspension and along the bed. The CSM will inform the development and application of a numerical model that accounts for all key variables to adequately describe the NBSA’s historical, current, and future physical conditions.

  3. Large regional groundwater modeling - a sensitivity study of some selected conceptual descriptions and simplifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Holmen, Johan


    The primary aim of this report is: - To present a supplementary, in-depth evaluation of certain conceptual simplifications, descriptions and model uncertainties in conjunction with regional groundwater simulation, which in the first instance refer to model depth, topography, groundwater table level and boundary conditions. Implementation was based on geo-scientifically available data compilations from the Smaaland region but different conceptual assumptions have been analysed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Nicola


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe de application of a modeling framework, the so-called Conceptual Model Decomposing Value for the Customer (CMDVC, in a Footwear Industry case study, to ascertain the usefulness of this approach. The value networks were used to identify the participants, both tangible and intangible deliverables/endogenous and exogenous assets, and the analysis of their interactions as the indication for an adequate value proposition. The quantitative model of benefits and sacrifices, using the Fuzzy AHP method, enables the discussion of how the CMDVC can be applied and used in the enterprise environment and provided new relevant relations between perceived benefits (PBs.

  5. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.


    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  6. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.


    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs

  7. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai


    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  8. Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model in an Italian Community (United States)

    Colombi, Costanza; Narzisi, Antonio; Ruta, Liliana; Cigala, Virginia; Gagliano, Antonella; Pioggia, Giovanni; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Rogers, Sally J.; Muratori, Filippo


    Identifying effective, community-based specialized interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder is an international clinical and research priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model intervention in a group of young children with autism spectrum disorder living in an Italian community compared to a…

  9. Organizational intellectual capital and the role of the nurse manager: A proposed conceptual model. (United States)

    Gilbert, Jason H; Von Ah, Diane; Broome, Marion E

    Nurse managers must leverage both the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead in order to produce quality outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between human capital and social capital and how these concepts may work together to produce organizational outcomes through leadership of nurses. The purpose of this article was to explore the concepts of human capital and social capital as they relate to nursing leadership in health care organizations. Specific aims included (a) to synthesize the literature related to human capital and social capital in leadership, (b) to refine the conceptual definitions of human capital and social capital with associated conceptual antecedents and consequences, and (c) to propose a synthesized conceptual model guiding further empirical research of social capital and human capital in nursing leadership. A systematic integrative review of leadership literature using criteria informed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was completed. CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, Health Business FullTEXT, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases were searched for the years 1995 to 2016 using terms "human capital," "social capital," and "management." Analysis of conceptual definitions, theoretical and conceptual models, antecedents and consequences, propositions or hypotheses, and empirical support for 37 articles fitting review criteria resulted in the synthesis of the proposed Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital. The Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital advances the propositions of human capital theory and social capital theory and is the first model to conceptualize the direct and moderating effects that nurse leaders have on the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead. This model provides a framework for further empirical study and may have implications for practice, organizational policy, and education related to nursing

  10. What do we know about the defect types detected in conceptual models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granda, Maria Fernanda; Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Vos, Tanja E.J.; Pastor, Oscar


    In Model-Driven Development (MDD), defects are managed at the level of conceptual models because the other artefacts are generated from them, such as more refined models, test cases and code. Although some studies have reported on defect types at model level, there still does not exist a clear and

  11. A Conceptual Model for Analysing Management Development in the UK Hospitality Industry (United States)

    Watson, Sandra


    This paper presents a conceptual, contingent model of management development. It explains the nature of the UK hospitality industry and its potential influence on MD practices, prior to exploring dimensions and relationships in the model. The embryonic model is presented as a model that can enhance our understanding of the complexities of the…

  12. Model & scale as conceptual devices in architectural representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerff, M.C.; Koorstra, P.A.


    This year we celebrate the tenth anniversary of our Computer Aided Manufacturing laboratory (CAMlab, From the start we provide laser cutting, CNC-milling and 3D-print facilities for the students and the researchers at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. Over the past ten

  13. Modeling the starting performance of high power solid rotor salient pole synchronous motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD/Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Grander, L.O. [ELETROSUL Power Stations S.A., Florianopolis, SC 88040-901 (Brazil); Ruencos, F.; Ogawa, C.; Fo, F.J. Doubrawa [WEG Energy, Jaragua do Sul, SC 89256-900 (Brazil)


    A computer model, including analytical and FEM formulations, was developed to calculate the starting performance of synchronous motors with solid rotor salient poles. Using quasi-steady state equations, the average and the envelope of the oscillating electromagnetic torque as well as the stator rms current are calculated. With the stator current, the rotor pole losses are evaluated by FEM. The complete simulation process is performed by self-contained software composed by several computational modules properly tiled to simplify the work of a design engineer. The calculated starting performance was compared to experimental results showing satisfactory consistency. (author)

  14. Literature Review of Enterprise Systems Research Using Institutional Theory: Towards a Conceptual Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 180 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...

  15. A conceptual magnetic fabric development model for the Paks loess in Hungary (United States)

    Bradák, B.; Újvári, G.; Seto, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Végh, T.


    We describe magnetic fabric and depositional environments of aeolian (loess) deposits from Paks, Hungary, and develop a novel, complex conceptual sedimentation model based on grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data. A plot of shape factor (magnetic fabric parameter) and dry deposition velocity estimated from grain-size reveals primary and secondary depositional processes during the sedimentation of loess. Primary ones are driven by gravity, with poorly oriented MF for fine grain materials, and by tangential stress, with flow-aligned or flow-transverse fabric for coarser grain sediments. The fabric developed by a primary process is called depositional magnetic fabric. Secondary processes develop in unconsolidated sediments, beginning right after deposition and terminating before the start of diagenesis. Under slow sedimentation conditions, deposited materials are likely to be exposed near the surface for longer periods. Therefore, relatively strong winds with a stable direction can alter the fabric of non-buried surficial sediments. As a result, grain orientations may change from scattered, non-flow oriented fabric to flow-oriented fabric. This type of fabric, developed by a secondary process, is called transformed magnetic fabric, and is characterized by relatively well-defined grain orientation, which allows us to estimate a dominant wind direction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova, E.V.


    Full Text Available The paper examines one of the possible approaches to exploring the conceptual space represented by language signs and texts. The notion of the cognitheme as a unit of knowledge in the form of a proposition, functional for modelling the conceptual space, is defined and some principles of the cognitheme analysis are discussed. The cognitheme is considered as a unit of modelling mental entities reflected in the language, for example, such as the concept or the conceptual space connected with a text, and at the same time as a unit of conceptualization significant in its own right, revealing elements of knowledge important for a language community and thus fixed in language signs and texts. A feasible classification of cognithemes is described, examples illustrating this classification are given.

  17. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1994 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.


    This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.

  18. Conceptual Models of the Individual Public Service Provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bhatti, Yosef; Petersen, Ole Helby

    Individual public service providers’ motivation can be conceptualized as either extrinsic, autonomous or prosocial, and the question is how we can best theoretically understand this complexity without losing too much coherence and parsimony. Drawing on Allison’s approach (1969), three perspectives...... are used to gain insight on the motivation of public service providers; namely principal-agent theory, self-determination theory and public service motivation theory. We situate the theoretical discussions in the context of public service providers being transferred to private organizations...... as a consequence of outsourcing by the public sector. Although this empirical setting is interesting in itself, here it serves primarily as grist for a wider discussion on strategies for applying multiple theoretical approaches and crafting a theoretical synthesis. The key contribution of the paper is thus...

  19. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David


    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste

  20. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David [Quintesssa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)


    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste.

  1. Inverting reflections using full-waveform inversion with inaccurate starting models

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah


    We present a method for inverting seismic reflections using full-waveform inversion (FWI) with inaccurate starting models. For a layered medium, near-offset reflections (with zero angle of incidence) are unlikely to be cycle-skipped regardless of the low-wavenumber velocity error in the initial models. Therefore, we use them as a starting point for FWI, and the subsurface velocity model is then updated during the FWI iterations using reflection wavepaths from varying offsets that are not cycle-skipped. To enhance low-wavenumber updates and accelerate the convergence, we take several passes through the non-linear Gauss-Seidel iterations, where we invert traces from a narrow range of near offsets and finally end at the far offsets. Every pass is followed by applying smoothing to the cumulative slowness update. The smoothing is strong at the early stages and relaxed at later iterations to allow for a gradual reconstruction of the subsurface model in a multiscale manner. Applications to synthetic and field data, starting from inaccurate models, show significant low-wavenumber updates and flattening of common-image gathers after many iterations.

  2. A Conceptual View of the Officer Procurement Model (TOPOPS). Technical Report No. 73-73. (United States)

    Akman, Allan; Nordhauser, Fred

    This report presents the conceptual design of a computer-based linear programing model of the Air Force officer procurement system called TOPOPS. The TOPOPS model is an aggregate model which simulates officer accession and training and is directed at optimizing officer procurement in terms of either minimizing cost or maximizing accession quality…

  3. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling : 2. Application and experimental insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavetski, D.; Fenicia, F.


    In this article's companion paper, flexible approaches for conceptual hydrological modeling at the catchment scale were motivated, and the SUPERFLEX framework, based on generic model components, was introduced. In this article, the SUPERFLEX framework and the “fixed structure” GR4H model (an hourly

  4. A stochastic hybrid model for pricing forward-start variance swaps (United States)

    Roslan, Teh Raihana Nazirah


    Recently, market players have been exposed to the astounding increase in the trading volume of variance swaps. In this paper, the forward-start nature of a variance swap is being inspected, where hybridizations of equity and interest rate models are used to evaluate the price of discretely-sampled forward-start variance swaps. The Heston stochastic volatility model is being extended to incorporate the dynamics of the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) stochastic interest rate model. This is essential since previous studies on variance swaps were mainly focusing on instantaneous-start variance swaps without considering the interest rate effects. This hybrid model produces an efficient semi-closed form pricing formula through the development of forward characteristic functions. The performance of this formula is investigated via simulations to demonstrate how the formula performs for different sampling times and against the real market scenario. Comparison done with the Monte Carlo simulation which was set as our main reference point reveals that our pricing formula gains almost the same precision in a shorter execution time.

  5. A new conceptual model of coral biomineralisation: hypoxia as the physiological driver of skeletal extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wooldridge


    Full Text Available That corals skeletons are built of aragonite crystals with taxonomy-linked ultrastructure has been well understood since the 19th century. Yet, the way by which corals control this crystallization process remains an unsolved question. Here, I outline a new conceptual model of coral biomineralisation that endeavours to relate known skeletal features with homeostatic functions beyond traditional growth (structural determinants. In particular, I propose that the dominant physiological driver of skeletal extension is night-time hypoxia, which is exacerbated by the respiratory oxygen demands of the coral's algal symbionts (= zooxanthellae. The model thus provides a new narrative to explain the high growth rate of symbiotic corals, by equating skeletal deposition with the "work-rate" of the coral host needed to maintain a stable and beneficial symbiosis. In this way, coral skeletons are interpreted as a continuous (long-run recording unit of the stability and functioning of the coral–algae endosymbiosis. After providing supportive evidence for the model across multiple scales of observation, I use coral core data from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia to highlight the disturbed nature of the symbiosis in recent decades, but suggest that its onset is consistent with a trajectory that has been followed since at least the start of the 1900s. In concluding, I outline how the proposed capacity of cnidarians (which includes modern reef corals to overcome the metabolic limitation of hypoxia via skeletogenesis also provides a new hypothesis to explain the sudden appearance in the fossil record of calcified skeletons at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition – and the ensuing rapid appearance of most major animal phyla.

  6. Identification of the dominant hydrological process and appropriate model structure of a karst catchment through stepwise simplification of a complex conceptual model (United States)

    Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Jiang, Guanghui; Kang, Zhiqiang


    Conceptual models often suffer from the over-parameterization problem due to limited available data for the calibration. This leads to the problem of parameter nonuniqueness and equifinality, which may bring much uncertainty of the simulation result. How to find out the appropriate model structure supported by the available data to simulate the catchment is still a big challenge in the hydrological research. In this paper, we adopt a multi-model framework to identify the dominant hydrological process and appropriate model structure of a karst spring, located in Guilin city, China. For this catchment, the spring discharge is the only available data for the model calibration. This framework starts with a relative complex conceptual model according to the perception of the catchment and then this complex is simplified into several different models by gradually removing the model component. The multi-objective approach is used to compare the performance of these different models and the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) is used to investigate the parameter identifiability. The results show this karst spring is mainly controlled by two different hydrological processes and one of the processes is threshold-driven which is consistent with the fieldwork investigation. However, the appropriate model structure to simulate the discharge of this spring is much simpler than the actual aquifer structure and hydrological processes understanding from the fieldwork investigation. A simple linear reservoir with two different outlets is enough to simulate this spring discharge. The detail runoff process in the catchment is not needed in the conceptual model to simulate the spring discharge. More complex model should need more other additional data to avoid serious deterioration of model predictions.

  7. Navigating Tensions Between Conceptual and Metaconceptual Goals in the Use of Models (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar


    Science education involves learning about phenomena at three levels: concrete (facts and generalizations), conceptual (concepts and theories), and metaconceptual (epistemology) (Snir et al. in J Sci Educ Technol 2(2):373-388, 1993). Models are key components in science, can help build conceptual understanding, and may also build metaconceptual understanding. Technology can transform teaching and learning by turning models into interactive simulations that learners can investigate. This paper identifies four characteristics of models and simulations that support conceptual learning but misconstrue models and science at a metaconceptual level. Ahistorical models combine the characteristics of several historical models; they conveniently compile ideas but misrepresent the history of science (Gilbert in Int J Sci Math Educ 2(2):115-130, 2004). Teleological models explain behavior in terms of a final cause; they can lead to useful heuristics but imply purpose in processes driven by chance and probability (Talanquer in Int J Sci Educ 29(7):853-870, 2007). Epistemological overreach occurs when models or simulations imply greater certainty and knowledge about phenomena than warranted; conceptualizing nature as being well known (e.g., having a mathematical structure) poses the danger of conflating model and reality or data and theory. Finally, models are inevitably ontologically impoverished. Real-world deviations and many variables are left out of models, as models' role is to simplify. Models and simulations also lose much of the sensory data present in phenomena. Teachers, designers, and professional development designers and facilitators must thus navigate the tension between conceptual and metaconceptual learning when using models and simulations. For each characteristic, examples are provided, along with recommendations for instruction and design. Prompts for explicit reflective activities around models are provided for each characteristic

  8. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Yarnell, S.M.


    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  9. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty (United States)

    Thomsen, N. I.; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, U. S.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.


    Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used in the management of contaminated sites. Such estimates have proven useful for supporting decisions related to the prioritization of contaminated sites in a groundwater catchment. Potential management options can be categorised as follows: (1) leave as is, (2) clean up, or (3) further investigation needed. However, mass discharge estimates are often very uncertain, which may hamper the management decisions. If option 1 is incorrectly chosen soil and water quality will decrease, threatening or destroying drinking water resources. The risk of choosing option 2 is to spend money on remediating a site that does not pose a problem. Choosing option 3 will often be safest, but may not be the optimal economic solution. Quantification of the uncertainty in mass discharge estimates can therefore greatly improve the foundation for selecting the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass discharge estimate with uncertainty bounds resulting from

  10. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.


    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  11. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    Traditionally, semantic data models have not supported the modeling of behavior. We present an event modeling approach that can be used to extend semantic data models like the entity-relationship model and the functional data model. We model an event as a two-sided phenomenon that is seen as a to...... it is comparable to an executable transaction schema. Finally, we briefly compare our approach to object-oriented approaches based on encapsulated objects.......Traditionally, semantic data models have not supported the modeling of behavior. We present an event modeling approach that can be used to extend semantic data models like the entity-relationship model and the functional data model. We model an event as a two-sided phenomenon that is seen...... as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...

  12. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valerie


    within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate...... the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate...

  13. On the Mathematical Modeling of Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors under Static Eccentricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahem Hussein


    Full Text Available Line start permanent magnet synchronous motors experience different types of failures, including static eccentricity. The first step in detecting such failures is the mathematical modeling of the motor under healthy and failed conditions. In this paper, an attempt to develop an accurate mathematical model for this motor under static eccentricity is presented. The model is based on the modified winding function method and coupled magnetic circuits approach. The model parameters are calculated directly from the motor winding layout and its geometry. Static eccentricity effects are considered in the motor inductances calculation. The performance of the line start permanent magnet synchronous motor using the developed mathematical model is investigated using MATLAB/SIMULINK® software (2013b, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA under healthy and static eccentricity condition for different loading values. A finite element method analysis is conducted to verify the mathematical model results, using the commercial JMAG® software (16.0.02n, JSOL Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. The results show a fine agreement between JMAG® and the developed mathematical model simulation results.

  14. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway


    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  15. Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology: mapping knowledge and discovering gaps in the mRNA transcription cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Somekh


    Full Text Available We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM, a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure-the objects that comprise the system, and behavior-how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point-the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model.

  16. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)


    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  17. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program’s service model?☆ (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.


    Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program’s comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children’s pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed. PMID:26379369

  18. A model for information retrieval driven by conceptual spaces


    Tanase, D.


    A retrieval model describes the transformation of a query into a set of documents. The question is: what drives this transformation? For semantic information retrieval type of models this transformation is driven by the content and structure of the semantic models. In this case, Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) are the semantic models that encode the meaning employed for monolingual and cross-language retrieval. The focus of this research is the relationship between these meanings’ repre...

  19. Public–private partnership conceptual framework and models for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100% government funded and owned infrastructure. Government is a key player in infrastructure investment and inefficiencies within the public expenditure management systems ...

  20. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and to identify aspects about which additional information needed to effectively support remedy decisions. this document summarizes the conceptual model of iodine behavior relevant to iodine in the subsurface environment at the Hanford site.

  1. University Library Strategy Development: A Conceptual Model of Researcher Performance to Inform Service Delivery (United States)

    Maddox, Alexia; Zhao, Linlin


    This case study presents a conceptual model of researcher performance developed by Deakin University Library, Australia. The model aims to organize research performance data into meaningful researcher profiles, referred to as researcher typologies, which support the demonstration of research impact and value. Three dimensions shaping researcher…

  2. The Role of Model Building in Problem Solving and Conceptual Change (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Jonassen, David; Teo, Timothy


    This study examines the effects of the activity of building systems models for school-based problems on problem solving and on conceptual change in elementary science classes. During a unit on the water cycle in an Asian elementary school, students constructed systems models of the water cycle. We found that representing ill-structured problems as…

  3. Examining the Etiology of Reading Disability as Conceptualized by the Hybrid Model (United States)

    Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A.; Wagner, Richard K.; Taylor, Jeanette


    A fairly recent definition of reading disability (RD) is that in the form of a hybrid model. The model views RD as a latent construct that is manifested through various observable unexpected impairments in reading-related skills and through inadequate response to intervention. The current report evaluated this new conceptualization of RD from an…

  4. Electro-thermal modelling of polymer lithium batteries for starting period and pulse power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Neri, M. [Electricite de France DER, Site des Renardieres, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Gueguen, M. [Bollore Technologies, Odet, 29 Quimper (France); Lonchampt, G. [CEA/CEREM, CENG-85X, 38 Grenoble (France)


    Since power capabilities of solid polymer lithium batteries can only be delivered above 60 C, the thermal management in electric-vehicle applications has to be carefully considered. Electro-thermal modelling of a thermally insulated 200 kg battery was performed, and electrochemical data were obtained from laboratory cell impedance measurements at 20 and 80 C. Starting at 20 C as initial working temperature, the battery reaches 40 C after 150 s of discharge in a 0.5 {Omega} resistance. At 40 C, the useful peak power is 20 kW. The energy expense for heating the battery from 20 to 40 C is 1.4 kWh, corresponding to 6% of the energy available in the battery. After a stand-by period of 24 h, the temperature decreases from 80 to 50 C, allowing efficient starting conditions. (orig.)

  5. Modeling the Financial Distress of Microenterprise StartUps Using Support Vector Machines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Blanco-Oliver


    Full Text Available Despite the leading role that micro-entrepreneurship plays in economic development, and the high failure rate of microenterprise start-ups in their early years, very few studies have designed financial distress models to detect the financial problems of micro-entrepreneurs. Moreover, due to a lack of research, nothing is known about whether non-financial information and nonparametric statistical techniques improve the predictive capacity of these models. Therefore, this paper provides an innovative financial distress model specifically designed for microenterprise startups via support vector machines (SVMs that employs financial, non-financial, and macroeconomic variables. Based on a sample of almost 5,500 micro- entrepreneurs from a Peruvian Microfinance Institution (MFI, our findings show that the introduction of non-financial information related to the zone in which the entrepreneurs live and situate their business, the duration of the MFI-entrepreneur relationship, the number of loans granted by the MFI in the last year, the loan destination, and the opinion of experts on the probability that microenterprise start-ups may experience financial problems, significantly increases the accuracy performance of our financial distress model. Furthermore, the results reveal that the models that use SVMs outperform those which employ traditional logistic regression (LR analysis.

  6. Conceptual Processes for Linking Eutrophication and Network Models (United States)


    1 PURPOSE: This three-year study investigates the coupling of eutrophication and network models, applies the results to a specific problem , and...affect water quality problems such as low dissolved oxygen? No straightforward means of coupling the two modeling approaches is available or...Dorothy H. Tillman, Dr. Carl F. Cerco, and Mr. Mark R. Noel of the Water Quality and Contaminant Modeling Branch, Enviromental Laboratory (EL

  7. An independent verification and validation of the Future Theater Level Model conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III; Kruse, K.L.; Martellaro, A.J.; Packard, S.L.; Thomas, B. Jr.; Turley, V.K.


    This report describes the methodology and results of independent verification and validation performed on a combat model in its design stage. The combat model is the Future Theater Level Model (FTLM), under development by The Joint Staff/J-8. J-8 has undertaken its development to provide an analysis tool that addresses the uncertainties of combat more directly than previous models and yields more rapid study results. The methodology adopted for this verification and validation consisted of document analyses. Included were detailed examination of the FTLM design documents (at all stages of development), the FTLM Mission Needs Statement, and selected documentation for other theater level combat models. These documents were compared to assess the FTLM as to its design stage, its purpose as an analytical combat model, and its capabilities as specified in the Mission Needs Statement. The conceptual design passed those tests. The recommendations included specific modifications as well as a recommendation for continued development. The methodology is significant because independent verification and validation have not been previously reported as being performed on a combat model in its design stage. The results are significant because The Joint Staff/J-8 will be using the recommendations from this study in determining whether to proceed with develop of the model.

  8. Public–private partnership conceptual framework and models for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2012c) Project to Revise the Pricing Strategy for Water Use. Charges and Develop a Funding Model for Water Infrastructure. Development and Use and a Model for the Establishment of an. Economic Regulator (Contract No. WP10465). Review of Principles and Experience for Infrastructure Finance. Department of Water.

  9. A conceptual model for the development and management of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 13, 2009 ... A hydrogeological model was developed to elucidate ground- water flow mechanisms and possibilities of recharge in the. Cape Flats. The model is based on local climate, hydrology, geomorphology, geology and chemical and isotope geochem- istry (Fig. 16). The groundwater from the Cape Flats aquifer.

  10. A Framework for Conceptual Modeling of Geographic Data Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Christensen, J.V.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    Sustained advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and consumer electronics pave the way to a kind of location-based service that relies on the tracking of the continuously changing positions of an entire population of service users. This type of service is characterized by large...... of geographic data and quality. The approach integrates quality information with the basic model constructs. This results in a model that enables object-oriented specification of quality requirements and of acceptable quality levels. More specifically, it extends the Unified Modeling Language with new modeling...... constructs based on standard classes, attributes, and associations that include quality information. A case study illustrates the utility of the quality-enabled model. reported....

  11. Sensitivity of hydrological performance assessment analysis to variations in material properties, conceptual models, and ventilation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Ho, C.K.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cruz, W.T. [Univ. del Turabo, Gurabo (Puerto Rico)


    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface- based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to support the design of an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the design of the tests performed as part of the characterization process, in order to ascertain that they have minimal impact on the natural ability of the site to isolate waste. The information in this report pertains to sensitivity studies evaluating previous hydrological performance assessment analyses to variation in the material properties, conceptual models, and ventilation models, and the implications of this sensitivity on previous recommendations supporting ESF design. This document contains information that has been used in preparing recommendations for Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document.

  12. Sensitivity of hydrological performance assessment analysis to variations in material properties, conceptual models, and ventilation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Ho, C.K.; Dunn, E.; Robey, T.H.; Cruz, W.T.


    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface- based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to support the design of an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the design of the tests performed as part of the characterization process, in order to ascertain that they have minimal impact on the natural ability of the site to isolate waste. The information in this report pertains to sensitivity studies evaluating previous hydrological performance assessment analyses to variation in the material properties, conceptual models, and ventilation models, and the implications of this sensitivity on previous recommendations supporting ESF design. This document contains information that has been used in preparing recommendations for Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document

  13. Predictive Dynamic Simulation of Seated Start-Up Cycling Using Olympic Cyclist and Bicycle Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Jansen


    Full Text Available Predictive dynamic simulation is a useful tool for analyzing human movement and optimizing performance. Here it is applied to Olympic-level track cycling. A seven degree-of-freedom, two-legged cyclist and bicycle model was developed using MapleSim. GPOPS-II, a direct collocation optimal control software, was used to solve the optimal control problem for the predictive simulation. The model was validated against ergometer pedaling performed by seven Olympic-level track cyclists from the Canadian team. The simulations produce joint angles and cadence/torque/power similar to experimental results. The results indicate optimal control can be used for predictive simulation with a combined cyclist and bicycle model. Future work needed to more accurately model an Olympic cyclist and a standing start is discussed.

  14. Conceptual Development af a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn


    Paper. This project deals with 3D product configuration of a digital building element which has been developed as a prototype in cooperation between a product manufacturer and a research institution in Denmark. The project falls within the concept of product modelling which is more and more used ......’s production of steel fire sliding doors. The development of the 3D digital model is based on practical rather than theoretical research. The result of the research is a prototype digital 3D model to be presented live....

  15. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  16. A Proposed Conceptual Model of Military Medical Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Hall, Brian M


    .... The purpose of this research is to consolidate existing literature on the latent variable of medical readiness, and to propose a composite theoretical model of medical readiness that may provide...

  17. A study on modeling customer preferences for conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Soon Young; Seo, Seok Hoon; Choi, Hae Jin


    In this paper, we propose a concept selection method to evaluate future market performances of concept candidates, and to choose the best concept among those. The main and interaction effects of product performance factors, economic factors, and time on a market performance are modeled using a Bayesian framework-based Artificial neural network (ANN). The Bayesian framework is employed to measure the potential risk of wrong selection in using a trained ANN model. Based on the measured uncertainty bounds in the predicted future market performance, the most promising and robust concept may be selected. To validate our concept-selection method, we employed an automobile concept selection problem in the U.S. market. Seventeen concepts were assumed to compete in 2013, and the future market share with error bounds was predicted using the trained model based on sale data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Al-Nasrawi


    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC is gaining increasing attention by the countries around the globe, particularly in response to potential future environmental challenges and increased proportion of populations living in cities. Several countries claim to have implemented or in the process of implementing SSCs, and there are many models that can be used to measure how 'smart' the initiatives and cities are. This paper critically evaluates the main models to measure city smartness and identifies deficiencies, namely that they are not sensitive to the needs, resources, priorities and wider context for individual cities. The paper suggests a multidimensional methodological model that assists in evaluating the smartness level of a city while being sensitive to its context. It provides further contribution by combining sustainable and smart attributes of a city

  19. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model (United States)

    Heimberg, Richard G.


    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  20. Hydrogeologic setting and conceptual hydrologic model of the Spring Creek basin, Centre County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McAuley, Steven D.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Zarr, Linda F.


    The Spring Creek Basin, Centre County, Pa., is experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development within the Commonwealth. This trend has resulted in land-use changes and increased water use, which will affect the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, surface water, ground water, and aquatic resources within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ClearWater Conservancy (CWC), Spring Creek Watershed Community (SCWC), and Spring Creek Watershed Commission (SCWCm), has developed a Watershed Plan (Plan) to assist decision makers in water-resources planning. One element of the Plan is to provide a summary of the basin characteristics and a conceptual model that incorporates the hydrogeologic characteristics of the basin. The report presents hydrogeologic data for the basin and presents a conceptual model that can be used as the basis for simulating surface-water and ground-water flow within the basin. Basin characteristics; sources of data referenced in this text; physical characteristics such as climate, physiography, topography, and land use; hydrogeologic characteristics; and water-quality characteristics are discussed. A conceptual model is a simplified description of the physical components and interaction of the surface- and ground-water systems. The purpose for constructing a conceptual model is to simplify the problem and to organize the available data so that the system can be analyzed accurately. Simplification is necessary, because a complete accounting of a system, such as Spring Creek, is not possible. The data and the conceptual model could be used in development of a fully coupled numerical model that dynamically links surface water, ground water, and land-use changes. The model could be used by decision makers to manage water resources within the basin and as a prototype that is transferable to other watersheds.

  1. Structure of conceptual models in the senior operating staff of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboznov A. A.


    Full Text Available Background. The relationships between conceptual model structures and an operator’s professional efficiency are of direct practical importance, particularly in the case of large-scale industrial complexes combining several human-machine systems. A typical example is the power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP. Objective and methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual models of senior reactor operators (SROs of NPPs. The study involved 64 men working as SRO at five NPPs in Russia. The methods included: structured interviews, expert estimations, multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL, the K-means clustering algorithm, and frequency analysis. The procedure was as follows: 32 key characteristics of the power unit were defined, including shift operators’ jobs and duties, technical subsystems, types of equipment, and the crucial power unit parameters. The participants were offered a 32×32 matrix for pair-wise estimation of the strength of the links between these key characteristics on a seven-point scale (496 links in total. Results. A general scheme of key characteristics in the conceptual models was defined. is scheme was displayed in the operators regardless of their employment history. Within the scheme, however, two types of conceptual models were identified, which could be distinguished by the relative number of strong links between the key characteristics. With respect to intersystem links including key characteristics of the reactor and turbine NPP departments, this number was significantly higher in models of Type 1 than in those of Type 2. A positive correlation between the number of these links and the professional efficiency indicators was also established. Operators with Type 1 models were able to more predictably represent the power unit operation. Conclusion. The main role in creating predictable and efficient conceptual models was played by strong intersystem links in mental representations of workflow.

  2. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček


    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  3. A Conceptual Trust Model for Managing E-Commerce Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-commerce helps businesses to increase production flexibility by ensuring timely availability of components from suppliers. However, of paramount concern is the issue of trust. Some trust models such as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Public Key Infrastructure based on X.509 (PKIX) are based on the notion of delegation ...

  4. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation (United States)

    Jena, Ananta Kumar


    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  5. Resilience in adults with cancer: development of a conceptual model. (United States)

    Deshields, Teresa L; Heiland, Mark F; Kracen, Amanda C; Dua, Priya


    Resilience is a construct addressed in the psycho-oncology literature and is especially relevant to cancer survivorship. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for resilience that is specific to adults diagnosed with cancer. To establish the proposed model, a brief review of the various definitions of resilience and of the resilience literature in oncology is provided. The proposed model includes baseline attributes (personal and environmental) which impact how an individual responds to an adverse event, which in this paper is cancer-related. The survivor has an initial response that fits somewhere on the distress-resilience continuum; however, post-cancer experiences (and interventions) can modify the initial response through a process of recalibration. The literature reviewed indicates that resilience is a common response to cancer diagnosis or treatment. The proposed model supports the view of resilience as both an outcome and a dynamic process. Given the process of recalibration, a discussion is provided of interventions that might facilitate resilience in adults with cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A New Conceptual Model for the Continuum of Land Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In order to inform the development of a new model, a systems understanding is used to identify five primary elements of land ... normative responses to communal and customary land administration systems are consistent with modernization theory in that they are ...... year, fractional shares. Occupation, use. Individuals have.

  7. The ISO Edi Conceptual Model Activity and Its Relationship to OSI. (United States)

    Fincher, Judith A.


    The edi conceptual model is being developed to define common structures, services, and processes that syntax-specific standards like X12 and EDIFACT could adopt. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is of interest to edi because of its potential to help enable global interoperability across Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) functional groups. A…

  8. College Men's Meanings of Masculinities and Contextual Influences: Toward a Conceptual Model (United States)

    Harris, Frank, III


    Based on a grounded theory study involving 68 male undergraduates, a conceptual model of the meanings college men ascribe to masculinities is proposed in this article. The participants equated masculinities with "being respected," "being confident and self-assured," "assuming responsibility," and "embodying physical prowess." Contextual factors…

  9. Towards an Integrated Conceptual Model of International Student Adjustment and Adaptation (United States)

    Schartner, Alina; Young, Tony Johnstone


    Despite a burgeoning body of empirical research on "the international student experience", the area remains under-theorized. The literature to date lacks a guiding conceptual model that captures the adjustment and adaptation trajectories of this unique, growing, and important sojourner group. In this paper, we therefore put forward a…

  10. An Update on the Conceptual-Production Systems Model of Apraxia: Evidence from Stroke (United States)

    Stamenova, Vessela; Black, Sandra E.; Roy, Eric A.


    Limb apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to pantomime and/or imitate gestures. It is more commonly observed after left hemisphere damage (LHD), but has also been reported after right hemisphere damage (RHD). The Conceptual-Production Systems model (Roy, 1996) suggests that three systems are involved in the control of…

  11. Landscape evolution and agricultural land salinization in coastal area: A conceptual model. (United States)

    Bless, Aplena Elen; Colin, François; Crabit, Armand; Devaux, Nicolas; Philippon, Olivier; Follain, Stéphane


    Soil salinization is a major threat to agricultural lands. Among salt-affected lands, coastal areas could be considered as highly complex systems, where salinization degradation due to anthropogenic pressure and climate-induced changes could significantly alter system functioning. For such complex systems, conceptual models can be used as evaluation tools in a preliminary step to identify the main evolutionary processes responsible for soil and water salinization. This study aimed to propose a conceptual model for water fluxes in a coastal area affected by salinity, which can help to identify the relationships between agricultural landscape evolution and actual salinity. First, we conducted field investigations from 2012 to 2016, mainly based on both soil (EC 1/5 ) and water (EC w ) electrical conductivity survey. This allowed us to characterize spatial structures for EC 1/5 and EC w and to identify the river as a preponderant factor in land salinization. Subsequently, we proposed and used a conceptual model for water fluxes and conducted a time analysis (1962-2012) for three of its main constitutive elements, namely climate, river, and land systems. When integrated within the conceptual model framework, it appeared that the evolution of all constitutive elements since 1962 was responsible for the disruption of system equilibrium, favoring overall salt accumulation in the soil root zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Conceptual Model and Process for Client-driven Agile Requirements Prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racheva, Z.; Daneva, Maia; Herrmann, Andrea; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Continuous customer-centric requirements reprioritization is essential in successfully performing agile software development. Yet, in the agile RE literature, very little is known about how agile reprioritization happens in practice. Generic conceptual models about this process are missing, which in

  13. The Interactions between Problem Solving and Conceptual Change: System Dynamic Modelling as a Platform for Learning (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng


    This study examines the interactions between problem solving and conceptual change in an elementary science class where students build system dynamic models as a form of problem representations. Through mostly qualitative findings, we illustrate the interplay of three emerging intervening conditions (epistemological belief, structural knowledge…

  14. Exploring Conceptual Models for Community Engagement at Higher Education Institutions in South Africa (United States)

    Bender, Gerda


    A critical conceptual analysis of the South African Higher Education context reflects the lack of a structural and functional framework for the conceptualisation of community engagement (CE) in higher education. The purpose of this article is to explore a framework and model for the conceptualisation of CE for a better understanding of community…

  15. A conceptual model of plant responses to climate with implications for monitoring ecosystem change (United States)

    C. David. Bertelsen


    Climate change is affecting natural systems on a global scale and is particularly rapid in the Southwest. It is important to identify impacts of a changing climate before ecosystems become unstable. Recognizing plant responses to climate change requires knowledge of both species present and plant responses to variable climatic conditions. A conceptual model derived...

  16. The Effect of 7E Model on Conceptual Success of Students in the Unit of Electromagnetism (United States)

    Turgut, Umit; Colak, Alp; Salar, Riza


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the course materials developed in accordance with 7E model in the unit of electromagnetism in high school physics class on students' conceptual success. The present study was conducted with a total of 52 11th grade students in two separate classrooms at a high school. The action research…

  17. A Conceptual Model for Teaching Critical Thinking in a Knowledge Economy (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton


    Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…

  18. Pathways to Life Success: A Conceptual Model of Financial Well-Being for Young Adults (United States)

    Shim, Soyeon; Xiao, Jing J.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Lyons, Angela C.


    The purpose of this study is to describe and test a conceptual model of the potential antecedents and consequences of financial well-being in young adulthood. Data (N = 781) were collected via an online survey conducted at a large state university in the southwestern United States. Our results suggest that self-actualizing personal values,…

  19. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.


    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  20. Dealing With Unexpected Events on the Flight Deck : A Conceptual Model of Startle and Surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, Eric L.; van Paassen, M.M.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Mulder, M.


    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  1. A Study to Determine the Mental Models in Preschool Children's Conceptualization of a Desert Environment (United States)

    Ahi, Berat


    This study aimed to determine mental models and identify codes (schemes) used in conceptualizing a desert environment. The sample for this study consisted of 184--out of a total population of 3,630--children in preschool education in the central district of Kastamonu, Turkey. Within the scope of this study, the children were initially asked to…

  2. A Conceptual/Cross-cultural Model for Teaching Anthropology in the Elementary School. (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    A conceptual/cross-cultural model, developed to help elementary teachers cope with the problems of initiating cultural, ethnic, or anthropology studies, is presented in five sections. (1) A brief description of the structure and methodology of anthropology defines in outline form the fields of cultural and social anthropology, physical…

  3. Managing Higher Education in a Climate of Contraction: A Conceptual Model. (United States)

    Doyle, K. J.


    A conceptual framework for managing higher education during a period of no growth, based on a model developed for business organizations by Joseph Schumpeter, is examined. Five categories of innovations included: new products (courses), new methods (improving productivity), new markets (students), new productive factors (sources of income), and…

  4. Conceptual design of a regional water quality screening model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.


    This water quality assessment methodology is intended to predict concentrations at future times and to estimate the impacts on water quality of energy-related activities (including industrial boilers). Estimates of impacts on water quality at future times are based on incremental changes in pollutant inputs to the body water. Important features of the model are: use of measured concentrations to account for existing conditions; consideration of incremental changes in pollutant loads; emphasis on the energy sector and industrial boilers; analysis restricted to streams only; no attempt to fully account for pollutant behavior; and flexible design, so that future improvements can be incorporated. The basic approach is very similar to the one used by Argonne's ARQUAL model but will allow more complex pollutant behavior and more flexibility in use

  5. Combat aircraft mission tradeoff models for conceptual design evaluation


    Malakhoff, Lev A


    A methodology is developed to address the analyses of combat aircraft attrition. The operations of an aircraft carrier task force are modeled using the systems dynamics simulation language DYNAMO. The three mission-roles include: surface attack, lighter escort, and carrier defense. The level of analysis is performed over the entire campaign, going beyond the traditional single·sortie analysis level. These analyses are performed by determining several measures of effectiveness (...

  6. Conceptual Modeling of Performance Indicators of Higher Education Institutions


    Kahveci, Tuba Canvar; Taşkın, Harun; Toklu, Merve Cengiz


    Measuring and analyzing any type of organization are carried out by different actors in the organization. The performance indicators of performance management system increase according to products or services of the organization. Also these indicators should be defined for all levels of the organization. Finally, all of these characteristics make the performance evaluation process more complex for organizations. In order to manage this complexity, the process should be modeled at the beginnin...

  7. Data Relationships: Towards a Conceptual Model of Scientific Data Catalogs (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.


    As the amount of data, types of processing and storage formats increase, the total number of record permutations increase dramatically. The result is an overwhelming number of records that make identifying the best data object to answer a user's needs more difficult. The issue is further complicated as each archive's data catalog may be designed around different concepts - - anything from individual files to be served, series of similarly generated and processed data, or something entirely different. Catalogs may not only be flat tables, but may be structured as multiple tables with each table being a different data series, or a normalized structure of the individual data files. Merging federated search results from archives with different catalog designs can create situations where the data object of interest is difficult to find due to an overwhelming number of seemingly similar or entirely unwanted records. We present a reference model for discussing data catalogs and the complex relationships between similar data objects. We show how the model can be used to improve scientist's ability to quickly identify the best data object for their purposes and discuss technical issues required to use this model in a federated system.

  8. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidimma Odira Okeke


    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  9. Technologies for conceptual modelling and intelligent query formulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, R


    Full Text Available modelling and intelligent query formulation R ALBERTS1, K BRITZ1, A GERBER1, K HALLAND1,2, T MEYER1, L PRETORIUS1,2 (1) Knowledge Systems Group, Meraka Institute, CSIR, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa (2) School of Computing, University of South... this problem still more pressing: in this case an excess of information can be equivalent to an absence of information It is therefore necessary to use tools that organise data into intelligible and easily-accessible structures and return answers...

  10. NLP model and stochastic multi-start optimization approach for heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez-Serna, Rosa I.; Zamora, Juan M.


    Highlights: • An NLP model for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks is proposed. • The NLP model is developed from a stage-wise grid diagram representation. • A two-phase stochastic multi-start optimization methodology is utilized. • Improved network designs are obtained with different heat load distributions. • Structural changes and reductions in the number of heat exchangers are produced. - Abstract: Heat exchanger network synthesis methodologies frequently identify good network structures, which nevertheless, might be accompanied by suboptimal values of design variables. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear programming (NLP) model and an optimization approach that aim at identifying the best values for intermediate temperatures, sub-stream flow rate fractions, heat loads and areas for a given heat exchanger network topology. The NLP model that minimizes the total annual cost of the network is constructed based on a stage-wise grid diagram representation. To improve the possibilities of obtaining global optimal designs, a two-phase stochastic multi-start optimization algorithm is utilized for the solution of the developed model. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach is illustrated with the optimization of two network designs proposed in the literature for two well-known benchmark problems. Results show that from the addressed base network topologies it is possible to achieve improved network designs, with redistributions in exchanger heat loads that lead to reductions in total annual costs. The results also show that the optimization of a given network design sometimes leads to structural simplifications and reductions in the total number of heat exchangers of the network, thereby exposing alternative viable network topologies initially not anticipated.

  11. [Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research]. (United States)

    Knapp, Paulo; Beck, Aaron T


    There is growing interest in the cognitive model of psychotherapy stimulated by an extensive body of research findings demonstrating its effectiveness for a varied set of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. This review article aims to give an overview of the historical and philosophical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, pointing out similarities across and differences between them. A presentation of the cognitive model as designed by Aaron Beck, and some of the cognitive and behavioral techniques used in emotional disorders will be discussed. Outcome studies and meta-analyses contemplating the efficacy of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies in various psychological and medical conditions will be briefly depicted. Through review of articles and textbooks, especially the works of Aaron Beck from which this review article has heavily borrowed, the origins and foundations of the cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of psychiatric and medical conditions are described. Through Medline, the search of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has pointed out the evidence-based efficacy of this psychotherapeutic approach. Cognitive-behavioral therapies in general and Beckian cognitive therapy in particular hold a theoretical foundation and a varied set of techniques, whose evidence-based efficacy was demonstrated for the treatment of diverse mental and physical conditions.

  12. A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of a crystalline rock environment, Whiteshell research area, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; McGregor, R.G.; Ophori, D.U.; Scheier, N.W.; Stanchell, F.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.K.


    A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of regional groundwater flow in the crystalline rocks of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) has been developed by a team of AECL geoscientists. The revised model updates an earlier model developed in 1985, and has a much broader database. This database was compiled from Landsat and airborne radar images, geophysical surveys and surface mapping, and from analyses of fracture logs, hydraulic tests and water samples collected from a network of deep boreholes drilled across the WRA. The boundaries of the revised conceptual model were selected to coincide with the natural hydraulic boundaries assumed for the regional groundwater flow systems in the WRA. The upper and lower boundaries are the water table and a horizontal plane 4 km below ground surface. For modelling purposes the rocks below 4 km are considered to be impermeable. The rocks of the modelled region were divided on the basis of fracture characteristics into three categories: fractured zones (FZs); moderately fractured rock (MFR); and sparsely fractured rock (SFR). The FZs are regions of intensely fractured rock. Seventy-six FZs were selected to form the fault framework within the revised conceptual model. The physical rock/water properties of the FZs, MFR and SFR were selected by analysis of field data from hydraulic and tracer tests, laboratory test data and water quality data. These properties were used to define a mathematical groundwater flow model of the WRA using AECL's MOTIF finite element code (Ophori et al. 1995, 1996). (author). 29 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith


    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Galibus


    Full Text Available We analyze the existing DS from the point of security and construct a two-level hierarchy of models. Such approach allows us to separate the abstraction (architecture level and the concrete (component level of ISS. The core set of methods, i. e. authentication and key exchange protocols, corresponds to the abstraction level and is defined as security infrastructure (SI. The final security parameters optimization and additional mechanisms such as authorization, routing and data auditing of the protection mechanisms are configured on the component level of the DS. In addition, we outline the systematic step-by-step ISS configuration method.

  15. The Adoption of New Technology: Conceptual Model and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Christi Nemoto


    Full Text Available The decision to adopt a new technology or not depends on the benefits to be gained by incorporating new technical, functional or esthetic solutions, in order to attain the company’s competitive positioning; this decision also depends on the costs and risks involved. In general terms, businesses lack the resources, whether financial, human, or structural, to innovate or even to adapt new technologies. The objectives of this study are to test an innovation adoption model on a real case and show the importance of international cooperation for new technology implementation processes, based on a decision-making case about whether or not to adopt a new technology that occurred in eletronic company in Brazil (called “A”. The new technology might help to solve certain challenges the company faced in its printer plant, by increasing efficiency and cutting costs.

  16. A conceptual model for barrier free facilities planning. (United States)

    Bittencourt, R S; de M Guimarães, L B


    This paper presents the proposal of a model for planning a barrier free industrial facilities, considering the demands that inclusion requires, ranging from outside the factory (social environment), to the needs of the production system and the workstation. Along with literature review, the demands were identified in a shoe manufacturer that employs people with disabilities, and organized taxonomically in agreement with the structure for planning facilities. The results show that the problems are not primarily related to eliminating architectural barriers and factors aimed at preventing risks to people's health and safety but, rather, are related to the company's cultural environment, because the main hazards are managerial. In special cases, it is suggested there is a need to adjust those parts of tasks that the worker cannot do, or even to re-schedule work so as to make it possible for employees with disabilities to perform their tasks.

  17. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system, FY 1993 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.; Webber, W.D.


    The ground water underlying parts of the Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) contains radioactive and chemical contaminants at concentrations exceeding regulatory standards (Dresel et al. 1993). The Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is responsible for monitoring the movement of these contaminants to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring effort, a sitewide three-dimensional ground-water flow model is being developed. This report provides an update on the status of the conceptual model that will form the basis for constructing a numerical three-dimensional flow model for, the site. Thorne and Chamness (1992) provide additional information on the initial development of the three-dimensional conceptual model

  18. Apparel shopping behaviour – Part 2: Conceptual theoretical model, market segments, profiles and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Du Preez


    Full Text Available This article is based on the conceptual theoretical model developed in Part 1 of this series of articles. The objective of this research is to identify female apparel consumer market segments on the basis of differentiating lifestyles, shopping orientation, cultural consciousness, store patronage and demographics. These profiles are discussed in full and the implications thereof for retailers, marketers and researchers are highlighted. A new conceptual model is proposed and recommendations are made for further research. Opsomming Hierdie artikel word gebaseer op die konseptuele teoretiese model wat reeds in Deel 1 van hierdie artikelreeks ontwikkel is. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om marksegmente van vroue klere-kopers te identifiseer na aanleiding van hulle lewenstyle, kooporiëntasie, kulturele bewustheid, winkelvoorkeurgedrag en demografie. Hierdie profiele word volledig beskryf en die implikasies van die verskillende profiele vir kleinhandelaars, bemarkers en navorsers word uitgelig. ’n Nuwe konseptuele model word voorgestel en aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gemaak.

  19. A Conceptual Model of Technology Transfer for Public Universities in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Necoechea


    Full Text Available Technology transfer from academic and scientific institutions has been transformed into a strategic variable for companies and nations who wish to cope with the challenges of a global economy. Since the early 1970s, many technology transfer models have tried to introduce key factors in the process. Previous studies have shown that technology transfer is influenced by various elements. This study is based on a review of two recent technology transfer models that we have used as basic concepts for developing our own conceptual model. Researcher–firm networks have been considered as key elements in the technology transfer process between public universities and firms. The conceptual model proposed could be useful to improve the efficiency of existing technology transfer mechanisms.

  20. A year 2003 conceptual model for the U.S. telecommunications infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Reinert, Rhonda K.


    To model the telecommunications infrastructure and its role and robustness to shocks, we must characterize the business and engineering of telecommunications systems in the year 2003 and beyond. By analogy to environmental systems modeling, we seek to develop a 'conceptual model' for telecommunications. Here, the conceptual model is a list of high-level assumptions consistent with the economic and engineering architectures of telecommunications suppliers and customers, both today and in the near future. We describe the present engineering architectures of the most popular service offerings, and describe the supplier markets in some detail. We also develop a characterization of the customer base for telecommunications services and project its likely response to disruptions in service, base-lining such conjectures against observed behaviors during 9/11.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Kilchenko


    Full Text Available The actual task of modern information society forming is a construction and introduction of the information systems in educational management. The article contains the analysis of subject domain of the informative system in the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, description of financial documents and facilities for automations of their treatment in the integrated environment of Windows SharePoint Services – Microsoft Word. The conceptual model of information is presented, it is shown, as on its basis facilities of automation of work are built with financial documents. The CRT forms of document life cycle are resulted in the information system: conceptual model of information, logical model of data, physical model of data, template, a document, eventual document with the automatic filling of indexes of financial documents.

  2. Some problems with social cognition models: a pragmatic and conceptual analysis. (United States)

    Ogden, Jane


    Empirical articles published between 1997 and 2001 from 4 health psychology journals that tested or applied 1 or more social cognition models (theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, health belief model, and protection motivation theory; N = 47) were scrutinized for their pragmatic and conceptual basis. In terms of their pragmatic basis, these 4 models were useful for guiding research. The analysis of their conceptual basis was less positive. First, these models do not enable the generation of hypotheses because their constructs are unspecific; they therefore cannot be tested. Second, they focus on analytic truths rather than synthetic ones, and the conclusions resulting from their application are often true by definition rather than by observation. Finally, they may create and change both cognitions and behavior rather than describe them.

  3. Conceptualization of Approaches and Thought Processes Emerging in Validating of Model in Mathematical Modeling in Technology Aided Environment (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Bukova Güzel, Esra


    The aim of the present study is to conceptualize the approaches displayed for validation of model and thought processes provided in mathematical modeling process performed in technology-aided learning environment. The participants of this grounded theory study were nineteen secondary school mathematics student teachers. The data gathered from the…

  4. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations


    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.


    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspira...

  5. Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models


    Aletta, F.; Kang, J.; Axelsson, O.


    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for impleme...

  6. Pesticide fate on catchment scale: conceptual modelling of stream CSIA data (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie R.; van der Velde, Ype; Elsayed, Omniea F.; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; van Breukelen, Boris M.


    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven beneficial in the characterization of contaminant degradation in groundwater, but it has never been used to assess pesticide transformation on catchment scale. This study presents concentration and carbon CSIA data of the herbicides S-metolachlor and acetochlor from three locations (plot, drain, and catchment outlets) in a 47 ha agricultural catchment (Bas-Rhin, France). Herbicide concentrations at the catchment outlet were highest (62 µg L-1) in response to an intense rainfall event following herbicide application. Increasing δ13C values of S-metolachlor and acetochlor by more than 2 ‰ during the study period indicated herbicide degradation. To assist the interpretation of these data, discharge, concentrations, and δ13C values of S-metolachlor were modelled with a conceptual mathematical model using the transport formulation by travel-time distributions. Testing of different model setups supported the assumption that degradation half-lives (DT50) increase with increasing soil depth, which can be straightforwardly implemented in conceptual models using travel-time distributions. Moreover, model calibration yielded an estimate of a field-integrated isotopic enrichment factor as opposed to laboratory-based assessments of enrichment factors in closed systems. Thirdly, the Rayleigh equation commonly applied in groundwater studies was tested by our model for its potential to quantify degradation on catchment scale. It provided conservative estimates on the extent of degradation as occurred in stream samples. However, largely exceeding the simulated degradation within the entire catchment, these estimates were not representative of overall degradation on catchment scale. The conceptual modelling approach thus enabled us to upscale sample-based CSIA information on degradation to the catchment scale. Overall, this study demonstrates the benefit of combining monitoring and conceptual modelling of concentration

  7. Facilitating Corporate Entrepreneurship in Public Sector Higher Education Institutions: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Nayyar Malik


    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship for the state government higher education institutions. The proposed model is intended to depict the main antecedents that relate to corporate entrepreneurship within the public sector higher education institution  and the impact of corporate entrepreneurship on public sector HEI’s performance, as well as factors influencing its continuous performance.

  8. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.


    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  9. The EBM-DPSER Conceptual Model: Integrating Ecosystem Services into the DPSIR Framework (United States)

    Kelble, Christopher R.; Loomis, Dave K.; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K.; Ortner, Peter B.; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Lorenz, Jerry J.; Boyer, Joseph N.


    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Zuhair Alsarhi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model that explains the relationship between Islamic leadership successionpersonalityattributes and good governance. The paper sources information from an extensive search of literature to design a conceptual model of Islamic leadership succession (personal attributes & governmental characteristics of Succession and good governance. The model will provide an integration of relationships that will add valuable insights into improved leadership succession theory in the related literature. The paper may assist particularly policy makers and strategists to focus on new possibilities of leadership successors attributes that will lead to improved governance as well as government performance in the world in general, and the Palestine community, in particular.

  11. Self-esteem Is Mostly Stable Across Young Adulthood: Evidence from Latent STARTS Models. (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich


    How stable is self-esteem? This long-standing debate has led to different conclusions across different areas of psychology. Longitudinal data and up-to-date statistical models have recently indicated that self-esteem has stable and autoregressive trait-like components and state-like components. We applied latent STARTS models with the goal of replicating previous findings in a longitudinal sample of young adults (N = 4,532; Mage  = 19.60, SD = 0.85; 55% female). In addition, we applied multigroup models to extend previous findings on different patterns of stability for men versus women and for people with high versus low levels of depressive symptoms. We found evidence for the general pattern of a major proportion of stable and autoregressive trait variance and a smaller yet substantial amount of state variance in self-esteem across 10 years. Furthermore, multigroup models suggested substantial differences in the variance components: Females showed more state variability than males. Individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed more state and less autoregressive trait variance in self-esteem. Results are discussed with respect to the ongoing trait-state debate and possible implications of the group differences that we found in the stability of self-esteem. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ecohydrologic Response of a Wetland Indicator Species to Climate Change and Streamflow Regulation: A Conceptual Model (United States)

    Ward, E. M.; Gorelick, S.


    The Peace-Athabasca Delta ("Delta") in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance. Delta ecohydrology is expected to respond rapidly to upstream water demand and climate change, with earlier spring meltwater, decreased springtime peak flow, and a decline in springtime ice-jam flooding. We focus on changes in the population and distribution of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), an ecohydrologic indicator species. We present a conceptual model linking hydrology and muskrat ecology. Our conceptual model links seven modules representing (1) upstream water demand, (2) streamflow and snowmelt, (3) floods, (4) the water balance of floodplain lakes, (5) muskrat habitat suitability, (6) wetland vegetation, and (7) muskrat population dynamics predicted using an agent-based model. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of different climate change and upstream water demand scenarios on the abundance and distribution of Delta muskrat, from present-2100. Moving from the current conceptual model to a predictive quantitative model, we will rely on abundant existing data and Traditional Ecological Knowledge of muskrat and hydrology in the Delta.

  13. Linking Land Change with Driving Forces and Actors: Four Conceptual Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Hersperger


    Full Text Available Models in land change research are often chosen arbitrarily based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. More specifically, research on land change is often based on a research framework with three crucial elements - driving forces, actors, and land change - in an ad hoc and case-specific configuration. The lack of solid and widely applicable concepts about the conceptual link between these three elements can negatively affect individual research projects and hamper communication and generalizations beyond the individual project. We present four basic models for linking land change with driving forces and actors. These models are illustrated with examples from the research literature. Based on the main characteristics of the models and practical considerations, we propose guidelines for choosing among the four models for specific studies. More generally, we want to raise awareness that land change research is especially demanding with respect to conceptual backgrounds and that conceptual considerations will help improve the scientific quality of individual studies as well as their potential contribution towards generic theories of land change.

  14. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail:, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  15. Patient-Clinician Communication About Pain: A Conceptual Model and Narrative Review. (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Matthias, Marianne S


    Productive patient-clinician communication is an important component of effective pain management, but we know little about how patients and clinicians actually talk about pain in clinical settings and how it might be improved to produce better patient outcomes. The objective of this review was to create a conceptual model of patient-clinician communication about noncancer pain, review and synthesize empirical research in this area, and identify priorities for future research. A conceptual model was developed that drew on existing pain and health communication research. CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched to find studies reporting empirical data on patient-clinician communication about noncancer pain; results were supplemented with manual searches. Studies were categorized and analyzed to identify crosscutting themes and inform model development. The conceptual model comprised the following components: contextual factors, clinical interaction, attitudes and beliefs, and outcomes. Thirty-nine studies met inclusion criteria and were analyzed based on model components. Studies varied widely in quality, methodology, and sample size. Two provisional conclusions were identified: contrary to what is often reported in the literature, discussions about analgesics are most frequently characterized by patient-clinician agreement, and self-presentation during patient-clinician interactions plays an important role in communication about pain and opioids. Published studies on patient-clinician communication about noncancer pain are few and diverse. The conceptual model presented here can help to identify knowledge gaps and guide future research on communication about pain. Investigating the links between communication and pain-related outcomes is an important priority for future research. © 2018 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Statistical and Conceptual Model Testing Geomorphic Principles through Quantification in the Middle Rio Grande River, NM. (United States)

    Posner, A. J.


    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRG) traverses New Mexico from Cochiti to Elephant Butte reservoirs. Since the 1100s, cultivating and inhabiting the valley of this alluvial river has required various river training works. The mid-20th century saw a concerted effort to tame the river through channelization, Jetty Jacks, and dam construction. A challenge for river managers is to better understand the interactions between a river training works, dam construction, and the geomorphic adjustments of a desert river driven by spring snowmelt and summer thunderstorms carrying water and large sediment inputs from upstream and ephemeral tributaries. Due to its importance to the region, a vast wealth of data exists for conditions along the MRG. The investigation presented herein builds upon previous efforts by combining hydraulic model results, digitized planforms, and stream gage records in various statistical and conceptual models in order to test our understanding of this complex system. Spatially continuous variables were clipped by a set of river cross section data that is collected at decadal intervals since the early 1960s, creating a spatially homogenous database upon which various statistical testing was implemented. Conceptual models relate forcing variables and response variables to estimate river planform changes. The developed database, represents a unique opportunity to quantify and test geomorphic conceptual models in the unique characteristics of the MRG. The results of this investigation provides a spatially distributed characterization of planform variable changes, permitting managers to predict planform at a much higher resolution than previously available, and a better understanding of the relationship between flow regime and planform changes such as changes to longitudinal slope, sinuosity, and width. Lastly, data analysis and model interpretation led to the development of a new conceptual model for the impact of ephemeral tributaries in alluvial rivers.

  17. Applying model analysis to a resource-based analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith


    Full Text Available Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information regarding the results of investigations using these question clusters than normalized gain graphs. We provide examples from two different institutions to show how the use of model analysis with our redefined clusters can provide previously hidden insight into the effectiveness of instruction.

  18. Simulation of shallow groundwater levels: Comparison of a data-driven and a conceptual model (United States)

    Fahle, Marcus; Dietrich, Ottfried; Lischeid, Gunnar


    Despite an abundance of models aimed at simulating shallow groundwater levels, application of such models is often hampered by a lack of appropriate input data. Difficulties especially arise with regard to soil data, which are typically hard to obtain and prone to spatial variability, eventually leading to uncertainties in the model results. Modelling approaches relying entirely on easily measured quantities are therefore an alternative to encourage the applicability of models. We present and compare two models for calculating 1-day-ahead predictions of the groundwater level that are only based on measurements of potential evapotranspiration, precipitation and groundwater levels. The first model is a newly developed conceptual model that is parametrized using the White method (which estimates the actual evapotranspiration on basis of diurnal groundwater fluctuations) and a rainfall-response ratio. Inverted versions of the two latter approaches are then used to calculate the predictions of the groundwater level. Furthermore, as a completely data-driven alternative, a simple feed-forward multilayer perceptron neural network was trained based on the same inputs and outputs. Data of 4 growing periods (April to October) from a study site situated in the Spreewald wetland in North-east Germany were taken to set-up the models and compare their performance. In addition, response surfaces that relate model outputs to combinations of different input variables are used to reveal those aspects in which the two approaches coincide and those in which they differ. Finally, it will be evaluated whether the conceptual approach can be enhanced by extracting knowledge of the neural network. This is done by replacing in the conceptual model the default function that relates groundwater recharge and groundwater level, which is assumed to be linear, by the non-linear function extracted from the neural network.

  19. A conceptual model of psychosocial risk and protective factors for excessive gestational weight gain. (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette


    nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seepage weathering impacts on erosivity of arid stream banks: A new conceptual model (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri


    Field observations have indicated the formation of horizontal, pipe shape cavities, along gully and dry stream channel banks in the semi-arid region of the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Piping is a well-known phenomenon in humid regions due to subsurface water flow and seepage weathering. However, in dry environments where rain events are scarce and subsurface water flow is rare, it is proposed here that capillary flow of saline water in the vadose zone leads to similar processes. It is suggested that where saline and shallow ground water persists, capillary flow may result in salt accumulation and precipitation at the top of the capillary fringe, consequently rendering this zone to be more susceptible to erosion. A conceptual model is presented and field observations, laboratory experiments, and a physically-based model are used to prove the feasibility of the proposed conceptual model and to explain why salts accumulate at the top of the capillary fringe, even though evaporation acts all along the vertical stream channel or gully banks. It is suggested that the low evaporative flux, in comparison to the liquid water flux, disables salt accumulation along the profile to the top of the capillary fringe where the liquid water flux is minimal. The presented findings strengthen the conceptual model, but thorough field studies are needed to estimate the impact of the proposed mechanism on erosion processes on a field scale.

  1. A conceptual model of HIV/AIDS stigma from five African countries. (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Uys, Leana; Makoae, Lucy; Stewart, Anita; Phetlhu, René; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen; Cuca, Yvette; Naidoo, Joanne


    This paper is a report on the development of a conceptual model delineating contexts and processes of HIV/AIDS stigma as reported by persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses from African countries. It is part of a larger study to increase understanding of HIV/AIDS stigma. Researchers have defined stigma, explored determinants and outcomes of stigma and attempted to measure its multiple dimensions. This literature is difficult to synthesize, and often does not distinguish adequately between experiences of stigma and its causes and outcomes. Forty-three focus groups were held with persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in five African countries in 2004. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded. The data were organized into a conceptual model of HIV/AIDS stigma. Two components were identified in the data: contextual factors--environment, healthcare system, agents--that influence and affect stigma and the stigma process itself. The stigma process included four dimensions: triggers of stigma, stigmatizing behaviours, types of stigma and the outcomes of stigma. A conceptual model is presented that delineates the dynamic nature of stigma as reported by study participants. The model may be used to identify areas appropriate for the design and testing of stigma reduction interventions that have a goal of reducing the burden of HIV/AIDS stigma.

  2. A Conceptual Modeling for a GoldSim Program for Safety Assessment of an LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho


    Modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal repository with normal or abnormal nuclide release cases associated with the various FEPs involved in the performance of the proposed repository could be made has been carrying out by utilizing GoldSim under contract with KRMC. The report deals with a detailed conceptual modeling scheme by which a GoldSim program modules, all of which are integrated into a TSPA program as well as the input data set currently available. In-depth system models that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim program are introduced with plenty of illustrative conceptual models and sketches. The GoldSim program that will be finally developed through this project is expected to be successfully applied to the post closure safety assessment required both for the LILW repository and pyro processed repository by the regulatory body with both increased practicality and much reduced uncertainty

  3. Enabling new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care models: A conceptual model for implementation. (United States)

    Cummins, Allison M; Catling, Christine; Homer, Caroline S E


    High-level evidence demonstrates midwifery continuity of care is beneficial for women and babies. Women have limited access to midwifery continuity of care models in Australia. One of the factors limiting women's access is recruiting enough midwives to work in continuity. Our research found that newly graduated midwives felt well prepared to work in midwifery led continuity of care models, were well supported to work in the models and the main driver to employing them was a need to staff the models. However limited opportunities exist for new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care. The aim of this paper therefore is to describe a conceptual model developed to enable new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care models. The findings from a qualitative study were synthesised with the existing literature to develop a conceptual model that enables new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care. The model contains the essential elements to enable new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care models. Each of the essential elements discussed are to assist midwifery managers, educators and new graduates to facilitate the organisational changes required to accommodate new graduates. The conceptual model is useful to show maternity services how to enable new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care models. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation On Ethics In Public Sector Necessity Or Obligation Planning A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghozat


    Full Text Available Abstract These All the objectives are attainable in line with ethics and if a system is not ethical in spite of scientific and modern facilities it cannot achieve its goals so the main duty of managers is to provide ground for morality since trustworthy morality are the fundamental axes in any system this article has tried to consider ethical issues according Islamic and Iranian values how should be the view point toward ethics in any system is it a necessity or obligation In this article we are to provide a conceptual model base on Iranian situation so our article which is a descriptive one uses multi sources of gathering data questionnaire interview to criticize the theoretical views based on western values and to offer a conceptual model.

  5. Interpersonal pattern dynamics and adaptive behavior in multiagent neurobiological systems: conceptual model and data. (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Gouveia, Luis; Serpa, Sidónio; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia


    Ecological dynamics characterizes adaptive behavior as an emergent, self-organizing property of interpersonal interactions in complex social systems. The authors conceptualize and investigate constraints on dynamics of decisions and actions in the multiagent system of team sports. They studied coadaptive interpersonal dynamics in rugby union to model potential control parameter and collective variable relations in attacker-defender dyads. A videogrammetry analysis revealed how some agents generated fluctuations by adapting displacement velocity to create phase transitions and destabilize dyadic subsystems near the try line. Agent interpersonal dynamics exhibited characteristics of chaotic attractors and informational constraints of rugby union boxed dyadic systems into a low dimensional attractor. Data suggests that decisions and actions of agents in sports teams may be characterized as emergent, self-organizing properties, governed by laws of dynamical systems at the ecological scale. Further research needs to generalize this conceptual model of adaptive behavior in performance to other multiagent populations.

  6. Conceptual Model for Mitigating Human – Wildlife Conflict based on System Thinking (United States)

    Patana, Pindi; Mawengkang, Herman; Silvi Lydia, Maya


    In conservation process it is unavoidably that conflict incidents may occur among the people and wild-life in the surrounding of the conservation area. Mitigating conflict between wildlife and people is considered a top conservation priority, particularly in landscapes where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur. This conflict is also happened in Leuser conservation area located in the border of North Sumatra and Aceh province, Indonesia. Easing the conflict problem is very difficult. This paper proposes a conceptual model based on system thinking to explore factors that may have great influence on the conflict and to figure out mitigating the conflict. We show how this conceptual framework can be utilized to analyze the conflict occur and further how it could used to develop a multi- criteria decision model.

  7. Conceptual Model of Weight Management in Overweight and Obese African-American Females. (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M


    Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  9. Development of a conceptual model of the role of hospital nurses in health promotion in Jordan. (United States)

    Shoqirat, N


    International evidence reveals that hospital nurses have not been able to incorporate health promotion effectively into the framework of their care. This can be attributed to unclear conceptualizing of the barriers and facilitators to the role of nurses in health promotion. An integrative review was carried out to develop a conceptual model to assist hospital nurses in Jordan to understand how health promotion activities can be developed. Factors affecting the involvement of nurses in health promotion - ranging from limited knowledge about health promotion to the social image of nursing - can be structured into three levels: the micro (individual), meso (organizational) and macro (population). By understanding the interplay of factors between and within the levels, nurses and other health professionals can draw on the individual, social and organizational factors that influence nurses' role in health promotion. The proposed model can be considered as a springboard for developing health promotion activities related to hospitals in other Muslim-majority contexts.

  10. Conceptual data modeling on the KRR-1 and 2 decommissioning database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seoung; Park, Seung Kook; Lee, Kune Woo; Park, Jin Ho


    A study of the conceptual data modeling to realize the decommissioning database on the KRR-1 and 2 was carried out. In this study, the current state of the abroad decommissioning databased was investigated to make a reference of the database. A scope of the construction of decommissioning database has been set up based on user requirements. Then, a theory of the database construction was established and a scheme on the decommissioning information was classified. The facility information, work information, radioactive waste information, and radiological information dealing with the decommissioning database were extracted through interviews with an expert group and also decided upon the system configuration of the decommissioning database. A code which is composed of 17 bit was produced considering the construction, scheme and information. The results of the conceptual data modeling and the classification scheme will be used as basic data to create a prototype design of the decommissioning database

  11. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France) (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic


    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  12. Getting innovation out of suppliers? A conceptual model for characterizing supplier inputs to new product development


    Lakemond, Nicolette; Rosell, David T.


    There are many studies on supplier collaborations in NPD. However, there is not much written about what suppliers actually contribute to innovation. Based on a literature review focusing on 80 articles we develop a conceptual framework categorizing different supplier inputs to innovation. This model is formulated by characterizing supplier inputs related to the component level and architectural level, and inputs that are incremental or radical in nature. On a component level, supplier inputs ...

  13. A conceptual model for the use of social media in companies


    Nistor, Cristian


    Social media is currently an evolving “wave” in online business marketing. Marketers are beginning to drive the use of social media as a component in their marketing strategy and campaigns to reach out to customers and fans. Within the subdisciplines of marketing that may use social media include promotions, marketing intelligence, sentiments research, public relations, marketing communications and product and customer management. This paper will try to find a conceptual model ...

  14. A Conceptual Model of Knowledge Sharing and Market Orientation in the Tourism Sector


    Chien M. Yeh; Han N. Hu; Shu H. Tsai


    Problem statement: Marketing scholars have emphasized the importance of market orientation. While a number of studies discover the positive influence of market orientation on a variety of organizations phenomena, the understanding of factors that facilitate market orientation is limited. This study develops a conceptual model in which knowledge sharing is proposed to be the antecedent to three perspectives of market orientation-customer orientation, competitor orientation ...

  15. Conceptual framework of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) cost of service (COS) model (United States)

    Zainudin, WNRA; Ishak, WWM; Sulaiman, NA


    One of Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry (MESI) objectives is to ensure Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) economic viability based on a fair economic electricity pricing. In meeting such objective, a framework that investigates the effect of cost of service (COS) on revenue is in great need. This paper attempts to present a conceptual framework that illustrate the distribution of the COS among TNB’s various cost centres which are subsequently redistributed in varying quantities among all of its customer categories. A deep understanding on the concepts will ensure optimal allocation of COS elements between different sub activities of energy production processes can be achieved. However, this optimal allocation needs to be achieved with respect to the imposed TNB revenue constraint. Therefore, the methodology used for this conceptual approach is being modelled into four steps. Firstly, TNB revenue requirement is being examined to ensure the conceptual framework addressed the requirement properly. Secondly, the revenue requirement is unbundled between three major cost centres or business units consist of generation, transmission and distribution and the cost is classified based on demand, energy and customers related charges. Finally, the classified costs are being allocated to different customer categories i.e. Household, Commercial, and Industrial. In summary, this paper proposed a conceptual framework on the cost of specific services that TNB currently charging its customers and served as potential input into the process of developing revised electricity tariff rates. On that purpose, the finding of this COS study finds cost to serve customer varies with the voltage level that customer connected to, the timing and the magnitude of customer demand on the system. This COS conceptual framework could potentially be integrated into a particular tariff structure and serve as a useful tool for TNB.

  16. Conceptual ecological models to support detection of ecological change on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Beever, Erik A.


    More than 31 million hectares of land are protected and managed in 16 refuges by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in Alaska. The vastness and isolation of Alaskan refuges give rise to relatively intact and complete ecosystems. The potential for these lands to provide habitat for trust species is likely to be altered, however, due to global climate change, which is having dramatic effects at high latitudes. The ability of USFWS to effectively manage these lands in the future will be enhanced by a regional inventory and monitoring program that integrates and supplements monitoring currently being implemented by individual refuges. Conceptual models inform monitoring programs in a number of ways, including summarizing important ecosystem components and processes as well as facilitating communication, discussion and debate about the nature of the system and important management issues. This process can lead to hypotheses regarding future changes, likely results of alternative management actions, identification of monitoring indicators, and ultimately, interpretation of monitoring results. As a first step towards developing a monitoring program, the 16 refuges in Alaska each created a conceptual model of their refuge and the landscape context. Models include prominent ecosystem components, drivers, and processes by which components are linked or altered. The Alaska refuge system also recognizes that designing and implementing monitoring at regional and ecoregional extents has numerous scientific, fiscal, logistical, and political advantages over monitoring conducted exclusively at refuge-specific scales. Broad-scale monitoring is particularly advantageous for examining phenomena such as climate change because effects are best interpreted at broader spatial extents. To enable an ecoregional perspective, a rationale was developed for deriving ecoregional boundaries for four ecoregions (Polar, Interior Alaska, Bering Coast, and North Pacific Coast) from the

  17. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution (United States)

    Garner, Joanna Kate

    Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on

  18. An updated conceptual model of Delta Smelt biology: Our evolving understanding of an estuarine fish (United States)

    Baxter, Randy; Brown, Larry R.; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven D.; Dekar, Matthew P.; Dekar, Melissa; Feyrer, Frederick; Hunt, Thaddeus; Jones, Kristopher; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Nobriga, Matthew; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Erickson, Gregg; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce


    The main purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment and conceptual model of factors affecting Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) throughout its primarily annual life cycle and to demonstrate how this conceptual model can be used for scientific and management purposes. The Delta Smelt is a small estuarine fish that only occurs in the San Francisco Estuary. Once abundant, it is now rare and has been protected under the federal and California Endangered Species Acts since 1993. The Delta Smelt listing was related to a step decline in the early 1980s; however, population abundance decreased even further with the onset of the “pelagic organism decline” (POD) around 2002. A substantial, albeit short-lived, increase in abundance of all life stages in 2011 showed that the Delta Smelt population can still rebound when conditions are favorable for spawning, growth, and survival. In this report, we update previous conceptual models for Delta Smelt to reflect new data and information since the release of the last synthesis report about the POD by the Interagency Ecological Program for the San Francisco Estuary (IEP) in 2010. Specific objectives include:

  19. Comparison of a Conceptual Groundwater Model and Physically Based Groundwater Mode (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zammit, C.; Griffiths, J.; Moore, C.; Woods, R. A.


    Groundwater is a vital resource for human activities including agricultural practice and urban water demand. Hydrologic modelling is an important way to study groundwater recharge, movement and discharge, and its response to both human activity and climate change. To understand the groundwater hydrologic processes nationally in New Zealand, we have developed a conceptually based groundwater flow model, which is fully integrated into a national surface-water model (TopNet), and able to simulate groundwater recharge, movement, and interaction with surface water. To demonstrate the capability of this groundwater model (TopNet-GW), we applied the model to an irrigated area with water shortage and pollution problems in the upper Ruamahanga catchment in Great Wellington Region, New Zealand, and compared its performance with a physically-based groundwater model (MODFLOW). The comparison includes river flow at flow gauging sites, and interaction between groundwater and river. Results showed that the TopNet-GW produced similar flow and groundwater interaction patterns as the MODFLOW model, but took less computation time. This shows the conceptually-based groundwater model has the potential to simulate national groundwater process, and could be used as a surrogate for the more physically based model.

  20. Development and testing of a fast conceptual river water quality model. (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick


    Modern, model based river quality management strongly relies on river water quality models to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of pollutant concentrations in the water body. Such models are typically constructed by extending detailed hydrodynamic models with a component describing the advection-diffusion and water quality transformation processes in a detailed, physically based way. This approach is too computational time demanding, especially when simulating long time periods that are needed for statistical analysis of the results or when model sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation require a large number of model runs. To overcome this problem, a structure identification method to set up a conceptual river water quality model has been developed. Instead of calculating the water quality concentrations at each water level and discharge node, the river branch is divided into conceptual reservoirs based on user information such as location of interest and boundary inputs. These reservoirs are modelled as Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) to describe advection and diffusion processes. The same water quality transformation processes as in the detailed models are considered but with adjusted residence times based on the hydrodynamic simulation results and calibrated to the detailed water quality simulation results. The developed approach allows for a much faster calculation time (factor 10 5 ) without significant loss of accuracy, making it feasible to perform time demanding scenario runs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A hybrid conceptual-fuzzy inference streamflow modelling for the Letaba River system in South Africa (United States)

    Katambara, Zacharia; Ndiritu, John G.

    There has been considerable water resources developments in South Africa and other regions in the world in order to meet the ever-increasing water demands. These developments have not been matched with a similar development of hydrological monitoring systems and hence there is inadequate data for managing the developed water resources systems. The Letaba River system ( Fig. 1) is a typical case of such a system in South Africa. The available water on this river is over-allocated and reliable daily streamflow modelling of the Letaba River that adequately incorporates the main components and processes would be an invaluable aid to optimal operation of the system. This study describes the development of a calibrated hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic model and explores its capability in reproducing the natural processes and human effects on the daily stream flow in the Letaba River. The model performance is considered satisfactory in view of the complexity of the system and inadequacy of relevant data. Performance in modelling streamflow improves towards the downstream and matches that of a stand-alone fuzzy-logic model. The hybrid model obtains realistic estimates of the major system components and processes including the capacities of the farm dams and storage weirs and their trajectories. This suggests that for complex data-scarce River systems, hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic modelling may be used for more detailed and dependable operational and planning analysis than stand-alone fuzzy modelling. Further work will include developing and testing other hybrid model configurations.

  2. A conceptual model of psychosomatic illness in children. Family organization and family therapy. (United States)

    Minuchin, S; Baker, L; Rosman, B L; Liebman, R; Milman, L; Todd, T C


    Linear and open systems (multiple feedback) models of psychosomatic illness in children are contrasted in terms of their implications for cause and treatment. An open systems family model is presented that describes three necessary (but not independently sufficient) conditions for the development and maintenance of severe psychosomatic problems in children: (1) a certain type of family organization that encourages somatization; (2) involvement of the child in parental conflict; and (3) physiological vulnerability. Predisposition for psychosomatic illness, symptom choice, and maintenance are discussed within this conceptual framework. We report on family therapy strategies based on this model and the results of family treatment with 48 cases of "brittle" diabetes, psychosomatic asthma, and anorexia nervosa.

  3. Apparel shopping behaviour – Part 1: Towards the development of a conceptual theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Du Preez


    Full Text Available Apparel shopping behaviour in a multicultural society is a complex phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to analyse various theoretical models from two disciplines, namely Consumer Behaviour and Clothing, and to develop a new conceptual theoretical model focussing on variables influencing apparel shopping behaviour in a multicultural consumer society. Variables were presented as market dominated, consumer dominated, and/or market and consumer interaction variables. Retailers, marketers, educators, researchers and students could benefit from the proposed model and recommendations are made in this regard. Part 2 reports on an empirical study based on the proposed conceptual theoretical model and discusses market segments and profiles. Opsomming Klere-aankoopgedrag in ’n multi-kulturele verbruikersamelewing is ’n komplekse fenomeen. Die doelwit van die artikel is om verskeie teoretiese modelle vanuit twee dissiplines, naamlik Verbruikersielkunde en Kleding, te analiseer. ’n Nuwe konseptuele teoretiese model is ontwikkel. Die model fokus op veranderlikes wat klereaankoopgedrag in ’n multi-kulturele verbruikersamelewing beïnvloed. Veranderlikes word gegroepeer op grond van die mate waartoe dit oorheers word deur die mark, verbruiker en/of die interaksie tussen die mark en die verbruiker. Kleinhandelaars, bemarkers, opvoeders, navorsers en studente sou kon voordeel trek uit die voorgestelde model. Aanbevelings word in dié verband gemaak. In Deel 2 word ’n empiriese studie gerapporteer. Dié studie is op hierdie voorgestelde konseptuele teoretiese model gegrond en marksegmente sowel as profiele word bespreek.

  4. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer


    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  5. A conceptual definition of vocational rehabilitation based on the ICF: building a shared global model. (United States)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C H


    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational rehabilitation (VR) based on the ICF. We presented the ICF as a model for application in VR and the rationale for the integration of the ICF. We also briefly reviewed other work disability models. Five essential elements of foci were found towards a conceptual definition of VR: an engagement or re-engagement to work, along a work continuum, involved health conditions or events leading to work disability, patient-centered and evidence-based, and is multi-professional or multidisciplinary. VR refers to a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. We propose that the ICF and VR interface be explored further using empirical and qualitative works and encouraging stakeholders' participation.

  6. A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating. (United States)

    Travis, Susan; Bisogni, Carole; Ranzenhofer, Lisa


    Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the perspectives of mothers and daughters. Ten white, non-Hispanic mothers and their daughters were purposively sampled from high school track and cross country teams in Upstate New York. Informants completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Researchers used the constant comparative method to analyze transcripts for emergent themes and to build a conceptual framework that represented the many factors and processes involved in the construction of family food routines. Families varied in forms and patterns of family eating activities with mothers playing a pivotal role in these routines. Family members' individual needs and values were negotiated in constructing these routines. In this sample the daughters' involvement in sports influenced family eating routines, but mothers' employment, ethnicity, social support, income, and areas of residence also played a role. The model describes how individual participants' food choice processes interact to produce family food routines. The conceptual model can inform research and practice related to the family environments in which adolescents experience food and eating. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intention to Purchase Products under Volume Discount Scheme: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Iranmanesh


    Full Text Available Many standard brands sell products under the volume discount scheme (VDS as more and more consumers are fond of purchasing products under this scheme. Despite volume discount being commonly practiced, there is a dearth of research, both conceptual and empirical, focusing on purchase characteristics factors and consumer internal evaluation concerning the purchase of products under VDS. To attempt to fill this void, this article develops a conceptual model on VDS with the intention of delineating the influence of the purchase characteristics factors on the consumer intention to purchase products under VDS and provides an explanation of their effects through consumer internal evaluation. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research.

  8. COPEWELL: A Conceptual Framework and System Dynamics Model for Predicting Community Functioning and Resilience After Disasters. (United States)

    Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Brian S; Lin, Sen; Kanarek, Norma; Mitrani-Reiser, Judith; Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal R; Ward, Doug; Slemp, Cathy; Burhans, Robert; Gill, Kimberly; Igusa, Tak; Zhao, Xilei; Aguirre, Benigno; Trainor, Joseph; Nigg, Joanne; Inglesby, Thomas; Carbone, Eric; Kendra, James M


    Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster. We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties. The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature. The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:127-137).

  9. Analysis of Economic Burden of Seasonal Influenza: An Actuarial Based Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. N. Perera


    Full Text Available Analysing the economic burden of the seasonal influenza is highly essential due to the large number of outbreaks in recent years. Mathematical and actuarial models can be considered as management tools to understand the dynamical behavior, predict the risk, and compute it. This study is an attempt to develop conceptual model to investigate the economic burden due to seasonal influenza. The compartment SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible model is used to capture the dynamical behavior of influenza. Considering the current investment and future medical care expenditure as premium payment and benefit (claim, respectively, the insurance and actuarial based conceptual model is proposed to model the present economic burden due to the spread of influenza. Simulation is carried out to demonstrate the variation of the present economic burden with respect to model parameters. The sensitivity of the present economic burden is studied with respect to the risk of disease spread. The basic reproduction is used to identify the risk of disease spread. Impact of the seasonality is studied by introducing the seasonally varying infection rate. The proposed model provides theoretical background to investigate the economic burden of seasonal influenza.

  10. Conceptual Models for the Fracture Network in Contaminated Shale Based on Different Lines of Evidence (United States)

    Parker, B. L.; Chapman, S.; Cherry, J. A.


    In investigations of groundwater flow in fractured sedimentary rock, there is typically a large discrepancy between the number of fractures identified by different methods in boreholes. The methods directed at fracture geometry such as inspection of continuous core and borehole imaging (acoustic, optical, electrical televiewing, borehole camera, etc.) commonly identify numerous fractures. In contrast, the methods that infer fractures from measurements in the open borehole water column (borehole flow meters, temperature, electrical conductance, full borehole dilution) show far fewer fractures. These two different categories of data support two very different conceptual models for the fracture networks in which groundwater flow occurs. A study was conducted at a contaminated industrial site in an area of approximately 150m by 100m located on a fractured Ordovician shale in New York State where a fracture network conceptual model was initially developed based primarily on borehole flow metering and related cross-borehole hydraulic tests. In this conceptual model based on eight boreholes having a maximum depth of 50 m, the total number of flow zones identified was 14 over 140 m of open hole and ranged from none to five per hole. PCE DNAPL released decades ago has caused substantial VOC contamination (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, and VC) and this contamination was delineated by means of a large number of contaminant analyses on samples from continuous rock core at an average spacing of 0.3 m. Although groundwater flow occurs almost entirely in the fractures, almost all the contaminant mass resides in the rock matrix (porosity 2-5%) because of long term diffusion-driven mass transfer from fractures to the matrix. The rock core contaminant profiles indicate that advective transport has occurred over decades through numerous fractures in each borehole. Therefore, many of the fractures identified from corelogs and televiewing must have active groundwater flow. This supports a

  11. Structure and use of conceptual models in the Aespoe site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Gunnar


    Early in the Aespoe project a need for structuring and clarification of the models used for different purposes was identified. The problem lied not in the numerical codes or the data base used for the modelling but rather in the process of how the real world was conceptualized into descriptive and predictive models. A proposal on how to structure these conceptual assumptions was made on which a standardised representation of used models was worked out. An essential objective has been to condensate the model descriptions to one page and still present the essential aspects of each model. It is hoped that in this way it is easier to obtain an overview of the assumptions underlying each model and facilitate comparison between different models. The base for the description is the 'intended use of the model'. Based on the intended use the next step is to identify what 'physical' processes should be included in the model. In some cases these processes can be represented by constitutive equations. The next step is to define the 'concepts' needed to solve the problem. The concepts may be separated into four groups. Firstly, the type of 'geometrical framework' and the framework-related parameters have to be defined. Secondly, the type of 'material properties' to be assigned to the domains defined by the geometrical framework must be decided. Thirdly, the 'spatial assignment method' of the material properties within a domain has to be described. Finally, the model normally has a limited extent and the 'boundary conditions' have to be defined to compute or judge the effects within the model. For a real case the data can now be defined for the four groups of concepts by analysing measurements representing the actual case. If needed a 'numerical or mathematical tool' that handles the processes and concepts should the be chosen. 'Output parameters' of interest for model purposes must then be defined

  12. SITE-94. The SKN conceptual model of Aespoe. Based on pre-investigations 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, U.; Torssander, P.


    The present report describes the SKN (National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) conceptual model, which is a combined structural, hydrogeological and geochemical model. The development of the model has been carried out by stages with commencement in 1990. This report summarizes the main parts of the work performed. Initially, the development of the model was part of the program of SKN regarding review of SKB R and D work at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. At a later stage, the SKN model was further developed and integrated into SITE-94. This development comprised evaluation of additional hydrogeological and geochemical data in order to strengthen the model. This report summarizes two earlier reports by SKN written in Swedish. Furthermore, a comprehensive description of the hydrogeological and geochemical evaluation is presented. 58 refs

  13. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.


    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  14. Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at yucca mountain, nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.


    Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500-1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table has evolved during the past 15 yr. Early conceptual models assumed that very small volumes of water infiltrated into the bedrock (0.5-4.5 mm/yr, or 2-3 percent of rainfall), that much of the infiltrated water flowed laterally within the upper nonwelded units because o f capillary barrier effects, and that the remaining water flowed down faults with a small amount flowing through the matrix of the lower welded, fractured rocks. It was believed that the matrix had to be saturated for fractures to show. However, accumulating evidence indicated that infiltration rates were higher than initially estimated, such as infiltration modeling based on neutron borehole data, bomb-pulse isotopes deep in the mountain, perched water analyses and thermal analyses. Mechanisms supporting lateral diversion did not apply at these higher fluxes, and the flux calculated in the lower welded unit exceeded the conductivity of the matrix, implying vertical flow of water into the high permeability fractures of the potential repository host rock, and disequilibrium between matrix and fracture water potentials. The development of numerical modeling methods and parameter values evolved concurrently with the conceptual model in order to account for the observed field data

  15. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.


    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  16. Enhancing climate literacy through the use of an interdisciplinary global change framework and conceptual models (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Zoehfeld, K.; Mitchell, K.; Levine, J.; White, L. D.


    Understanding climate change and how to mitigate the causes and consequences of anthropogenic activities are essential components of the Next Generations Science Standards. To comprehend climate change today and why current rates and magnitudes of change are of concern, students must understand the various factors that drive Earth system processes and also how they interrelate. The Understanding Global Change web resource in development from the UC Museum of Paleontology will provide science educators with a conceptual framework, graphical models, lessons, and assessment templates for teaching NGSS aligned, interdisciplinary, climate change curricula. To facilitate students learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system of ongoing processes, the Understanding Global Change site will provide explicit conceptual links for the causes of climate change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation), Earth system processes (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and the changes scientists measure in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation). The conceptual links among topics will be presented in a series of storyboards that visually represent relationships and feedbacks among components of the Earth system and will provide teachers with guides for implementing NGSS-aligned climate change instruction that addresses physical science, life sciences, Earth and space science, and engineering performance expectations. These visualization and instructional methods are used by teachers during professional development programs at UC Berkeley and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and are being tested in San Francisco Bay Area classrooms.

  17. Conceptual model to assess water use associated with the life cycle of unconventional oil and gas development (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; McShane, Ryan R.; Barnhart, Theodore B.; Sando, Roy; Carter, Janet M.; Lundgren, Robert F.


    As the demand for energy increases in the United States, so does the demand for water used to produce many forms of that energy. Technological advances, limited access to conventional oil and gas accumulations, and the rise of oil and gas prices resulted in increased development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) accumulations. Unconventional oil and gas is developed using a method that combines directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, allowing for greater oil and gas production from previously unrecoverable reservoirs. Quantification of the water resources required for UOG development and production is difficult because of disparate data sources, variable reporting requirements across boundaries (local, State, and national), and incomplete or proprietary datasets.A topical study was started in 2015 under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Water Availability and Use Science Program, as part of the directive in the Secure Water Act for the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a National Water Census, to better understand the relation between production of UOG resources for energy and the amount of water needed to produce and sustain this type of energy development in the United States. The Water Availability and Use Science Program goal for this topical study is to develop and apply a statistical model to better estimate the water use associated with UOG development, regardless of the location and target geologic formation. As a first step, a conceptual model has been developed to characterize the life cycle of water use in areas of UOG development.Categories of water use and the way water-use data are collected might change over time; therefore, a generic approach was used in developing the conceptual model to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to future changes or newly available data. UOG development can be summarized into four stages: predrilling construction, drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and ongoing production. The water used in UOG

  18. Bayesian Assessment of the Uncertainties of Estimates of a Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model Parameters (United States)

    Silva, F. E. O. E.; Naghettini, M. D. C.; Fernandes, W.


    This paper evaluated the uncertainties associated with the estimation of the parameters of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, through the use of Bayesian inference techniques by Monte Carlo simulation. The Pará River sub-basin, located in the upper São Francisco river basin, in southeastern Brazil, was selected for developing the studies. In this paper, we used the Rio Grande conceptual hydrologic model (EHR/UFMG, 2001) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation method named DREAM (VRUGT, 2008a). Two probabilistic models for the residues were analyzed: (i) the classic [Normal likelihood - r ≈ N (0, σ²)]; and (ii) a generalized likelihood (SCHOUPS & VRUGT, 2010), in which it is assumed that the differences between observed and simulated flows are correlated, non-stationary, and distributed as a Skew Exponential Power density. The assumptions made for both models were checked to ensure that the estimation of uncertainties in the parameters was not biased. The results showed that the Bayesian approach proved to be adequate to the proposed objectives, enabling and reinforcing the importance of assessing the uncertainties associated with hydrological modeling.

  19. A hydrogeophysical conceptual model of Mount Toondina impact crater, South Australia (United States)

    Dressler, Andrew Kelly

    Mount Toondina, South Australia is an impact crater that currently has groundwater discharging through evapotranspiration, but formerly had eight springs or more flowing around the crater ring. Using field geophysical and geochemical data, a hydrogeophysical conceptual model was developed that suggests that advection of groundwater to the surface through a sandstone layer is the dominant flow mechanism for the system, creating a ring of vegetation at the surface, although faults provide controls over some spring locations. The data also suggest that sufficient fluid density contrast combined with a vertical permeability structure may allow free convection to occur in the impact crater. The conceptual model was tested by developing numerical models to evaluate the permeability structure and the potential for mixed convection in the Mount Toondina system. The FEFLOW models suggest that the Mount Toondina impact crater spring system is controlled by mixed convective flow from the subsurface to the ring of vegetation around the springs which maintains brackish conditions relative to adjacent saline conditions. The models indicated that convective processes result throughout the crater although the character of convection is controlled by the relative permeability of the formations. The results can be applied to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and help to interpret potential for groundwater flow in and around other impact craters.

  20. A Conceptual Model of Professional Socialization within Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J Perez


    Full Text Available Prior research exploring professional socialization in student affairs has been grounded in models that do not fully capture the distinct features of the field. Moreover, these studies have primarily focused on the transition into full-time work positions, and they have captured what happens to new professionals rather than how individuals understand their socialization experiences. With these gaps in mind, this conceptual paper presents a new model of professional socialization in student affairs graduate preparation programs that draws upon literature in the helping professions (i.e., nursing, social work, research on doctoral students and pre-tenure faculty, and the theoretical frameworks of sensemaking and self-authorship to highlight the dynamic relationship between individuals and organizations during the socialization process. Specifically, this model attempts to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms that undergird how individuals interpret their professional socialization. In doing so, the model proposes different ways individuals may make sense of their student affairs graduate training experiences based on (a whether or not they encounter discrepancies and (b their developmental capacity for self-authorship. The conceptual model presented here has implications for shaping graduate level coursework and fieldwork within student affairs preparation programs.

  1. Reducing structural uncertainty in conceptual hydrological modeling in the semi-arid Andes (United States)

    Hublart, P.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.


    The use of lumped, conceptual models in hydrological impact studies requires placing more emphasis on the uncertainty arising from deficiencies and/or ambiguities in the model structure. This study provides an opportunity to combine a multiple-hypothesis framework with a multi-criteria assessment scheme to reduce structural uncertainty in the conceptual modeling of a meso-scale Andean catchment (1515 km2) over a 30 year period (1982-2011). The modeling process was decomposed into six model-building decisions related to the following aspects of the system behavior: snow accumulation and melt, runoff generation, redistribution and delay of water fluxes, and natural storage effects. Each of these decisions was provided with a set of alternative modeling options, resulting in a total of 72 competing model structures. These structures were calibrated using the concept of Pareto optimality with three criteria pertaining to streamflow simulations and one to the seasonal dynamics of snow processes. The results were analyzed in the four-dimensional space of performance measures using a fuzzy c-means clustering technique and a differential split sample test, leading to identify 14 equally acceptable model hypotheses. A filtering approach was then applied to these best-performing structures in order to minimize the overall uncertainty envelope while maximizing the number of enclosed observations. This led to retain 8 model hypotheses as a representation of the minimum structural uncertainty that could be obtained with this modeling framework. Future work to better consider model predictive uncertainty should include a proper assessment of parameter equifinality and data errors, as well as the testing of new or refined hypotheses to allow for the use of additional auxiliary observations.

  2. Reducing structural uncertainty in conceptual hydrological modelling in the semi-arid Andes (United States)

    Hublart, P.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.


    The use of lumped, conceptual models in hydrological impact studies requires placing more emphasis on the uncertainty arising from deficiencies and/or ambiguities in the model structure. This study provides an opportunity to combine a multiple-hypothesis framework with a multi-criteria assessment scheme to reduce structural uncertainty in the conceptual modelling of a mesoscale Andean catchment (1515 km2) over a 30-year period (1982-2011). The modelling process was decomposed into six model-building decisions related to the following aspects of the system behaviour: snow accumulation and melt, runoff generation, redistribution and delay of water fluxes, and natural storage effects. Each of these decisions was provided with a set of alternative modelling options, resulting in a total of 72 competing model structures. These structures were calibrated using the concept of Pareto optimality with three criteria pertaining to streamflow simulations and one to the seasonal dynamics of snow processes. The results were analyzed in the four-dimensional (4-D) space of performance measures using a fuzzy c-means clustering technique and a differential split sample test, leading to identify 14 equally acceptable model hypotheses. A filtering approach was then applied to these best-performing structures in order to minimize the overall uncertainty envelope while maximizing the number of enclosed observations. This led to retain eight model hypotheses as a representation of the minimum structural uncertainty that could be obtained with this modelling framework. Future work to better consider model predictive uncertainty should include a proper assessment of parameter equifinality and data errors, as well as the testing of new or refined hypotheses to allow for the use of additional auxiliary observations.

  3. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  4. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model. (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O


    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  5. Combining prior knowledge with data-driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, P.F.; van Lith, Pascal F.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.


    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  6. Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory. (United States)

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan


    In an effort to stimulate and guide empirical work within a functional framework, this paper provides a conceptual model of the social functions of autobiographical memory (AM) across the lifespan. The model delineates the processes and variables involved when AMs are shared to serve social functions. Components of the model include: lifespan contextual influences, the qualitative characteristics of memory (emotionality and level of detail recalled), the speaker's characteristics (age, gender, and personality), the familiarity and similarity of the listener to the speaker, the level of responsiveness during the memory-sharing process, and the nature of the social relationship in which the memory sharing occurs (valence and length of the relationship). These components are shown to influence the type of social function served and/or, the extent to which social functions are served. Directions for future empirical work to substantiate the model and hypotheses derived from the model are provided.

  7. Parameter dimensionality reduction of a conceptual model for streamflow prediction in Canadian, snowmelt dominated ungauged basins (United States)

    Arsenault, Richard; Poissant, Dominique; Brissette, François


    This paper evaluated the effects of parametric reduction of a hydrological model on five regionalization methods and 267 catchments in the province of Quebec, Canada. The Sobol' variance-based sensitivity analysis was used to rank the model parameters by their influence on the model results and sequential parameter fixing was performed. The reduction in parameter correlations improved parameter identifiability, however this improvement was found to be minimal and was not transposed in the regionalization mode. It was shown that 11 of the HSAMI models' 23 parameters could be fixed with little or no loss in regionalization skill. The main conclusions were that (1) the conceptual lumped models used in this study did not represent physical processes sufficiently well to warrant parameter reduction for physics-based regionalization methods for the Canadian basins examined and (2) catchment descriptors did not adequately represent the relevant hydrological processes, namely snow accumulation and melt.

  8. Integrated approach to model decomposed flow hydrograph using artificial neural network and conceptual techniques (United States)

    Jain, Ashu; Srinivasulu, Sanaga


    This paper presents the findings of a study aimed at decomposing a flow hydrograph into different segments based on physical concepts in a catchment, and modelling different segments using different technique viz. conceptual and artificial neural networks (ANNs). An integrated modelling framework is proposed capable of modelling infiltration, base flow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and certain segments of the decomposed flow hydrograph using conceptual techniques and the complex, non-linear, and dynamic rainfall-runoff process using ANN technique. Specifically, five different multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and two self-organizing map (SOM) models have been developed. The rainfall and streamflow data derived from the Kentucky River catchment were employed to test the proposed methodology and develop all the models. The performance of all the models was evaluated using seven different standard statistical measures. The results obtained in this study indicate that (a) the rainfall-runoff relationship in a large catchment consists of at least three or four different mappings corresponding to different dynamics of the underlying physical processes, (b) an integrated approach that models the different segments of the decomposed flow hydrograph using different techniques is better than a single ANN in modelling the complex, dynamic, non-linear, and fragmented rainfall runoff process, (c) a simple model based on the concept of flow recession is better than an ANN to model the falling limb of a flow hydrograph, and (d) decomposing a flow hydrograph into the different segments corresponding to the different dynamics based on the physical concepts is better than using the soft decomposition employed using SOM.

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Predicting the Toxicity of Reactive Chemicals: Modeling Soft Electrophilicity (United States)

    Although the literature is replete with QSAR models developed for many toxic effects caused by reversible chemical interactions, the development of QSARs for the toxic effects of reactive chemicals lacks a consistent approach. While limitations exit, an appropriate starting-point...

  10. Description and evaluation of a mechanistically based conceptual model for spall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Thompson, T.W. [and others


    A mechanistically based model for a possible spall event at the WIPP site is developed and evaluated in this report. Release of waste material to the surface during an inadvertent borehole intrusion is possible if future states of the repository include high gas pressure and waste material consisting of fine particulates having low mechanical strength. The conceptual model incorporates the physics of wellbore hydraulics coupled to transient gas flow to the intrusion borehole, and mechanical response of the waste. Degraded waste properties using of the model. The evaluations include both numerical and analytical implementations of the conceptual model. A tensile failure criterion is assumed appropriate for calculation of volumes of waste experiencing fragmentation. Calculations show that for repository gas pressures less than 12 MPa, no tensile failure occurs. Minimal volumes of material experience failure below gas pressure of 14 MPa. Repository conditions dictate that the probability of gas pressures exceeding 14 MPa is approximately 1%. For these conditions, a maximum failed volume of 0.25 m{sup 3} is calculated.

  11. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; Panouillot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Juuti, Mikko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar


    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batchwise wet granulation processes. The twin-screw granulator (TSG) screws consist of transport and kneading element modules. Therefore, the granulation to a large extent is governed by the residence time distribution within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate on residence time. The study established that the kneading block in the screw configuration acts as a plug-flow zone inside the granulator. Furthermore, it was found that a balance between the throughput force and conveying rate is required to obtain a good axial mixing inside the twin-screw granulator. Although the granulation behaviour is different for other excipients, the experimental data collection and modelling methods applied in this study are generic and can be adapted to other excipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding How Domestic Violence Support Services Promote Survivor Well-being: A Conceptual Model. (United States)

    Sullivan, Cris M


    Domestic violence (DV) victim service programs have been increasingly expected by legislators and funders to demonstrate that they are making a significant difference in the lives of those using their services. Alongside this expectation, they are being asked to describe the Theory of Change guiding how they believe their practices lead to positive results for survivors and their children. Having a widely accepted conceptual model is not just potentially useful to funders and policy makers as they help shape policy and practice -- it can also help programs continually reflect upon and improve their work. This paper describes the iterative and collaborative process undertaken to generate a conceptual model describing how DV victim services are expected to improve survivors' lives. The Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework guiding the model is an ideal structure to use to describe the goals and practices of DV programs because this framework: (1) accurately represents DV programs' goal of helping survivors and their children thrive; and (2) recognizes the importance of community, social, and societal context in influencing individuals' social and emotional well-being. The model was designed to guide practice and to generate new questions for research and evaluation that address individual, community, and systems factors that promote or hinder survivor safety and well-being.

  13. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.


    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  14. Conceptual model for transport processes in the Culebra Dolomite Member, Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M. [Holt Hydrogeology, Placitas, NM (United States)


    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation represents a possible pathway for contaminants from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground repository to the accessible environment. The geologic character of the Culebra is consistent with a double-porosity, multiple-rate model for transport in which the medium is conceptualized as consisting of advective porosity, where solutes are carried by the groundwater flow, and fracture-bounded zones of diffusive porosity, where solutes move through slow advection or diffusion. As the advective travel length or travel time increases, the nature of transport within a double-porosity medium changes. This behavior is important for chemical sorption, because the specific surface area per unit mass of the diffusive porosity is much greater than in the advective porosity. Culebra transport experiments conducted at two different length scales show behavior consistent with a multiple-rate, double-porosity conceptual model for Culebra transport. Tracer tests conducted on intact core samples from the Culebra show no evidence of significant diffusion, suggesting that at the core scale the Culebra can be modeled as a single-porosity medium where only the advective porosity participates in transport. Field tracer tests conducted in the Culebra show strong double-porosity behavior that is best explained using a multiple-rate model.

  15. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model. (United States)

    Morgan, R M


    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 1): Conceptual model development (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Ford, W.; Taylor, C.


    Recent research has paid increased attention to quantifying the fate of carbon pools within fluvial networks, but few, if any, studies consider the fate of sediment organic carbon in fluviokarst systems despite that karst landscapes cover 12% of the earth's land surface. The authors develop a conceptual model of sediment carbon fate in karst terrain with specific emphasis upon phreatic karst conduits, i.e., those located below the groundwater table that have the potential to trap surface-derived sediment and turnover carbon. To assist with their conceptual model development, the authors study a phreatic system and apply a mixture of methods traditional and novel to karst studies, including electrical resistivity imaging, well drilling, instantaneous velocimetry, dye tracing, stage recording, discrete and continuous sediment and water quality sampling, and elemental and stable carbon isotope fingerprinting. Results show that the sediment transport carrying capacity of the phreatic karst water is orders of magnitude less than surface streams during storm-activated periods promoting deposition of fine sediments in the phreatic karst. However, the sediment transport carrying capacity is sustained long after the hydrologic event has ended leading to sediment resuspension and prolonged transport. The surficial fine grained laminae occurs in the subsurface karst system; but unlike surface streams, the light-limited conditions of the subsurface karst promotes constant heterotrophy leading to carbon turnover. The coupling of the hydrological processes leads to a conceptual model that frames phreatic karst as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that recharges degraded organic carbon back to surface streams. For example, fluvial sediment is estimated to lose 30% of its organic carbon by mass during a one year temporary residence within the phreatic karst. It is recommended that scientists consider karst pathways when attempting to estimate organic matter stocks

  17. A conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform (United States)

    Fu, Hongjiao; Zhao, Yue

    In recent years, cell phones have played an increasingly important role in rapidly-developing global telecommunication services. At present, mobile business develops very fast. However, the development in other mobile service fields, such as public service, mobile medical service, etc, is still in its infant stage. Drawing on the experience of the 'doctor workstation project' which is cooperated by Renmin University of China and Norway Fredskorps Corporation, this paper discusses the research and implementation of the Doctor Workstation System based on cell phone mobile platform. From the practice of the Doctor Workstation System, the paper advances a conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kіlchenko


    Full Text Available This paper are presented the principles of construction of conceptual model of the information system «Scientific researches» for automation of management of scientific researches in NAPS of Ukraine. Research results are described in relation to forming of the fields and automation of treatment of documents in the integrated environment of MS Sharepoint, which was conducted within the limits of implementation of R&D «Scientifically methodical providing of the information system of planning of scientific researches in Academy of pedagogical sciences of Ukraine on the base of network the Internet»

  19. A conceptual model to estimate cost effectiveness of the indoor environment improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.


    Macroeconomic analyses indicate a high cost to society of a deteriorated indoor climate. The few example calculations performed to date indicate that measures taken to improve IEQ are highly cost-effective when health and productivity benefits are considered. We believe that cost-benefit analyses of building designs and operations should routinely incorporate health and productivity impacts. As an initial step, we developed a conceptual model that shows the links between improvements in IEQ and the financial gains from reductions in medical care and sick leave, improved work performance, lower employee turn over, and reduced maintenance due to fewer complaints.

  20. Variables influencing the use of derivatives in South Africa – the development of a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwegler


    Full Text Available This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, sets out the development of a conceptual model on the variables influencing investors’ decisions to use derivatives in their portfolios. Investor-specific variables include: the investor’s needs, goals and return expectations, the investor’s knowledge of financial markets, familiarity with different asset classes including derivative instruments, and the investor’s level of wealth and level of risk tolerance. Market-specific variables include: the level of volatility, standardisation, regulation and liquidity in a market, the level of information available on derivatives, the transparency of price determination, taxes, brokerage costs and product availability.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.S; Shon, J.S; Kim, K.J; Park, J.H; Hong, K.P; Park, S.H


    A study of a database system that can manage radioactive waste collectively on a network has been carried out. A conceptual data modeling that is based on the theory of information engineering (IE), which is the first step of the whole database development, has been studied to manage effectively information and data related to radioactive waste. In order to establish the scope of the database, user requirements and system configuration for radioactive waste management were analyzed. The major information extracted from user requirements are solid waste, liquid waste, gaseous waste, and waste related to spent fuel. The radioactive waste management system is planning to share information with associated companies

  2. Company Strategies for Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibo van de Poel


    Full Text Available Responsible research and innovation (RRI has become an important topic in the academic community and in policy circles, but it has not yet been systematically included in the innovation process of companies. We discuss how companies can integrate RRI into their corporate social responsibility (CSR policies and business strategy. To this end, we developed a conceptual model that links a company’s RRI strategy to its context, and that helps to translate the RRI strategy into activities that result in RRI outcomes. We also propose a process for developing company-specific RRI key performance indicators (KPIs that can support companies to measure RRI outcomes.

  3. a Conceptual Model for the Representation of Landforms Using Ontology Design Patterns (United States)

    Guilbert, Eric; Moulin, Bernard; Cortés Murcia, Andrés


    A landform is an area of a terrain with its own recognisable shape. Its definition is often qualitative and inherently vague. Hence landforms are difficult to formalise in view of their extraction from a DTM. This paper presents a two-level framework for the representation of landforms. The objective is to provide a structure where landforms can be conceptually designed according to a common model which can be implemented. It follows the principle that landforms are not defined by geometrical characteristics but by salient features perceived by people. Hence, these salient features define a skeleton around which the landform is built. The first level of our model defines general concepts forming a landform prototype while the second level provides a model for the translation of these concepts and landform extraction on a DTM. The model is still under construction and preliminary results together with current developments are also presented.

  4. Widespread confusion in the modeling of Europa's magnetospheric interaction: what the potential modeler should consider before getting started (United States)

    Cassidy, T. A.


    Understanding Europa's interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere is a critical part of the ocean sounding objective of the upcoming Clipper mission and interpretation of these observations will require modeling efforts that build upon studies done over the last four decades. Unfortunately, these studies are often confusing and contradictory. There is, as yet, no community consensus on the assumptions and parameters that go into such models. There is enough uncertainty in this problem that I cannot tell anyone, with certainty, what they should and should not do, but in this presentation I will outline what modelers should at least consider before starting. The most important consideration that is often missing in the literature is plasma flow diversion. Many papers assume that Europa's interaction is lunar-like; a completely absorbing barrier. Data and plasma models show that there is likely significant diversion, and such diversion could prevent the bulk of magnetospheric plasa particles from reaching the surface. On the other hand, some models likely overestimate the amount of diversion: we do know that a significant amount of plasma must reach the surface in order to produce the atmosphere via sputtering and radiolysis, but most plasma models usually treat the atmosphere as a fixed boundary condition. A second consideration is energy range of particles responsible for radiolysis and sputtering. The particles bombarding the surface range from thermal plasma (eV-keV) to non-thermal (keV-MeV), but to many modelers, it seems, these are indistinguishable despite drastic differences in how these populations interact with the moon. To illustrate this confusion, the attached figure shows the O2 source rate (O2 is likely the dominant atmospheric component) from published Europa atmosphere/plasma models. There is little agreement on either the source rate or the particle population responsible for its production. Finally, I will discuss how experiences with other planetary

  5. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine. (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John


    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy. (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John


    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  7. Defining pharmacy and its practice: a conceptual model for an international audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scahill SL


    Full Text Available SL Scahill,1 M Atif,2 ZU Babar3,4 1School of Management, Massey Business School, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Pharmacy School, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, England, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: There is much fragmentation and little consensus in the use of descriptors for the different disciplines that make up the pharmacy sector. Globalization, reprofessionalization and the influx of other disciplines means there is a requirement for a greater degree of standardization. This has not been well addressed in the pharmacy practice research and education literature. Objectives: To identify and define the various subdisciplines of the pharmacy sector and integrate them into an internationally relevant conceptual model based on narrative synthesis of the literature. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to understand the fragmentation in dialogue surrounding definitions relating to concepts and practices in the context of the pharmacy sector. From a synthesis of this literature, the need for this model was justified. Key assumptions of the model were identified, and an organic process of development took place with the three authors engaging in a process of sense-making to theorize the model. Results: The model is “fit for purpose” across multiple countries and includes two components making up the umbrella term “pharmaceutical practice”. The first component is the four conceptual dimensions, which outline the disciplines including social and administrative sciences, community pharmacy, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. The second component of the model describes the “acts of practice”: teaching, research and professional advocacy; service and academic enterprise. Conclusions: This model aims to expose issues


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazoc Alina


    Full Text Available Information search is an essential part of the consumer`s decision making process. The online medium offers new opportunities and challenges for information search activities (in and outside the marketing context. We are interested in the way human information experiences and behaviors are affected by this. Very often online games and social web activities are perceived as challenging, engaging and enjoyable, while online information search is far below this evaluation. Our research proposal implies that using the online medium for information search may provoke enjoyable experiences through the flow state, which may in turn positively influence an individual`s exploratory information behavior and encourage his/her pro-active market behavior. The present study sets out to improve the understanding of the online medium`s impact on human`s exploratory behavior. We hypothesize that the inclusion of the online flow experience in our research model will better explain exploratory information search behaviors. A 11-component conceptual framework is proposed to explain the manifestations of flow, its personal and technological determinants and its behavioral consequence in the context of online information search. Our research has the primary purpose to present an integrated online flow model. Its secondary objective is to stimulate extended research in the area of informational behaviors in the digital age. The paper is organized in three sections. In the first section we briefly report the analysis results of the most relevant online flow theory literature and, drawing on it, we are trying to identify variables and relationships among these. In the second part we propose a research model and use prior flow models to specify a range of testable hypothesis. Drawing on the conceptual model developed, the last section of our study presents the final conclusions and proposes further steps in evaluating the model`s validity. Future research directions

  9. Evaluating the robustness of conceptual rainfall-runoff models under climate variability in northern Tunisia (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, H.; Ruelland, D.; Tramblay, Y.; Bargaoui, Z.


    To evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources at the catchment scale, not only future projections of climate are necessary but also robust rainfall-runoff models that must be fairly reliable under changing climate conditions. The aim of this study was thus to assess the robustness of three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (GR4j, HBV and IHACRES) on five basins in northern Tunisia under long-term climate variability, in the light of available future climate scenarios for this region. The robustness of the models was evaluated using a differential split sample test based on a climate classification of the observation period that simultaneously accounted for precipitation and temperature conditions. The study catchments include the main hydrographical basins in northern Tunisia, which produce most of the surface water resources in the country. A 30-year period (1970-2000) was used to capture a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. The calibration was based on the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) criterion, while model transferability was evaluated based on the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criterion and volume error. The three hydrological models were shown to behave similarly under climate variability. The models simulated the runoff pattern better when transferred to wetter and colder conditions than to drier and warmer ones. It was shown that their robustness became unacceptable when climate conditions involved a decrease of more than 25% in annual precipitation and an increase of more than +1.75 °C in annual mean temperatures. The reduction in model robustness may be partly due to the climate dependence of some parameters. When compared to precipitation and temperature projections in the region, the limits of transferability obtained in this study are generally respected for short and middle term. For long term projections under the most pessimistic emission gas scenarios, the limits of transferability are generally not respected, which may hamper the

  10. Conceptual-level workflow modeling of scientific experiments using NMR as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryk Michael R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific workflows improve the process of scientific experiments by making computations explicit, underscoring data flow, and emphasizing the participation of humans in the process when intuition and human reasoning are required. Workflows for experiments also highlight transitions among experimental phases, allowing intermediate results to be verified and supporting the proper handling of semantic mismatches and different file formats among the various tools used in the scientific process. Thus, scientific workflows are important for the modeling and subsequent capture of bioinformatics-related data. While much research has been conducted on the implementation of scientific workflows, the initial process of actually designing and generating the workflow at the conceptual level has received little consideration. Results We propose a structured process to capture scientific workflows at the conceptual level that allows workflows to be documented efficiently, results in concise models of the workflow and more-correct workflow implementations, and provides insight into the scientific process itself. The approach uses three modeling techniques to model the structural, data flow, and control flow aspects of the workflow. The domain of biomolecular structure determination using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the process. Specifically, we show the application of the approach to capture the workflow for the process of conducting biomolecular analysis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Conclusion Using the approach, we were able to accurately document, in a short amount of time, numerous steps in the process of conducting an experiment using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting models are correct and precise, as outside validation of the models identified only minor omissions in the models. In addition, the models provide an accurate visual description of the control flow for conducting

  11. Conceptual Model for Simulating the Adjustments of Bankfull Characteristics in the Lower Yellow River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjian Wang


    Full Text Available We present a conceptual model for simulating the temporal adjustments in the banks of the Lower Yellow River (LYR. Basic conservation equations for mass, friction, and sediment transport capacity and the Exner equation were adopted to simulate the hydrodynamics underlying fluvial processes. The relationship between changing rates in bankfull width and depth, derived from quasiuniversal hydraulic geometries, was used as a closure for the hydrodynamic equations. On inputting the daily flow discharge and sediment load, the conceptual model successfully simulated the 30-year adjustments in the bankfull geometries of typical reaches of the LYR. The square of the correlating coefficient reached 0.74 for Huayuankou Station in the multiple-thread reach and exceeded 0.90 for Lijin Station in the meandering reach. This proposed model allows multiple dependent variables and the input of daily hydrological data for long-term simulations. This links the hydrodynamic and geomorphic processes in a fluvial river and has potential applicability to fluvial rivers undergoing significant adjustments.

  12. Managing postgraduate research service quality: Developing and assessing a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ramroop


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the conceptual development and empirical evaluation of a postgraduate (PG research service quality management model, through conducting an electronic survey among a cohort of master’s and doctorate graduates at one of the top three research universities in South Africa, using specifically developed and validated research instruments.By fitting the data from a sample of 117 graduates to a conceptual model using structural equation modelling, it became evident that the PG research students’ perception of the Organisational Climate for Research (OCR is associated with their perception of the PG Research Service Quality (PGSQUAL, the PG Service Experience (SERVEXP and their perception of their Role (RC. However, no association was found between the students’ perception of the research climate (OCR and their satisfaction (SERVSAT with the research service; the service experience (SERVEXP and postgraduate research service quality (PGSQUAL; service satisfaction (SERVSAT and postgraduate service quality (PGSQUAL.  The aforementioned findings imply that higher education institutions need to create a research climate which is supportive of service quality, and better manage the research climate, so that the PG students are clear about their role, which will eventually translate to a better PG service experience and improved perception of PG service quality.

  13. A Conceptual Neurocognitive Affect-Related Model for the Promotion of Exercise Among Obese Adults. (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Addoh, Ovuokerie; Herod, Skyla M; Rhodes, Ryan E; Loprinzi, Paul D


    Obesity remains a prominent societal threat and burden despite well-promoted prevention and treatment strategies, such as regular engagement in physical activity. Obese individuals, in particular, may be prone to inactivity as a result of a variety of displeasure-related parameters resulting from exercise, such as dyspnea, for instance. This brief conceptual review discusses the integral roles of exercise-induced affective responses within a novel conceptual-based neurocognitive affect-related model. Specifically, this model includes three pathways: (1) pathway A proposes that neurocognition, and especially, executive function-based cognition, may play an influential role in fostering exercise-induced affective responses, (2) pathway B connects an individual's affective response from exercise to their future exercise behavior, and (3) pathway C suggests a cyclical, bi-directional relationship with executive function indirectly influencing future exercise behavior via affective responses to exercise, and exercise itself playing an important role in executive functioning. Future studies should empirically test this model, which may have utility for promoting exercise among the obese population.

  14. Impact of Tourist Perceptions, Destination Image and Tourist Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajesh


    Full Text Available The objective this research paper is develops a destination loyalty theoretical model by using tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction. These study analysis components, attributes, factor influencing the destination image and examine the tourist satisfaction and determinants of destination loyalty. This is a conceptual paper attempts at evaluating recent empirical on destination image, tourist satisfaction and loyalty. The conceptual framework model is developed on the basis of existing theoretical and empirical research in the field of destination marketing. The models include four constructs. Tourist Perception constructs has been influenced by factors like Historical and Cultural Attractions, Destination Affordability, Travel Environment, Natural Attractions, Entertainments and Infrastructure. Destination image construct has been influenced by factors like Infrastructure & Facilities, Heritage Attractions, Natural Made Attractions, Destination Safety & Cleanness, Friendly Local Community & Clam Atmosphere, Rejuvenation and Service Price and Affordability. The satisfaction construct has been influenced by factors like Entertainments, Destination Attractions and Atmosphere, Accommodation, Food, Transportation Services and Shopping. The destination loyalty construct has influenced by intentions to revisit, word of mouth promotion and recommending to others . The earlier study result reveals that tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction directly influence destination loyalty. The outcomes of the study have significant managerial implications for destination marketing managers.

  15. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...... for conceptual design in architecture....

  16. Cost Offset Associated With Early Start Denver Model for Children With Autism. (United States)

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally; Mandell, David


    To determine the effect of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for treatment of young children with autism on health care service use and costs. We used data from a randomized trial that tested the efficacy of the ESDM, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents, for 2 years. Parents were interviewed about their children's service use every 6 months from the onset of the intervention to follow-up (age 6 years). The sample for this study consisted of 39 children with autism who participated in the original randomized trial at age 18 to 30 months, and were also assessed at age 6 years. Of this sample, 21 children were in the ESDM group, and 18 children were in the community care (COM) group. Reported services were categorized and costed by applying unit hourly costs. Annualized service use and costs during the intervention and post intervention for the two study arms were compared. During the intervention, children who received the ESDM had average annualized total health-related costs that were higher by about $14,000 than those of children who received community-based treatment. The higher cost of ESDM was partially offset during the intervention period because children in the ESDM group used less applied behavior analysis (ABA)/early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) and speech therapy services than children in the comparison group. In the postintervention period, compared with children who had earlier received treatment as usual in community settings, children in the ESDM group used less ABA/EIBI, occupational/physical therapy, and speech therapy services, resulting in significant cost savings in the amount of about $19,000 per year per child. Costs associated with ESDM treatment were fully offset within a few years after the intervention because of reductions in other service use and associated costs. Early Characteristics of Autism;; NCT0009415

  17. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha


    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  18. Getting started with the model for improvement: psychology and leadership in quality improvement. (United States)

    Pratap, J Nick; Varughese, Anna M; Adler, Elena; Kurth, C Dean


    Although the case for quality in hospitals is compelling, doctors are often uncertain how to achieve it. This article forms the third and final part of a series providing practical guidance on getting started with a first quality improvement project. Introduction.

  19. A barrier for low frequency noise from starting aircraft: comparison between numerical and scale model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, C.; Eisses, A.R.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der


    Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has organized a competition to design a noise mitigating measure along the 'Polderbaan' runway. Its main goal is to reduce the low frequency (LF) ground noise from starting aircraft. The winning concept is a flexible parabolic shaped noise barrier positioned relatively

  20. A conceptual framework for a long-term economic model for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Nagy, Balázs; Setyawan, Juliana; Coghill, David; Soroncz-Szabó, Tamás; Kaló, Zoltán; Doshi, Jalpa A


    Models incorporating long-term outcomes (LTOs) are not available to assess the health economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Develop a conceptual modelling framework capable of assessing long-term economic impact of ADHD therapies. Literature was reviewed; a conceptual structure for the long-term model was outlined with attention to disease characteristics and potential impact of treatment strategies. The proposed model has four layers: i) multi-state short-term framework to differentiate between ADHD treatments; ii) multiple states being merged into three core health states associated with LTOs; iii) series of sub-models in which particular LTOs are depicted; iv) outcomes collected to be either used directly for economic analyses or translated into other relevant measures. This conceptual model provides a framework to assess relationships between short- and long-term outcomes of the disease and its treatment, and to estimate the economic impact of ADHD treatments throughout the course of the disease.

  1. A conceptual model for the development of professional behaviours in occupational therapists. (United States)

    Kasar, J; Muscari, M E


    The ever-changing, dynamic practice environment coupled with increased consumer needs and awareness create an atmosphere that requires optimal professionalism from occupational therapists. Professionalism requires specific knowledge, attitudes, and values--all manifested by professional behaviours. The authors assume that professional behaviours mature through a natural developmental process; a process that requires careful nurturing on the part of educators and clinical supervisors. Based on this assumption, the authors propose this conceptual model based on Erikson's life cycle stages. The model implies that occupational therapy professional behaviours develop sequentially through stages that begin during the educational process of occupational therapists, and progress throughout their career. The purpose of this model is to provide a framework for educators and supervisors to nurture professional behaviours in students and novice clinicians, and to continue their own professional growth.

  2. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.


    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes

  3. A conceptual model for work-related neck and upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders. (United States)

    Armstrong, T J; Buckle, P; Fine, L J; Hagberg, M; Jonsson, B; Kilbom, A; Kuorinka, I A; Silverstein, B A; Sjogaard, G; Viikari-Juntura, E R


    This paper presents a conceptual model for the pathogenesis of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The model contains sets of cascading exposure, dose, capacity, and response variables, such that response at one level can act as dose at the next. Response to one or more doses can diminish or increase the capacity for responding to successive doses. The model is used as a framework for discussing the development of work-related muscle, tendon, and nerve disorders. It is intended as a beginning, to be modified to explain new findings as they become available. In research, it can help to identify areas needing additional data for the development and expression of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Researchers can use it to design laboratory and field studies. In practice, it demonstrates the relationship between common exposure factors and different responses. This information can be used to evaluate and design jobs for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  4. Conceptual Model of Business Situation of Attraction and Reproduction of Temporary Personnel of the Event Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donets Oleksiy S.


    Full Text Available The article considers importance of formation of the acting system of personnel management, since personnel determines the competitive potential and competitive advantages of an organisation. It develops a cognitive model of a business situation, which helps to present the process of attraction and reproduction of temporary personnel at enterprises, which deal with organisation of large-scale events, and influence of the factors upon each other. It builds a conceptual model of a business situation of attraction and reproduction of temporary personnel of the event service and, on its basis, offers a model of decision making with the use of elements of fuzzy logic on selection of a specialist for a specific position. It allocates main characteristics of employees, which are taken into account when forming decisions regarding taking on a candidate.

  5. Designing the Business Models for Circular Economy—Towards the Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Lewandowski


    Full Text Available Switching from the current linear model of economy to a circular one has recently attracted increased attention from major global companies e.g., Google, Unilever, Renault, and policymakers attending the World Economic Forum. The reasons for this are the huge financial, social and environmental benefits. However, the global shift from one model of economy to another also concerns smaller companies on a micro-level. Thus, comprehensive knowledge on designing circular business models is needed to stimulate and foster implementation of the circular economy. Existing business models for the circular economy have limited transferability and there is no comprehensive framework supporting every kind of company in designing a circular business model. This study employs a literature review to identify and classify the circular economy characteristics according to a business model structure. The investigation in the eight sub-domains of research on circular business models was used to redefine the components of the business model canvas in the context of the circular economy. Two new components—the take-back system and adoption factors—have been identified, thereby leading to the conceptualization of an extended framework for the circular business model canvas. Additionally, the triple fit challenge has been recognized as an enabler of the transition towards a circular business model. Some directions for further research have been outlined, as well.

  6. Quantifying the performance of two conceptual models for snow dominated catchments in Austria and Turkey (United States)

    Sensoy, Aynur; Parajka, Juraj; Coskun, Cihan; Sorman, Arda; Ertas, Cansaran


    In many mountainous regions, snowmelt makes significant contribution to streamflow, particularly during spring and summer months. Understanding the magnitude and timing of this contribution and hydrological forecasts are essential for a range of purposes concerning the implications with water resources management. Conceptual hydrological models have been widely applied for mountain catchments both for operational and scientific applications. Hydrologiska Byran Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) and Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) are selected in this study as the commonly used conceptual models in hydrological modeling forecasting for a number of basins in several countries. Moreover, this selection is also supported by the experiences on the improvement and application in remote sensing techniques in snow dominated regions. The greatest similarity between the two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate whereas the greatest difference lies in the way snow cover is handled. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore, to supplement ground measurements; remotely sensed images of snow covered area (SCA) provide useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to SRM and as a means of checking the internal validity for HBV model. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. A number of studies have been reported in the literature indicated that the model performance can vary depending on several factors, including the scale and characteristics of the catchment, availability of the data required and runoff producing mechanism. Therefore, five different catchments including data scare and rich basins, areas and reliefs

  7. How much cryosphere model complexity is just right? Exploration using the conceptual cryosphere hydrology framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mosier


    Full Text Available Making meaningful projections of the impacts that possible future climates would have on water resources in mountain regions requires understanding how cryosphere hydrology model performance changes under altered climate conditions and when the model is applied to ungaged catchments. Further, if we are to develop better models, we must understand which specific process representations limit model performance. This article presents a modeling tool, named the Conceptual Cryosphere Hydrology Framework (CCHF, that enables implementing and evaluating a wide range of cryosphere modeling hypotheses. The CCHF represents cryosphere hydrology systems using a set of coupled process modules that allows easily interchanging individual module representations and includes analysis tools to evaluate model outputs. CCHF version 1 (Mosier, 2016 implements model formulations that require only precipitation and temperature as climate inputs – for example variations on simple degree-index (SDI or enhanced temperature index (ETI formulations – because these model structures are often applied in data-sparse mountain regions, and perform relatively well over short periods, but their calibration is known to change based on climate and geography. Using CCHF, we implement seven existing and novel models, including one existing SDI model, two existing ETI models, and four novel models that utilize a combination of existing and novel module representations. The novel module representations include a heat transfer formulation with net longwave radiation and a snowpack internal energy formulation that uses an approximation of the cold content. We assess the models for the Gulkana and Wolverine glaciated watersheds in Alaska, which have markedly different climates and contain long-term US Geological Survey benchmark glaciers. Overall we find that the best performing models are those that are more physically consistent and representative, but no single model performs

  8. A conceptual dynamic vegetation-soil model for arid and semiarid zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Quevedo


    Full Text Available Plant ecosystems in arid and semiarid climates show high complexity, since they depend on water availability to carry out their vital processes. In these climates, water stress is the main factor controlling vegetation development and its dynamic evolution. The available water-soil content results from the water balance in the system, where the key issues are the soil, the vegetation and the atmosphere. However, it is the vegetation, which modulates, to a great extent, the water fluxes and the feedback mechanisms between soil and atmosphere. Thus, soil moisture content is most relevant for plant growth maintenance and final water balance assessment. A conceptual dynamic vegetation-soil model (called HORAS for arid and semi-arid zones has been developed. This conceptual model, based on a series of connected tanks, represents in a way suitable for a Mediterranean climate, the vegetation response to soil moisture fluctuations and the actual leaf biomass influence on soil water availability and evapotranspiration. Two tanks were considered using at each of them the water balance and the appropriate dynamic equation for all considered fluxes. The first one corresponds to the interception process, whereas the second one models the evolution of moisture by the upper soil. The model parameters were based on soil and vegetation properties, but reduced their numbers. Simulations for dominant species, Quercus coccifera L., were carried out to calibrate and validate the model. Our results show that HORAS succeeded in representing the vegetation dynamics and, on the one hand, reflects how following a fire this monoculture stabilizes after 9 years. On the other hand, the model shows the adaptation of the vegetation to the variability of climatic and soil conditions, demonstrating that in the presence or shortage of water, the vegetation regulates its leaf biomass as well as its rate of transpiration in an attempt to minimize total water stress.

  9. Energy, fatigue, or both? A bifactor modeling approach to the conceptualization and measurement of vitality. (United States)

    Deng, Nina; Guyer, Rick; Ware, John E


    Vitality is an important domain reflecting both the physical and emotional components of health-related quality of life. Because of its complexity, it has been defined and measured both broadly and narrowly. We explored the dimensionality of a very comprehensive item bank hypothesized to measure vitality and its related concepts. Secondary analyses were conducted using the responses of 1,343 adults representative of the US general population to Internet-based surveys including 42 items compiled from multiple scales (e.g., SF-36 Vitality, PROMIS-Fatigue), covering a broad range of vitality-related content areas (energy, fatigue, and their interference with physical, mental, social activities, and quality of life). Exploratory and confirmatory factor models were evaluated independently using split-half samples. Bifactor model was used to assess the essential unidimensionality of the items, in comparison with traditional unidimensional, multidimensional, and hierarchical models. Method effects of a common scale or phrase were modeled via correlating errors. The exploratory factor analysis identified one dominant factor. The confirmatory factor analysis identified a best-fitting (CFI = 0.964, RMSEA = 0.084) bifactor model with one general (vitality) and two group (energy and fatigue) factors, explaining 69, 3, and 4 % of total variance. Correlating errors accounting for the method effects were important in identifying the substantive dimensionality of the items. The bifactor model proved to be useful for evaluating the dimensionality of a complex construct. Results supported conceptualizing and measuring vitality as a unidimensional energy-fatigue construct. We encourage future studies comparing practical implications of measures based on the broader and narrower conceptualizations of vitality.

  10. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modeling in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.


    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data-scarce regions such as the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile Basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile Basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile Basin well and yields a useful

  11. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.


    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result

  12. Effect of alternative conceptual models in a preliminary performance assessment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Beyeler, W.; Garner, J.W.; Iuzzolino, H.J.; Marietta, M.G.; Rudeen, D.K.; Schreiber, J.D.; Swift, P.N.; Tierney, M.S.; Vaughn, P.


    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment (PA) at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation resulting from corrosion and microbial action in the repository, and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for the solute transport in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cummulative distribution functions (CCDFs) which summarize the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment, resulting from both cutting removal and groundwater transport, fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the releases being dominated by cuttings removal. To provide additional views, the following alternative conceptual models were considered as part of a preliminary PA for the WIPP: no gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity (fracture porosity) transport model in the Culebra; no gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra, without chemical retardation; gas generation in the repository, chemical retardation in the Culebra, and extremes of climatic variation. These variations relate to groundwater transport, so do not affect the releases resulting from cuttings removal. Several of these variations substantially increase the importance of releases resulting from groundwater transport relative to releases resulting from cuttings removal. However, the total amount of releases generally remained small, with the CCDFs which summarize the releases to the accessible environment falling below the EPA release limits

  13. A Conceptual Definition of Vocational Rehabilitation Based on the ICF : building a shared global model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F.; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E.; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational

  14. Conceptual Model Development of Sustainability Practices: The Case of Port Operations for Collaboration and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwon Kang


    Full Text Available Sustainability practices in port operations are critical issue to achieve port sustainability involving economic, social and environmental issues. To assist ports to successfully implant sustainability practices into their operations, this paper conceptualized the structure of sustainability practices in international port operations, by clustering the relevant issues, empirically. Using 203 samples collected from port stakeholders in the major ports in Northeast Asia, multi-measurement items were analyzed on exploratory factor analysis in SPSS 21. Results generated a structure that consists of five sub-dimensions conceptualizing sustainability practices in the context of port operations. As operative practices to accommodate current and future demands in a port, the five-factor model clustering the relevant issues incorporate environmental technologies, process and quality improvement, monitoring and upgrading, communication and cooperation, and active participation. Providing useful insights for strategic agenda to assist ports to incorporate sustainability practices in their operations, the five-factor model offer both a descriptive and diagnostic management tool for future improvement in port operations.

  15. Conceptual Model of Successful Educational online Community of Practice for Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Al-Shahrani


    Full Text Available The community of practice is an internet application that nourishes knowledge management and innovation. Implementing the community of practice in education can enhance the learning process and make it an enjoyable, exiting and lifelong experience. In this paper, the researchers intend to create a conceptual model for the successful implementation of community of practice in Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through evaluate the literature review about the educational community of practice. Then, a prototype is developed followed by a survey to collect feed-backs about the experiment. Using the Chi-Square statistical method of qualitative analysis associated with the Design Science Methodology of research, the research is fulfilled. The results illustrated the conceptual model of the effective implementation of the community of practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, that define the seven factors to be considered which are network density, culture perceptions, distributed production, knowledge complexity and richness, government enforcement, IT specialist role, and senior members role.

  16. A Conceptual Model for Delineating Land Management Units (LMUs Using Geographical Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Gerçek


    Full Text Available Land management and planning is crucial for present and future use of land and the sustainability of land resources. Physical, biological and cultural characteristics of land can be used to define Land Management Units (LMUs that aid in decision making for managing land and communicating information between different research and application domains. This study aims to describe the classification of ecologically relevant land units that are suitable for land management, planning and conservation purposes. Relying on the idea of strong correlation between landform and potential landcover, a conceptual model for creating Land Management Units (LMUs from topographic data and biophysical information is presented. The proposed method employs a multi-level object-based classification of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs to derive landform units. The sensitivity of landform units to changes in segmentation scale is examined, and the outcome of the landform classification is evaluated. Landform classes are then aggregated with landcover information to produce ecologically relevant landform/landcover assemblages. These conceptual units that constitute a framework of connected entities are finally enriched given available socio-economic information e.g., land use, ownership, protection status, etc. to generate LMUs. LMUs attached to a geographic database enable the retrieval of information at various levels to support decision making for land management at various scales. LMUs that are created present a basis for conservation and management in a biodiverse area in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  17. An Automated BIM Model to Conceptually Design, Analyze, Simulate, and Assess Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Jalaei


    Full Text Available Quantifying the environmental impacts and simulating the energy consumption of building’s components at the conceptual design stage are very helpful for designers needing to make decisions related to the selection of the best design alternative that would lead to a more energy efficient building. Building Information Modeling (BIM offers designers the ability to assess different design alternatives at the conceptual stage of the project so that energy and life cycle assessment (LCA strategies and systems are attained. This paper proposes an automated model that links BIM, LCA, energy analysis, and lighting simulation tools with green building certification systems. The implementation is within developing plug-ins on BIM tool capable of measuring the environmental impacts (EI and embodied energy of building components. Using this method, designers will be provided with a new way to visualize and to identify the potential gain or loss of energy for the building as a whole and for each of its associated components. Furthermore, designers will be able to detect and evaluate the sustainability of the proposed buildings based on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. An actual building project will be used to illustrate the workability of the proposed methodology.

  18. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.


    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 o C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s -1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  19. A review of gene-environment correlations and their implications for autism: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Meek, Shantel E; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Jahromi, Laudan B; Valiente, Carlos


    A conceptual model is proposed that explains how gene-environment correlations and the multiplier effect function in the context of social development in individuals with autism. The review discusses the current state of autism genetic research, including its challenges, such as the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder, and its limitations, such as the lack of interdisciplinary work between geneticists and social scientists. We discuss literature on gene-environment correlations in the context of social development and draw implications for individuals with autism. The review expands upon genes, behaviors, types of environmental exposure, and exogenous variables relevant to social development in individuals on the autism spectrum, and explains these factors in the context of the conceptual model to provide a more in-depth understanding of how the effects of certain genetic variants can be multiplied by the environment to cause largely phenotypic individual differences. Using the knowledge gathered from gene-environment correlations and the multiplier effect, we outline novel intervention directions and implications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The unified model of vegetarian identity: A conceptual framework for understanding plant-based food choices. (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L


    By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI). The UMVI encompasses ten dimensions-organized into three levels (contextual, internalized, and externalized)-that capture the role of vegetarianism in an individual's self-concept. Contextual dimensions situate vegetarianism within contexts; internalized dimensions outline self-evaluations; and externalized dimensions describe enactments of identity through behavior. Together, these dimensions form a coherent vegetarian identity, characterizing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding being vegetarian. By unifying dimensions that capture psychological constructs universally, the UMVI can prevent discrepancies in operationalization, capture the inherent diversity of vegetarian identities, and enable future research to generate greater insight into how people understand themselves and their food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): conceptual review and treatment implications. (United States)

    Behar, Evelyn; DiMarco, Ilyse Dobrow; Hekler, Eric B; Mohlman, Jan; Staples, Alison M


    Theoretical conceptualizations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) continue to undergo scrutiny and refinement. The current paper critiques five contemporary models of GAD: the Avoidance Model of Worry and GAD [Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The nature, functions, and origins of worry. In: G. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: perspectives on theory assessment and treatment (pp. 5-33). Sussex, England: Wiley & Sons; Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In: R. Heimberg, C. Turk, & D. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice (pp. 77-108). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press]; the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model [Dugas, M. J., Letarte, H., Rheaume, J., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1995). Worry and problem solving: evidence of a specific relationship. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 109-120; Freeston, M. H., Rheaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 791-802]; the Metacognitive Model [Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 301-320]; the Emotion Dysregulation Model [Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 85-90]; and the Acceptance-based Model of GAD [Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 54-68]. Evidence in support of each model is critically reviewed, and each model's corresponding evidence-based therapeutic interventions are discussed. Generally speaking, the models share an

  2. Toward the quantification of a conceptual framework for movement ecology using circular statistical modeling. (United States)

    Shimatani, Ichiro Ken; Yoda, Ken; Katsumata, Nobuhiro; Sato, Katsufumi


    To analyze an animal's movement trajectory, a basic model is required that satisfies the following conditions: the model must have an ecological basis and the parameters used in the model must have ecological interpretations, a broad range of movement patterns can be explained by that model, and equations and probability distributions in the model should be mathematically tractable. Random walk models used in previous studies do not necessarily satisfy these requirements, partly because movement trajectories are often more oriented or tortuous than expected from the models. By improving the modeling for turning angles, this study aims to propose a basic movement model. On the basis of the recently developed circular auto-regressive model, we introduced a new movement model and extended its applicability to capture the asymmetric effects of external factors such as wind. The model was applied to GPS trajectories of a seabird (Calonectris leucomelas) to demonstrate its applicability to various movement patterns and to explain how the model parameters are ecologically interpreted under a general conceptual framework for movement ecology. Although it is based on a simple extension of a generalized linear model to circular variables, the proposed model enables us to evaluate the effects of external factors on movement separately from the animal's internal state. For example, maximum likelihood estimates and model selection suggested that in one homing flight section, the seabird intended to fly toward the island, but misjudged its navigation and was driven off-course by strong winds, while in the subsequent flight section, the seabird reset the focal direction, navigated the flight under strong wind conditions, and succeeded in approaching the island.

  3. Factors associated with adoption of health information technology: a conceptual model based on a systematic review. (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; DeShazo, Jonathan; Kim, Forest; Fulton, Lawrence


    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) allocated $19.2 billion to incentivize adoption of the electronic health record (EHR). Since 2009, Meaningful Use Criteria have dominated information technology (IT) strategy. Health care organizations have struggled to meet expectations and avoid penalties to reimbursements from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizational theories attempt to explain factors that influence organizational change, and many theories address changes in organizational strategy. However, due to the complexities of the health care industry, existing organizational theories fall short of demonstrating association with significant health care IT implementations. There is no organizational theory for health care that identifies, groups, and analyzes both internal and external factors of influence for large health care IT implementations like adoption of the EHR. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a full-spectrum of both internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of health information technology (HIT), specifically the EHR. The result is a conceptual model that is commensurate with the complexity of with the health care sector. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English), EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar for both empirical studies and theory-based writing from 1993-2013 that demonstrated association between influential factors and three modes of HIT: EHR, electronic medical record (EMR), and computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We also looked at published books on organizational theories. We made notes and noted trends on adoption factors. These factors were grouped as adoption factors associated with various versions of EHR adoption. The resulting conceptual model summarizes the diversity of independent variables (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs) used in articles, editorials, books, as

  4. Early Start Denver Model - intervention for de helt små børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia


    Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) er en autismespecifik interventionsmetode, som er udviklet til helt små børn med autisme (0-4 år). Metoden fokuserer på at styrke den tidlige kontakt og barnets motivation, og den arbejder målrettet med de socio-kommunikative forløbere for sprog og med den tidlige...

  5. A holistic conceptual framework model to describe medication adherence in and guide interventions in diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Jaam, Myriam; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kheir, Nadir


    Nonadherence to medications in patients with diabetes, which results in poor treatment outcomes and increased healthcare costs, is commonly reported globally. Factors associated with medication adherence have also been widely studied. However, a clear and comprehensive, disease-specific conceptual framework model that captures all possible factors has not been established. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework that addresses the complex network of barriers to medication adherence in patients with diabetes. Fourteen databases and grey literature sources were systematically searched for systematic reviews reporting barriers to medication adherence in patients with diabetes. A thematic approach was used to categorize all identified barriers from the reviews and to create a matrix representing the complex network and relations of the different barriers. Eighteen systematic reviews were identified and used for the development of the conceptual framework. Overall, six major themes emerged: patient-, medication-, disease-, provider-, system-, and societal-related factors. Each of these themes was further classified into different sub-categories. It was noted that most interactions were identified to be within the patient-related factors, which not only interact with other themes but also within the same theme. Patient's demographics as well as cultural beliefs were the most notable factors in terms of interactions with other categories and themes. The intricate network and interaction of factors identified between different themes and within individual themes indicate the complexity of the problem of adherence. This framework will potentially enhance the understanding of the complex relation between different barriers for medication adherence in diabetes and will facilitate design of more effective interventions. Future interventions for enhancing medication adherence should look at the overall factors and target multiple themes of barriers to improve patient


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebeian Adriana


    Full Text Available We live times of intense change, due to fast technological development, when information and knowledge are certain factors of power. Organizations today must not underestimate the importance of capable employees, owners of these great factors like information and knowledge. The key to success, as many organizations have shown, is, of course a mix of attributes, but one of much importance stands in the quality of employees and their performance. How to motivate and keep such employees is a real challenge in the actual business world. Employee fluctuation is a big risk, because it brings many losses: loss of expertise, of know-how, of time, it breaks relationships and teams. One solution to this problem is creating a good and attractive environment, so that employees are motivated enough to bring up the best in them and rise their performance to a high level. The main objective of this study is to present a new approach in motivating employees and raising their performance. In this approach, the leader is the main pawn, the generator and sustainer of a healthy environment. By reviewing the literature and the most recent works in this domain, two styles of leadership come into focus: transformational and servant leadership. Both are relatively new concepts, with common but also different attributes, and both having the same final goal: performance, but through a different approach. Based on a vast literature research, the conceptual model was built, considering the main attributes of the two leadership styles, their impact on motivational factors, their influence on job satisfaction and ultimately on team performance. The intermediary results of the research sustain the conceptual framework and main hypothesis of the study. One important contribution of this research is introducing elements of servant leadership together with transformational leadership in the empirical research and also creating an overall conceptual framework which can be applied

  7. Changing Attitudes, Changing Behaviors. Conceptual Change as a Model for Teaching Freedom of Religion or Belief (United States)

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Tina M.


    Purpose: The purpose is to demonstrate that conceptual change theory and strategies can be applied to areas of the social science, such as human rights education on FORB. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical scope of this paper is conceptual change theory and is intended to introduce the theory and practice of conceptual change in teaching…

  8. Presenting a conceptual model of data collection to manage the groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourbakhsh Zahra


    Full Text Available A conceptual model was proposed in the present study, which highlighted important independent and dependent variables in order to managing the groundwater quality. Furthermore, the methods of selection of variable and collection of related data were explained. The study was carried out in the Tajan Plain, north of Iran; 50 drinking wells were considered as sampling points. In this model the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was proposed to select the indicator water quality parameters. According to expert opinions and characteristics of the study area ten factors were chosen as variables influencing the quality of groundwater (land use types, lithology units, geology units, distance of wells to the outlet, distance to the residential areas, direction toward the residential areas, depth of the groundwater table, the type of aquifer, transmissivity and population. Geographic Information System (AecGIS 9.3 was used to manage the spatial-based variables and the data of non-spatial-based variables were obtained from relevant references. A database, which contains all collected data related to groundwater quality management in the studied area, was created as the output of the model. The output of this conceptual model can be used as an input for quantitative and mathematical models. Results show that 6 parameters (sulphate, iron, nitrate, electrical conductivity, calcium, and total dissolved solids (TDS were the best indicators for groundwater quality analysis in the area. More than 50% of the wells were drilled in the depth of groundwater table about 5 meters, in this low depth pollutants can load into the wells and also 78% of the wells are located within 5 km from the urban area; it can be concluded from this result that the intensive urban activities could affect groundwater quality.

  9. Evaluating Biosphere Model Estimates of the Start of the Vegetation Active Season in Boreal Forests by Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Böttcher


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the simulated start of the photosynthetically active season by a large-scale biosphere model in boreal forests in Finland with remote sensing observations. The start of season for two forest types, evergreen needle- and deciduous broad-leaf, was obtained for the period 2003–2011 from regional JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Hamburg runs, driven with climate variables from a regional climate model. The satellite-derived start of season was determined from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS time series of Fractional Snow Cover and the Normalized Difference Water Index by applying methods that were targeted to the two forest types. The accuracy of the satellite-derived start of season in deciduous forest was assessed with bud break observations of birch and a root mean square error of seven days was obtained. The evaluation of JSBACH modelled start of season dates with satellite observations revealed high spatial correspondence. The bias was less than five days for both forest types but showed regional differences that need further consideration. The agreement with satellite observations was slightly better for the evergreen than for the deciduous forest. Nonetheless, comparison with gross primary production (GPP determined from CO2 flux measurements at two eddy covariance sites in evergreen forest revealed that the JSBACH-simulated GPP was higher in early spring and led to too-early simulated start of season dates. Photosynthetic activity recovers differently in evergreen and deciduous forests. While for the deciduous forest calibration of phenology alone could improve the performance of JSBACH, for the evergreen forest, changes such as seasonality of temperature response, would need to be introduced to the photosynthetic capacity to improve the temporal development of gross primary production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat Widayat


    Full Text Available This article is designed to examine the role of the entrepreneurial spirit, education and in build­ing­ an attitude about working as an entrepreneur, and his influence on the intention to start a business, to the students. Data were collected using a questionnaire has been prepared and maintained the validity and relia­bility. Questionnaires given to the respondent students were selected as samples at several universi­ti­es in Malang, East Java, Indonesia. The collected data were analyzed by using Partial Least Square. The a­­na­­ly­sis showed entrepreneurial spirit and education contribute to the formation of entrepreneurial atti­tu­des. Attitudes are formed encourage entrepreneurship intentions to start a business significantly.

  11. Evaluation of the US DOE's conceptual model of hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    Dublyansky, Y. V.


    A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 °C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.

  12. A Warm-Started Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Method for Linear Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Skajaa, Anders; Frison, Gianluca


    algorithm in MATLAB and its performance is analyzed based on a smart grid power management case study. Closed loop simulations show that 1) our algorithm is significantly faster than state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra routines, and 2) warm-starting reduces the number of iterations......In this paper, we present a warm-started homogenous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control (MPC) of linear systems. To exploit the structure in the optimization problems, our algorithm utilizes a Riccati iteration procedure...

  13. A conceptual model for analysing informal learning in online social networks for health professionals. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Chang, Shanton; Elliott, Kristine; Barnett, Stephen


    Online social networking (OSN) provides a new way for health professionals to communicate, collaborate and share ideas with each other for informal learning on a massive scale. It has important implications for ongoing efforts to support Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the health professions. However, the challenge of analysing the data generated in OSNs makes it difficult to understand whether and how they are useful for CPD. This paper presents a conceptual model for using mixed methods to study data from OSNs to examine the efficacy of OSN in supporting informal learning of health professionals. It is expected that using this model with the dataset generated in OSNs for informal learning will produce new and important insights into how well this innovation in CPD is serving professionals and the healthcare system.

  14. Psychological mechanisms in outdoor place and weather assessment: towards a conceptual model (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Fredrik


    The general aim has been to illuminate the psychological mechanisms involved in outdoor place and weather assessment. This reasoning was conceptualized in a model, tentatively proposing direct and indirect links of influence in an outdoor place-human relationship. The model was subsequently tested by an empirical study, performed in a Nordic city, on the impact of weather and personal factors on participants’ perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. In line with our predictions, we report significant influences of weather parameters (air temperature, wind, and cloudlessness) and personal factors (environmental attitude and age) on participants’ perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. All this is a modest, yet significant, step towards an understanding of the psychology of outdoor place and weather assessment.

  15. Establishing the psychometric properties of constructs in a community-based participatory research conceptual model. (United States)

    Oetzel, John G; Zhou, Chuan; Duran, Bonnie; Pearson, Cynthia; Magarati, Maya; Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Villegas, Malia


    The purpose of this study is to establish the psychometric properties of 22 measures from a community-based participatory research (CBPR) conceptual model. The design of this study was an online, cross-sectional survey of academic and community partners involved in a CPBR project. CPBR projects (294) in the United States with federal funding in 2009. Of the 404 academic and community partners invited, 312 (77.2%) participated. Of the 200 principal investigators/project directors invited, 138 (69.0%) participated. Twenty-two measures of CBPR context, group dynamics, methods, and health-related outcomes were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis to establish factorial validity and Pearson correlations to establish convergent and divergent validity were used. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated strong factorial validity for the 22 constructs. Pearson correlations (p model. Thus, these measures can be used with confidence by both CBPR practitioners and researchers to evaluate their own CBPR partnerships and to advance the science of CBPR.

  16. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda. (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna


    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  17. Religion and Spirituality's Influences on HIV Syndemics Among MSM: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Model. (United States)

    Lassiter, Jonathan M; Parsons, Jeffrey T


    This paper presents a systematic review of the quantitative HIV research that assessed the relationships between religion, spirituality, HIV syndemics, and individual HIV syndemics-related health conditions (e.g. depression, substance abuse, HIV risk) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. No quantitative studies were found that assessed the relationships between HIV syndemics, religion, and spirituality. Nine studies, with 13 statistical analyses, were found that examined the relationships between individual HIV syndemics-related health conditions, religion, and spirituality. Among the 13 analyses, religion and spirituality were found to have mixed relationships with HIV syndemics-related health conditions (6 nonsignificant associations; 5 negative associations; 2 positive associations). Given the overall lack of inclusion of religion and spirituality in HIV syndemics research, a conceptual model that hypothesizes the potential interactions of religion and spirituality with HIV syndemics-related health conditions is presented. The implications of the model for MSM's health are outlined.

  18. Implications of a conceptual model for the allocation of energy resources by small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunder, B.A.


    This paper presents a conceptual model describing the manner in which small mammals utilize energy and the ways in which the physical environment influences allocation of energy resources. It is suggested that for homeothermic mammals, thermoregulation is a first priority for energy utilization and feeding a second priority. Once these needs are met additional energy gathered may be allocated to production or other behaviors. Deductions from the model, coupled with conclusions from field studies of weather effects on small mammal reproduction and the effects of supplemental feeding experiments on reproduction, suggest that many difficulties in interpreting such studies may be due to inattention to the interactive effects of food and weather on reproduction. The paper then describes the manner in which three sorts of environments (subarctic-boreal, north temperate grassland, and deserts) vary seasonally in their productivity and level of cold stress for small mammals

  19. LA MAQUETA CONCEPTUAL EN LA ARQUITECTURA PARAMÉTRICA: LA MATERIALIDAD DIGITAL COMO ICONO / The conceptual model in parametric architecture: digital materiality as an icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Val Fiel


    Full Text Available RESUMEN La naturaleza estructural de los sistemas paramétricos introduce, en el proyecto, una gestión integral potenciadora del proceso. En el desarrollo del proyecto arquitectónico, Eisenman introdujo esta dirección sintáctica, adoptando la naturaleza auto referencial del Arte Conceptual y llevando hasta sus máximas consecuencias la negación del contexto y la importancia del proceso. En este ámbito, la definición del proceso, dirigiendo el uso de sus operaciones hacia un nivel de pura manipulación formal, puede hacer que esta forma autónoma adquiera un protagonismo superior a cualquier otra cuestión, desestimando otras consideraciones del proceso arquitectónico. La complejidad formal vinculada a estos sistemas hace que la maqueta adquiera un papel imprescindible en la compresión del espacio proyectado. La maqueta paramétrica, como materialidad digital y traslación directa de la información digital al ámbito físico, elimina el proceso de abstracción y reproduce con un alto grado de realismo los algoritmos que con posterioridad definirán el espacio. La maqueta paramétrica conceptual, disociada del contexto y evidenciando su proceso hace prevalecer su dimensión formal, y enfrentada a su instrumentalidad, potencia su valor icónico. SUMMARY The structural nature of parametric systems introduces comprehensive management in a project thereby enhancing the process. Eisenman introduced this syntactic direction for the architectural project, adopting the self-referential nature of Conceptual Art and leading to its ultimate consequences, denial of context and the importance of the process. In this area, definition of the process, directing the use of its operations to a level of pure formal manipulation, can lead this autonomous form to acquire a prominence above any other issue, disregarding other considerations of the architectural process. The formal complexity of these systems makes the model acquire a vital role in

  20. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy) (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco


    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  1. Developing a conceptual model of possible benefits of condensed tannins for ruminant production. (United States)

    Tedeschi, L O; Ramírez-Restrepo, C A; Muir, J P


    Enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants have compelled a wide range of research initiatives to identify environmental abatement opportunities. However, although such mitigations can theoretically be attained with feed additives and feeding strategies, the limited empirical evidence on plant extracts used as feed additives does not support extensive or long-term reductions. Nevertheless, their strategic use (i.e. alone or combined in a simultaneous or consecutive use) may provide not only acceptable CH4 abatement levels, but also relevant effects on animal physiology and productivity. Condensed tannins (CT) represent a range of polyphenolic compounds of flavan-3-ol units present in some forage species that can also be added to prepared diets. Methods to determine CT, or their conjugated metabolites, are not simple. Although there are limitations and uncertainties about the methods to be applied, CT are thought to reduce CH4 production (1) indirectly by binding to the dietary fibre and/or reducing the rumen digestion and digestibility of the fibre and (2) directly by inhibiting the growth of rumen methanogens. On the basis of their role in livestock nutrition, CT influence the digestion of protein in the rumen because of their affinity for proteins (e.g. oxidative coupling and H bonding at neutral pH) that causes the CT-protein complex to be insoluble in the rumen; and dissociate in the abomasum at pH 2.5 to 3.0 for proteolysis and absorption in the small intestine. CT may also reduce gastro-intestinal parasite burdens and improve reproductive performance, foetal development, immune system response, hormone serum concentrations, wool production and lactation. The objectives of this paper are to discuss some of the beneficial and detrimental effects of CT on ruminant production systems and to develop a conceptual model to illustrate these metabolic relationships in terms of systemic physiology using earlier investigations with the CT-containing legume Lotus

  2. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and project success - conceptual model and expected relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Silvius


    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. Companies are integrating sustainability in their marketing, communication and their actions. Sustainability has more recently also been linked to project management. The logic behind this link is that sustainability needs change and projects are realizing change. Several studies explored how the concept of sustainability impact project management. The research project reported in this paper elaborates on these works by studying how sustainability affects project success. Project managers, logically, strive for project success and considering sustainability may influence this success. Based upon a review of relevant literature, the paper develops a conceptual model that provides a more detailed understanding of how considering different dimensions of sustainability may affect the individual criteria of project success. The study also provides a conceptual mapping of the different relationships between dimensions of sustainability and criteria of project success. This mapping shows that the most positive relationships are expected for the relationship between sustainability and the success criteria stakeholder satisfaction, future readiness and controlled project execution. The expected relationship between considering sustainability and completing the project on schedule and within budget is uncertain.

  3. Stakeholder engagement in quattro helix model for mobile phone reverse logistics in Indonesia: a conceptual framework (United States)

    Maheswari, H.; Yudoko, G.; Adhiutama, A.


    The number of e-waste from mobile phone industry is still dominating until now. This is happened because there is no mutual commitment from all of parties i.e. businesses, government, and societies to reduce the use of mobile phone that has the shortest product life cycle. There are many researches study about firms’ motivation and government’s role, other discuss about actions of communities in supporting reverse logistics implementation. Unfortunately, research about engagement mechanism that involving all parties is still rare. Therefore, it is important to find the engagement model through this conceptual paper and it is expected useful to build the novel model. Through literature review, the results of this research are establishing the Quattro helix model as the appropriate structure to build the robust team by exploring stakeholder theories; mapping the engagement model either in form of collaboration or participation that consider stakeholders’ role and motivation and finding six types of engagement that consider their interest; and determining the novel model of engagement through Quattro helix model for implementing reverse logistics in handling e-waste by describing the linkage and the gaps among existing model.

  4. A conceptual model of daily water balance following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari


    Full Text Available A simple conceptual water balance model representing the streamflow generation processes on a daily time step following land use change is presented. The model consists of five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores for vertical and lateral water flow, (ii a transient Stream zone Store (iii a saturated Goundwater Store. The soil moisture balance in the top soil Dry and Wet Stores are the most important components of the model and characterize the dynamically varying saturated areas responsible for surface runoff, interflow and deep percolation. The Subsurface Store describes the unsaturated soil moisture balance, extraction of percolated water by vegetation and groundwater recharge. The Groundwater Store controls the baseflow to stream (if any and the groundwater contribution to the stream zone saturated areas. The daily model was developed following a downward approach by analysing data from Ernies (control and Lemon (53% cleared catchments in Western Australia and elaborating a monthly model. The daily model performed very well in simulating daily flow generation processes for both catchments. Most of the model parameters were incorporated a priori from catchment attributes such as surface slope, soil depth, porosity, stream length and initial groundwater depth, and some were calibrated by matching the observed and predicted hydrographs. The predicted groundwater depth, and streamflow volumes across all time steps from daily to monthly to annual were in close agreement with observations for both catchments.

  5. Why START?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, J.


    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles

  6. Model Driven Development of Simulation Models : Defining and Transforming Conceptual Models into Simulation Models by Using Metamodels and Model Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küçükkeçeci Çetinkaya, D.


    Modeling and simulation (M&S) is an effective method for analyzing and designing systems and it is of interest to scientists and engineers from all disciplines. This thesis proposes the application of a model driven software development approach throughout the whole set of M&S activities and it

  7. Conceptual model of consumer’s willingness to eat functional foods (United States)

    Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Maria

    The functional foods constitute the important segment of the food market. Among factors that determine the intentions to eat functional foods, the psychological factors play very important roles. Motives, attitudes and personality are key factors. The relationships between socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes and willingness to purchase functional foods were not fully confirmed. Consumers’ beliefs about health benefits from eaten foods seem to be a strong determinant of a choice of functional foods. The objective of this study was to determine relations between familiarity, attitudes, and beliefs in benefits and risks about functional foods and develop some conceptual models of willingness to eat. The sample of Polish consumers counted 1002 subjects at age 15+. The foods enriched with vitamins or minerals, and cholesterol-lowering margarine or drinks were considered. The questionnaire focused on familiarity with foods, attitudes, beliefs about benefits and risks of their consumption was constructed. The Pearson’s correlations and linear regression equations were calculated. The strongest relations appeared between attitudes, high health value and high benefits, (r = 0.722 and 0.712 for enriched foods, and 0.664 and 0.693 for cholesterol-lowering foods), and between high health value and high benefits (0.814 for enriched foods and 0.758 for cholesterol-lowering foods). The conceptual models based on linear regression of relations between attitudes and all other variables, considering or not the familiarity with the foods, were developed. The positive attitudes and declared consumption are more important for enriched foods. The beliefs on high health value and high benefits play the most important role in the purchase. The interrelations between different variables may be described by new linear regression models, with the beliefs in high benefits, positive attitudes and familiarity being most significant predictors. Health expectations and trust to

  8. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.


    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  9. Providing High-Quality Support Services to Home-Based Child Care: A Conceptual Model and Literature Review (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Korfmacher, Jon


    Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of…

  10. A conceptual model linking functional gene expression and reductive dechlorination rates of chlorinated ethenes in clay rich groundwater sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jacob; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Scheutz, Charlotte


    We used current knowledge of cellular processes involved in reductive dechlorination to develop a conceptual model to describe the regulatory system of dechlorination at the cell level; the model links bacterial growth and substrate consumption to the abundance of messenger RNA of functional gene...

  11. Development Mechanism of an Integrated Model for Training of a Specialist and Conceptual-Theoretical Activity of a Teacher (United States)

    Marasulov, Akhmat; Saipov, Amangeldi; ?rymbayeva, Kulimkhan; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Demeuov, Akhan; Konakbaeva, Ulzhamal; Bekbolatova, Akbota


    The aim of the study is to examine the methodological-theoretical construction bases for development mechanism of an integrated model for a specialist's training and teacher's conceptual-theoretical activity. Using the methods of generalization of teaching experience, pedagogical modeling and forecasting, the authors determine the urgent problems…

  12. Corruption of accuracy and efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by inaccurate numerical implementation of conceptual hydrologic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoups, G.; Vrugt, J.A.; Fenicia, F.; van de Giesen, N.C.


    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models have traditionally been applied without paying much attention to numerical errors induced by temporal integration of water balance dynamics. Reliance on first-order, explicit, fixed-step integration methods leads to computationally cheap simulation models that are

  13. A Conceptual Model (The Six Mirrors of the Classroom) and It's Application to Teaching and Learning about Microorganisms (United States)

    Khalil, Mahmood; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel


    In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and…

  14. A method for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented conceptual models of database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.


    This report describes a method called MCM (Method for Conceptual Modeling) for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented models of database system behavior. An important aim of MCM is to bridge the gap between formal specification and informal understanding. Building a MCM

  15. Linking Adverse Outcome Pathways to Dynamic Energy Budgets: A Conceptual Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Cheryl [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Nisbet, Roger [University of California Santa Barbara; Antczak, Philipp [University of Liverpool, UK; Reyero, Natalia [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg; Gergs, Andre [Gaiac; Lika, Dina [University of Crete; Mathews, Teresa J. [ORNL; Muller, Eric [University of California, Santa Barbara; Nacci, Dianne [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Peace, Angela L. [ORNL; Remien, Chris [University of Idaho; Schulz, Irv [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Watanabe, Karen [Arizona State University


    Ecological risk assessment quantifies the likelihood of undesirable impacts of stressors, primarily at high levels of biological organization. Data used to inform ecological risk assessments come primarily from tests on individual organisms or from suborganismal studies, indicating a disconnect between primary data and protection goals. We know how to relate individual responses to population dynamics using individual-based models, and there are emerging ideas on how to make connections to ecosystem services. However, there is no established methodology to connect effects seen at higher levels of biological organization with suborganismal dynamics, despite progress made in identifying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) that link molecular initiating events to ecologically relevant key events. This chapter is a product of a working group at the National Center for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) that assessed the feasibility of using dynamic energy budget (DEB) models of individual organisms as a “pivot” connecting suborganismal processes to higher level ecological processes. AOP models quantify explicit molecular, cellular or organ-level processes, but do not offer a route to linking sub-organismal damage to adverse effects on individual growth, reproduction, and survival, which can be propagated to the population level through individual-based models. DEB models describe these processes, but use abstract variables with undetermined connections to suborganismal biology. We propose linking DEB and quantitative AOP models by interpreting AOP key events as measures of damage-inducing processes in a DEB model. Here, we present a conceptual model for linking AOPs to DEB models and review existing modeling tools available for both AOP and DEB.

  16. A modelling study to evaluate the costs and effects of lowering the starting age of population breast cancer screening. (United States)

    Koleva-Kolarova, Rositsa G; Daszczuck, Alicja M; de Jonge, Chris; Abu Hantash, Mohd Kahlil; Zhan, Zhuozhao Z; Postema, Erik Jan; Feenstra, Talitha L; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Greuter, Marcel J W; de Bock, Geertruida H


    Because the incidence of breast cancer increases between 45 and 50years of age, a reconsideration is required of the current starting age (typically 50years) for routine mammography. Our aim was to evaluate the quantitative benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of lowering the starting age of breast cancer screening in the Dutch general population. Economic modelling with a lifelong perspective compared biennial screening for women aged 48-74years and for women aged 46-74years with the current Dutch screening programme, which screen women between the ages of 50 and 74years. Tumour deaths prevented, years of life saved (YOLS), false-positive rates, radiation-induced tumours, costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were evaluated. Starting the screening at 48 instead of 50 years of age led to increases in: the number of small tumours detected (4.0%), tumour deaths prevented (5.6%), false positives (9.2%), YOLS (5.6%), radiation-induced tumours (14.7%), and costs (4.1%). Starting the screening at 46 instead of 48 years of age increased the number of small tumours detected (3.3%), tumour deaths prevented (4.2%), false positives (8.8%), YOLS (3.7%), radiation-induced tumours (15.2%), and costs (4.0%). The ICER was €5600/YOLS for the 48-74 scenario and €5600/YOLS for the 46-74 scenario. Women could benefit from lowering the starting age of screening as more breast cancer deaths would be averted. Starting regular breast cancer screening earlier is also cost-effective. As the number of additional expected harms is relatively small in both the scenarios examined, and the difference in ICERs is not large, introducing two additional screening rounds is justifiable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Mowen, Andrew J; Cohen, Deborah A


    Park-based physical activity is a promising means to satisfy current physical activity requirements. However, there is little research concerning what park environmental and policy characteristics might enhance physical activity levels. This study proposes a conceptual model to guide thinking and suggest hypotheses. This framework describes the relationships between park benefits, park use, and physical activity, and the antecedents/correlates of park use. In this classification scheme, the discussion focuses on park environmental characteristics that could be related to physical activity, including park features, condition, access, aesthetics, safety, and policies. Data for these categories should be collected within specific geographic areas in or around the park, including activity areas, supporting areas, the overall park, and the surrounding neighborhood. Future research should focus on how to operationalize specific measures and methodologies for collecting data, as well as measuring associations between individual physical activity levels and specific park characteristics. Collaboration among many disciplines is needed.

  18. Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in Near-Surface Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Berglund, Sten


    Scenarios of barrier failure and radionuclide release to the near-surface environment are important to consider within performance and safety assessments of repositories for nuclear waste. A geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is planned at Forsmark, Sweden. Conceptual and numerical reactive transport models were developed in order to assess the retention capacity of the Quaternary till and clay deposits for selected radionuclides, in the event of an activity release from the repository. The elements considered were carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), cesium (Cs), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), radium (Ra), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), technetium (Tc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). According to the numerical predictions, the repository-derived nuclides that would be most significantly retained are Th, Ni, and Cs, mainly through sorption onto clays, followed by U, C, Sr, and Ra, trapped by sorption and/or incorporation into mineral phases

  19. The role of tourism public-private partnerships in regional development: a conceptual model proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Franco

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.

  20. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones


    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  1. Uresničevanje notranjega brandinga: razvoj konceptualnega modela = Internal Branding Implementation: Developing a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Konecnik Ruzzier


    Full Text Available Internal branding is the process, which enables balanced view of thebrand at all company levels. Its significance is aligning values and behaviorsof employees with brand values and brand promises. In the article,we focus mainly on its implementation, which requires coordinationof different functions in the company, for instance, internal marketingand human resource management. Based on findings of qualitativeresearch, we present a conceptual model of internal brandingimplementation. Results show that internal branding increases employees’knowledge about the brand, which motivates them to projectbrand image to customers. The research also revealed that implementationof internal branding requires coordination between internalmarketing and human resource management. Importance of internalbranding is expanding because the process is focusing on resourcesthat enable a company to achieve competitive advantages and higherperformance.

  2. A Conceptual Model of the Role of Communication in Surrogate Decision Making for Hospitalized Adults (United States)

    Torke, Alexia M.; Petronio, Sandra; Sachs, Greg A.; Helft, Paul R.; Purnell, Christianna


    Objective To build a conceptual model of the role of communication in decision making, based on literature from medicine, communication studies and medical ethics. Methods We propose a model and describe each construct in detail. We review what is known about interpersonal and patient-physician communication, describe literature about surrogate-clinician communication, and discuss implications for our developing model. Results The communication literature proposes two major elements of interpersonal communication: information processing and relationship building. These elements are composed of constructs such as information disclosure and emotional support that are likely to be relevant to decision making. We propose these elements of communication impact decision making, which in turn affects outcomes for both patients and surrogates. Decision making quality may also mediate the relationship between communication and outcomes. Conclusion Although many elements of the model have been studied in relation to patient-clinician communication, there is limited data about surrogate decision making. There is evidence of high surrogate distress associated with decision making that may be alleviated by communication–focused interventions. More research is needed to test the relationships proposed in the model. Practice Implications Good communication with surrogates may improve both the quality of medical decisions and outcomes for the patient and surrogate. PMID:21889865

  3. Preliminary Study on Kano Model in the Conceptual Design Activities for Product Lifecycle Improvement (United States)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Rahman, M. R. A.; Arifin, A. M. T.; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fauzi Ahmad, Md


    Product manufactured with short life cycle had only one major issue, it can lead to increasing volume of waste. Day by day, this untreated waste had consumed many landfill spaces, waiting for any possible alternatives. Lack of product recovery knowledge and recyclability features imprinted into product design are one of the main reason behind all this. Sustainable awareness aspect should not just be implied into people’s mind, but also onto product design. This paper presents a preliminary study on Kano model method in the conceptual design activities to improve product lifecycle. Kano model is a survey-type method, used to analyze and distinguished product qualities or features, also how the customers may have perceived them. Three important attributes of Kano model are performance, attractive and must-be. The proposed approach enables better understanding of customer requirements while providing a way for Kano model to be integrated into engineering design to improve product’s end-of-life. Further works will be continued to provide a better lifecycle option (increase percentage of reuse, remanufacture or recycle, whereby decrease percentage of waste) of a product using Kano model approach.

  4. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.


    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  5. Food safety attitudes in college students: a structural equation modeling analysis of a conceptual model. (United States)

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter


    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  6. Food Safety Attitudes in College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pribis


    Full Text Available College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.

  7. Food Safety Attitudes in College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of a Conceptual Model (United States)

    Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L.; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter


    College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods. PMID:23364131

  8. Catalogues, conceptual models, data model: the orientations of research and the thematic guidelines in Library and information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Trombone


    Full Text Available The adoption of new conceptual models for bibliographic and authority data, the latest normative structures of the catalogue, the language of data encoding and their communication in semantic Web, are some of the factors that are transforming library catalogues, cataloguing and management both of bibliographic and authority data. Moreover, these changes are related to the development of new environments of discovery, visualization and dissemination of bibliographic information. The essay proposes an analysis of the elements that underlie such changes carried out also through examining the themes developed by the scientific literature in the same area of interest.

  9. A conceptual model of the automated credibility assessment of the volunteered geographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, N H; Jackson, M J; Ishak, M H I


    The use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in collecting, sharing and disseminating geospatially referenced information on the Web is increasingly common. The potentials of this localized and collective information have been seen to complement the maintenance process of authoritative mapping data sources and in realizing the development of Digital Earth. The main barrier to the use of this data in supporting this bottom up approach is the credibility (trust), completeness, accuracy, and quality of both the data input and outputs generated. The only feasible approach to assess these data is by relying on an automated process. This paper describes a conceptual model of indicators (parameters) and practical approaches to automated assess the credibility of information contributed through the VGI including map mashups, Geo Web and crowd – sourced based applications. There are two main components proposed to be assessed in the conceptual model – metadata and data. The metadata component comprises the indicator of the hosting (websites) and the sources of data / information. The data component comprises the indicators to assess absolute and relative data positioning, attribute, thematic, temporal and geometric correctness and consistency. This paper suggests approaches to assess the components. To assess the metadata component, automated text categorization using supervised machine learning is proposed. To assess the correctness and consistency in the data component, we suggest a matching validation approach using the current emerging technologies from Linked Data infrastructures and using third party reviews validation. This study contributes to the research domain that focuses on the credibility, trust and quality issues of data contributed by web citizen providers

  10. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.


    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of 3 H and 14 C, fluid- and rock-derived 2343 U/ 238 U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature

  11. Service Level Decision-making in Rural Physiotherapy: Development of Conceptual Models. (United States)

    Adams, Robyn; Jones, Anne; Lefmann, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine


    Understanding decision-making about health service provision is increasingly important in an environment of increasing demand and constrained resources. Multiple factors are likely to influence decisions about which services will be provided, yet workforce is the most noted factor in the rural physiotherapy literature. This paper draws together results obtained from exploration of service level decision-making (SLDM) to propose 'conceptual' models of rural physiotherapy SLDM. A prioritized qualitative approach enabled exploration of participant perspectives about rural physiotherapy decision-making. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in-depth interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and reviewed by participants. Participant confidentiality was maintained by coding both participants and sites. A system theory-case study heuristic provided a framework for exploration across sites within the investigation area: a large area of one Australian state with a mix of regional, rural and remote communities. Thirty-nine surveys were received from participants in 11 communities. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with physiotherapists and key decision-makers. Results reveal the complexity of factors influencing rural physiotherapy service provision and the value of a systems approach when exploring decision-making about rural physiotherapy service provision. Six key features were identified that formed the rural physiotherapy SLDM system: capacity and capability; contextual influences; layered decision-making; access issues; value and beliefs; and tensions and conflict. Rural physiotherapy SLDM is not a one-dimensional process but results from the complex interaction of clusters of systems issues. Decision-making about physiotherapy service provision is influenced by both internal and external factors. Similarities in influencing factors and the iterative nature of decision-making emerged, which enabled linking physiotherapy SLDM with

  12. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kyle, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tfaily, Malak M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martijn L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carroll, Matthew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chu, Rosalie K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Hope [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Garcia, Whitney L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Odeta [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toyoda, Jason G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plymale, Andrew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Isotopes of iodine were generated during plutonium production within the nine production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The short half-life 131I that was released from the fuel into the atmosphere during the dissolution process (when the fuel was dissolved) in the Hanford Site 200 Area is no longer present at concentrations of concern in the environment. The long half-life 129I generated at the Hanford Site during reactor operations was (1) stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks, (2) discharged to liquid disposal sites (e.g., cribs and trenches), (3) released to the atmosphere during fuel reprocessing operations, or (4) captured by off-gas absorbent devices (silver reactors) at chemical separations plants (PUREX, B-Plant, T-Plant, and REDOX). Releases of 129I to the subsurface have resulted in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater. There is also 129I remaining in the vadose zone beneath disposal or leak locations. The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. In addition, its behavior in subsurface is different from that of other more common and important contaminants (e.g., U, Cr and Tc) in terms of sorption (adsorption and precipitation), and aqueous phase species transformation via redox reactions. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and identify aspects about which additional information is needed to effectively support remedy decisions.

  13. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C. [eds.] [and others


    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  14. Early Start Denver Model. Un modello Evidence Based per l’intervento educativo precoce nei Disturbi dello Spettro Autistico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Fontani


    Full Text Available The Autism Spectrum Disorders represents one of the most complex developmental disabilities for the massive deficit of communication competences. The social disability related to disorders is the main objective of the intervention of the Early Start Denver Model – ESDM (Rogers & Dawson, 2010, which can be considered as one of the most advanced models for early educational intervention according the perspective of Evidence Based Education. In this paper the theoretical foundations of the model are presented and its implications for a modern inclusive education are discussed..

  15. The Effect of Conceptual Change Model in the Senior High School Students’ Understanding and Character in Learning Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santyasa I Wayan


    Full Text Available Learning physics for senior high school (SMA students is often coloured by misconceptions that hinder students in achieving deep understanding. So a relevant learning model is needed. This study aims to examine the effect of conceptual change model (CCM compared with direct instruction model (DIM on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in the subject area of motion and force. This quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalence pre-test post-test control groups design. The population is 20 classes (738 students of grade X consisted of 8 classes (272 students of SMA 1 Amlapura, 8 classes (256 students of SMA 2 Amlapura, and 6 classes (210 students of SMA 1 Manggis in Karangasem regency in Bali. The random assignment technique is used to assign 6 classes (202 students, or 26.5% of the population. In each school there are set 2 classes each as a CCM group and DIM groups. The data of students’ conceptual understanding is collected by tests, while the characters by questionnaires. To analyse the data a one way MANCOVA statistics was used. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference of effect between CCM group and DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character. The effect of the CCM group is higher than the DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in learning subject area of motion and force.

  16. Longitudinal structure in temperate stream fish communities: evaluating conceptual models with temporal data (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.


    Five conceptual models of longitudinal fish community organization in streams were examined: (1) niche diversity model (NDM), (2) stream continuum model (SCM), (3) immigrant accessibility model (IAM), (4) environmental stability model (ESM), and (5) adventitious stream model (ASM). We used differences among models in their predictions about temporal species turnover, along with five spatiotemporal fish community data sets, to evaluate model applicability. Models were similar in predicting a positive species richness–stream size relationship and longitudinal species nestedness, but differed in predicting either similar temporal species turnover throughout the stream continuum (NDM, SCM), higher turnover upstream (IAM, ESM), or higher turnover downstream (ASM). We calculated measures of spatial and temporal variation from spatiotemporal fish data in five wadeable streams in central and eastern North America spanning 34–68 years (French Creek [New York], Piasa Creek [Illinois], Spruce Run [Virginia], Little Stony Creek [Virginia], and Sinking Creek [Virginia]). All streams exhibited substantial species turnover (i.e., at least 27% turnover in stream-scale species pools), in contrast to the predictions of the SCM. Furthermore, community change was greater in downstream than upstream reaches in four of five streams. This result is most consistent with the ASM and suggests that downstream communities are strongly influenced by migrants to and from species pools outside the focal stream. In Sinking Creek, which is isolated from external species pools, temporal species turnover (via increased richness) was higher upstream than downstream, which is a pattern most consistent with the IAM or ESM. These results corroborate the hypothesis that temperate stream habitats and fish communities are temporally dynamic and that fish migration and environmental disturbances play fundamental roles in stream fish community organization.

  17. Green roof rainfall-runoff modelling: is the comparison between conceptual and physically based approaches relevant? (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel


    Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wulandari


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to produce a modified starting block for the development of learning athletics sprints for Elementary School students Bintoro 2 Demak. This study uses a model of development which refers to the development of Borg & Gall.The data analysis technique used is descriptive percentages. From the test results obtained by a small group of expert evaluation data, namely, expert penjas 95% (very good, a study 92.5% (excellent, the average results of the questionnaire on a small group of test results obtained 86% (good . The average yield at the end of the questionnaire test results obtained large group 93.2% (very good. Conclusion that the model of development of modified starting blocks for sprinting athletics lessons for elementary students Bintoro N 2 Demak deserves used to study athletic training run for the Sprint and elementary school athletes.

  19. Operation room tool handling and miscommunication scenarios: an object-process methodology conceptual model. (United States)

    Wachs, Juan P; Frenkel, Boaz; Dori, Dov


    Errors in the delivery of medical care are the principal cause of inpatient mortality and morbidity, accounting for around 98,000 deaths in the United States of America (USA) annually. Ineffective team communication, especially in the operation room (OR), is a major root of these errors. This miscommunication can be reduced by analyzing and constructing a conceptual model of communication and miscommunication in the OR. We introduce the principles underlying Object-Process Methodology (OPM)-based modeling of the intricate interactions between the surgeon and the surgical technician while handling surgical instruments in the OR. This model is a software- and hardware-independent description of the agents engaged in communication events, their physical activities, and their interactions. The model enables assessing whether the task-related objectives of the surgical procedure were achieved and completed successfully and what errors can occur during the communication. The facts used to construct the model were gathered from observations of various types of operations miscommunications in the operating room and its outcomes. The model takes advantage of the compact ontology of OPM, which is comprised of stateful objects - things that exist physically or informatically, and processes - things that transform objects by creating them, consuming them or changing their state. The modeled communication modalities are verbal and non-verbal, and errors are modeled as processes that deviate from the "sunny day" scenario. Using OPM refinement mechanism of in-zooming, key processes are drilled into and elaborated, along with the objects that are required as agents or instruments, or objects that these processes transform. The model was developed through an iterative process of observation, modeling, group discussions, and simplification. The model faithfully represents the processes related to tool handling that take place in an OR during an operation. The specification is at

  20. The Relationships among Leadership, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Innovation and Competitive Advantage (A Conceptual Model of Logistics Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat


    Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of competitive advantage is an important and urgent issue facing logistics service companies in Indonesia. Some previous researches showed that to improve the competitive advantage could be conducted through improvement of leadership, entrepreneurial mindset and innovation variables. This research intended to recognize relationships among the variables. The research used causal-explanatory method. The results of research encompass a conceptual model, status of each variable and hypotheses. The conceptual model could be further verified through verification research. 

  1. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model


    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally


    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  2. Conceptual Model of an Application for Automated Generation of Webpage Mobile Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Rachovski


    Full Text Available Accessing webpages through various types of mobile devices with different screen sizes and using different browsers has put new demands on web developers. The main challenge is the development of websites with responsive design that is adaptable depending on the mobile device used. The article presents a conceptual model of an app for automated generation of mobile pages. It has five-layer architecture: database, database management layer, business logic layer, web services layer and a presentation layer. The database stores all the data needed to run the application. The database management layer uses an ORM model to convert relational data into an object-oriented format and control the access to them. The business logic layer contains components that perform the actual work on building a mobile version of the page, including parsing, building a hierarchical model of the page and a number of transformations. The web services layer provides external applications with access to lower-level functionalities, and the presentation layer is responsible for choosing and using the appropriate CSS. A web application that uses the proposed model was developed and experiments were conducted.

  3. Accelerating the Integration of Distributed Water Solutions: A Conceptual Financing Model from the Electricity Sector (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J.; Ajami, Newsha K.; Wyss, Noemi


    Modern challenges require new approaches to urban water management. One solution in the portfolio of potential strategies is the integration of distributed water infrastructure, practices, and technologies into existing systems. However, many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems in the US. The objective of this paper is to address these challenges by developing a conceptual model encompassing regulatory, financial, and governance components that can be used to incorporate new distributed water solutions into our current network. To construct the model, case studies of successfully implemented distributed electricity systems, specifically energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, were examined to determine how these solutions have become prominent in recent years and what lessons can be applied to the water sector in a similar pursuit. The proposed model includes four action-oriented elements: catalyzing change, establishing funding sources, using resource pathways, and creating innovative governance structures. As illustrated in the model, the water sector should use suite of coordinated policies to promote change, engage end users through fiscal incentives, and encourage research, development and dissemination of new technologies over time.

  4. Nutrients and Energy Balance Analysis for a Conceptual Model of a Three Loops off Grid, Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Yogev


    Full Text Available Food security, specifically in water scarce regions, is an increasing local and global challenge. Finding new ways to increase agricultural production in a sustainable manner is required. The current study suggests a conceptual model to integrate established recirculating aquaculture practices into a near-zero discharge aquaponic system that efficiently utilizes water, excreted nutrients and organic matter for energy. The suggested model allows to significantly extend the planted area and recover energy in the form of biogas to operate the system off-grid. A mass balance model of nitrogen, carbon and energy was established and solved, based on data from the literature. Results demonstrate that a fish standing stock of about 700 kg would produce 3.4 tons of fish annually and enough nutrients to grow about 35 tons of tomatoes per year (chosen as a model plant and recover sufficient energy (70 kWh/day to run the system on biogas and use less water. If proven successful, this approach may play a major role in sustainably enhancing food security in rural and water scarce regions.

  5. Periodicity in a Conceptual Model of Glacial Cycles in the Absence of Milankovitch Forcing (United States)

    Hahn, J.; Walsh, J.; Widiasih, E.; McGehee, R.


    Previously, McGehee and Widiasih coupled Budyko's Energy Balance Model with dynamics of a latitudinal ice-line incorporating the albedo feedback effect. They reduced this model to a two-dimensional equation of global mean temperature and a latitudinal ice-line. With this conceptual model, we now include dynamics of the ablation and accumulation of ice, to form a three-dimensional system that partitions the regions of the Earth latitudinally into an accumulation zone, ablation zone, and ice-free zone. Motivated by the findings of Abe-Ouchi et al that the fast retreat of ice-sheets is due to an increased rate of ablation via the effects of delayed isostatic rebound, we incorporate a simple switching mechanism to the model which increases the rate of ablation during periods of glacial retreat. This forms a discontinuous system of the Earth's temperature and ice-volume in which we find a stable periodic orbit. This can be interpreted as a intrinsic cycling of the Earth's climate in the absence of Milankovitch forcing.

  6. Aerodynamic Modeling of Transonic Aircraft Using Vortex Lattice Coupled with Transonic Small Disturbance for Conceptual Design (United States)

    Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan


    The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).

  7. Accelerating the Integration of Distributed Water Solutions: A Conceptual Financing Model from the Electricity Sector. (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J; Ajami, Newsha K; Wyss, Noemi


    Modern challenges require new approaches to urban water management. One solution in the portfolio of potential strategies is the integration of distributed water infrastructure, practices, and technologies into existing systems. However, many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems in the US. The objective of this paper is to address these challenges by developing a conceptual model encompassing regulatory, financial, and governance components that can be used to incorporate new distributed water solutions into our current network. To construct the model, case studies of successfully implemented distributed electricity systems, specifically energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, were examined to determine how these solutions have become prominent in recent years and what lessons can be applied to the water sector in a similar pursuit. The proposed model includes four action-oriented elements: catalyzing change, establishing funding sources, using resource pathways, and creating innovative governance structures. As illustrated in the model, the water sector should use suite of coordinated policies to promote change, engage end users through fiscal incentives, and encourage research, development and dissemination of new technologies over time.

  8. Conceptual Network Model From Sensory Neurons to Astrocytes of the Human Nervous System. (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Yeo, Chai Kiat


    From a single-cell animal like paramecium to vertebrates like ape, the nervous system plays an important role in responding to the variations of the environment. Compared to animals, the nervous system in the human body possesses more intricate organization and utility. The nervous system anatomy has been understood progressively, yet the explanation at the cell level regarding complete information transmission is still lacking. Along the signal pathway toward the brain, an external stimulus first activates action potentials in the sensing neuron and these electric pulses transmit along the spinal nerve or cranial nerve to the neurons in the brain. Second, calcium elevation is triggered in the branch of astrocyte at the tripartite synapse. Third, the local calcium wave expands to the entire territory of the astrocyte. Finally, the calcium wave propagates to the neighboring astrocyte via gap junction channel. In our study, we integrate the existing mathematical model and biological experiments in each step of the signal transduction to establish a conceptual network model for the human nervous system. The network is composed of four layers and the communication protocols of each layer could be adapted to entities with different characterizations. We verify our simulation results against the available biological experiments and mathematical models and provide a test case of the integrated network. As the production of conscious episode in the human nervous system is still under intense research, our model serves as a useful tool to facilitate, complement and verify current and future study in human cognition.

  9. Ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing: a conceptual model to guide educators' efforts to stimulate student reflection. (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul


    Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.

  10. Evaluating quantitative and conceptual models of speech production: how does SLAM fare? (United States)

    Walker, Grant M; Hickok, Gregory


    In a previous publication, we presented a new computational model called SLAM (Walker & Hickok, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0903 ), based on the hierarchical state feedback control (HSFC) theory (Hickok Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(2), 135-145, 2012). In his commentary, Goldrick (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0946-9 ) claims that SLAM does not represent a theoretical advancement, because it cannot be distinguished from an alternative lexical + postlexical (LPL) theory proposed by Goldrick and Rapp (Cognition, 102(2), 219-260, 2007). First, we point out that SLAM implements a portion of a conceptual model (HSFC) that encompasses LPL. Second, we show that SLAM accounts for a lexical bias present in sound-related errors that LPL does not explain. Third, we show that SLAM's explanatory advantage is not a result of approximating the architectural or computational assumptions of LPL, since an implemented version of LPL fails to provide the same fit improvements as SLAM. Finally, we show that incorporating a mechanism that violates some core theoretical assumptions of LPL-making it more like SLAM in terms of interactivity-allows the model to capture some of the same effects as SLAM. SLAM therefore provides new modeling constraints regarding interactions among processing levels, while also elaborating on the structure of the phonological level. We view this as evidence that an integration of psycholinguistic, neuroscience, and motor control approaches to speech production is feasible and may lead to substantial new insights.

  11. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno


    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  12. Persistence of Salinity in Tsunami Effected Coastal Aquifers In Sri Lanka: Conceptual Models and Research Needs (United States)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Obeysekera, J.; Perera, L.; Gunatilaka, A.; Dharmagunawardane, H. A.; Liyanage, J.


    In addition to widespread destruction of life and property, December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami also caused extensive contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia that may have long term implications on the availability of water to a large number of people in coastal communities who rely on groundwater as the primary source of potable water. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. Data collected in monitoring wells showed drastic rise in the salinity. Immediately after the tsunami, widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but over pumping led to upconning of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. The conceptual model developed based on the initial observations assumed the existence of salinity front at the intruding saltwater from the sea at the bottom of the aquifer and a second front created from the top of the aquifer due to the saltwater infiltration from tsunami floods. Based on this model, the expectation of local and a team of scientists from USA sponsored by NSF who visited the affected areas was that the salinity should decrease with recharge from few seasonal rains associated with monsoons. It was also assumed that the intruded seawater should have vertically mixed with the fresh water in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection, thus reducing the saltwater concentrations. However, groundwater-monitoring data that have been collected during the last two years at a selected set of field sites suggests that high salinity levels are still persisting at some locations. We hypothesize that this long persistence is due to a combination of factors that were not taken into consideration in the

  13. Press Start (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  14. Conceptual model suitability for reproducing preferential flow paths in waste rock piles (United States)

    Broda, S.; Blessent, D.; Aubertin, M.


    Waste rocks are typically deposited on mining sites forming waste rock piles (WRP). Acid mine drainage (AMD) or contaminated neutral drainage (CND) with metal leaching from the sulphidic minerals adversely impact soil and water composition on and beyond the mining sites. The deposition method and the highly heterogeneous hydrogeological and geochemical properties of waste rock have a major impact on water and oxygen movement and pore water pressure distribution in the WRP, controlling AMD/CND production. However, the prediction and interpretation of water distribution in WRP is a challenging problem and many attempted numerical investigations of short and long term forecasts were found unreliable. Various forms of unsaturated localized preferential flow processes have been identified, for instance flow in macropores and fractures, heterogeneity-driven and gravity-driven unstable flow, with local hydraulic conductivities reaching several dozen meters per day. Such phenomena have been entirely neglected in numerical WRP modelling and are unattainable with the classical equivalent porous media conceptual approach typically used in this field. An additional complicating circumstance is the unknown location of macropores and fractures a priori. In this study, modeling techniques originally designed for massive fractured rock aquifers are applied. The properties of the waste rock material, found at the Tio mine at Havre Saint-Pierre, Québec (Canada), used in this modelling study were retrieved from laboratory permeability and water retention tests. These column tests were reproduced with the numerical 3D fully-integrated surface/subsurface flow model HydroGeoSphere, where material heterogeneity is represented by means of i) the dual continuum approach, ii) discrete fractures, and iii) a stochastic facies distribution framework using TPROGS. Comparisons with measured pore water pressures, tracer concentrations and exiting water volumes allowed defining limits and

  15. A conceptual sedimentological-geostatistical model of aquifer heterogeneity based on outcrop studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.


    Three outcrop studies were conducted in deposits of different depositional environments. At each site, permeability measurements were obtained with an air-minipermeameter developed as part of this study. In addition, the geological units were mapped with either surveying, photographs, or both. Geostatistical analysis of the permeability data was performed to estimate the characteristics of the probability distribution function and the spatial correlation structure. The information obtained from the geological mapping was then compared with the results of the geostatistical analysis for any relationships that may exist. The main field site was located in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico at an outcrop of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation. The second study was conducted on the walls of waste pits in alluvial fan deposits at the Nevada Test Site. The third study was conducted on an outcrop of an eolian deposit (miocene) south of Socorro, New Mexico. The results of the three studies were then used to construct a conceptual model relating depositional environment to geostatistical models of heterogeneity. The model presented is largely qualitative but provides a basis for further hypothesis formulation and testing.

  16. Regoaling: a conceptual model of how parents of children with serious illness change medical care goals. (United States)

    Hill, Douglas L; Miller, Victoria; Walter, Jennifer K; Carroll, Karen W; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David A; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S; Feudtner, Chris


    Parents of seriously ill children participate in making difficult medical decisions for their child. In some cases, parents face situations where their initial goals, such as curing the condition, may have become exceedingly unlikely. While some parents continue to pursue these goals, others relinquish their initial goals and generate new goals such as maintaining the child's quality of life. We call this process of transitioning from one set of goals to another regoaling. Regoaling involves factors that either promote or inhibit the regoaling process, including disengagement from goals, reengagement in new goals, positive and negative affect, and hopeful thinking. We examine these factors in the context of parental decision making for a seriously ill child, presenting a dynamic conceptual model of regoaling. This model highlights four research questions that will be empirically tested in an ongoing longitudinal study of medical decision making among parents of children with serious illness. Additionally, we consider potential clinical implications of regoaling for the practice of pediatric palliative care. The psychosocial model of regoaling by parents of children with a serious illness predicts that parents who experience both positive and negative affect and hopeful patterns of thought will be more likely to relinquish one set of goals and pursue a new set of goals. A greater understanding of how parents undergo this transition may enable clinicians to better support them through this difficult process.

  17. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach. (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C


    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substantiating the Conceptual Model of Branding of the Integrated Business Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nifatova Olena M.


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the theoretical foundations of the concept of branding and forming a conceptual model of branding of the integrated business structures. The concept of branding of IBS is systematized and synthesized by three directions: overview of theories of management of integrated business structures, based on the principle of economic integration; overview of the brand management models based on the principle of brand-oriented management; overview of management approaches, the essence of which is synthesized in the aspect of application to the management of brands of the integrated business structures. Special attention is paid to the factors influencing the efficiency of the process of integration of business structures. Further development of modelling the process of integration branding in the IBS system is of great importance, as the brands of two unifying companies usually have their own identities, unique features within the terms of formation of the brand’s style and philosophy. In such a fundamental issue it is necessary to define the strategy of brand integration, i.e. whether it will be a single brand, a joint brand, a flexible brand or a completely new one.

  19. Development of a Conceptual Model and Survey Instrument to Measure Conscientious Objection to Abortion Provision. (United States)

    Harris, Laura Florence; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Gerdts, Caitlin; Gil Urbano, Laura; González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Baffoe, Peter


    Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians' refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians' beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access-impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision. A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana. The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1) beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2) actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3) self-identification as a conscientious objector. The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection.

  20. A perspective on coherent structures and conceptual models for turbulent boundary layer physics (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen K.


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers have been analyzed to develop a unified conceptual model for the kinematics of coherent motions in low Reynolds number canonical turbulent boundary layers. All classes of coherent motions are considered in the model, including low-speed streaks, ejections and sweeps, vortical structures, near-wall and outer-region shear layers, sublayer pockets, and large-scale outer-region eddies. The model reflects the conclusions from the study of the simulated boundary layer that vortical structures are directly associated with the production of turbulent shear stresses, entrainment, dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, and the fluctuating pressure field. These results, when viewed from the perspective of the large body of published work on the subject of coherent motions, confirm that vortical structures may be considered the central dynamic element in the maintenance of turbulence in the canonical boundary layer. Vortical structures serve as a framework on which to construct a unified picture of boundary layer structure, providing a means to relate the many known structural elements in a consistent way.