WorldWideScience

Sample records for concentrated cyclic loading

  1. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  2. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  3. Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.

  4. Soil Fatigue Due To Cyclically Loaded Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength of the used materials. A literature study showed that, in contrast to steel structures and material engineering, there are no design codes or standards for fatigue of foundations and the surrounding ground masses in terms of shear strength reduction. Scientific efforts to study the fatigue behaviour of geomaterials are mainly focused on strain accumulation, while the reduction of shear strength of geomaterials has not been...

  5. Temperature rise of cyclicly loaded power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, H

    1984-09-01

    A calculation method for the current ratings of cyclicly loaded power cables is introduced, taking into account optional shapes of the load cycle as well as the drying-out of the soil. The method is based on the Fourier-analysis of the loss cycle, representing an extension of the calculation method of VDE 0298. It is shown, that the ''VDE-method'' gives good results for the thermal resistances, if an ''utility load cycle'' in accordance with VDE 0298 is supposed. Only for cycles deviating essentially from the utility load cycle, the thermal resistances calculated by the ''VDE-method'' may be too great. In these cases the represented method is advantageous and can be processed by the aid of microcomputers.

  6. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  7. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the response from laterally cyclic loading of monopiles a large centrifuge tests series is ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This paper will present some of the tests carried out with a focus on the influence of accumulation of rotation when changing...... the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions...

  8. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...

  9. Response of monopiles under cyclic lateral loading in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    Currently the main design guidelines propose to reduce the lateral resistance of offshore piles when accounting for cyclic loading. The present work provides results from laboratory tests in which such reduction has not occurred. The experimental investigation is based on testing a small......-scale monopile model in dense saturated sand. The experimental setup used to carry out the laboratory tests is able to apply thousands of load cycles and static loading to the monopile model. The purpose of the laboratory tests is to investigate the effects of cyclic loading on the lateral resistance...... of the monopile. It is shown that the soil-pile system becomes stiffer and more resistant after applying cyclic loading, depending on the number of cycles....

  10. Constitutive model and electroplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, Y; Du, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Many engineering structures in nuclear reactors, thermal power stations, chemical plants and aerospace vehicles are subjected to cyclic mechanic-thermal loading, which is the main cause of structural fatigue failure. Over the past twenty years, designers and researchers have paid great attention to the research on life prediction and elastoplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading. One of the key problems in elastoplastic analysis is to construct a reasonable constitutive model for cyclic plasticity. In the paper, the constitutive equations are briefly outlined. Then, the model is implemented in a finite element code to predict the response of cyclic loaded structural components such as a double-edge-notched plate, a grooved bar and a nozzle in spherical shell. Numerical results are compared with those from other theories and experiments

  11. INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT CYCLIC LOADING ON REINFORCED CONCRETE RESISTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Karpiuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study of reinforced concrete span bending structures under conditions of high-level cyclic loading. Previous studies on the development of physical models of bending reinforced concrete element fatigue resistance, cyclic effect of lateral forces, and methods of calculation, are important and appropriate owing to certain features and the essential specificity of the mentioned loading type. These primarily include the nonlinearity of deformation, damage accumulation in the form of fatigue micro- and macro-cracks, and exhausting destruction of construction materials. In this paper, key expressions determining the endurance limits of concrete, longitudinal reinforcement, and anchoring longitudinal reinforcement, which contribute to endurance throughout the entire construction, are considered. Establishing a link between stresses in the elements and deformations in the element under conditions of cyclic loading action is of equal importance because of the presence of cyclic stress-induced creep deformation.

  12. Progressive buckling under both constant axial load and cyclic distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Acker, D.; Lebey, J.

    1988-09-01

    Thin structures submitted to compressive loads must be carefully designed to avoid any risk of ruin by buckling. The aim of this paper is, first, to evidence that the critical buckling load may be notably lowered when cyclic strains are added to the compressive load and, secondly, to propose a practical rule of prevention against the ruin due to the progressive buckling phenomenon. This rule is validated by the results of numerous tests related to the entire range of modes of buckling (i.e. from fully plastic to fully elastic). Practical cases of interest for its use could mainly be those where cyclic thermal stresses are involved

  13. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  14. Ceramic breeder pebble bed packing stability under cyclic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunbo, E-mail: chunbozhang@fusion.ucla.edu [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed A. [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The feasibility of obtaining packing stability for pebble beds is studied. • The responses of pebble bed to cyclic loads have been presented and analyzed in details. • Pebble bed packing saturation and its applications are discussed. • A suggestion is made regarding the improvement of pebbles filling technique. - Abstract: Considering the optimization of blanket performance, it is desired that the bed morphology and packing state during reactor operation are stable and predictable. Both experimental and numerical work are performed to explore the stability of pebble beds, in particular under pulsed loading conditions. Uniaxial compaction tests have been performed for both KIT’s Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and NFRI’s Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble beds at elevated temperatures (up to 750 °C) under cyclic loads (up to 6 MPa). The obtained data shows the stress-strain loop initially moves towards the larger strain and nearly saturates after a certain number of cyclic loading cycles. The characterized FEM CAP material models for a Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed with an edge-on configuration are used to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of pebble bed under ITER pulsed operations. Simulation results have shown the cyclic variation of temperature/stress/strain/gap and also the same saturation trend with experiments under cyclic loads. Therefore, it is feasible for pebble bed to maintain its packing stability during operation when disregarding pebbles’ breakage and irradiation.

  15. Degradation forecast for PEMFC cathode-catalysts under cyclic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein-Jahromi, M.; Kermani, M. J.; Movahed, S.

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Fuel Cell (FC) components under cyclic loads is one of the biggest bottlenecks in FC commercialization. In this paper, a novel experimental based algorithm is presented to predict the Catalyst Layer (CL) performance loss during cyclic load. The algorithm consists of two models namely Models 1 and 2. The Model 1 calculates the Electro-Chemical Surface Area (ECSA) and agglomerate size (e.g. agglomerate radius, rt,agg) for the catalyst layer under cyclic load. The Model 2 is the already-existing model from our earlier studies that computes catalyst performance with fixed structural parameters. Combinations of these two Models predict the CL performance under an arbitrary cyclic load. A set of parametric/sensitivity studies is performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the percentage of Voltage Degradation Rate (VDR%) with rank 1 for the most influential one. Amongst the considered parameters (such as: temperature, relative humidity, pressure, minimum and maximum voltage of the cyclic load), the results show that temperature and pressure have the most and the least influences on the VDR%, respectively. So that, increase of temperature from 60 °C to 80 °C leads to over 20% VDR intensification, the VDR will also reduce 1.41% by increasing pressure from 2 atm to 4 atm.

  16. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  17. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  18. Multiaxial elastoplastic cyclic loading of austenitic 316L steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Polák, Jaroslav; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 40 (2017), s. 162-169 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic stress-strain curve * Multiaxial cyclic loading Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  19. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  20. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  1. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment...

  2. Assessment of burned coal shale properties based on cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygierek, Marcin; Kalisz, Piotr; Pacześniowski, Krzysztof; Pytlik, Andrzej; Zięba, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    Road surfaces that are subjected to cyclic loads generated by vehicle wheels must meet the requirements concerning the durability in the assumed period of use. The durability of the layered pavement construction systems depends on the value and frequency of the load as well as on the mechanical features of its individual layers. Layers of unbound, mechanically stabilized mixtures are a significant aspect of surfaces that are susceptible. Mixtures of this type can be applied both to the subgrade layers as well as to the bottom pavement layers, including the improved course. Considering the cyclic nature of the load on the surface of the entire system, mechanically stabilized layers are subject to continuous, but slow, densification during the period of use, which results in the formation of permanent deformations and so-called structural ruts. Post-mining waste is frequently used in road construction. which is the so-called burned shale that can be used for the bottom layers of the surface and layers of the improved subgrade (soil replacement). This material was the subject of the analysis. The evaluation was based mainly on the results of pilot studies covering cyclic loads of the layer/course made of the so-called red shale. The applied research method was aimed at preliminary assessment of its suitability for the assessment of the behaviour of the disintegrated medium under the conditions of test loads simulating the movement of vehicles.

  3. Assessment of burned coal shale properties based on cyclic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygierek Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road surfaces that are subjected to cyclic loads generated by vehicle wheels must meet the requirements concerning the durability in the assumed period of use. The durability of the layered pavement construction systems depends on the value and frequency of the load as well as on the mechanical features of its individual layers. Layers of unbound, mechanically stabilized mixtures are a significant aspect of surfaces that are susceptible. Mixtures of this type can be applied both to the subgrade layers as well as to the bottom pavement layers, including the improved course. Considering the cyclic nature of the load on the surface of the entire system, mechanically stabilized layers are subject to continuous, but slow, densification during the period of use, which results in the formation of permanent deformations and so-called structural ruts. Post-mining waste is frequently used in road construction. which is the so-called burned shale that can be used for the bottom layers of the surface and layers of the improved subgrade (soil replacement. This material was the subject of the analysis. The evaluation was based mainly on the results of pilot studies covering cyclic loads of the layer/course made of the so-called red shale. The applied research method was aimed at preliminary assessment of its suitability for the assessment of the behaviour of the disintegrated medium under the conditions of test loads simulating the movement of vehicles.

  4. Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymos, Nikos; Escoffier, Sandra; Gazetas, George; Garnier, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, “pinching” behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.

  5. Cyclic Loading of Growing Tissue in a Bioreactor: Mathematical Model and Asymptotic Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.; Cummings, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified 2D mathematical model for tissue growth within a cyclically-loaded tissue engineering scaffold is presented and analyzed. Such cyclic loading has the potential to improve yield and functionality of tissue such as bone and cartilage when

  6. Effect of loading history on cyclic stress-strain response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Weiss, B.; Melisova, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 314, 1/2 (2001), s. 1-6 ISSN 0921-5093. [TMS Annual Meeting. Nashville, 12.03.2000-16.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : cyclic plasticity * loading history * mean stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2001

  7. Empirical approach based on centrifuge testing for cyclic deformations of laterally loaded piles in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, P.; Lehane, B. M.; Zania, Varvara

    2018-01-01

    A systematic study into the response of monopiles to lateral cyclic loading in medium dense and dense sand was performed in beam and drum centrifuge tests. The centrifuge tests were carried out at different cyclic load and magnitude ratios, while the cyclic load sequence was also varied...

  8. Micromechanical studies of cyclic creep fracture under stress controlled loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Giessen, Erik; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    is based on numerical unit cell analyses for a planar polycrystal model with the grains and grain boundaries modeled individually, in order to investigate the interactions between the mechanisms involved and to account for the build-up of residual stress fields during cycling. The behaviour of a limiting......This paper deals with a study of intergranular failure by creep cavitation under stress-controlled cyclic loading conditions. Loading is assumed to be slow enough that diffusion and creep mechanisms (including grain boundary sliding) dominate, leading to intergranular creep fracture. This study...

  9. Infrared thermographic analysis of shape memory polymer during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszczak, Maria; Pieczyska, Elżbieta A; Maj, Michał; Kukla, Dominik; Tobushi, Hisaaki

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in polyurethane shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic tensile loadings conducted at various strain rates. Stress–strain characteristics were elaborated using a quasistatic testing machine, whereas the specimen temperature changes accompanying the deformation process were obtained with an infrared camera. We demonstrate a tight correlation between the mechanical and thermal results within the initial loading stage. The polymer thermomechanical behaviour in four subsequent loading-unloading cycles and the influence of the strain rate on the stress and the related temperature changes were also examined. In the range of elastic deformation the specimen temperature drops below the initial level due to thermoelastic effect whereas at the higher strains the temperature always increased, due to the dissipative deformation mechanisms. The difference in the characteristics of the specimen temperature has been applied to determine a limit of the polymer reversible deformation and analyzed for various strain rates. It was shown that at the higher strain rates higher values of the stress and temperature changes are obtained, which are related to higher values of the polymer yield points. During the cyclic loading a significant difference between the first and the second cycle was observed. The subsequent loading-unloading cycles demonstrated similar sharply shaped stress and temperature profiles and gradually decrease in values. (paper)

  10. Investigation on effectiveness of a prefabricated vertical drain during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indraratna, B; Ni, J; Rujikiatkamjorn, C

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) in enhancing the stability of soft soils during cyclic loading was investigated using triaxial cyclic loading tests. Both undrained and with PVD tests were employed to study the associated excess pore pressure and accumulated strain under the repeated loading condition. The loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio have been chosen to be the variables which influence the performance of soft clays. The experimental results illustrate that with PVDs, the excess pore water pressure generation during cyclic loading decreases significantly. It is found that the excess pore water pressure build up depends on both loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio. The excess pore water pressure will increase when each of them is increased. Furthermore, when the loading frequency is 0.1 Hz, the ratio of coefficient of consolidation under cyclic loading to that under static loading is almost one. With the increasing loading frequency, this ratio increases accordingly.

  11. Damage Model of Reinforced Concrete Members under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo Chen; Zhang, Jing Shu; Zhang, Yin Hua; Zhou, Jia Lai

    2018-06-01

    Based on the Kumar damage model, a new damage model for reinforced concrete members is established in this paper. According to the damage characteristics of reinforced concrete members subjected to cyclic loading, four judgment conditions for determining the rationality of damage models are put forward. An ideal damage index (D) is supposed to vary within a scale of zero (no damage) to one (collapse). D should be a monotone increasing function which tends to increase in the case of the same displacement amplitude. As for members under large displacement amplitude loading, the growth rate of D should be greater than that of D under small amplitude displacement loading. Subsequently, the Park-Ang damage model, the Niu-Ren damage model, the Lu-Wang damage model and the proposed damage model are analyzed for 30 experimental reinforced concrete members, including slabs, walls, beams and columns. The results show that current damage models do not fully matches the reasonable judgment conditions, but the proposed damage model does. Therefore, a conclusion can be drawn that the proposed damage model can be used for evaluating and predicting damage performance of RC members under cyclic loading.

  12. Bending cyclic load test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2018-02-01

    The failures induced by thermomechanical fatigue within crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are a common issue that can occur in any climate. In order to understand these failures, we confirmed the effects of compressive or tensile stresses (which were cyclically loaded on photovoltaic cells and cell interconnect ribbons) at subzero, moderate, and high temperatures. We found that cell cracks were induced predominantly at low temperatures, irrespective of the compression or tension applied to the cells, although the orientation of cell cracks was dependent on the stress applied. The fracture of cell interconnect ribbons was caused by cyclical compressive stress at moderate and high temperatures, and this failure was promoted by the elevation of temperature. On the basis of these results, the causes of these failures are comprehensively discussed in relation to the viscoelasticity of the encapsulant.

  13. Probabilistic analysis of flaw distribution on structure under cyclic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Choi, Young Hwan; Kim, Hho Jung

    2003-01-01

    Flaw geometries, applied stress, and material properties are major input variables for the fracture mechanics analysis. Probabilistic approach can be applied for the consideration of uncertainties within these input variables. But probabilistic analysis requires many assumptions due to the lack of initial flaw distributions data. In this study correlations are examined between initial flaw distributions and in-service flaw distributions on structures under cyclic load. For the analysis, LEFM theories and Monte Carlo simulation are applied. Result shows that in-service flaw distributions are determined by initial flaw distributions rather than fatigue crack growth rate. So initial flaw distribution can be derived from in-service flaw distributions

  14. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  15. [Prognostic significance of the cyclic AMP concentration in acute leukemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, E; Mittermayer, K; Schwarzmeier, J D

    1979-01-01

    In patients with acute leukemia (myeloblastic, lymphoblastic, undifferentiated) proliferation kinetics and cyclic adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration of the leukemic cells were studied for their significance in the prediction of responsiveness to cytostatic therapy. Patients with good clinical response had significantly faster turnover and lower cAMP-levels than those who failed to respond to treatment.

  16. Transient hydrogen diffusion analyses coupled with crack-tip plasticity under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Taketomi, Shinya; Miyazaki, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the material strengths of metals is known as the hydrogen embrittlement, which affects the structural integrity of a hydrogen energy system. In the present paper, we developed a computer program for a transient hydrogen diffusion-elastoplastic coupling analysis by combining an in-house finite element program with a general purpose finite element computer program to analyze hydrogen diffusion. In this program, we use a hypothesis that the hydrogen absorbed in the metal affects the yield stress of the metal. In the present paper, we discuss the effects of the cyclic loading on the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip. An important finding we obtained here is the fact that the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip greatly depends on the loading frequency. This result indicates that the fatigue lives of the components in a hydrogen system depend not only on the number of loading cycles but also on the loading frequency

  17. Failure mechanisms of closed-cell aluminum foam under monotonic and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsterdam, E.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.; Onck, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the differences in failure mechanisms of Alporas closed-cell aluminum foam under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The emphasis lies on aspects of crack nucleation and crack propagation in relation to the microstructure. The cell wall material consists of Al dendrites and an interdendritic network of Al 4 Ca and Al 22 CaTi 2 precipitates. In situ scanning electron microscopy monotonic tensile tests were performed on small samples to study crack nucleation and propagation. Digital image correlation was employed to map the strain in the cell wall on the characteristic microstructural length scale. Monotonic tensile tests and tension-tension fatigue tests were performed on larger samples to observe the overall fracture behavior and crack path in monotonic and cyclic loading. The crack nucleation and propagation path in both loading conditions are revealed and it can be concluded that during monotonic tension cracks nucleate in and propagate partly through the Al 4 Ca interdendritic network, whereas under cyclic loading cracks nucleate and propagate through the Al dendrites

  18. Small-Scale Testing Rig for Long-Term Cyclically Loaded Monopiles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    , and the period of the cyclic loading. However, the design guidance on these issues is limited. Thus, in order to investigate the pile behaviour for cyclically long-term loaded monopiles, a test setup for small-scale tests in saturated dense cohesionless soil is constructed and presented in here. The cyclic...... loading is applied mechanically by means of a testing rig, where the important input parameters: mean level, amplitude, number of cycles, and period of the loading can be varied. The results from a monotonic and a cyclic loading test on an open-ended aluminium pile with diameter = 100 mm and embedded...... length = 600 mm proves that the test setup is capable of applying the cyclic long-term loading. The plastic deformations during loading depend not only on the loading applied but also of the relative density of the soil and, thus, the tests are carried out with relative densities of 77-88%, i.e. similar...

  19. The influence of cyclic loading on gentamicin release from acrylic bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, JGE; Neut, D; Hazenberg, JG; Verkerke, GJ; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    Antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement is widely used in total joint replacement to reduce infections. Walking results in cyclic loading, which has been suggested to stimulate antibiotic release. The goal of this study is to compare antibiotic release from cyclically loaded bone cement with the

  20. The durability of waveguide fibers at cyclic change of loading, temperature and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, S.N.; Sultonov, U.; Shamsidinov, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to durability of waveguide fibers at cyclic change of loading, temperature and humidity. The mounting scheme and loading of sample is presented. The dependence of glass fiber durability on number of thermal cycles at various humidity rates was considered. The dependence of number of cycles on maximal loading at cyclic temperature change was studied.

  1. Assessment of Composite Delamination Self-Healing Under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the promise of self-healing materials for enhanced autonomous durability has been introduced using a micro-encapsulation technique where a polymer based healing agent is encapsulated in thin walled spheres and embedded into a base polymer along with a catalyst phase. For this study, composite skin-stiffener flange debonding specimens were manufactured from composite prepreg containing interleaf layers with a polymer based healing agent encapsulated in thin-walled spheres. Constant amplitude fatigue tests in three-point bending showed the effect of self-healing on the fatigue response of the skin-stiffener flange coupons. After the cycling that created debonding, fatigue tests were held at the mean load for 24 hours. For roughly half the specimens tested, when the cyclic loading was resumed a decrease in compliance (increase in stiffness) was observed, indicating that some healing had occurred. However, with continued cycling, the specimen compliance eventually increased to the original level before the hold, indicating that the damage had returned to its original state. As was noted in a prevoius study conducted with specimens tested under monotonically increasing loads to failure, healing achieved via the micro-encapsulation technique may be limited to the volume of healing agent available relative to the crack volume.

  2. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  3. Reliability prediction for structures under cyclic loads and recurring inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Jr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodology for determining the reliability of fracture control plans for structures subjected to cyclic loads. It considers the variability of the parameters involved in the problem, such as initial flaw and crack growth curve. The probability of detection (POD curve of the field non-destructive inspection method and the condition/environment are used as important factors for structural confidence. According to classical damage tolerance analysis (DTA, inspection intervals are based on detectable crack size and crack growth rate. However, all variables have uncertainties, which makes the final result totally stochastic. The material properties, flight loads, engineering tools and even the reliability of inspection methods are subject to uncertainties which can affect significantly the final maintenance schedule. The present methodology incorporates all the uncertainties in a simulation process, such as Monte Carlo, and establishes a relationship between the reliability of the overall maintenance program and the proposed inspection interval, forming a “cascade” chart. Due to the scatter, it also defines the confidence level of the “acceptable” risk. As an example, the damage tolerance analysis (DTA results are presented for the upper cockpit longeron splice bolt of the BAF upgraded F-5EM. In this case, two possibilities of inspection intervals were found: one that can be characterized as remote risk, with a probability of failure (integrity nonsuccess of 1 in 10 million, per flight hour; and other as extremely improbable, with a probability of nonsuccess of 1 in 1 billion, per flight hour, according to aviation standards. These two results are compared with the classical military airplane damage tolerance requirements.

  4. Finite element analysis of the biaxial cyclic tensile loading of the elastoplastic plate with the central hole: asymptotic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkova, Vera; Stepanova, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    For elastistoplastic structure elements under cyclic loading three types of asymptotic behavior are well known: shakedown, cyclic plasticity or ratcheting. In structure elements operating in real conditions ratcheting must always be excluded since it caused the incremental fracture of structure by means of the accumulation of plastic strains. In the present study results of finite-element (FEM) calculations of the asymptotical behavior of an elastoplastic plate with the central circular and elliptic holes under the biaxial cyclic loading for three different materials are presented. Incremental cyclic loading of the sample with stress concentrator (the central hole) is performed in the multifunctional finite-element package SIMULIA Abaqus. The ranges of loads found for shakedown, cyclic plasticity and ratcheting are presented. The results obtained are generalized and analyzed. Convenient normalization is suggested. The chosen normalization allows us to present all computed results, corresponding to separate materials, within one common curve with minimum scattering of the points. Convenience of the generalized diagram consists in a possibility to find an asymptotical behavior of an inelastic structure for materials for which computer calculations were not made.

  5. Bone healing response in cyclically loaded implants: Comparing zero, one, and two loading sessions per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros E Lima Bueno, Renan; Dias, Ana Paula; Ponce, Katia J; Wazen, Rima; Brunski, John B; Nanci, Antonio

    2018-05-31

    When bone implants are loaded, they are inevitably subjected to displacement relative to bone. Such micromotion generates stress/strain states at the interface that can cause beneficial or detrimental sequels. The objective of this study is to better understand the mechanobiology of bone healing at the tissue-implant interface during repeated loading. Machined screw shaped Ti implants were placed in rat tibiae in a hole slightly bigger than the implant diameter. Implants were held stable by a specially-designed bone plate that permits controlled loading. Three loading regimens were applied, (a) zero loading, (b) one daily loading session of 60 cycles with an axial force of 1.5 N/cycle for 7 days, and (c) two such daily sessions with the same axial force also for 7 days. Finite element analysis was used to characterize the mechanobiological conditions produced by the loading sessions. After 7 days, the implants with surrounding interfacial tissue were harvested and processed for histological, histomorphometric and DNA microarray analyses. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that the group subjected to repeated loading sessions exhibited a significant decrease in bone-implant contact and increase in bone-implant distance, as compared to unloaded implants and those subjected to only one loading session. Gene expression profiles differed during osseointegration between all groups mainly with respect to inflammatory and unidentified gene categories. The results indicate that increasing the daily cyclic loading of implants induces deleterious changes in the bone healing response, most likely due to the accumulation of tissue damage and associated inflammatory reaction at the bone-implant interface. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the critical plane and durability estimation for a multiaxial cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burago, N. G.; Nikitin, A. D.; Nikitin, I. S.; Yakushev, V. L.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed to determine the critical plane orientation according to the Findley criterion for the multiaxial cyclic loading. The cases of in-phase and anti-phase cyclic loading are considered. Calculations of the stress state are carried out for the system of the gas turbine engine compressor disk and blades for flight loading cycles. The formulas obtained are used for estimations of the fatigue durability of this essential element of structure.

  7. Cyclic complex loading of 316 stainless steel: Experiments and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, B.; Hourlier, F.; Dang Van, K.; Stolz, C.

    1981-01-01

    To test the ability of cyclic constitutive law established by mean of uniaxial test a benchmark is proposed. The calculated results using the model of Chaboche-Cordier-Dang Van are compared with experimental data obtained on cylindrical specimens undergoing simultaneously constant torque and cyclic tension. (orig.)

  8. Residual stresses under quasi-static and cyclic loading in shot peened Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Juergen; Schulze, Volker [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials; Hessert, Roland; Koenig, Gerhard [MTU Aero Engines, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The residual stress state induced by shot peening should be taken into account in the dimensioning of turbine components. Understanding the changes in the residual stress state caused by the application of quasi-static and cyclic loads is a prerequisite. In order to describe the residual stress state after quasi-static loading, several different shot peened Inconel 718 specimens were loaded isothermally up to specific tensile loadings. To analyze the residual stress state after cyclic loading, isothermal low cycle fatigue tests were performed. These tests were stopped after a defined number of cycles. Finally, after the specimens had been subjected to different loads, the surface residual stresses and - for special loadings - the residual stress depth distributions were determined experimentally by using X-ray diffraction. The surface - core model was adapted so that the complete residual stress depth distribution after quasi-static and cyclic loading can now be described. (orig.)

  9. Experimental Comparison of Non-Slender Piles under Static Loading and under Cyclic Loading in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the pile behavior of non-slender piles exposed to static and cyclic lateral loading is presented. The tests were conducted in a pressure tank at Aalborg University. This enabled the possibility of applying an overburden pressure to the soil. When conducting small......-scale tests at 1-g the determination of the friction angle and the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the soil are difficult and further these soil parameters varies greatly with depth. These uncertainties were avoided by application of an overburden pressure....

  10. Fracture studies on stainless steel straight pipes under earthquake-type cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, G.; Vishnuvardhan, S.; Gandhi, P.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the crack growth and cyclic fracture behaviour, which are required for realistic assessment of Leak Before Break (LBB) applicability, experimental investigations were carried out on straight pipes under quasi-crystal loading. Totally 13 pipes were tested; three were stainless steel welded (SSW) using conventional shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technique and the remaining specimens were Narrow Gap Welded (NGW). The fracture tests were carried out under load control, displacement control and combination of the two; the pipes were subjected to different amplitudes of load or load-line displacement (LLD), which were decided based on the response of the pipes under monotonic loading. Cyclic tearing and crack growth studies on eight straight pipes of the same material reported earlier in published literature are also considered for studying the results and understanding the behaviour. Under load control, with almost equal load amplitude, the NGW pipe exhibited improved life in comparison with SMAW pipe when both are subjected to cyclic loading. The crack growth and tearing instability behaviour of the pipes were studied. The same were found to be different for load control, displacement control and combined control tests. Based in the load-controlled experimental results, material specific plot between cyclic load amplitude (as a percentage of maximum load carrying capacity of a specimen under monotonic fracture) and number of cycles to failure was obtained. The results indicate that the piping components subjected to quasi-cyclic loading may fail in very less number of cycles even when the load amplitude is sufficiently below the monotonic fracture/collapse load. These studies will be helpful in designing nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components subjected to earthquake-type cyclic loading. (author)

  11. Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile......The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...

  12. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Monopiles are currently the most common foundations for offshore wind turbines, which are subjected to millions of cyclic loads that are still not well interpreted in the design guidelines. The accumulated rotation of the turbine and the change of foundation stiffness due to the long-term cyclic ...

  13. Damage evolution analysis of coal samples under cyclic loading based on single-link cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Nan; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhonghui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) response of coal samples under cyclic loading is measured. The results show that there is good positive relation between AE parameters and stress. The AE signal of coal samples under cyclic loading exhibits an obvious Kaiser Effect. The single-link cluster (SLC) method is applied to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of AE events and the damage evolution process of coal samples. It is found that a subset scale of the SLC structure becomes smaller and smaller when the number of cyclic loading increases, and there is a negative linear relationship between the subset scale and the degree of damage. The spatial correlation length ξ of an SLC structure is calculated. The results show that ξ fluctuates around a certain value from the second cyclic loading process to the fifth cyclic loading process, but spatial correlation length ξ clearly increases in the sixth loading process. Based on the criterion of microcrack density, the coal sample failure process is the transformation from small-scale damage to large-scale damage, which is the reason for changes in the spatial correlation length. Through a systematic analysis, the SLC method is an effective method to research the damage evolution process of coal samples under cyclic loading, and will provide important reference values for studying coal bursts.

  14. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  15. Bond-Slip Relationship for CFRP Sheets Externally Bonded to Concrete under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Cao, Shuangyin; Yang, Yue; Zhu, Juntao

    2018-02-26

    The objective of this paper was to explore the bond-slip relationship between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and concrete under cyclic loading through experimental and analytical approaches. Modified beam tests were performed in order to gain insight into the bond-slip relationship under static and cyclic loading. The test variables are the CFRP-to-concrete width ratio, and the bond length of the CFRP sheets. An analysis of the test results in this paper and existing test results indicated that the slope of the ascending segment of the bond-slip curve decreased with an increase in the number of load cycles, but the slip corresponding to the maximum shear stress was almost invariable as the number of load cycles increased. In addition, the rate of reduction in the slope of the ascending range of the bond-slip curve during cyclic loading decreased as the concrete strength increased, and increased as the load level or CFRP-to-concrete width ratio enhanced. However, these were not affected by variations in bond length if the residual bond length was longer than the effective bond length. A bilinear bond-slip model for CFRP sheets that are externally bonded to concrete under cyclic loading, which considered the effects of the cyclic load level, concrete strength, and CFRP-to-concrete ratio, was developed based on the existing static bond-slip model. The accuracy of this proposed model was verified by a comparison between this proposed model and test results.

  16. Seismic Load Rating Procedure for Welded Steel Frames Oligo-cyclic Fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, Mircea D.; Moisidis, Nicolae T.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic load rating approach for seismic qualification of cold-formed steel welded frames is presented. Allowable seismic loads are developed from cyclic and monotonic tests of standard cold-formed steel components commonly used for piping and electrical raceway supports. The method permits simplified qualification of all connections of frame components through a single load comparison. Test input consists of rotation/cycles-to-failure data and monotonic moment/rotation data. Cyclic data are statistically evaluated to determine an acceptable maximum seismic rotation for the connection. The allowable seismic load is determined from the corresponding static rotation. Application to seismic qualification procedures is discussed. (authors)

  17. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  18. Experimental Investigation on Deformation Failure Characteristics of Crystalline Marble Under Triaxial Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Ranjith, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The deformation failure characteristics of marble subjected to triaxial cyclic loading are significant when evaluating the stability and safety of deep excavation damage zones. To date, however, there have been notably few triaxial experimental studies on marble under triaxial cyclic loading. Therefore, in this research, a series of triaxial cyclic tests was conducted to analyze the mechanical damage characteristics of a marble. The post-peak deformation of the marble changed gradually from strain softening to strain hardening as the confining pressure increased from 0 to 10 MPa. Under uniaxial compression, marble specimens showed brittle failure characteristics with a number axial splitting tensile cracks; in the range of σ 3 = 2.5-7.5 MPa, the marble specimens assumed single shear fracture characteristics with larger fracture angles of about 65°. However, at σ 3 = 10 MPa, the marble specimens showed no obvious shear fracture surfaces. The triaxial cyclic experimental results indicate that in the range of the tested confining pressures, the triaxial strengths of the marble specimens under cyclic loading were approximately equal to those under monotonic loading. With the increase in cycle number, the elastic strains of the marble specimens all increased at first and later decreased, achieving maximum values, but the plastic strains of the marble specimens increased nonlinearly. To evaluate quantitatively the damage extent of the marble under triaxial cyclic loading, a damage variable is defined according to the irreversible deformation for each cycle. The evolutions of the elastic modulus for the marble were characterized by four stages: material strengthening, material degradation, material failure and structure slippage. Based on the experimental results of the marble specimens under complex cyclic loading, the cohesion of the marble decreased linearly, but the internal friction angles did not depend on the damage extent. To describe the peak strength

  19. A literature study on the effects of cyclic lateral loading of monopiles in cohesionless soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange Rasmussen, K. [Niras, Aalborg (Denmark); Hansen, Mette; Kirk Wolf, T. [COWI, Kgs. Lyngby, (Denmark); Ibsen, L.B.; Ravn Roesen, H. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Today, monopiles are the most typical foundation for offshore wind turbines. During their lifetime large diameter, stiff piles are subjected to millions of small cyclic loads due to environmental forces. The long-term cyclic loading can change the granular structure of the soil surrounding the pile. This may change the stiffness of the soil-pile system and create an accumulated rotation of the pile. The behaviour of the soil-pile system is very complex and the influence of soil parameters, number of load cycles, and size, amplitude and characteristic of the load are examined, as they all contribute to the rotation and the change in stiffness. The scope of this article is to outline current design methods and the state of the art knowledge within the subject of long-term cyclic, lateral loading of piles. (Author)

  20. Response of stiff piles in sand to long-term cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Houlsby, Guy T.; Byrne, Byron W.

    2010-01-01

    . To address this, a series of laboratory tests were conducted where a stiff pile in drained sand was subjected to between 8000 and 60000 cycles of combined moment and horizontal loading. A typical design for an offshore wind turbine monopile was used as a basis for the study, to ensure that pile dimensions...... and loading ranges were realistic. A complete non-dimensional framework for stiff piles in sand is presented and applied to interpret the test results. The accumulated rotation was found to be dependent on relative density and was strongly affected by the characteristics of the applied cyclic load. The pile...... stiffness increased with number of cycles, which contrasts with the current methodology where static p - y curves are degraded to account for cyclic loading. Methods are presented to predict the change in stiffness and the accumulated rotation of a stiff pile due to long-term cyclic loading. The use...

  1. Creep crack growth by grain boundary cavitation under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Feng; Srivastava, Ankit; Benzerga, Amine; Tu, Shan-Tung; Needleman, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Plane strain finite deformation finite element calculations of mode I crack growth under small scale creep conditions are carried out. Attention is confined to isothermal conditions and two time histories of the applied stress intensity factor: (i) a monononic increase to a plateau value subsequently held fixed; and (ii) a cyclic time variation. The crack growth calculations are based on a micromechanics constitutive relation that couples creep deformation and damage due to grain boundary cavitation. Grain boundary cavitation, with cavity growth due to both creep and diffusion, is taken as the sole failure mechanism contributing to crack growth. The influence on the crack growth rate of loading history parameters, such as the magnitude of the applied stress intensity factor, the ratio of the applied minimum to maximum stress intensity factors, the loading rate, the hold time and the cyclic loading frequency, are explored. The crack growth rate under cyclic loading conditions is found to be greater than under monotonic creep loading with the plateau applied stress intensity factor equal to its maximum value under cyclic loading conditions. Several features of the crack growth behavior observed in creep-fatigue tests naturally emerge, for example, a Paris law type relation is obtained for cyclic loading.

  2. Thermal and mechanical cyclic loading of thick spherical vessels made of transversely isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komijani, M.; Mahbadi, H.; Eslami, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain the dependency of the ratcheting, reversed plasticity, or shakedown behavior of spherical vessels made of some anisotropic materials to the stress category of imposed cyclic loading. The Hill anisotropic yield criterion with the kinematic hardening theories of plasticity based on the Prager and Armstrong–Frederick models are used to predict the yield of the vessel and obtain the plastic strains. An iterative numerical method is used to simulate the cyclic loading behavior of the structure. The effect of mean and amplitude of the mechanical and thermal loads on cyclic behavior and ratcheting rate of the vessel is investigated respectively. The ratcheting rate for the vessels made of transversely isotropic material is evaluated for the various ratios of anisotropy. -- Highlights: ► Cyclic loading analysis of anisotropic spheres is assessed. ► Using the Prager model results in ratcheting. ► Armstrong-Frederick model predicts ratcheting for load controlled cyclic loadings. ► The A-F model predicts ratcheting to a stabilized cycle for thermal loadings

  3. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  4. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete filled tubes (CFTs composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  5. Cyclic Elastoplastic Performance of Aluminum 7075-T6 Under Strain- and Stress-Controlled Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dylan; Wallbrink, Chris; Kourousis, Kyriakos I.

    2017-12-01

    Elastoplastic investigations of aerospace aluminum are important in the development of an understanding of the possible cyclic transient effects and their contribution to the material performance under cyclic loading. Cyclic plasticity can occur in an aerospace aluminum component or structure depending on the loading conditions and the presence of external and internal discontinuities. Therefore, it is vital that the cyclic transient effects of aerospace aluminum are recognized and understood. This study investigates experimentally the cyclic elastoplastic performance of aluminum 7075-T6 loaded in symmetric strain control, and asymmetric stress and strain control. A combination of cyclic hardening and softening was noticed from high strain amplitude symmetric strain-controlled tests and at low stress amplitude asymmetric stress-controlled tests. From asymmetric strain control results, the extent of mean stress relaxation depended on the size of the strain amplitude. Additionally, saturation of the ratcheting strain (plastic shakedown) was also found to occur during asymmetric stress control tests. The experimental results were further analyzed using published microstructure research from the past two decades to provide added explanation of the micro-mechanism contribution to the cyclic transient behavior.

  6. Effect of cyclic loading on the viscoplastic behaviour of Zircaloy 4 cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, P.; Gabriel, B.; Soniak, A.; Mardon, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    Most of the electricity being generated by nuclear energy load follow and remote control have become normal operating modes in the French PWR. In addition, EDF is developing a strategy of fuel sub-assembly burnup extension. Those operating conditions will lead to cyclic straining of the Zircaloy cladding tube which could induce damages. Therefore, EDF, CEA, and FRAMATOME has started a joint R and D cooperative program in order to investigate the mechanical behaviour of Zircaloy cladding tubes under cyclic loading. This paper is dealing with the effect of a pre-cyclic loading on the plasticity properties of Zircaloy 4 cladding tubes. Load controlled cyclic tests were carried out at 350 deg. C and 0.5 Hz in both axial and hoop directions. The Woehler curves were determined. Sequential tests combining pre-cyclic loading to 50 and 75 % fraction life with tension were then performed. It has ben noticed that the pre-cycling loading does not change the plastic flow curve of the Zircaloy 4 cladding tubes and therefore does not induce observable macroscopic damage. It has been concluded that a linear cumulative damage rule like ΣΔN(σ)/N r(σ) is very conservative. (author)

  7. Molecular Simulations of Cyclic Loading Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Atomistic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in many engineered bionanomaterials and electromechanical devices have imposed an urgent need on the understanding of the fatigue behavior and mechanism of CNT under cyclic loading conditions. To date, however, very little work has been done in this field. This paper presents the results of a theoretical study on the behavior of CNT subject to cyclic tensile and compressive loads using quasi-static molecular simulations. The Atomistic Finite Element Method (AFEM has been applied in the study. It is shown that CNT exhibited extreme cyclic loading resistance with yielding strain and strength becoming constant within limited number of loading cycles. Viscoelastic behavior including nonlinear elasticity, hysteresis, preconditioning (stress softening, and large strain have been observed. Chiral symmetry was found to have appreciable effects on the cyclic loading behavior of CNT. Mechanisms of the observed behavior have been revealed by close examination of the intrinsic geometric and mechanical features of tube structure. It was shown that the accumulated residual defect-free morphological deformation was the primary mechanism responsible for the cyclic failure of CNT, while the bond rotating and stretching experienced during loading/unloading played a dominant role on the strength, strain and modulus behavior of CNT.

  8. Effectiveness of screw surface coating on the stability of zirconia abutments after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Butignon, Luis Eduardo; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2012-01-01

    Different surface treatments have been developed in attempts to prevent the loosening of abutment screws. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of titanium alloy screws with tungsten-doped diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coating and uncoated screws in providing stability to zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic abutments after cyclic loading. Twenty prefabricated ZrO2 ceramic abutments on their respective external-hex implants were divided into two groups of equal size according to the type of screw used: uncoated titanium alloy screw (Ti) or titanium alloy screw with W-DLC coating (W-DLC/Ti). The removal torque value (preload) of the abutment screw was measured before and after loading. Cyclic loading between 11 and 211 N was applied at an angle of 30 degrees to the long axis of the implants at a frequency of 15 Hz. A target of 0.5 X 106 cycles was defined. Group means were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and the F test (α = .05). Before cyclic loading, the preload for Ti screws was significantly higher than that for W-DLC/Ti screws (P = .021). After cyclic loading, there was no significant difference between them (P = .499). Under the studied conditions, it can be concluded that, after cyclic loading, both abutment screws presented a significant reduction in the mean retained preload and similar effectiveness in maintaining preload.

  9. Micromechanics of intergranular creep failure under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Giessen, Erik; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    boundaries are modelled individually. The model incorporates power-law creep of the grains, viscous grain boundary sliding between grains as well as the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities until they coalesce and form microcracks. Study of a limiting case with a facet-size microcrack reveals....... The analyses provide some new understanding that helps to explain the sometimes peculiar behaviour under balanced cyclic creep. Copyright (C) 1996 Acta Metallurgica Inc....

  10. Effect of cyclic loading and retightening on reverse torque value in external and internal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong-Rae; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclic loading and screw retightening on reverse torque value (RTV) in external and internal type implants. Cement-retained abutments were connected with 30 Ncm torque to external and internal type implants. Experimental groups were classified according to implant connection type and retightening/loading protocol. In groups with no retightening, RTV was evaluated after cyclic loading for 100,000 cycles. In groups with retightening, RTV was measured after 3, 10, 100 cycles as well as every 20,000 cycles until 100,000 cycles of loading. Every group showed decreased RTV after cyclic loading. Before and after cyclic loading, external type implants had significantly higher RTVs than internal type implants. In external type implants, retightening did not affect the decrease in RTV. In contrast, retightening 5 times and retightening after 10 cycles of dynamic loading was effective for maintaining RTV in internal type implants. Retightening of screws is more effective in internal type implants than external type implants. Retightening of screws is recommended in the early stage of functional loading.

  11. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: hhw@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong, E-mail: inpcnyb@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  12. Cyclic loading tests on ceramic breeder pebble bed by discrete element modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Haibing; Shi, Tao; Ye, Minyou; Huang, Hongwen; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Methods of cyclic loading tests on the pebble beds were developed in DEM. • Size distribution and sphericity of the pebbles were considered for the specimen. • Mechanical responses of the pebble beds under cyclic loading tests were assessed. - Abstract: Complex mechanics and packing instability can be induced by loading operation on ceramic breeder pebble bed for its discrete nature. A numerical approach using discrete element method (DEM) is applied to study the mechanical performance of the ceramic breeder pebble bed under quasi-static and cyclic loads. A preloaded specimen can be made with servo-control mechanism, the quasi-static and dynamic stress-strain performances are studied during the tests. It is found that the normalized normal contact forces under quasi-static loads have the similar distributions, and increase with increasing loads. Furthermore, the relatively low volumetric strain can be absorbed by pebble bed after several loading and unloading cycles, but the peak normal contact force can be extremely high during the first cycle. Cyclic loading with target pressure is recommended for densely packing, irreversible volume reduction gradually increase with cycles, and the normal contact forces decrease with cycles.

  13. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  14. Physical Modelling of Bucket Foundation Under Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are a promising renewable energy source. The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a reliable and cost-effective concept for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation must be designed by accounting for the cyclic loading which might endanger the turbine...... functioning. In this article a 1g physical model of bucket foundation under horizontal and moment cyclic loading is described. A testing program including four tests was carried out. Every test was conducted for at least 30000 cycles, each with different loading features. The capability of the model...

  15. Effects of cyclic shear loads on strength, stiffness and dilation of rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanakorn Kamonphet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct shear tests have been performed to determine the peak and residual shear strengths of fractures in sandstone, granite and limestone under cyclic shear loading. The fractures are artificially made in the laboratory by tension inducing and saw-cut methods. Results indicate that the cyclic shear load can significantly reduce the fracture shear strengths and stiffness. The peak shear strengths rapidly decrease after the first cycle and tend to remain unchanged close to the residual strengths through the tenth cycle. Degradation of the first order asperities largely occurs after the first cycle. The fracture dilation rates gradually decrease from the first through the tenth cycles suggesting that the second order asperities continuously degrade after the first load cycle. The residual shear strengths are lower than the peak shear strengths and higher than those of the smooth fractures. The strength of smooth fracture tends to be independent of cyclic shear loading.

  16. A constitutive model for AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composites under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yuting; Sun, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the basic and essential features of the elastic-plastic response of the AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite subjected to off-axis cyclic loadings, a simple rate-independent constitutive model is proposed to describe the orthotropic material behavior for cyclic loadings. A one-parameter memory surface is introduced to distinguish the virgin deformation and the subsequent deformation process and to characterize the loading range effect. Cyclic softening is characterized by the change of generalized plastic modulus. By the vanishing yield surface assumption, a yield criterion is not needed and it is not necessary to consider loading and unloading separately. The model is compared with experimental results and good agreement is obtained.

  17. Cyclic response and early damage evolution in multiaxial cyclic loading of 316L austenitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, JUL (2017), s. 466-476 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic plasticity * Damage mechanism * Multiaxial straining Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  18. Experimental investigation of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Fariman; Rezayfar, Omid; Mirzababai, Rahmatollah

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to study the cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete beams in which steel fibers were added to the concrete mix. Seven similar geometrically specimens in full scale were studied under four- point bending test in the form of slow cyclic loading. One sample as a control specimen was made without steel fibers or 0% volume fraction (vf) and six other samples with 1, 2 and 4% vf of steel fibers in twin models. The maximum and ultimate resistance, ductility, degradation of loading and unloading stiffness, absorption and dissipation of energy and equivalent viscous damping were studied in this investigation and the effect of steel fibers on the cyclic behavior was compared with each other. Generally, the addition of steel fibers up to a certain limit value (vf = 2%) improves the cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete beams and results in the increase of maximum strength and ultimate displacement.

  19. Experimental Setup for Cyclic Lateral Loading of Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The majority of all offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles, i.e. large diameter stiff piles. During the environmental loading of the wind turbine the monopile is subjected to millions of load cycles which might cause an accumulated rotation of the wind turbine. In this paper the influe...

  20. Investigation of the fatigue crack opening under low cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daunys, M.; Taraskevicius, A.

    2003-01-01

    Low cycle loading crack opening under various load levels were investigated. Analytical method of the fatigue crack opening investigation was described using relations of crack surface displacements. Calculated results of the crack surface displacement were compared with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Simulation of cyclic stress-strain relation under non proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Zhu, Q.X.; Abel, A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of cyclic constitutive experiments have been conducted on 42 Cr Mo steel on MTS809 machine under tension-torsional loading. Thin-walled tube specimen were used. Two kinds of cruciform strain path have been investigated. The paper suggests a simple method for the calculation of stable cyclic stress and strain values based on a modified endochronic constitutive theory by redefined intrinsic time scale. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. On estimation of reliability for pipe lines of heat power plants under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verezemskij, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the possible methods to obtain a quantitative estimate of the reliability for pipe lines of the welded heat power plants under cyclic loading due to heating-cooling and due to vibration is considered. Reliability estimate is carried out for a common case of loading by simultaneous cycles with different amplitudes and loading asymmetry. It is shown that scattering of the breaking number of cycles for the metal of welds may perceptibly decrease reliability of the welded pipe line

  3. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  4. MONOTONIC AND CYCLIC LOADING SIMULATION OF STRUCTURAL STEELWORK BEAM TO COLUMN BOLTED CONNECTIONS WITH CASTELLATED BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAEID ZAHEDI VAHID

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently steel extended end plate connections are commonly used in rigid steel frame due to its good ductility and ability for energy dissipation. This connection system is recommended to be widely used in special moment-resisting frame subjected to vertical monotonic and cyclic loads. However improper design of beam to column connection can leads to collapses and fatalities. Therefore extensive study of beam to column connection design must be carried out, particularly when the connection is exposed to cyclic loadings. This paper presents a Finite Element Analysis (FEA approach as an alternative method in studying the behavior of such connections. The performance of castellated beam-column end plate connections up to failure was investigated subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading in vertical and horizontal direction. The study was carried out through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of arranging the geometry and location of openings were also been investigated.

  5. Fatigue Performance of SFPSC under Hot-Wet Environments and Cyclic Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structural material named “steel fiber polymer structural concrete (SFPSC” with features of both high strength and high toughness was developed by this research group and applied to the bridge superstructures in the hot-wet environments. In order to investigate the fatigue performance and durability of SFPSC under hot-wet environments, the environment and fatigue load uncoupling method and the coupling action of environment and fatigue load were used or developed. Three-point bending fatigue experiments with uncoupling action of environments and cyclic loads were carried out for SFPSC specimens which were pretreated under hot-wet environments, and the experiments with the coupling action of environments and cyclic loads for SFPSC specimens were carried out under hot-wet environments. Then, the effects of hot-wet environments and the experimental methods on the fatigue mechanism of SFPSC material were discussed, and the environmental fatigue equations of SFPSC material under coupling and uncoupling action of hot-wet environments and cyclic bending loads were established. The research results show that the fatigue limits of SFPSC under the coupling action of the environments and cyclic loads were lower about 15%. The proposed fatigue equations could be used to estimate the fatigue lives and fatigue limits of SFPSC material.

  6. Instantaneous angular speed monitoring of gearboxes under non-cyclic stationary load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in the condition monitoring and asset management market have led to the commercialisation of online vibration-monitoring systems. These systems are primarily utilised to monitor large mineral mining equipment such as draglines, continuous miners and hydraulic shovels. Online monitoring systems make diagnostic information continuously available for asset management, production outsourcing and maintenance alliances with equipment manufacturers. However, most online vibration-monitoring systems are based on conventional vibration-monitoring technologies, which are prone to giving false equipment deterioration warnings on gears that operate under fluctuating load conditions. A simplified mathematical model of a gear system was developed to illustrate the feasibility of monitoring the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) as a means of monitoring the condition of gears that are subjected to fluctuating load conditions. A distinction is made between cyclic stationary load modulation and non-cyclic stationary load modulation. It is shown that rotation domain averaging will suppress the modulation caused by non-cyclic stationary load conditions but will not suppress the modulation caused by cyclic stationary load conditions. An experimental investigation on a test rig indicated that the IAS of a gear shaft could be monitored with a conventional shaft encoder to indicate a deteriorating gear fault condition.

  7. Bond–Slip Relationship for CFRP Sheets Externally Bonded to Concrete under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Cao, Shuangyin; Yang, Yue; Zhu, Juntao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to explore the bond–slip relationship between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and concrete under cyclic loading through experimental and analytical approaches. Modified beam tests were performed in order to gain insight into the bond–slip relationship under static and cyclic loading. The test variables are the CFRP-to-concrete width ratio, and the bond length of the CFRP sheets. An analysis of the test results in this paper and existing test results indicated that the slope of the ascending segment of the bond–slip curve decreased with an increase in the number of load cycles, but the slip corresponding to the maximum shear stress was almost invariable as the number of load cycles increased. In addition, the rate of reduction in the slope of the ascending range of the bond–slip curve during cyclic loading decreased as the concrete strength increased, and increased as the load level or CFRP-to-concrete width ratio enhanced. However, these were not affected by variations in bond length if the residual bond length was longer than the effective bond length. A bilinear bond–slip model for CFRP sheets that are externally bonded to concrete under cyclic loading, which considered the effects of the cyclic load level, concrete strength, and CFRP-to-concrete ratio, was developed based on the existing static bond–slip model. The accuracy of this proposed model was verified by a comparison between this proposed model and test results. PMID:29495383

  8. Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soils Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and discusses the composite behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil mass. It presents the results of a series of large-scale laboratory tests supported by analytical methods to examine the performance of geogrid reinforcement subjected to static and cyclic pullout loading. The testing equipment and procedures used for this investigation are outlined. The results show that geosynthetic reinforcement can mobilize great resistance to static pulling load under high confining pressures. The reinforcement exhibits gradual deformation under cyclic loading showing no sign of imminent pullout failure for all levels of applied loads. In general, the results demonstrate that geosynthetic can be used in situations where loads are non-static, although care will be required in ensuring that appropriate factors of safety are applied to control the resulting deformation. A simplified analytical model for calculating the pulling capacity of geosynthetic reinforcement is proposed.

  9. Cyclic deformation and fatigue data for Ti–6Al–4V ELI under variable amplitude loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio E. Carrion

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the strain-based experimental data for Ti–6Al–4V ELI under non-constant amplitude cyclic loading. Uniaxial strain-controlled fatigue experiments were conducted under three different loading conditions, including two-level block loading (i.e. high-low and low-high, periodic overload, and variable amplitude loading. Tests were performed under fully-reversed, and mean strain/stress conditions. For each test conducted, two sets of data were collected; the cyclic stress–strain response (i.e. hysteresis loops in log10 increments, and the peak and valley values of stress and strain for each cycle. Residual fatigue lives are reported for tests with two-level block loading, while for periodic overload and variable amplitude experiments, fatigue lives are reported in terms of number of blocks to failure.

  10. Simulation of pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading using Finite Volume Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Hededal, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model...... with an advanced elastoplastic model suitable for describing monotonic as well as cyclic loading conditions. The finite volume method is applied to discretize these formulations. The resulting set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations are then solved by a ’segregated’ solution procedure. An efficient return...

  11. Literature review on cyclic lateral loading effects of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanov, Lachezar Rosenov; Duroska, Peter; Quirante, Cesar Antonio Garcia

    2016-01-01

    and consequently cost-effectiveness compared to other common solutions. The long-term cyclic loading can cause degradation of soil-bucket system stiffness, which yields into accumulated and permanent deformations. Despite of the advantages, there is no standard procedure to design the foundation especially...... calculation is highly demanded at the different design phases. The intention of the current study is to present, review and summarize the existing techniques to assess the effect of cyclic loading on Mono-Bucket foundations while emphasizing the advantage and disadvantage of each of them. Additionally...

  12. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  13. Effect of reverse cyclic loading on the fracture resistance curve of nuclear piping material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weon, Jong Il; Seok, Chang Sung

    1999-01-01

    Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analyses, are known to be dependent on the cyclic loading history. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of reverse cyclic loading on J-R curves in CT specimens. The effect of two parameters was observed on the J-R curves during the reverse cyclic loading. One was the minimum-to-maximum load ratio (R) and the other was the incremental plastic displacement (δ cycle /δ i ), which is related to the amount of crack growth that occurs in a cycle. Fracture resistance test on CT specimens with varying load ratio and incremental plastic displacement were performed. For the SA 516 Gr. 70 steel, the results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with decreasing the load ratio and the incremental plastic displacement. When the load ratio was set to -1, the results of the J-R curves and the J i value were about 40-50 percent of those for the monotonic loading condition. Also on condition that the incremental plastic displacement reached 1/40, the J-R curves and the J i value were about 50-60 percent of those for the incremental plastic displacement of 1/10

  14. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  15. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  16. Application of SVR with chaotic GASA algorithm in cyclic electric load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen Yu; Hong, Wei-Chiang; Dong, Yucheng; Tsai, Gary; Sung, Jing-Tian; Fan, Guo-feng

    2012-01-01

    The electric load forecasting is complicated, and it sometimes reveals cyclic changes due to cyclic economic activities or climate seasonal nature, such as hourly peak in a working day, weekly peak in a business week, and monthly peak in a demand planned year. Hybridization of support vector regression (SVR) with chaotic sequence and evolutionary algorithms has successfully been applied to improve forecasting accuracy, and to effectively avoid trapping in a local optimum. However, it has not been widely explored to employ SVR-based model to deal with cyclic electric load forecasting. This paper will firstly investigate the potentiality of a novel hybrid algorithm, namely chaotic genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm (CGASA), with an SVR model to improve load forecasting accurate performance. In which, the proposed CGASA employs internal randomness of chaotic iterations to overcome premature local optimum. Secondly, the seasonal mechanism will then be applied to well adjust the cyclic load tendency. Finally, a numerical example from an existed reference is employed to compare the forecasting performance of the proposed SSVRCGASA model. The forecasting results show that the SSVRCGASA model yields more accurate forecasting results than ARIMA and TF-ε-SVR-SA models. -- Highlights: ► Hybridizing the seasonal adjustment mechanism into an SVR model. ► Employing chaotic sequence to improve the premature convergence of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. ► Successfully providing significant accurate monthly load demand forecasting.

  17. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...... of a monopile in sand subjected to a long-term cyclic lateral loading is investigated by means of small scale tests. The tests are conducted with a mechanical loading rig capable of applying the cyclic loading as a sine signal with varying amplitude, mean loading level, and loading period for more than 60 000...... cycles. The tests are conducted in dense saturated sand. The maximum moment applied in the cyclic tests is varied from 18% to 36% of the ultimate lateral resistance found in a static loading test. The tests reveal that the accumulated rotation can be expressed by use of a power function. Further, static...

  18. THE STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC ALTERNATING LOADING AND LOW CYCLE LOAD OF CONSTANT SIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semina Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of reinforced concrete elements under some types of cyclic loads is described in the paper. The main aim of the investigations is research of the stress-strain state and strength of the inclined sections of reinforced concrete beam elements in conditions of systemic impact of constructive factors and the factor of external influence. To spotlight the problem of cyclic loadings three series of tests were conducted by the author. Firstly, the analysis of the tests showed that especially cyclic alternating loading reduces the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams and their crack resistance by 20 % due to the fatigue of concrete and reinforcement. Thus the change of load sign creates serious changes of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beam elements. Low cycle loads of constant sign effect the behavior of the constructions not so adversely. Secondly, based on the experimental data mathematical models of elements’ strength were obtained. These models allow evaluating the impact of each factor on the output parameter not only separately, but also in interaction with each other. Furthermore, the material spotlighted by the author describes stress-strain state of the investigated elements, cracking mechanism, changes of deflection values, the influence of mode cyclic loading during the tests. Since the data on the subject are useful and important to building practice, the ultimate aim of the tests will be working out for improvement of nonlinear calculation models of span reinforced concrete constructions taking into account the impact of these loads, and also there will be the development of engineering calculation techniques of their strength, crack resistance and deformability.

  19. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, V.

    2001-11-01

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10 -5 ) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  20. Twinning behavior in the Ti-5at.% Al single crystals during cyclic loading along [0001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic deformation behavior of Ti-5at.% Al single crystals subjected to pull-push cyclic load along [0001] crystallographic orientation was studied. A higher cyclic stress response was displayed in the Ti-5Al single crystal oriented for [0001] than that oriented for single prism slip. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examinations show that twinning is a dominant plastic deformation mode in the single crystals during cycling. Trace analysis of prepolished surfaces was used to identify the twin systems primarily responsible for deformation. The major twin type observed was {101-bar 2}, {112-bar 2}, {101-bar 1} and {112-bar 1}. slip was observed in the neighboring region of twins in the fatigued specimens. The activation of multiple twinning systems contributed to the higher cyclic saturation stress in Ti-5Al single crystals oriented for [0001

  1. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    was similar for both sets and the maximum crack width was kept constant throughout the exposure period by means of precracking and an external prestressed reinforcement. Chloride profiles after 40 days revealed a considerable increase in ingress towards the crack tip in contrast to data from the literature....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  2. Cyclic Loading of Growing Tissue in a Bioreactor: Mathematical Model and Asymptotic Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.

    2013-10-24

    A simplified 2D mathematical model for tissue growth within a cyclically-loaded tissue engineering scaffold is presented and analyzed. Such cyclic loading has the potential to improve yield and functionality of tissue such as bone and cartilage when grown on a scaffold within a perfusion bioreactor. The cyclic compression affects the flow of the perfused nutrient, leading to flow properties that are inherently unsteady, though periodic, on a timescale short compared with that of tissue proliferation. A two-timescale analysis based on these well-separated timescales is exploited to derive a closed model for the tissue growth on the long timescale of proliferation. Some sample numerical results are given for the final model, and discussed. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  3. Quantitative damage and detwinning analysis of nanotwinned copper foil under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung-Gil; Boles, Steven T.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Schwaiger, Ruth; Eberl, Christoph; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Cu samples containing parallel columns of highly aligned nanotwins with median spacing of ∼25 nm were subjected to tension–compression cyclic loading by a high-throughput cyclic testing method. The methodology utilizes gradients in surface strain amplitude of a vibrating cantilever: one along the beam axis, with decreasing strain from the fixed to the free end of the beam, and the other through the foil thickness with decreasing strain from the surface to the neutral axis. Systematic microstructural investigations indicate that nanotwins are not stable under cyclic loading and that the applied strain amplitude has a strong influence on the resulting twin structure. In the highly stressed regions the detwinning process produces a twin free microstructure, allowing for subsequent extrusion and crack formation, and introduces fatal defects into structural parts

  4. Plastic strain accumulation during asymmetric cyclic loading of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpurohit, R.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric cyclic loading leads to accumulation of cyclic plastic strain and reduces the fatigue life of components. This phenomenon is known as ratcheting fatigue. Zircaloy-2 is a important structural material in nuclear reactors and used as pressure tubes and fuel cladding in pressurized light and heavy water nuclear reactors. Due to power fluctuations, these components experience plastic strain cycles in the reactor and their life is reduced due to strain cycles. Power fluctuations also cause asymmetric straining of the material and leads to accumulation of plastic strain. The present investigation deals with the effect of the magnitude of mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate on hardening/softening behavior of Zircaloy-2 under asymmetric cyclic loading, at room temperature. It was observed that plastic strain accumulation increased with mean stress and stress amplitude; however, it decreased with stress rate. (author)

  5. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    Today, 80 % of all European offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles. A cost-effective alternative to the monopile is the mono bucket foundation. For an offshore wind turbine foundation in open seas, the dominant load is often coming from waves. During storms, large waves are formed...... the foundation is sucked to the seabed, creating extra capacity during the impact. Over the life-time of an offshore wind turbine foundation will be hit by millions of waves. Each wave might lead to a permanent rotation of the foundation. Therefore, it is important to be able to estimate the total deformation...

  6. Crack Growth in Mercury Embrittled Aluminum Alloys under Cyclic and Static Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    STATEMENT (ol the abalract entered In Block 20, It dlHerent from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES This was a thesis in partial fulfillment of...argued that the strengthening that occurs from cold rolling suppresses crack nucleation at the surface under monotonlc loading. Under cyclic loading...precracking. Copper was chosen because It can be easily electrodeposited on aluminum, easily wet with mercury, and remains wet almost indefinitely

  7. A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Nuo Duan; Yi Pik Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance ...

  8. Correlation of Mission Type to Cyclic Loading as a Basis for Agile Military Aircraft Asset Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2016-01-01

    Military attack aircraft are susceptible to the harmful effects of widespread fatigue damage caused by cyclic loading of structural components, which leads to airframe retirement. Modern structural health monitoring techniques use a multitude of sensors and high data collection rates. Some legacy

  9. Removal torque evaluation of three different abutment screws for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepoemsin, T; Reichart, P A; Chaijareenont, P; Strietzel, F P; Khongkhunthian, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque of three different abutment screws and pull out strength of implant-abutment connection for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading. The study was performed in accordance with ISO 14801:2007. Three implant groups (n=15) were used: group A, PW Plus® with flat head screw; group B, PW Plus® with tapered screw; and group C, Conelog® with flat head screw. All groups had the same implant-abutment connection feature: cone with mandatory index. All screws were tightened with manufacturer's recommended torque. Ten specimens in each group underwent cyclic loading (1×106 cycles, 10 Hz, and 250 N). Then, all specimens were un-tightened, measured for the removal torque, and underwent a tensile test. The force that dislodged abutment from implant fixture was recorded. The data were analysed using independent sample t-test, ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Before cyclic loading, removal torque in groups A, B and C were significantly different (B> A> C, Pabutment from implant fixture increased immensely after cyclic loading.

  10. Behavior of prestressed concrete subjected to low temperatures and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Concrete has exhibited excellent behavior in cryogenic containment vessels for several decades under essentially static conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the response of prestressed lightweight concrete subjected to high-intensity cyclic loading and simultaneous cryogenic thermal shock, simulating the relatively dynamic conditions encountered offshore or in seismic areas. Lightweight concrete has several attractive properties for cryogenic service including: (1) very low permeability, (2) good strain capacity, (3) relatively low thermal conductivity, and (4) a low modulus of elasticity. Experimental results indicated that the mechanical properties of plain lightweight concrete significantly increase with moisture content at low temperatures, while cyclic loading fatigue effects are reduced at low temperatures. Also, tests on uniaxially and on biaxially prestressed lightweight concrete both indicate that the test specimens performed well under severe cyclic loading and cryogenic thermal shock with only moderate reduction in flexural stiffness. Supplementary tests conducted in this study indicate that conventionally reinforced concrete degrades significantly faster than prestressed concrete when subjected to cyclic loading and thermal shock

  11. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show

  12. Evaluation of torque loss in Co-Cr castable abutments after cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Zeighami

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Misfit between the castable implant components can cause torque loss before and after cyclic loading. However, it is more appropriate to relate the results of this study to the screw loosening of the above mentioned abutments than judging their clinical performance.

  13. Effect of reverse cyclic loading on the fracture resistance curve in C(T) specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Seok, C.; Jin Kim, Y.; Il Weon, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analyses, are known to be dependent on the cyclic loading history. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of reverse cyclic loading on the J-R curves in C(T) specimens. The effect of two parameters was observed on the J-R curves during the reverse cyclic loading. One was the minimum-to-maximum load ratio (R) and the other was the incremental plastic displacement (δ cycle /δ i ), which is related to the amount of crack growth that occurs in a cycle. Fracture resistance tests on C(T) specimens with varying the load ratio and the incremental plastic displacement were performed, and the test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with decreasing the load ratio and decreasing the incremental plastic displacement. Direct current potential drop (DCPD) method was used for the detection of crack initiation and crack growth in typical laboratory J-R tests. The values of crack initiation J-integral (J I ) and crack initiation displacement (δ i ) were also obtained by using the DCPD method. (orig.)

  14. Cyclic loading of thick vessels based on the Prager and Armstrong-Frederick kinematic hardening models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbadi, H.; Eslami, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to relate the type of stress category in cyclic loading to ratcheting or shakedown behaviour of the structure. The kinematic hardening theory of plasticity based on the Prager and Armstrong-Frederick models is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behaviour of thick spherical and cylindrical vessels under load and deformation controlled stresses. It is concluded that kinematic hardening based on the Prager model under load and deformation controlled conditions, excluding creep, results in shakedown or reversed plasticity for spherical and cylindrical vessels with the isotropy assumption of the tension/compression curve. Under an anisotropy assumption of the tension/compression curve, this model predicts ratcheting. On the other hand, the Armstrong-Frederick model predicts ratcheting under load controlled cyclic loading and reversed plasticity for deformation controlled stress. The interesting conclusion is that the Armstrong-Frederick model is well capable to predict the experimental data under the assumed type of stresses, wherever experimental data are available

  15. Evaluation of the base/subgrade soil under repeated loading : phase II, in-box and ALF cyclic plate load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This research study aims at evaluating the performance of base and subgrade soil in flexible pavements under repeated loading test conditions. For this purpose, an indoor cyclic plate load testing equipment was developed and used to conduct a series ...

  16. Modelling the drained response of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines under general monotonic and cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The response of bucket foundations on sand subjected to planar monotonic and cyclic loading is investigated in the paper. Thirteen monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests on a skirted footing model having a 0.3 m diameter and embedment ratio equal to 1 are presented. The loading regime reproduces t...

  17. Stress release during cyclic loading of 20 nm palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukáč, František; Vlček, Marián; Vlach, Martin; Wagner, Stefan; Uchida, Helmut; Pundt, Astrid; Bell, Anthony; Čížek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Repeated hydrogenation of 20 nm Pd films was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction. • Hydride precipitates form coherent interfaces with matrix in nanocrystalline and epitaxial thin films. • Grain boundaries affect precipitation of the hydride phase in the nanocrystalline film. • Stress in epitaxial film is tensile due to different thermal expansion of Pd and sapphire. • After hydrogen absorption/desorption cycle the stress in both films becomes tensile. - Abstract: Gas phase loading of nanocrystalline and epitaxial 20 nm Pd films deposited on single crystalline sapphire substrates was studied in this work. The nanocrystalline film was deposited at room temperature and the epitaxial film deposited at 800 °C. The nanocrystalline film suffers from in-plane compressive stress imposed by atomic peening processes. The epitaxial film exhibits tensile stress caused by the different thermal expansion coefficients of Pd and sapphire substrate. Coherent phase transition into the hydride phase was observed both for the nanocrystalline and for the epitaxial film. For both films, the lattice parameters continuously increase during the phase transition to the hydride phase. Both films exhibit enhanced hydride formation pressure compared to bulk Pd. Misfit dislocations are formed at interface between Pd film and substrate during hydrogenation. This leads to irreversible change of stress state of the films subjected to sorption and desorption cycle with hydrogen

  18. Deformation Behavior of Recycled Concrete Aggregate during Cyclic and Dynamic Loading Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA is a relatively new construction material, whose applications can replace natural aggregates. To do so, extensive studies on its mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics are still necessary. RCA is currently used as a subbase material in the construction of roads, which are subject to high settlements due to traffic loading. The deformation characteristics of RCA must, therefore, be established to find the possible fatigue and damage behavior for this new material. In this article, a series of triaxial cyclic loading and resonant column tests is used to characterize fatigue in RCA as a function of applied deviator stress after long-term cyclic loading. A description of the shakedown phenomenon occurring in the RCA and calculations of its resilient modulus (Mr as a function of fatigue are also presented. Test result analysis with the stress-life method on the Wohler S-N diagram shows the RCA behavior in accordance with the Basquin law.

  19. Smart aggregate based damage detection of circular RC columns under cyclic combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehy, Yashar; Belarbi, Abdeldjelil; Mo, Y L; Gu, Haichang; Song, Gangbing

    2010-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important issue for the maintenance of large-scale civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns. In this paper, an innovative piezoceramic-based approach is developed for the structural health monitoring of reinforced concrete columns. An innovative piezoceramic-based device, the smart aggregate, is utilized as a transducer for the purpose of health monitoring. To investigate the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns, structural health monitoring tests were performed on two bridge columns under combined reversed cyclic loading at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. The proposed smart aggregate based approach successfully evaluated the health status of concrete columns during the loading procedure. Sensor energy plots and 3D normalized sensor energy plots demonstrated that the damage inside attenuated the transmitted energy. The wavelet packet based damage index and sensor history damage index evaluate the damage development in concrete columns under cyclic loading

  20. Test method research on weakening interface strength of steel - concrete under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Zhang, Fang-hua; Su, Guang-quan

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface under cyclic loading are the key factors affecting the rule of horizontal load transfer, the calculation of bearing capacity and cumulative horizontal deformation. Cyclic shear test is an effective method to study the strength reduction of steel - concrete interface. A test system composed of large repeated direct shear test instrument, hydraulic servo system, data acquisition system, test control software system and so on is independently designed, and a set of test method, including the specimen preparation, the instrument preparation, the loading method and so on, is put forward. By listing a set of test results, the validity of the test method is verified. The test system and the test method based on it provide a reference for the experimental study on mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface.

  1. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Jay C. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: jay.hanan@okstate.edu; Mahesh, Sivasambu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: ersan@caltech.edu; Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swift, Geoffrey A. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture.

  2. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Mahesh, Sivasambu; Uestuendag, Ersan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Swift, Geoffrey A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald W.; Bourke, Mark A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al 2 O 3 -fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture

  3. Determination of babbit mechanical properties based on tin under static and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernin, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the results of studies of babbitt on the basis of tin under static loading under three types of stress state, the parameters of the criterion for the equivalence of stressed states were refined and a single diagram of the babbitt deformation was obtained. It is shown that the criterion of equivalence for static loading should contain the first principal stress and stress intensity. With cyclic loading, the first main voltage can be used as a criterion. The stages of development of fatigue cracks are described and it is logical to use a statistical approach to reveal the boundary of the transition from short cracks to macrocracks, based on a significant difference in the characteristics of the dispersion of the crack speeds at these two stages. The results of experimental studies of the cyclic crack resistance of babbitt are presented and the parameters of this boundary are obtained.

  4. Durability of polymer/metal interfaces under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tianbao

    Fatigue crack growth along metal/epoxy interface was examined in an aqueous environment and under mixed-mode conditions. A stress corrosion cracking mechanism was identified in this process. The fatigue crack growth rate in an aqueous environment was increased by several orders of magnitude and the fatigue threshold decreased by a factor of 10. The loss of adhesion in the aqueous environment was induced by the hydration of the surface oxide which resulted in a hydroxide with poor adhesion to the substrate metal. Self-assembled monolayer of long chain alkyl phosphonic acid and amino phosphonic acid were synthesized to enhance the adhesion and improve the durability of Al/epoxy interfacial bonding system. The same approach was taken to promote adhesion between copper and epoxy, where a two-component coupling system of 11-mercapto-1-undercanol and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the most significant improvement in the copper/epoxy adhesion. The mixed-mode was applied by a piezoelectric actuator. Subcritical crack growth was observed along the epoxy/aluminum interface and the growth rate was found to depend on the magnitude of the applied electric field. Kinetics of the crack growth was correlated with the piezoelectric driving force. The resulting crack growth behavior was compared with the results from the conventional mechanical testing technique. Large differences were found between these two methods. Using this newly developed technique, effects of loading mode and frequency were studied. The fatigue resistance was found to increase with the mode II component and was expressed as a function of the KII/K I ratio. A strong frequency effect was observed for the subcritical crack growth along the Al/Epoxy interface, their fatigue resistance increased with the testing frequency.

  5. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Micromotion at the Implant-Abutment Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Taylor, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loading may cause settling of abutments mounted on dental implants, potentially affecting screw joint stability and implant-abutment micromotion. It was the goal of this in vitro study to compare micromotion of implant-abutment assemblies before and after masticatory simulation. Six groups of abutments (n = 5) for a specific tissue-level implant system with an internal octagon were subject to micromotion measurements. The implant-abutment assemblies were loaded in a universal testing machine, and an apparatus and extensometers were used to record displacement. This was done twice, in the condition in which they were received from the abutment manufacturer and after simulated loading (100,000 cycles; 100 N). Statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance, two-sample t tests (Welch tests), and Pearson product moment correlation (α = .05). The mean values for micromotion ranged from 33.15 to 63.41 μm and from 30.03 to 42.40 μm before and after load cycling. The general trend toward reduced micromotion following load cycling was statistically significant only for CAD/CAM zirconia abutments (P = .036) and for one type of clone abutment (P = .012), with no significant correlation between values measured before and after cyclic loading (Pearson product moment correlation; P = .104). While significant differences in micromotion were found prior to load cycling, no significant difference among any of the abutment types tested could be observed afterward (P > .05 in all cases). A quantifiable settling effect at the implant-abutment interface seems to result from cyclic loading, leading to a decrease in micromotion. This effect seems to be more pronounced in low-quality abutments. For the implant system tested in this study, retightening of abutment screws is recommended after an initial period of clinical use.

  6. The structural behavior of a bolted flanged connection subjected to a cyclic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1981-01-01

    In the vessel of BWR nuclear plants, the bolted flanged connection is subjected to a cyclic load, consisting of four steps: the bolt load, the pressure load with decreasing of bolt load, depressurization with increasing bold load, and at the end, unbolting. In the case of rigid, bolted flange, the elastic behavior is essentially correct, but if the height of the flange is decreased, then the stress gradients are so high that the strains move into the plastic range. In addition, the design of pressure vessels is not complete without an appraisal of failure by progressive distortion or stress ratchteing. There is therefore a need for numerical results for the structures subjected to well-known loading. The aim of this paper is to follow the stress and strain of a bolted flange subjected to the cyclic load, progressively varying the height of the flange, so that the maximum stress intensity becomes 3 Ssub(m). The number of cycles was sufficient to verify the conditions of shakedown or ratcheting. The numerical analysis, using finite element technique and the Adina code, is well established and frequently used. (orig.)

  7. Modeling of creep-fatigue interaction of zirconium α under cyclic loading at 200 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.

    1996-04-01

    The present work deals with mechanical behaviour of zirconium alpha at 200 deg. C and crack initiation prediction methods, particularly when loading conditions lead to interaction of fatigue and creep phenomena. A classical approach used to study interaction between cyclic effects and constant loading effects does not give easy understanding of experimental results. Therefore, a new approach has been developed, which allow to determine a number of cycles for crack initiation for complex structures under large loading conditions. To study influence of fatigue and creep interaction on crack initiation, a model was chosen, using a scalar variable, giving representation of the material deterioration state. The model uses a non linear cumulating effect between the damage corresponding to cyclic loads and the damage correlated to time influence. The model belongs to uncoupled approaches between damage and behaviour, which is described here by a two inelastic deformations model. This mechanical behaviour model is chosen because it allows distinction between a plastic and a viscous part in inelastic flow. Cyclic damage is function of stress amplitude and mean stress. For the peculiar sensitivity of the material to creep, a special parameter bas been defined to be critical toward creep damage. It is the kinematic term associated to state variables describing this type of hardening in the viscous mechanism. (author)

  8. Effect of intergranular stress on yielding of 316H during room temperature cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Moat, Richard; Bouchard, John; Kelleher, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cyclic deformation is an integral part of nuclear power plant life assessment code, as many of the components in plant go through scheduled and unscheduled cyclic deformation owing to varying thermal and mechanical stresses. In polycrystalline material like 316H, a type of micro stress known as intergranular stress is generated due to elastic and plastic anisotropies during such cyclic loading. In tension-compression loading cycles, these stresses remain in the material as a residual stress upon unloading to zero stress from the tensile/compressive peak or intermediates stresses. The magnitude of these stresses vary depending on the point in the cycle from which it was unloaded from. When the material is re-loaded either in the same or reverse loading direction these residual stresses increase or decrease the effective stress acting in the material and as such the macroscopic yield stress of the material in subsequent cycle is changed significantly. The magnitude of intergranular stresses in many differently oriented grain families can be measured simultaneously using time of flight (ToF) neutron diffraction technique. In this paper, we have used this technique to experimentally study, how these intergranular stresses affect the yield (proof) stress of 316H at room temperature. (author)

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  10. The Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Mechanical Performance of Surgical Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Y.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric meshes in the form of knitted nets are commonly used in the surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapses. Although a number of these prosthetic meshes are commercially available, there is little published data on their mechanical performance, in particular on the change in stiffness under the repeated loading experienced in vivo. In this in vitro study, cyclic tensile loading was applied to rectangular strips of four different commercially available meshes. The applied force and resultant displacement was monitored throughout the tests in order to evaluate the change in stiffness. In addition, each mesh was randomly marked using indelible ink in order to permit the use of threedimensional digital image correlation to evaluate local displacements during the tests. However, the scale and form of the deformation experienced by some of the meshes made correlation difficult so that confirmation of the values of stiffness were only obtained for two meshes. The results demonstrate that all the meshes experience an increase in stiffness during cyclic loading, that in most cases cyclic creep occurs and in some cases large-scale, irreversible reorganisation of the mesh structure occurs after as few as 200 cycles at loads of the order of 10N.

  11. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  12. Damage propagation in a masonry arch subjected to slow cyclic and dynamic loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the damage propagation of a masonry arch induced by slow cyclic and dynamic loadings is studied. A two-dimensional model of the arch is proposed. A nonlocal damage-plastic constitutive law is adopted to reproduce the hysteretic characteristics of the masonry material, subjected to cyclic static loadings or to harmonic dynamic excitations. In particular, the adopted cohesive model is able to take into account different softening laws in tension and in compression, plastic strains, stiffness recovery and loss due to crack closure and reopening. The latter effect is an unavoidable feature for realistically reproducing hysteretic cycles. In the studied case, an inverse procedure is used to calibrate the model parameters. Then, nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the masonry arch are described together with damage propagation paths.

  13. Mechanical stability of the diamond-like carbon film on nitinol vascular stents under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jong; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Han, Seung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Woo; Shin, Kyong-Min; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films coated on nitinol vascular stents was investigated under cyclic loading condition by employing a stent crimping system. DLC films were coated on the vascular stent of a three dimensional structure by using a hybrid ion beam system with rotating jig. The cracking or delamination of the DLC coating occurred dominantly near the hinge connecting the V-shaped segments of the stent where the maximum strain was induced by a cyclic loading of contraction and extension. However the failures were significantly suppressed as the amorphous Si (a-Si) buffer layer thickness increased. Interfacial adhesion strength was estimated from the spalled crack size in the DLC coating for various values of the a-Si buffer layer thickness

  14. Prediction of elastic-plastic response of structural elements subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haddad, M.H.; Samaan, S.

    1985-01-01

    A simplified elastic-plastic analysis is developed to predict stress strain and force deformation response of structural metallic elements subjected to irregular cyclic loadings. In this analysis a simple elastic-plastic method for predicting the skeleton force deformation curve is developed. In this method, elastic and fully plastic solutions are first obtained for unknown quantities, such as deflection or local strains. Elastic and fully plastic contributions are then combined to obtain an elastic-plastic solution. The skeleton curve is doubled to establish the shape of the hysteresis loop. The complete force deformation response can therefore be simulated through reversal by reversal in accordance with hysteresis looping and material memory. Several examples of structural elements with various cross sections made from various materials and subjected to irregular cyclic loadings, are analysed. A close agreement is obtained between experimental results found in the literature and present predictions. (orig.)

  15. Elasto-plastic behavior of pipe subjected to steady axial load and cyclic bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yanping; Lu Mingwan; Zhang Xiong

    2004-01-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of a pipe subjected to a steady axial force and a cyclic bending moment is studied. By using two parameters c and d, which describe the elasto-plastic interfaces of beam cross-section, the boundary curve equations between various types of elasto-plastic behavior, such as shakedown, plastic fatigue, ratcheting, and plastic collapse, are derived. The results are applicable for beams of any cross-section with two orthogonal axes of symmetry. As a result, the load regime diagram for a pipe is obtained, which gives an intuitive picture of the elasto-plastic behavior of the pipe under a given combination of constant axial load and cyclic bending moment

  16. Inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Brünig, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.

  17. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF UFG COPPER UNDER CONTROLLED STRESS AND STRAIN LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Navrátilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress- and strain-controlled loading on microstructure and cyclic plastic behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper prepared by equal channel angular pressing was examined. The stability of microstructure is a characteristic feature for stress-controlled test whereas grain coarsening and development of bimodal structure was observed after plastic strain-controlled tests. An attempt to explain the observed behaviour was made.

  18. Does Abutment Collar Length Affect Abutment Screw Loosening After Cyclic Loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Pirmoazen, Salma; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2015-07-01

    A significant vertical space that is corrected with vertical ridge augmentation may necessitate selection of longer abutments, which would lead to an increased vertical cantilever. This study investigated the influence of different abutment collar heights on single-unit dental implant screw-loosening after cyclic loading. Fifteen implant-abutment assemblies each consisted of an internal hexagonal implant were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group1, consisting of 5 abutments with 1.5 mm gingival height (GH); Group2, 5 abutments with 3.5 mm GH; and Group3, 5 abutments with 5.5 mm GH. Each specimen was mounted in transparent auto-polymerizing acrylic resin block, and the abutment screw was tightened to 35 Ncm with an electric torque wrench. After 5 minutes, initial torque loss (ITL) was recorded for all specimens. Metal crowns were fabricated with 45° occlusal surface and were placed on the abutments. A cyclic load of 75 N and frequency of 1 Hz were applied perpendicular to the long axis of each specimen. After 500 000 cycles, secondary torque loss (STL) was recorded. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the effects of abutment collar height before and after cyclic loading. One-way ANOVA showed that ITL among the groups was not significantly different (P = .52), while STL was significantly different among the groups (P = .008). Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests showed that STL values were significantly different between the abutments with 1.5 mm GH (Group1) and with 5.5 mm GH (Group3) (P = .007). A paired comparison t-test showed that cyclic loading significantly influenced the STL in comparison with the ITL in each group. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that increase in height of the abutment collar could adversely affect the torque loss of the abutment screw.

  19. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    OpenAIRE

    de Jesus Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso; Xible, Anuar Antônio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10) of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricate...

  20. Fatigue analysis of CANFLEX-NU fuel elements subjected to power-cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the fatigue analysis of the CANDU advanced fuel, so-called CANFLEX-NU, subjected to power-cyclic loads more than 1,000. The CANFLEX-NU bundle is composed of 43 elements with natural uranium fuel. As a result, the CANFLEX-NU fuel elements will maintain good integrity under the condition of 1,500 power-cycles. (author). 4 refs., 19 figs

  1. Experimental Investigation of Sandstone under Cyclic Loading: Damage Assessment Using Ultrasonic Wave Velocities and Changes in Elastic Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study investigated the damage evolution of sandstone specimens under two types of cyclic loading by monitoring and analyzing changes in the elastic moduli and the ultrasonic velocities during loading. During low-level cyclic loading, the stiffness degradation method was unable to describe the damage accumulations but the ultrasonic velocity measurements clearly reflected the damage development. A crack density parameter is introduced in order to interpret the changes in the tangential modulus and the ultrasonic velocities. The results show the following. (1 Low-level cyclic loading enhanced the anisotropy of the cracks. This results from the compression of intergranular clay minerals and fatigue failure. (2 Irreversible damage accumulations during cyclic loading with an increasing upper stress limit are the consequence of brittle failure in the sandstone’s microstructure.

  2. Fatigue damage assessment under multi-axial non-proportional cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohta, Keshav; Gupta, Suneel K.; Jadhav, P.A.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed fatigue analysis is carried out for class I Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) components to rule out the fatigue failure during their design lifetime. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code Section III NB, has provided two schemes for fatigue assessment, one for fixed principal directions (proportional) loading and the other for varying principal directions (non-proportional) loading conditions. Recent literature on multi-axial fatigue tests has revealed lower fatigue lives under nonproportional loading conditions. In an attempt to understand the loading parameter lowering the fatigue life, a finite element based study has been carried out. Here, fatigue damage in a tube has been correlated with the applied axial to shear strain ratio and phase difference between them. The FE analysis has used Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening rule to model material's realistic cyclic plastic deformation behavior. The ASME alternating stress intensity (based on linear elastic FEA) and the plastic strain energy dissipation (based on elastic-plastic FEA) have been considered to assess the per cycle fatigue damage. The study has revealed that ASME criteria predicts lower alternating stress intensity (fatigue damage parameter S alt ) for some cases of non-proportional loading than that predicted for corresponding proportional loading case. However, the actual fatigue damage is higher in non-proportional loading than that in corresponding proportional loading case. Further the fatigue damage of an NPP component under realistic multi-axial cyclic loading conditions has been assessed using some popular critical plane based models vis-à-vis ASME Sec. III criteria. (author)

  3. Creep of MDF panels under constant load and cyclic environmental conditions. Influence of surface coating

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Golfín Seco, J. I.; Díez Barra, M. Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Four different strategies of surface coating (based on 80 g m2 melamin impregnated papers) were used on 19 mm thick commercial MDF panels to assess its reological behaviour under cyclic humidity conditions (20ºC 30 % rh-20ºC 90 % rh). Three different levels of stress (20 %, 30 % and 40 %), based on the ultimate load in bending, were used. Tests were conducted by means of the three points load system. For the same stress level, the relative creep of MDF panels was higher than that in par...

  4. Study on Performance of Steel Fiber Concrete Bridge Pier Specimens under Horizontal Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiben Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of that steel fiber can effectively prevent the extension and development of small cracks in the concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete has good toughness and tensile strength. In the application of building materials, steel fiber reinforced concrete is an ideal elastic-plastic material. For the seismic performance, it has advantages. In order to analyze the seismic performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete, 4 piers of the scale model test under horizontal cyclic loading were done. The results showed that failure mode of steel fiber reinforced concrete is better than that of ordinary concrete, and has a large yield moment under the external loads.

  5. Effects of multiaxial cyclic loading conditions on the evolution of porous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbiakop Armel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial loading conditions are one of the important parameters in estimating the lifetime of structure both in high and low cycle fatigue ([1 3]. In order to understand the coupling between the macroscopic multiaxial loading and the microscopic defects, we propose to investigate the evolution of an elasto-plastic porous material up to failure under low cycle fatigue conditions. The analysis is performed numerically, using finite elements, on a periodic 3D unit-cell under the assumption of finite strains and subjected to various stress triaxialities, translated as ratios between deviatoric, hydrostatic stress and Lode angles. The present discussion introduces several novel factors in the analysis: (i 3D geometry in cyclic loading (ii finite strains (iii free evolving void shape (iiii different hardening laws. That one of the important factors is the void shape and that its evolution during cyclic loading depends on its multiaxiality. Moreover, these factors will equally influence the apparent macroscopic hardening or softening of the material and the initiation of localized shear zones at the microscopic level. The Lode angle has a significant impact on the evolution of the aspect ratios and the ellipsoidicity of the pores, but has only a weak influence on the evolution of macroscopic variables such as the stress or the porosity. As a consequence, the results show that multiaxiality of the loading have an important on the evolution and growth of defects, pores in the present case problem, but are less important in the definition of the yield surface.

  6. Monitoring of Failure Mechanisms in a Composite Bending Actuator during Cyclic Loading by Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of electromechanical cyclic loading on the performance of a bending piezoelectric composite actuator. We have analyzed the fatigue damage mechanisms in terms of the behavior of the AE event rate. It was found that whether the actuators are subjected to purely electric loading or electromechanical loading, the initial fatigue damage of the bending piezoelectric composite actuator was caused by the transgranular fracture in the PZT ceramic layer; the final failure was caused only in the case of PCAWB under electromechanical loading by a local discharge, which critically affected the performance reduction of the actuators. As the number of cycles increased, a large reduction in displacement performance coincided with a high AE event rate, which was identified via microscopic observations.

  7. Quasi-brittle material behavior under cyclic loading: from virtual testing to structural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassaux, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic constitutive laws are developed not only because they allow for large-scale computations but also because refine dissipative mechanisms observed at lower scales. Within the framework of this study, the development of such models is carried out in the context of seismic loading, that is to say reverse cyclic loading, applied to the quasi-brittle materials and more precisely, concrete-like materials. Nowadays, robust and predictive macroscopic constitutive laws are still rare because of the complexity of cracking related phenomena. Among the challenges to face, the material parameters identification is far from being the easiest due to the lack of experimental data. Indeed, the difficulties to carry out cyclic tests on concrete-like materials are numerous. To overcome these difficulties, a virtual testing approach based on a refine model is proposed in this study in order to feed continuum models with the missing material parameters. Adopting a microscopic point of view, a representative volume element is seen as a structure. The microscopic model has been developed with the aim to require a minimal number of material parameters which only need basic mechanical tests to be identified. From an existing lattice model developed to deal with monotonic loading, several enhancements have been realized in order to extend its range of applicability, making it capable of dealing with complex multi-axial cyclic loadings. The microscopic model has been validated as a virtual testing machine that is able to help the identification procedure of continuous constitutive laws. This identification approach has been applied on a new constitutive law developed within the framework of isotropic continuum damage mechanics accounting for cyclic related effects. In particular, the concept of regularized unilateral effect has been introduced to describe the progressive crack closure. The macroscopic model has been calibrated with the help from the aforementioned virtual testing

  8. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10 of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricated abutment; Group 4, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; and Group 5, external hexagon implant and Ceraone abutment. For groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, the crowns were cemented on the abutments and in group 4 crowns were screwed directly on the implant. The specimens were subjected to 500,000 cycles at 19.1 Hz of frequency and non-axial load of 133 N in a MTS 810 machine. The vertical misfit (μm at the implant/abutment interface was evaluated before (B and after (A application of the cyclic loading. Data were analyzed statistically by using two-away ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Before loading values showed no difference among groups 2 (4.33±3.13, 3 (4.79±3.43 and 5 (3.86±4.60; between groups 1 (12.88±6.43 and 4 (9.67±3.08, and among groups 2, 3 and 4. However, groups 1 and 4 were significantly different from groups 2, 3 and 5. After loading values of groups 1 (17.28±8.77 and 4 (17.78±10.99 were significantly different from those of groups 2 (4.83±4.50, 3 (8.07±4.31 and 5 (3.81±4.84. There was a significant increase in misfit values of groups 1, 3 and 4 after cyclic loading, but not for groups 2 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: The cyclic loading and type of implant/abutment connection may develop a role on the vertical misfit at the implant/abutment interface.

  9. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  10. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program

  11. Effect of cyclic block loading on character of deformation and strength of structural materials in plane stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, N.M.; Troshchenko, A.V.; Koval'chuk, B.I.; Khamaza, L.A.; Nikolaev, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper is concerned with choice of conditions for preliminary cyclic block loading, determination of fatigue failure resistance characteristics for various structural materials under regular and selected block loading, investigation of the preliminary cyclic loading effect on regularities of elastoplastic deformation of materials concerned in the biaxial stressed state. Under selected conditions of cyclic block loading the character of damage accumulation is close to the linear law for the materials of high-srength doped steel, and VT6 alloys of concern. These materials in the initial state and after preliminary cyclic loading are anisotropic. Axial direction is characterized by a higher plastic strain resistance for steel and tangential direction - for VT6 alloy. The generalized strain curves for the materials in question are not invariant as to the stressed state type. It is stated that the effect of preliminary unsteady cyclic loading on resistance and general regularities of material deformation in the complex stressed state is insignificant. It is observed that stress-strain properties of the materials tend to vary in the following way: plastic strain resistance of the steel lowers and that of VT6 rises, anisotropy of the materials somehow decreases. The variation in the material anisotropy may be attributed to a decrease in residual stresses resulting from preliminary cyclic loading

  12. Effect of cyclic loading on microleakage of silorane based composite compared with low shrinkage methacrylate-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Silorane did not provide better marginal seal than the low shrinkage methacrylate-based composites (except Aelite. In addition, cyclic loading did not affect the marginal microleakage of evaluated composite restorations .

  13. Parameterized Disturbance Observer Based Controller to Reduce Cyclic Loads of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Imran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parameterized disturbance observer based controller with individual pitch control strategy to reduce cyclic loads of wind turbine in full load operation. Cyclic loads are generated due to wind shear and tower shadow effects. Multivariable disturbance observer based linear controllers are designed with objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion using optimal control theory. Linear parameterized controllers are designed by using a smooth scheduling mechanism between the controllers. The proposed parameterized controller with individual pitch was tested on nonlinear Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance was assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and parameterized controller with collective pitch for full load operation of wind turbine. Simulations are performed with step wind to see the behavior of the system with wind shear and tower shadow effects. Then, turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parameterized control shows smooth transition from one controller to another controller. Moreover, 3p and 6p harmonics are well mitigated as compared to fixed gain DOBC and parameterized DOBC with collective pitch.

  14. Experiment on Behavior of a New Connector Used in Bamboo (Timber Frame Structure under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwen Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection is an important part of the bamboo and timber structure, and it directly influences the overall structural performance and safety. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical performance of several wood connections, a new connector for the bamboo (timber frame joint was proposed in this paper. Three full-scale T-type joint specimens were designed to study the mechanical performance under cyclic loading. The thickness of the hollow steel column was different among three specimens. The specimens were loaded under displacement control with a rate of 10 mm per minute until the specimens reach failure. It was observed that the failures of three specimens were caused by the buckling of flanges in the compression and that the steel of connections does not yield. The load-displacement hysteretic curve for three specimens is relatively plump, and the stiffness of connection degenerates with the increasing of cyclic load. The maximum rotation is 0.049 rad, and the energy dissipation coefficient is 1.77. The thickness of the hollow steel column of the connector has significant impact on the energy dissipation capacity and the strength of the connection. A simplified moment-rotation hysteresis model for the joint was proposed.

  15. Modeling of high-strength concrete-filled FRP tube columns under cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Yen; Ma, Chau-Khun; Apandi, Nazirah Mohd; Awang, Abdullah Zawawi; Omar, Wahid

    2018-05-01

    The behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) - filled fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFTs) column subjected to cyclic lateral loading is presented in this paper. As the experimental study is costly and time consuming, a finite element analysis (FEA) is chosen for the study. Most of the previous studies have focused on examining the axial load behavior of HSCFFT column instead of seismic behavior. The seismic behavior of HSCFFT columns has been the main interest in the industry. The key objective of this research is to develop a reliable numerical non-linear FEA model to represent the seismic behavior of such column. A FEA model was developed using the Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) available in the finite element software package (ABAQUS). Comparisons between experimental results from previous research and the predicted results were made based on load versus displacement relationships and ultimate strength of the column. The results showed that the column increased in ductility and able to deform to a greater extent with the increase of the FRP confinement ratio. With the increase of confinement ratio, HSCFFT column achieved a higher moment resistance, thus indicated a higher failure strength in the column under cyclic lateral load. It was found that the proposed FEA model can regenerate the experimental results with adequate accuracy.

  16. Performance of 3Y-TZP bioceramics under cyclic fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Chaves Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the static mechanical properties and cyclic fatigue life of 3 mol. (% Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (3Y-TZP ceramics were investigated. Pre-sintered samples were sintered in air at 1600 °C for 120 minutes, and characterized by X ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Hardness and fracture toughness were determined by Vicker's indentation method, and Modulus of Rupture was determined by four-point bending testing. Fully dense sintered samples, near to 100% of theoretical density, presented hardness, fracture toughness and bending strength of 13.5 GPa, 8.2 MPa.m½ and 880 MPa, respectively. The cyclic fatigue tests were also realized using four-point bending testing, within a frequency of 25 Hz and stress ratio R of 0.1. The increasing of load stress lead to decreasing of the number of cycles and the run-out specimens number. The tetragonal-monoclinic (t-m ZrO2-transformation observed by X ray diffraction contributes to the increasing of the fatigue life. The 3Y-TZP samples clearly presents a range of loading conditions where cyclic fatigue can be detected.

  17. Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Red Sandstone Specimens Under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingbin; Zhang, Mingwei; Han, Lijun; Pu, Hai; Chen, Yanlong

    2018-04-01

    To explore the acoustic emission (AE) characteristics of rock materials during the deformation and failure process under periodic loads, a uniaxial cyclic loading and unloading compression experiment was conducted based on an MTS 815 rock mechanics test system and an AE21C acoustic emissions test system. The relationships among stress, strain, AE activity, accumulated AE activity and duration for 180 rock specimens under 36 loading and unloading rates were established. The cyclic AE evolutionary laws with rock stress-strain variation at loading and unloading stages were analyzed. The Kaiser and Felicity effects of rock AE activity were disclosed, and the impact of the significant increase in the scale of AE events on the Felicity effect was discussed. It was observed that the AE characteristics are closely related to the stress-strain properties of rock materials and that they are affected by the developmental state and degree of internal microcracks. AE events occur in either the loading or unloading stages if the strain is greater than zero. Evolutionary laws of AE activity agree with changes in rock strain. Strain deformation is accompanied by AE activity, and the density and intensity of AE events directly reflect the damage degree of the rock mass. The Kaiser effect exists in the linear elastic stage of rock material, and the Felicity effect is effective in the plastic yield and post-peak failure stages, which are divided by the elastic yield strength. This study suggests that the stress level needed to determine a significant increase in AE activity was 70% of the i + 1 peak stress. The Felicity ratio of rock specimens decreases with the growth of loading-unloading cycles. The cycle magnitude and variation of the Felicity effect, in which loading and unloading rates play a weak role, are almost consistent.

  18. Implementation of DSC model and application for analysis of field pile tests under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changming; Desai, Chandra S.

    2000-05-01

    The disturbed state concept (DSC) model, and a new and simplified procedure for unloading and reloading behavior are implemented in a nonlinear finite element procedure for dynamic analysis for coupled response of saturated porous materials. The DSC model is used to characterize the cyclic behavior of saturated clays and clay-steel interfaces. In the DSC, the relative intact (RI) behavior is characterized by using the hierarchical single surface (HISS) plasticity model; and the fully adjusted (FA) behavior is modeled by using the critical state concept. The DSC model is validated with respect to laboratory triaxial tests for clay and shear tests for clay-steel interfaces. The computer procedure is used to predict field behavior of an instrumented pile subjected to cyclic loading. The predictions provide very good correlation with the field data. They also yield improved results compared to those from a HISS model with anisotropic hardening, partly because the DSC model allows for degradation or softening and interface response.

  19. Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) for the numerical simulation of polycrystalline aggregates under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Mohamed Aziz; Robert, Camille; Ammar, Amine; El Arem, Saber; Morel, Franck

    2018-02-01

    The numerical modelling of the behaviour of materials at the microstructural scale has been greatly developed over the last two decades. Unfortunately, conventional resolution methods cannot simulate polycrystalline aggregates beyond tens of loading cycles, and they do not remain quantitative due to the plasticity behaviour. This work presents the development of a numerical solver for the resolution of the Finite Element modelling of polycrystalline aggregates subjected to cyclic mechanical loading. The method is based on two concepts. The first one consists in maintaining a constant stiffness matrix. The second uses a time/space model reduction method. In order to analyse the applicability and the performance of the use of a space-time separated representation, the simulations are carried out on a three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregate under cyclic loading. Different numbers of elements per grain and two time increments per cycle are investigated. The results show a significant CPU time saving while maintaining good precision. Moreover, increasing the number of elements and the number of time increments per cycle, the model reduction method is faster than the standard solver.

  20. Tape cast isotropic, fine-grained tungsten for thermo-cyclic loading applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerer, Mathias, E-mail: Mathias.Sommerer@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Li, Muyuan [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasma Physik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dewitz, Hubertus von; Walter, Steffen; Lampenscherf, Stefan [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81730 München (Germany); Arnold, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Henkestr. 127, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The tape casting process for tungsten is described. • A set-up of a HHF test facility for standing anodes is presented. • The thermo-cyclic behavior of tape cast tungsten and a reference is investigated. • The evolution of crack patterns is described in dependency of HHF-loadings. • The surface roughness of X-ray anodes is related to the microstructural evolution. - Abstract: This paper introduces tape casting as a new route for the production of isotropic and fine-grained tungsten components. Microstructural and thermal properties of tape cast tungsten samples are determined. Thermal shock behavior according to the thermo-cyclic loading of standing X-ray anodes is investigated and compared to the behavior of a rolled tungsten grade. The development of surface roughness during the thermal shock loading is discussed in relation to the development of the grain structure and crack pattern. The fine-grained and stable microstructure of the tape cast material exhibits less roughening under such test conditions.

  1. Reliability evaluation of fiber optic sensors exposed to cyclic thermal load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dong Hoon [Advanced Materials Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are currently the most prevalent sensors because of their unique advantages such as ease of multiplexing and capability of performing absolute measurements. They are applied to various structures for structural health monitoring (SHM). The signal characteristics of FBG sensors under thermal loading should be investigated to enhance the reliability of these sensors, because they are exposed to certain cyclic thermal loads due to temperature changes resulting from change of seasons, when they are applied to structures for SHM. In this study, tests on specimens are conducted in a thermal chamber with temperature changes from - to for 300 cycles. For the specimens, two types of base materials and adhesives that are normally used in the manufacture of packaged FBG sensors are selected. From the test results, it is confirmed that the FBG sensors undergo some degree of compressive strain under cyclic thermal load; this can lead to measurement errors. Hence, a pre-calibration is necessary before applying these sensors to structures for long-term SHM.

  2. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  3. Effects of Cyclic Thermal Load on the Signal Characteristics of FBG Sensors Packaged with Epoxy Adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heonyoung; Kang, Donghoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Fiber optics sensors that have been mainly applied to aerospace areas are now finding applicability in other areas, such as transportation, including railways. Among the sensors, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have led to a steep increase due to their properties of absolute measurement and multiplexing capability. Generally, the FBG sensors adhere to structures and sensing modules using adhesives such as an epoxy. However, the measurement errors that occurred when the FBG sensors were used in a long-term application, where they were exposed to environmental thermal load, required calibration. For this reason, the thermal curing of adhesives needs to be investigated to enhance the reliability of the FBG sensor system. This can be done at room temperature through cyclic thermal load tests using four types of specimens. From the test results, it is confirmed that residual compressive strain occurs to the FBG sensors due to an initial cyclic thermal load. In conclusion, signals of the FBG sensors need to be stabilized for applying them to a long-term SHM.

  4. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS TAVAREZ, Rudys Rodolfo; BONACHELA, Wellington Cardoso; XIBLE, Anuar Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. Material and Methods Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10) of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricated abutment; Group 4, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; and Group 5, external hexagon implant and Ceraone abutment. For groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, the crowns were cemented on the abutments and in group 4 crowns were screwed directly on the implant. The specimens were subjected to 500,000 cycles at 19.1 Hz of frequency and non-axial load of 133 N in a MTS 810 machine. The vertical misfit (μm) at the implant/abutment interface was evaluated before (B) and after (A) application of the cyclic loading. Data were analyzed statistically by using two-away ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pabutment connection may develop a role on the vertical misfit at the implant/abutment interface. PMID:21437464

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  6. Ratcheting study in pressurized piping components under cyclic loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kiran, A.; Agrawal, M.K.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear power plant piping components and systems are often subjected to reversing cyclic loading conditions due to various process transients, seismic and other events. Earlier the design of piping subjected to seismic excitation was based on the principle of plastic collapse. It is believed that during such events, fatigue-ratcheting is likely mode of failure of piping components. The 1995 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code, Section-III, has incorporated the reverse dynamic loading and ratcheting into the code. Experimental and analytical studies are carried out to understand this failure mechanism. The biaxial ratcheting characteristics of SA 333, Gr. 6 steel and SS 304 stainless steel at room temperature are investigated in the present work. Experiments are carried out on straight pipes subjected to internal pressure and cyclic bending load applied in a three point and four point bend test configurations. A shake table test is also carried out on a pressurized elbow by applying sinusoidal base excitation. Analytical simulation of ratcheting in the piping elements is carried out. Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening model is used for ratcheting simulation. (author)

  7. The resistance of cortical bone tissue to failure under cyclic loading is reduced with alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Geissler, Joseph R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Fritton, J C

    2014-07-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most prescribed preventative treatment for osteoporosis. However, their long-term use has recently been associated with atypical fractures of cortical bone in patients who present with low-energy induced breaks of unclear pathophysiology. The effects of bisphosphonates on the mechanical properties of cortical bone have been exclusively studied under simple, monotonic, quasi-static loading. This study examined the cyclic fatigue properties of bisphosphonate-treated cortical bone at a level in which tissue damage initiates and is accumulated prior to frank fracture in low-energy situations. Physiologically relevant, dynamic, 4-point bending applied to beams (1.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 10 mm) machined from dog rib (n=12/group) demonstrated mechanical failure and micro-architectural features that were dependent on drug dose (3 groups: 0, 0.2, 1.0mg/kg/day; alendronate [ALN] for 3 years) with cortical bone tissue elastic modulus (initial cycles of loading) reduced by 21% (pbone remodeling, such as the size of osteons (-14%; ALN1.0: 10.5±1.8, VEH: 12.2±1.6, ×10(3) μm2; pbone tissue are altered by high-dose ALN treatment and contribute to reduced mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On behaviour of fuel elements subject to combined cyclic thermomechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents detailed finite element formulations on the kinematic hardening rule of plasticity included in an existing thermoelastoplastic stress analysis code primarily designed to predict the thermomechanical behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel elements. The kinematic hardening rule is considered to be important for structures subject to repeated (or cyclic) loads. The start-up/operation/shut-down and various power excursions in a reactor all can be classified as cyclic loadings. In addition to the shifting of material yield surfaces as usually handled by the kinematic hardening rule, the thermal effect and temperature-dependent material properties have also been included in the present work for the first time. A case study related to an in-reactor experiment on a single fuel element indicated that significantly higher cumulative sheath residual strains after two load cycles was obtained by the present scheme than those calculated by the usual isotropic hardening rule. This observation may alert fuel modellers to select proper hardening rules in their analyses. (orig.)

  9. Simulation of reinforced concrete short shear wall subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Pegon, P.; Wenzel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the capacity of squat shear wall using tests and analysis. • Modification of model of concrete in the softening part. • Pushover analysis using softened truss theory and FE analysis is performed. • Modified concrete model gives reasonable accurate peak load and displacement. • The ductility, ultimate load and also crack pattern can be accurately predicted. - Abstract: This paper addresses the strength and deformation capacity of stiff squat shear wall subjected to monotonic and pseudo-static cyclic loading using experiments and analysis. Reinforced concrete squat shear walls offer great potential for lateral load resistance and the failure mode of these shear walls is brittle shear mode. Shear strength of these shear walls depend strongly on softening of concrete struts in principal compression direction due to principal tension in other direction. In this work simulation of the behavior of a squat shear wall is accurately predicted by finite element modeling by incorporating the appropriate softening model in the program. Modification of model of concrete in the softening part is suggested and reduction factor given by Vecchio et al. (1994) is used in the model. The accuracy of modeling is confirmed by comparing the simulated response with experimental one. The crack pattern generated from the 3D model is compared with that obtained from experiments. The load deflection for monotonic loads is also obtained using softened truss theory and compared with experimental one

  10. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  11. Damage Accumulation in Cyclically-Loaded Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites Monitored by Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Aggelis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium osumilite (BMAS ceramic matrix composites reinforced with SiC-Tyranno fibers are tested in a cyclic loading protocol. Broadband acoustic emission (AE sensors are used for monitoring the occurrence of different possible damage mechanisms. Improved use of AE indices is proposed by excluding low-severity signals based on waveform parameters, rather than only threshold criteria. The application of such improvements enhances the accuracy of the indices as accumulated damage descriptors. RA-value, duration, and signal energy follow the extension cycles indicating moments of maximum or minimum strain, while the frequency content of the AE signals proves very sensitive to the pull-out mechanism.

  12. Theoretical analysis, infrared and structural investigations of energy dissipation in metals under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhov, O.A.; Saintier, N.; Palin-Luc, T.; Uvarov, S.V.; Naimark, O.B.

    2007-01-01

    The infrared and structural investigations of energy dissipation processes in metals subjected to cyclic loading have given impetus to the development of a new thermodynamic model with the capability of describing the energy balance under plastic deformation. The model is based on the statistical description of the mesodefect ensemble evolution and its influence on the dissipation ability of the material. Constitutive equations have been formulated for plastic and structural strains, which allow us to describe the stored and dissipated parts of energy under plastic flow. Numerical results indicate that theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimentally observed temperature data

  13. Effect of surfaces similarity on contact resistance of fractal rough surfaces under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanwen; Liu, Limei; Ta, Wurui; Song, Jihua

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that contact resistance depends significantly on roughness and fractal dimension, it remains elusive how they affect contact resistance between rough surfaces. The interface similarity index is first proposed to describe the similarity of the contact surfaces, which gives a good indication of the actual contact area between surfaces. We reveal that the surfaces' similarity be an origin of contact resistance variation. The cyclic loading can increase the contact stiffness, and the contact stiffness increases with the increase of the interface similarity index. These findings explain the mechanism of surface roughness and fractal dimension on contact resistance, and also provide reference for the reliability design of the electrical connection.

  14. Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Kleven, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    restorations of zirconia abutment-retained crowns with zirconia copings veneered with glass-ceramics (n=8) and feldspathic ceramics (n=8). The control group was composed of 16 metal ceramic restorations of titanium abutment-retained crowns with gold alloy copings veneered with glass (n=8) and feldspathic...... ceramics (n=8). The palatal surfaces of the crowns were exposed to cyclic loading of 800 N with a frequency of 2 Hz, which continued to 4.2 million cycles or until fracture of the copings, abutments, or implants. The number of cycles and the fracture modes were recorded. The fracture modes were analyzed...

  15. Evaluating the damage of steel 09G2S under static and cyclic loading with regard for the level of residual stresses in the metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Kamantsev, I. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Drukarenko, N. A.; Goruleva, L. S.; Veselova, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    An approach to the estimation of the residual durability of structural elements in view of their initial stress-strain state is proposed. The adequacy of the developed approach is confirmed by experiments on cyclic loading of specimens without pronounced stress concentrators simulating the work of real structural elements under conditions of overshooting the total stresses causing local plastic deformation of the material, with regard for residual stresses.

  16. An X-ray diffraction study of microstructural deformation induced by cyclic loading of selected steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourspring, P.M.; Pangborn, R.N.

    1996-06-01

    X-ray double crystal diffractometry (XRDCD) was used to assess cyclic microstructural deformation in a face centered cubic (fcc) steel (AISI304) and a body centered cubic (bcc) steel (SA508 class 2). The first objective of the investigation was to determine if XRDCD could be used to effectively monitor cyclic microstructural deformation in polycrystalline Fe alloys. A second objective was to study the microstructural deformation induced by cyclic loading of polycrystalline Fe alloys. The approach used in the investigation was to induce fatigue damage in a material and to characterize the resulting microstructural deformation at discrete fractions of the fatigue life of the material. Also, characterization of microstructural deformation was carried out to identify differences in the accumulation of damage from the surface to the bulk, focusing on the following three regions: near surface (0--10 microm), subsurface (10--300 microm), and bulk. Characterization of the subsurface region was performed only on the AISI304 material because of the limited availability of the SA508 material. The results from the XRDCD data indicate a measurable change induced by fatigue from the initial state to subsequent states of both the AISI304 and the SA508 materials. Therefore, the XRDCD technique was shown to be sensitive to the microstructural deformation caused by fatigue in steels; thus, the technique can be used to monitor fatigue damage in steels. In addition, for the AISI304 material, the level of cyclic microstructural deformation in the bulk material was found to be greater than the level in the near surface material. In contrast, previous investigations have shown that the deformation is greater in the near surface than the bulk for Al alloys and bcc Fe alloys

  17. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  18. In situ nonlinear ultrasonic technique for monitoring microcracking in concrete subjected to creep and cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun; Loreto, Giovanni; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly E; Wall, James J; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2018-08-01

    This research conducts in situ nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements for real time monitoring of load-induced damage in concrete. For the in situ measurements on a cylindrical specimen under sustained load, a previously developed second harmonic generation (SHG) technique with non-contact detection is adapted to a cylindrical specimen geometry. This new setup is validated by demonstrating that the measured nonlinear Rayleigh wave signals are equivalent to those in a flat half space, and thus the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β can be defined and interpreted in the same way. Both the acoustic nonlinearity parameter and strain are measured to quantitatively assess the early-age damage in a set of concrete specimens subjected to either 25 days of creep, or 11 cycles of cyclic loading at room temperature. The experimental results show that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is sensitive to early-stage microcrack formation under both loading conditions - the measured β can be directly linked to the accumulated microscale damage. This paper demonstrates the potential of NLU for the in situ monitoring of mechanical load-induced microscale damage in concrete components. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-examination of helium-cooled tungsten components exposed to DEMO specific cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Norajitra, P.; Giniyatulin, R.; Singheiser, L.

    2009-01-01

    A concept of helium-cooled tungsten finger module was developed for the European DEMO divertor. The concept was realized and tested under DEMO specific cyclic thermal loads up to 10 MW/m 2 . The modules were examined carefully before and after loading by metallography and microstructural analyses. While before loading mainly discrete and shallow cracks were found on the tungsten surface due to the manufacturing process, dense crack networks were observed at the loaded surfaces due to the thermal stress. In addition, cracks occurred in the structural, heat sink part and propagated along the grains orientation of the deformed tungsten material. Facilitated by cracking, the molten brazing metal between the tungsten plasma facing material and the W-La 2 O 3 heat sink, that could not withstand the operational temperatures, infiltrated the tungsten components and, due to capillary forces, even reached the plasma facing surface through the cracks. The formed cavity in the brazed layer reduced the heat conduction and the modules were further damaged due to overheating during the applied heat loads. Based on this detailed characterization and possible improvements of the design and of the manufacturing routes are discussed.

  20. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  1. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  2. Experimental Comparison of Statically and Cyclically Loaded Non-Slender Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    rigid form of motion. The Winkler model approach, employing p-y curves to describe the soil-pile interaction, is often employed as the design method for laterally loaded piles. The p-y curve formulation, currently recommended by the American Petroleum Institute and Det Norske Veritas, is based on tests...... on slender piles with length to diameter ratios larger than ten and outer pile diameters less than two meters. Hence, the pile tests that form the basis of the currently recommended p-y curve formulation are conducted with use of piles that exhibits a flexible behaviour, which is in contrast to the piles...... used as foundation for modern offshore wind energy converters. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pile behaviour for non-slender piles by means of small-scale testing. The pile behaviour is investigated and compared for both static and cyclic loading. When conducting small-scale tests...

  3. Settlement mechanism of piled-raft foundation due to cyclic train loads and its countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Ye, Guanlin; Wang, Zhen; Ling, Xianzhang; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation with soil-water coupling finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) analysis is conducted to investigate the settlement and the excess pore water pressure (EPWP) of a piled-raft foundation due to cyclic high-speed (speed: 300km/h) train loading. To demonstrate the performance of this numerical simulation, the settlement and EPWP in the ground under the train loading within one month was calculated and confirmed by monitoring data, which shows that the change of the settlement and EPWP can be simulated well on the whole. In order to ensure the safety of train operation, countermeasure by the fracturing grouting is proposed. Two cases are analyzed, namely, grouting in No-4 softest layer and No-9 pile bearing layer respectively. It is found that fracturing grouting in the pile bearing layer (No-9 layer) has better effect on reducing the settlement.

  4. Behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete beam–column joints under reverse cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, N.; Indira, P.V.; Sabeena, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a high performance hybrid fibre reinforced cementitious composite. • Exterior beam-column joints have been tested under reversed cyclic loading. • Ductility factor, energy dissipation and stiffness degradation have been evaluated. • Contribution to reduce congestion of reinforcement in beam column joints. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of hybrid fibres on the strength and behaviour of High performance concrete beam column joints subjected to reverse cyclic loads. A total of 12 reinforced concrete beams column joints were cast and tested in the present investigation. High performance concrete of M60 grade was designed using the modified ACI method suggested by Aïtcin. Crimped steel fibres and polypropylene fibres were used in hybrid form. The main variables considered were the volume fraction of (i) crimped steel fibres viz. 0.5% (39.25 kg/m 3 ) and 1.0% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) and (ii) polypropylene fibres viz. 0.1% (0.9 kg/m 3 ), 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ), and 0.2% (1.8 kg/m 3 ). Addition of fibres in hybrid form improved many of the engineering properties such as the first crack load, ultimate load and ductility factor of the composite. The combination of 1% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of steel fibres and 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of polypropylene fibres gave better performance with respect to energy dissipation capacity and stiffness degradation than the other combinations

  5. Finite element analysis of beam-to-column joints in steel frames under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mashaly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D finite element model (FE capable of predicting the actual behavior of beam-to-column joints in steel frames subjected to lateral loads. The software package ANSYS is used to model the joint. The bolted extended-end-plate connection was chosen as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate connection is chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to the number of connection components and their inheritable non-linear behavior. Two experimental tests in the literature were chosen to verify the finite element model. The results of both the experimental and the proposed finite element were compared. One of these tests was monotonically loaded, whereas the second was cyclically loaded. The finite element model is improved to enhance the defects of the finite element model used. These defects are; the long time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the surface-to-surface element is used instead of node-to-node element to enhance the model. The FE results show good correlation with the experimental one. An attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts is conducted. The results show that this technique is supposed to avoid the defects above, give much less elements number and less solution time than the other modeling techniques.

  6. Partial alpha-colony fractures and their protrusions during cyclic loading of a titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.W.; Hoeppner, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of an extended study of the cyclic load response of several gas turbine alloys, a very interesting phenomenon was observed in some specimens of IMI 829. The response documented shows the emergence of loosely-bound sections of material into the notch root of test specimens. The authors have not seen this effect reported by other investigators. The experimental apparatus consists of a scanning electron microscope coupled with a load frame to view the real-time surface response of cyclically loaded specimens. For reference, the specimen geometry is shown, the cross section (A-A) is rectangular, measuring approximately 1mm X 4mm. Normal preparation is to notch one side of the specimen using a jeweller's saw and metallurgically polish and etch one of the flat surfaces for observation. IMI 829 (Ti-5.5Al-3.5Sn-3.0Zr-0.25Mo-1Nb-0.3Si) is a near-alpha titanium alloy, examined here in the beta-annealed condition which displays plate-like alpha colonies with some primary alpha on the prior beta grain boundaries. It can also manifest a Widmanstaetten-type microstructure. Having a nominal grain size of approximately 1mm, the microstructure-specimen size combination allows for an interesting study in pseudo-continua. Although the experiments were predominantly designed to investigate crack-microstructure interactions, the features of interest here were generated within the saw-cut notch root of the specimen. In the process of nucleating a crack in the notch root, three of six specimens developed discontinuities which were not perpendicular to either the loading axis or the observed specimen surface. In two of these three cases, while the crack was progressing across the ligament and downward through the specimen, some sections broke away

  7. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Seong; Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Youn Won

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve leak-before-break methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a round robin analysis was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the crack initiation life, penetration life and shape of through wall crack under cyclic bending loads. The proposed round robin analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  8. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goak, S. R.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, J. S.; Park, Y. W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve LBB(Leak-Before-Break) methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a benchmark problem was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this benchmark analysis was to evaluate the crack growth in a notched pipe under cyclic bending loads. The proposed benchmark analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but the crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  9. Fatigue damage behavior of a surface-mount electronic package under different cyclic applied loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Hui; Wang, Xi-Shu

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies and compares the effects of pull-pull and 3-point bending cyclic loadings on the mechanical fatigue damage behaviors of a solder joint in a surface-mount electronic package. The comparisons are based on experimental investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-situ technology and nonlinear finite element modeling, respectively. The compared results indicate that there are different threshold levels of plastic strain for the initial damage of solder joints under two cyclic applied loads; meanwhile, fatigue crack initiation occurs at different locations, and the accumulation of equivalent plastic strain determines the trend and direction of fatigue crack propagation. In addition, simulation results of the fatigue damage process of solder joints considering a constitutive model of damage initiation criteria for ductile materials and damage evolution based on accumulating inelastic hysteresis energy are identical to the experimental results. The actual fatigue life of the solder joint is almost the same and demonstrates that the FE modeling used in this study can provide an accurate prediction of solder joint fatigue failure.

  10. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 10(6) cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws.

  11. The behavior of welded joint in steel pipe members under monotonic and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kyong-Ho; Jang, Gab-Chul; Shin, Young-Eui; Han, Jung-Guen; Kim, Jong-Min

    2006-01-01

    Most steel pipe members are joined by welding. The residual stress and weld metal in a welded joint have the influence on the behavior of steel pipes. Therefore, to accurately predict the behavior of steel pipes with a welded joint, the influence of welding residual stress and weld metal on the behavior of steel pipe must be investigated. In this paper, the residual stress of steel pipes with a welded joint was investigated by using a three-dimensional non-steady heat conduction analysis and a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic analysis. Based on the results of monotonic and cyclic loading tests, a hysteresis model for weld metal was formulated. The hysteresis model was proposed by the authors and applied to a three-dimensional finite elements analysis. To investigate the influence of a welded joint in steel pipes under monotonic and cyclic loading, three-dimensional finite elements analysis considering the proposed model and residual stress was carried out. The influence of a welded joint on the behavior of steel pipe members was investigated by comparing the analytical result both steel pipe with a welded joint and that without a welded joint

  12. Steel-reinforced concrete-filled steel tubular columns under axial and lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajpourbonab, Ebrahim; Kute, Sunil Y.; Inamdar, Vilas M.

    2018-03-01

    SRCFT columns are formed by inserting a steel section into a concrete-filled steel tube. These types of columns are named steel-reinforced concrete-filled steel tubular (SRCFT) columns. The current study aims at investigating the various types of reinforcing steel section to improve the strength and hysteresis behavior of SRCFT columns under axial and lateral cyclic loading. To attain this objective, a numerical study has been conducted on a series of composite columns. First, FEM procedure has been verified by the use of available experimental studies. Next, eight composite columns having different types of cross sections were analyzed. For comparison purpose, the base model was a CFT column used as a benchmark specimen. Nevertheless, the other specimens were SRCFT types. The results indicate that reinforcement of a CFT column through this method leads to enhancement in load-carrying capacity, enhancement in lateral drift ratio, ductility, preventing of local buckling in steel shell, and enhancement in energy absorption capacity. Under cyclic displacement history, it was observed that the use of cross-shaped reinforcing steel section causes a higher level of energy dissipation and the moment of inertia of the reinforcing steel sections was found to be the most significant parameter affecting the hysteresis behavior of SRCFT columns.

  13. High temperature fatigue behaviour of TZM molybdenum alloy under mechanical and thermomechanical cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, H.J.; Niu, L.S.; Korn, C.; Pluvinage, G.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests in load control were carried out on a molybdenum-based alloy, one of the best known of the refractory alloys, TZM. The stress-strain response and the cyclic life of the material were measured during the tests. The fatigue lives obtained in the in-phase TMF tests are lower than those obtained in the isothermal mechanical tests at the same load amplitude. It appears that an additional damage is produced by the reaction of mechanical stress cycles and temperature cycles in TMF situation. Ratcheting phenomenon occurred during the tests with an increasing creep rate and it was dependent on temperature and load amplitude. A model of lifetime prediction, based on the Woehler-Miner law, was discussed. Damage coefficients that are functions of the maximum temperature and the variation of temperature are introduced in the model so as to evaluate TMF lives in load control. With this method the lifetime prediction gives results corresponding well to experimental data

  14. Rate-dependent response of superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods to tensile cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yoshikazu; Maekawa, Nao; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of tensile cyclic loading tests conducted to examine the dependence of constitutive relations for superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods on loading rates. Recently, Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods with diameters up to 8 mm have been developed by the authors, and it has been demonstrated that these rods have excellent superelastic strains of more than 8%, which is comparable to Ni–Ti alloys and far superior to other Cu-based alloys. No information is available, however, on the rate dependence of constitutive relations for Cu–Al–Mn alloys. In this study, we prepare two Cu–Al–Mn alloy rod specimens, whose lengths and diameters are 150 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Their stress–strain relations are examined under the loading frequencies of 0.001, 0.5, and 1 Hz with constant strain amplitude of 4.5%. It was found from the tests that the maximum stress increase in Cu–Al–Mn alloys due to higher loading rate was less than 5%. Thermo-mechanical analysis predicts that stress increase in Cu–Al–Mn alloys is about 1/4 of that in Ni–Ti alloys, which agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. Such low stress increase is highly desirable in the design of seismic devices such as dampers and isolators. (fast track communication)

  15. On the evolution and modelling of lattice strains during the cyclic loading of TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Tomé, Carlos N.; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of lattice strains in fully annealed Fe–24Mn–3Al–2Si–1Ni–0.06C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is investigated via in situ neutron diffraction during cyclic (tension–compression) loading between strain limits of ±1%. The pronounced Bauschinger effect observed upon load reversal is accounted for by a combination of the intergranular residual stresses and the intragranular sources of back stress, such as dislocation pile-ups at the intersection of stacking faults. The recently modified elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model which empirically accounts for both intergranular and intragranular back stresses has been successfully used to simulate the macroscopic stress–strain response and the evolution of the lattice strains. The EPSC model captures the experimentally observed tension–compression asymmetry as it accounts for the directionality of twinning as well as Schmid factor considerations. For the strain limits used in this study, the EPSC model also predicts that the lower flow stress on reverse shear loading reported in earlier Bauschinger-type experiments on TWIP steel is a geometrical or loading path effect

  16. In vivo cyclic loading as a potent stimulatory signal for bone formation inside tissue engineering scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roshan-Ghias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical situations, bone defects are often located at load bearing sites. Tissue engineering scaffolds are future bone substitutes and hence they will be subjected to mechanical stimulation. The goal of this study was to test if cyclic loading can be used as stimulatory signal for bone formation in a bone scaffold. Poly(L-lactic acid (PLA/ 5% beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP scaffolds were implanted in both distal femoral epiphyses of eight rats. Right knees were stimulated (10N, 4Hz, 5 min five times, every two days, starting from the third day after surgery while left knees served as control. Finite element study of the in vivo model showed that the strain applied to the scaffold is similar to physiological strains. Using micro-computed tomography (CT, all knees were scanned five times after the surgery and the related bone parameters of the newly formed bone were quantified. Statistical modeling was used to estimate the evolution of these parameters as a function of time and loading. The results showed that mechanical stimulation had two effects on bone volume (BV: an initial decrease in BV at week 2, and a long-term increase in the rate of bone formation by 28%. At week 13, the BV was then significantly higher in the loaded scaffolds.

  17. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alvarez-Arenal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI, resin composite (RC, glass ionomer (GI, resin urethane-based (RUB, and compomer cement (CC. Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%. GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N. The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC for a specific clinical situation.

  18. Fatigue behaviour of core-spun yarns containing filament by means of cyclic dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S.; Osman, B.

    2017-10-01

    The behaviour of yarns under dynamic loading is important that leads to understand the growth characteristics which is exposed to repetitive loadings during usage of fabric made from these yarns. Fabric growth is undesirable property that originated from low resilience characteristics of fabric. In this study, the effects of the filament fineness and yarn linear density on fatigue behaviour of rigid-core spun yarns were determined. Cotton covered yarns containing different filament fineness of polyester (PET) draw textured yarns (DTY) (100d/36f, 100d/96f, 100d/144f, 100d/192f and 100d/333f) and yarn linear densities (37 tex, 30 tex, 25 tex and 21 tex) were manufactured by using a modified ring spinning system at the same spinning parameters. Repetitive loads were applied for 25 cycles at levels between 0.1 and 3 N. Dynamic modulus and dynamic strain of yarn samples were analyzed statistically. Results showed that filament fineness and yarn linear density have significance effect on dynamic modulus and dynamic strain after cyclic loading.

  19. Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, D.; Fingerhuth, J.; Varfolomeev, I.; Moroz, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM), Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 (X6CrNiNb18-10) under low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle thermal fatigue was investigated with in two research projects supported by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy and the Ministry of Education and Research. The objectives of the projects were the gain of deep understanding of the damage mechanisms under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading and the development of material models and simulation procedures for an improved lifetime assessment. In comparison to the advanced mechanism based material models engineering computational procedures were proven with respect to their applicability and conservatisms. For thermal cyclic loading, test equipment and technique were developed which allow for cyclic thermal loading with temperature ranges between 1 00 C and 300 C and frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz. As a result, tests with a temperature range of 150 C and lower showed no crack formation up to 300,000 cycles. For temperature ranges of 200 C and higher multiple crack patterns were observed with the deepest crack of about 1.3 mm after 1,000,000 cycles, whereas the difference in crack depth between 300,000 and 1,000,000 cycles was negligibly small. To model the fatigue lifetime, the D{sub TMF} damage parameter was applied to the low-cycle fatigue and the thermal, high frequent fatigue tests. For thermal fatigue, the analyses predicted in agreement with the tests crack initiation followed by crack propagation, subsequent retardation and arrest. This behaviour can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using the methods of linear-elastic fracture mechanics, whereas the consideration of the interaction of multiple cracks is essential to describe the experimentally observed crack retardation. The results for thermal fatigue are in the scatterband of the mechanical p and thermo-mechanical fatigue results and the cycles to failure are 10 times higher than those estimated according to the KTA fatigue

  20. Life prediction of simple structures subject to cyclic primary and secondary loading resulting in creep and platicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, N.R.; Jones, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    High temperature reactors are subject to cyclic mechanical and thermal loadings resulting from start up and shut down operations. The design must therefore guard against structural failure resulting from excessive deformation and creep-fatigue damage. Before any simplified inelastic analysis techniques can be applied, their validity needs to be examined under situations representative of the reactor. For this to be carried out it is necessary to determine the behaviour of components, initially geometrically simple, subject to loadings, cyclic primary and secondary in nature, which result in creep and plasticity. Beam-like structures have been investigated on a finite element basis with the aim of determining how cyclic plasticity, creep enhancement and plastic ratchetting vary in relationship with modified shakedown criteria, magnitude of loading and hold time. (orig.)

  1. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  2. Behavior of annealed type 316 stainless steel under monotonic and cyclic biaxial loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.; Robinson, D.N.; Pugh, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the elastic-plastic behavior of type 316 stainless steel, one of the major structural alloys used in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor components. The study was part of a continuing program to develop a structural design technology applicable to advanced reactor systems. Here, behaviour of solution annealed material was examined through biaxial stress experiments conducted at room temperature under radial loadings (√3tau=sigma) in tension-torsion stress space. The effects of both stress limited monotonic loading and strain limited cyclic loading were determined on the size, shape and position of yield loci corresponding to small offset strain (10 microstrain) definition of yield. In the present work, the aim was to determine the extent to which the constitutive laws previously recommended for type 304 stainless steel are applicable to type 316 stainless steel. It was concluded that for the conditions investigated, the inelastic behavior of the two materials are qualitatively similar. Specifically, the von Mises yield criterion provides a reasonable approximation of initial yield behavior and the subsequent hardening behavior, at least under small offset definitions of yield, is to the first order kinematic in nature. (Auth.)

  3. Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones for cyclic loading and multilinear hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübel, Hartwig

    2015-01-01

    The Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ) is a direct method based on Zarka's method, primarily developed to estimate post-shakedown quantities of structures under cyclic loading, avoiding incremental analyses through a load histogram. In a different paper the STPZ has previously been shown to provide excellent estimates of the elastic–plastic strain ranges in the state of plastic shakedown as required for fatigue analyses. In the present paper, it is described how the STPZ can be used to predict the strains accumulated through a number of loading cycles due to a ratcheting mechanism, until either elastic or plastic shakedown is achieved, so that strain limits can be satisfied. Thus, a consistent means of estimating both, strain ranges and accumulated strains is provided for structural integrity assessment as required by pressure vessel codes. The computational costs involved typically consist of few linear elastic analyses and some local calculations. Multilinear kinematic hardening and temperature dependent yield stresses are accounted for. The quality of the results and the computational burden involved are demonstrated through four examples. - Highlights: • A method is provided to estimate accumulated elastic–plastic strains. • A consistent method is provided to estimate elastic–plastic strain ranges. • Effect of multilinear kinematic hardening is captured. • Temperature dependent material properties are accounted for. • Few linear elastic analyses required

  4. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howser, R. N.; Dhonde, H. B.; Mo, Y. L.

    2011-08-01

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity.

  5. Fatigue mechanisms in an austenitic steel under cyclic loading: Experiments and atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, E.A., E-mail: ewa.soppa@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de; Kohler, C., E-mail: christopher.kohler@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de; Roos, E., E-mail: eberhard.roos@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-03-01

    Experimental investigations on the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 (AISI – 347) and concomitant atomistic simulations of a FeNi nanocrystalline model system have been performed in order to understand the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage under cyclic loading. Using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) the influence of deformation induced martensitic transformation and NbC size distribution on the fatigue crack formation has been demonstrated. The martensite nucleates prevalently at grain boundaries, triple points and at the specimen free surface and forms small (∼1 µm sized) differently oriented grains. The atomistic simulations show the role of regions of a high density of stacking faults for the martensitic transformation.

  6. Acoustic Emission Assessment of Impending Fracture in a Cyclically Loading Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rastegaev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the advanced acoustic emission (AE technique, we address the problem of early identification of crack initiation and growth in ductile structural steels under cyclic loading. The notched 9MnSi5 steel specimens with weld joints were fatigue tested at room and lower temperatures with concurrent AE measurements. Detection of AE in ductile materials where fatigue crack initiation and propagation is mediated by local dislocation behavior ahead of the notch or crack tip is challenging because of an extremely low amplitude of the AE signal. With account of this issue, two new practically oriented criteria for recognition of different stages of fatigue are proposed on the basis of AE data: (1 a power spectrum-based criterion and (2 a pattern recognition-based criterion utilizing modern clustering algorithms. The applicability of both criteria is verified using obtained AE data. A good correspondence between AE outcomes and experimental observations of the fatigue behavior was obtained and is discussed.

  7. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howser, R N; Dhonde, H B; Mo, Y L

    2011-01-01

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity

  8. Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.

  9. Multiaxial fatigue strength of type 316 stainless steel under push–pull, reversed torsion, cyclic inner and outer pressure loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Itoh, Takamoto; Bao, Zhenlong

    2016-01-01

    Multiaxial fatigue tests under non-proportional loading in which principal directions of stress and strain are changed in a cycle were carried out using a developed multiaxial fatigue testing machine which can load a push–pull and reversed torsion loading with cyclic inner and outer pressure. This paper presents the developed testing machine and experimental results under several multiaxial loading conditions including non-proportional loading. In strain control tests, the failure life is reduced in accordance with increasing inner pressure at each strain path. The failure life can be correlated by von Mises' equivalent stress amplitude relatively well independent of not only inner pressure but also loading path. In load control tests, the failure life is reduced largely by non-proportional loading but the influence of inner and outer pressure on the failure life is relative small.

  10. Experimental study on lateral strength of wall-slab joint subjected to lateral cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrom, Mohd Asha'ari; Mohamad, Mohd Elfie; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul; Yusuff, Amer

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel form building has been utilised in building construction since 1960 in Malaysia. This method of construction has been applied extensively in the construction of high rise residential house (multistory building) such as condominium and apartment. Most of the tunnel form buildings have been designed according to British standard (BS) whereby there is no provision for seismic loading. The high-rise tunnel form buildings are vulnerable to seismic loading. The connections between slab and shear walls in the tunnel-form building constitute an essential link in the lateral load resisting mechanism. Malaysia is undergoing a shifting process from BS code to Eurocode (EC) for building construction since the country has realised the safety threats of earthquake. Hence, this study is intended to compare the performance of the interior wall slab joint for a tunnel form structure designed based on Euro and British codes. The experiment included a full scale test of the wall slab joint sub-assemblages under reversible lateral cyclic loading. Two sub-assemblage specimens of the wall slab joint were designed and constructed based on both codes. Each specimen was tested using lateral displacement control (drift control). The specimen designed by using Eurocode was found could survive up to 3.0% drift while BS specimen could last to 1.5% drift. The analysis results indicated that the BS specimen was governed by brittle failure modes with Ductility Class Low (DCL) while the EC specimen behaved in a ductile manner with Ductility Class Medium (DCM). The low ductility recorded in BS specimen was resulted from insufficient reinforcement provided in the BS code specimen. Consequently, the BS specimen could not absorb energy efficiently (low energy dissipation) and further sustain under inelastic deformation.

  11. The ratchet–shakedown diagram for a thin pressurised pipe subject to additional axial load and cyclic secondary global bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, R.A.W.; Tipping, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    The ratchet and shakedown boundaries are derived analytically for a thin cylinder composed of elastic-perfectly plastic Tresca material subject to constant internal pressure with capped ends, plus an additional constant axial load, F, and a cycling secondary global bending load. The analytic solution is in good agreement with solutions found using the linear matching method. When F is tensile, ratcheting can occur for sufficiently large cyclic bending loads in which the pipe gets longer and thinner but its diameter remains the same. When F is compressive, ratcheting can occur in which the pipe diameter increases and the pipe gets shorter, but its wall thickness remains the same. When subject to internal pressure and cyclic bending alone (F = 0), no ratcheting is possible, even for arbitrarily large bending loads, despite the presence of the axial pressure load. The reason is that the case with a primary axial membrane stress exactly equal to half the primary hoop membrane stress is equipoised between tensile and compressive axial ratcheting, and hence does not ratchet at all. This remarkable result appears to have escaped previous attention. - Highlights: • A thin cylinder is subject to pressure and cyclic global bending and additional axial load. • Ratchet and shakedown boundaries are derived analytically and using LMM. • Good agreement is found. • No ratcheting occurs for zero additional axial load.

  12. Modified bond model for shear in slabs under concentrated loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; Van der Veen, C.; De Boer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to supports, as occurring for truck loads on slab bridges, are less studied than beams in shear or slab-column connections in punching. To predict the shear capacity for this case, the Bond Model for concentric punching shear was studied initially.

  13. Evaluation of Using Triangular Plates as Continuity Plates in Box Column Section in Prequalified Welded Connections under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kafi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding of Continuity plates in box columns are not easily possible, therefore some researches has been done for substitution of external continuity plates.In this study first discussed about effects of continuity plate in I beam to Box column with top and bottom plate (WFP and welded unreinforced flange-welded web connection (WUF-W and reduced beam section connection (RBS. Then, triangular plates use to in connection beam to box column as continuity plates and to consider under cyclic loading. Studies have shown that existence of continuity plates in connections mentioned above have averagely increased loading capacity, rigidity and energy absorption 63, 86 and 75 percent respectively. The results also showed that using of triangular plates as continuity plates of box columns causing plastic strain in column flange in the area that concentration of materials is not much in triangular plates and increased the probability of failure in weld of plates to the column flange. Also using of triangular plates as continuity plates have not affected on plastic hinge location.

  14. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  15. Multiaxial ratcheting behavior of zirconium alloy tubes under combined cyclic axial load and internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.; Zhang, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, D.K. [Environmental Corrosion Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, D.H. [Hunan Taohuajiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Yiyang, 413000 (China); Chen, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zhe.zhang@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a series of uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted at room temperature on zirconium alloy tubes. The experimental results showed that for uniaxial symmetrical cyclic test, the axial ratcheting strain ɛ{sub x} did not accumulate obviously in initial stage, but gradually increased up to 1% with increasing stress amplitude σ{sub xa}. For multiaxial ratcheting tests, the zirconium alloy tube was highly sensitive to both the axial stress amplitude σ{sub xa} and the internal pressure p{sub i}. The hoop ratcheting strain ɛ{sub θ} increased continuously with the increase of axial stress amplitude, whereas the evolution of axial ratcheting strain ɛ{sub x} was related to the axial stress amplitude. The internal pressure restricted the ratcheting accumulation in the axial direction, but promoted the hoop ratcheting strain on the contrary. The prior loading history greatly restrained the ratcheting behavior of subsequent cycling with a small internal pressure. - Highlights: •Uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting behavior of the zirconium alloy tubes are investigated at room temperature. •The ratcheting depends greatly on the stress amplitude or internal pressure. •The interaction between the axial and hoop ratcheting mechanisms is greatly dependent on the internal pressure level. •The ratcheting is influenced significantly by the loading history of internal pressure.

  16. Multiaxial ratcheting behavior of zirconium alloy tubes under combined cyclic axial load and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Zhang, X.; Xu, D.K.; Li, D.H.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a series of uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted at room temperature on zirconium alloy tubes. The experimental results showed that for uniaxial symmetrical cyclic test, the axial ratcheting strain ɛ x did not accumulate obviously in initial stage, but gradually increased up to 1% with increasing stress amplitude σ xa . For multiaxial ratcheting tests, the zirconium alloy tube was highly sensitive to both the axial stress amplitude σ xa and the internal pressure p i . The hoop ratcheting strain ɛ θ increased continuously with the increase of axial stress amplitude, whereas the evolution of axial ratcheting strain ɛ x was related to the axial stress amplitude. The internal pressure restricted the ratcheting accumulation in the axial direction, but promoted the hoop ratcheting strain on the contrary. The prior loading history greatly restrained the ratcheting behavior of subsequent cycling with a small internal pressure. - Highlights: •Uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting behavior of the zirconium alloy tubes are investigated at room temperature. •The ratcheting depends greatly on the stress amplitude or internal pressure. •The interaction between the axial and hoop ratcheting mechanisms is greatly dependent on the internal pressure level. •The ratcheting is influenced significantly by the loading history of internal pressure.

  17. Graft tendon slippage with metallic and bioabsorbable interference screws under cyclic load: a biomechanical study in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Digiácomo Ocampo Moré

    Full Text Available Introduction The rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is the most common type of knee injury. Reconstructive surgery is the ‘gold standard’ treatment. During the immediate post-operative period, the fixation of the graft is entirely dependent on the ability of the grafted implant to be secured inside the bone tunnel under the cyclical loads associated with daily tasks. Poor fixation can lead to graft slippage, thus impairing the healing and integration of the graft. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of tendon graft fixation devices with metallic and bioabsorbable interference screws. Methods Twenty ACL reconstructions were carried out in porcine tibias using deep flexor tendons to fix 9 × 20 mm metallic (n=10 and PLLA 70/30 bioabsorbable screws (n=10. To verify the ability of a construct to resist immediate postoperative (PO rehabilitation protocols for immediate load bearing, a cyclic loading test was applied with 50-250 N of tensile force at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles, and the displacement was measured at 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 load cycles to quantify the slippage of the graft during the test. After the cyclic loading test, a single-cycle load-to-failure test was applied. Results The slippage of the graft using metallic screws did not differ (P = 0.616 from that observed when using bioabsorbable screws. Conclusion The results obtained in this experiment indicate that metallic screws may promote a similar amount of graft slippage during low cyclic loading as bioabsorbable screws. Additionally, there was no difference in the biomechanical performance of these two types of screws during high failure loads.

  18. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...

  19. Effect of Static and Cyclic Loading on Ceramic Laminate Veneers Adhered to Teeth with and Without Aged Composite Restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kalk, Warner; Galhano, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Existing composite restorations on teeth are often remade prior to the cementation of fixed dental prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of static and cyclic loading on ceramic laminate veneers adhered to aged resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods:

  20. Allometric relationships to liver tissue concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nicholas A.; Nøst, Therese H.; Andrade, Hector; Christensen, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution and relationship of allometric measurements (length, weight and age) to liver concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclosiloxane (D6) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) collected near the community of Tromsø in Northern Norway were assessed. These congeners were benchmarked against known persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 153 and 180) to assess accumulation behavior of cVMS. D5 was the dominate cVMS detected in all fish livers with lipid normalized concentrations up to 10 times or greater than those observed for PCB 153 and 180. D4 and D6 concentration were negatively correlated with fish length and weight, indicating a greater elimination capacity compared to uptake processes with increasing fish size for these chemicals. These results indicate relationships between allometric measurements and cVMS concentrations may account for concentration variations observed within fish and should be assessed in future studies evaluating cVMS bioaccumulation potential. - Highlights: • cVMS spatial distribution investigated within cod surrounding an Arctic community. • Highest cVMS concentrations detected in biota collected near human settlements. • Cod liver concentrations of D5 were higher compared to PCBs. • D4 and D6 liver concentrations were negatively correlated with fish length/weight. - Liver concentrations of cVMS congeners decreased with increasing fish length and weight in Atlantic cod collected near emission sources of cVMS

  1. Efficient cycle jumping techniques for the modelling of materials and structures under cyclic mechanical and thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, F.P.E.; Hayhurst, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Highly efficient cycle jumping algorithms have been developed for the calculation of stress and damage histories for both cyclic mechanical and cycle thermal loading. The techniques have been shown to be suitable for cyclic plasticity; creep-cyclic plasticity interaction; and creep dominated material behaviour. The cycle jumping algorithms have been validated by comparison of the predictions made using both the cycle jumping technique, and the full calculation involving the integration of the equations around all cycles. Excellent agreement has been achieved, and significant reductions in computer processing time of up to 90% have been obtained by using the cycle jumping technique. A further cycle jumping technique has been developed for full component analysis, using a viscoplastic damage finite element solver, which enables stress redistribution to be modelled. The behaviour and lifetime of a slag tap component has been predicted when subjected to cyclic thermal loading. Cyclic plasticity damage and micro-crack initiation is predicted to occur at the water cooling duct after 2.974 cycles, with damage and micro-crack evolution arresting after 60.000. (author). 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 photos

  2. On the Usage of Cyclic Voltammetry and Impedance Spectroscopy for Measuring the Concentration of Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes sensors for concentration measurement based on the electro- chemical properties of the liquid being measured. Herein two electrical methods, namely cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, are being presented. The measurement can be performed quasi simultaneously using the same measurement medium. Further optimization of the combined methods is possible by adapting the geometric design of the electrode structure, the electrode material, the optional passivation and the electric coupling (galvanically or capacitively. In summary, by combining multiple sensory principles on a device it becomes possible to analyze mixtures of substances contained in a solution with respect to their composition.

  3. Pedicle screw anchorage of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws under cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Schmid, Rene; Nydegger, Thomas; Konschake, Marko; Schmoelz, Werner

    2018-03-01

    Pedicle screw loosening is a common and significant complication after posterior spinal instrumentation, particularly in osteoporosis. Radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) pedicle screws have been developed recently to overcome drawbacks of conventional metallic screws, such as metal-induced imaging artifacts and interference with postoperative radiotherapy. Beyond radiolucency, CF/PEEK may also be advantageous over standard titanium in terms of pedicle screw loosening due to its unique material properties. However, screw anchorage and loosening of CF/PEEK pedicle screws have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this biomechanical study therefore was to evaluate whether the use of this alternative nonmetallic pedicle screw material affects screw loosening. The hypotheses tested were that (1) nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resist an equal or higher number of load cycles until loosening than standard titanium screws and that (2) PMMA cement augmentation further increases the number of load cycles until loosening of CF/PEEK screws. In the first part of the study, left and right pedicles of ten cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (BMD 70.8 mg/cm 3  ± 14.5) were randomly instrumented with either CF/PEEK or standard titanium pedicle screws. In the second part, left and right pedicles of ten vertebrae (BMD 56.3 mg/cm 3  ± 15.8) were randomly instrumented with either PMMA-augmented or nonaugmented CF/PEEK pedicle screws. Each pedicle screw was subjected to cyclic cranio-caudal loading (initial load ranging from - 50 N to + 50 N) with stepwise increasing compressive loads (5 N every 100 cycles) until loosening or a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Angular screw motion ("screw toggling") within the vertebra was measured with a 3D motion analysis system every 100 cycles and by stress fluoroscopy every 500 cycles. The nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resisted a similar number of load cycles until loosening as the contralateral standard

  4. Microscale experimental investigation of deformation and damage of argillaceous rocks under cyclic hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linlin; Yang, Diansen; Heripre, Eva; Chanchole, Serge; Bornert, Michel; Pouya, Ahmad; Halphen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Argillaceous rocks are possible host rocks for underground nuclear waste repositories. They exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on their deformation and damage mechanisms at microscale. We present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks at the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded carbonates and quartz particles with sizes ranging from a few to several tens of micrometers, when they are subjected to cyclic variations of relative humidity and mechanical loading. They are based on the combination of high definition and high resolution imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), in situ hydro-mechanical loading of the samples, and digital image correlation techniques. Samples, several millimeters in diameter, are held at a constant temperature of 2 deg. Celsius while the vapor pressure in the ESEM chamber is varied from a few to several hundreds of Pascals, generating a relative humidity ranging from about 10% up to 90%. Results show a strongly heterogeneous deformation field at microscale, which is the result of complex hydro-mechanical interactions. In particular, it can be shown that local swelling incompatibilities can generate irreversible deformations in the clay matrix, even if the overall hydric deformations seem reversible. In addition, local damage can be generated, in the form of a network of microcracks, located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the interface between clay and other mineral particles. The morphology of this network, described in terms of crack length, orientation and preferred location, has been observed to be dependent on the speed of the variation of the relative humidity, and is different in a saturation or desaturation process. Besides studying the deformation and damage under hydric

  5. Multiaxial creep of tubes from Incoloy 800 H and Inconel 617 under static and cyclic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkalla, H.J.; Nickel, H.; Schubert, F.

    1989-01-01

    At temperatures above 800 0 C the material behaviour under mechanical load is determined by creep. The service of heat exchanging components leads to multiaxial loading conditions. For design and inelastic analysis of the component behaviour time dependent design values and suitable constitutive equations are necessary. The present report gives a survey of the approaches to describing creep under multiaxial loading. Norton's law and v. Mises' theory are applied. The load combinations of internal pressure, tensile and torsional stress are studied more closely, cyclic stress superposition in the tensile-pulsating range is discussed and cases of partial relaxation are examined. Experimental results are presented for the loading conditions discussed, and satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found up to now for these results. Regarding lifetime determination under multiaxial creep load, a more precise analysis of creep damage is presented suggesting a suitable deviatoric stress for evaluation in the long-time range. (orig.)

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Development of Fracture Process Zone (FPZ) in Rocks under Cyclic and Static Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamgosar, M.; Erarslan, N.

    2016-03-01

    The development of fracture process zones (FPZ) in the Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) monsonite and Brisbane tuff specimens was investigated to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of brittle rocks under static and various cyclic loadings. An FPZ is a region that involves different types of damage around the pre-existing and/or stress-induced crack tips in engineering materials. This highly damaged area includes micro- and meso-cracks, which emerge prior to the main fracture growth or extension and ultimately coalescence to macrofractures, leading to the failure. The experiments and numerical simulations were designed for this study to investigate the following features of FPZ in rocks: (1) ligament connections and (2) microcracking and its coalescence in FPZ. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan technique was also used to investigate the FPZ behaviour in selected rock specimens. The CT scan results showed that the fracturing velocity is entirely dependent on the appropriate amount of fracture energy absorbed in rock specimens due to the change of frequency and amplitudes of the dynamic loading. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to compute the displacements, tensile stress distribution and plastic energy dissipation around the propagating crack tip in FPZ. One of the most important observations, the shape of FPZ and its extension around the crack tip, was made using numerical and experimental results, which supported the CT scan results. When the static rupture and the cyclic rupture were compared, the main differences are twofold: (1) the number of fragments produced is much greater under cyclic loading than under static loading, and (2) intergranular cracks are formed due to particle breakage under cyclic loading compared with smooth and bright cracks along cleavage planes under static loading.

  7. Creep-fatigue of High Temperature Materials for VHTR: Effect of Cyclic Loading and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celine Cabet; L. Carroll; R. Wright; R. Madland

    2011-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the one of the leading candidate materials for Intermediate Heat eXchangers (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Furthermore, the anticipated IHX operating temperature, up to 950°C, is in the range of creep so that creep-fatigue interaction, which can significantly increase the fatigue crack growth, may be one of the primary IHX damage modes. To address the needs for Alloy 617 codification and licensing, a significant creep-fatigue testing program is underway at Idaho National Laboratory. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times up to 1800s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% and 0.6% in air at 950°C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The creep-fatigue tests resulted in failure times up to 1000 hrs. Fatigue resistance was significantly decreased when a hold time was added at peak stress and when the total strain was increased. The fracture mode also changed from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Changes in the microstructure were methodically characterized. A combined effect of temperature, cyclic and static loading and environment was evidenced in the targeted operating conditions of the IHX. This paper This paper reviews the data previously published by Carroll and co-workers in references 10 and 11 focusing on the role of inelastic strain accumulation and of oxidation in the initiation and propagation of surface fatigue cracks.

  8. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  9. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  10. Structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures under monotonous and cyclic loadings: numerical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, C.; Millard, A.; Nahas, G.

    1989-01-01

    The structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures is usually performed either by means of simplified methods of strength of materials type i.e. global methods, or by means of detailed methods of continuum mechanics type, i.e. local methods. For this second type, some constitutive models are available for concrete and rebars in a certain number of finite element systems. These models are often validated on simple homogeneous tests. Therefore, it is important to appraise the validity of the results when applying them to the analysis of a reinforced concrete structure, in order to be able to make correct predictions of the actual behaviour, under normal and faulty conditions. For this purpose, some tests have been performed at I.N.S.A. de Lyon on reinforced concrete beams, subjected to monotonous and cyclic loadings, in order to generate reference solutions to be compared with the numerical predictions given by two finite element systems: - CASTEM, developed by C.E.A./.D.E.M.T. - ELEFINI, developed by I.N.S.A. de Lyon

  11. Thermomechanical behavior of different Ni-base superalloys during cyclic loading at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The material behavior of three Ni-base superalloys (Inconel® 718, Allvac® 718PlusTM and Haynes® 282® during in-phase cyclic mechanical and thermal loading was investigated. Stress controlled thermo-mechanical tests were carried out at temperatures above 700 ∘C and different levels of maximum compressive stress using a Gleeble® 3800 testing system. Microstructure investigations via light optical microscopy (LOM and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM as well as numerical precipitation kinetics simulations were performed to interpret the obtained results. For all alloys, the predominant deformation mechanism during deformation up to low plastic strains was identified as dislocation creep. The main softening mechanism causing progressive increase of plastic strain after preceding linear behavior is suggested to be recrystallization facilitated by coarsening of grain boundary precipitates. Furthermore, coarsening and partial transformation of strengthening phases was observed. At all stress levels, Haynes® 282® showed best performance which is attributable to its stable microstructure containing a high phase fraction of small, intermetallic precipitates inside grains and different carbides evenly distributed along grain boundaries.

  12. Numerical analyses of caisson breakwaters on soft foundations under wave cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhan; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Yu-chi

    2016-03-01

    A caisson breakwater is built on soft foundations after replacing the upper soft layer with sand. This paper presents a dynamic finite element method to investigate the strength degradation and associated pore pressure development of the intercalated soft layer under wave cyclic loading. By combining the undrained shear strength with the empirical formula of overconsolidation clay produced by unloading and the development model of pore pressure, the dynamic degradation law that describes the undrained shear strength as a function of cycle number and stress level is derived. Based on the proposed dynamic degradation law and M-C yield criterion, a dynamic finite element method is numerically implemented to predict changes in undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer by using the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, and the accuracy of the method is verified. The effects of cycle number and amplitude of the wave force on the degradation of the undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer and the associated excess pore pressure response are investigated by analyzing an overall distribution and three typical sections underneath the breakwater. By comparing the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the static method and the quasi-static method with the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the dynamic finite element method in the three typical sections, the superiority of the dynamic finite element method in predicting changes in undrained shear strength is demonstrated.

  13. Comparison study of inelastic analyses for high temperature structure subjected to cyclic creep loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable numerical analysis method to simulate the plasticity and creep behavior of LMR high temperature structures. Since general purpose finite element analysis codes such as ABAQUS and ANSYS provide various models for plastic hardening and creep equation of Norton's power law, it is possible to perform the separate iscoplasticity analysis. In this study, the high temperature structural analysis program(NONSTA-VP) implementing Chaboche's unified visco plasticity equation into ABAQUS has been developed and the viscoplastic response of the 316 SS plate having a circular hole subjected to a cyclic creep loading has been analyzed. The results among the separate visco plasticity analyses and the unified visco plasticity analysis using NONSTA-VP have been compared and the results from NONSTA-VP shows remarkable responses of stress relaxation and creep behavior during hold time compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses. Also, it is anticipated to reduce the conservatism arising from using elastic approach for creep-fatigue damage analysis since the stress range and the strain range from the unified visco plasticity analysis has been greatly reduced compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses and elastic analysis

  14. Theoretical Studying the Cyclic Loading of Electric Drive Parts of the Stand duo-160

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Maltsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric drive of work rolls of the single-stand rolling mill duo-160 located in the laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU is selected as an object of the theoretical study. After the work rolls have gripped the work-piece the torsional vibrations occur in the drive; a 5-mass dynamic model is built to determine their forms and frequencies. Equations of torsionalvibration movement of masses with time are based on the Lagrange equations of type II. The paper identifies intrinsic moments of inertia and angular stiffness of parts and units of the electric drive. The graphs of the moments of elastic forces are built taking into consideration the dampers and backlashes. A revealed transition process has shown that given amplitudes of the cyclic shear stresses arising in dangerous section of the most loaded top spindle do not exceed the limit of its endurance in this section. In case of excess revealed, it would lead to accumulation of fatigue damage in the spindle metal and to formation of fatigue crack that most probably would appear near the shaft surface rather than in the metal mass. With further using the electric drive this micro-crack would be gradually evolved into macro-crack, the working cross-sectional area of the shaft would be reduced so that there would be a spindle failure and on the surface of a fatigue fracture of its shaft a strongly marked crack growth zone and a completely broken zone would be observed.

  15. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2017-01-01

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation

  16. Effects of concentric vs eccentric loading on cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of concentric vs eccentric loading on cardiovascular variables and ECG. Madan Bhavna1*, Sarika, Sandhu J.S1. 1. Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy Guru Nanak Dev University; ..... psychological and performance.

  17. Cyclic plastic material behavior leading to crack initiation in stainless steel under complex fatigue loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability and of the safety in the design of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor is nowadays one of the most important research topics in nuclear industry. One of the most important damage mechanisms leading the crack initiation in this class of components is the low cycle fatigue (LCF) driven by thermal strain fluctuations caused by the complex thermo-mechanical loading conditions typical for the primary circuit (e.g. operating thermal transients, thermal stratification, turbulent mixing of cold and hot water flows, etc.). The cyclic application of the resulting plastic deformation to the steel grades commonly used for the fabrication of piping parts (e.g. austenitic stainless steels) is associated with a continuous evolution of the mechanical response of the material. As an additional complication, the cyclic behavior of stainless steels is influenced by temperature, strain amplitude and cyclic accumulation of inelastic strain (i.e. ratcheting). The accurate prediction of the structural response of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit requires the development of a reliable constitutive model that must be characterized by a reduced complexity to allow its application in an industrial context. In this framework, the main goal of the current dissertation is to formulate, calibrate and implement in a commercial Finite Element code, a constitutive model that is suitable for the stainless stain grade 316L subjected to complex loading conditions. As a first task, a characterization of the mechanical behavior of 316L subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial strain-controlled conditions (including LCF and ratcheting) is carried out performing several tests in the laboratories of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) and of Politecnico di Milano (Italy). The uniaxial experiments demonstrate that, prescribing a strain-controlled ratcheting path, a harder material response

  18. Cyclic plastic material behavior leading to crack initiation in stainless steel under complex fatigue loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facheris, G.

    2014-07-01

    The improvement of the reliability and of the safety in the design of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor is nowadays one of the most important research topics in nuclear industry. One of the most important damage mechanisms leading the crack initiation in this class of components is the low cycle fatigue (LCF) driven by thermal strain fluctuations caused by the complex thermo-mechanical loading conditions typical for the primary circuit (e.g. operating thermal transients, thermal stratification, turbulent mixing of cold and hot water flows, etc.). The cyclic application of the resulting plastic deformation to the steel grades commonly used for the fabrication of piping parts (e.g. austenitic stainless steels) is associated with a continuous evolution of the mechanical response of the material. As an additional complication, the cyclic behavior of stainless steels is influenced by temperature, strain amplitude and cyclic accumulation of inelastic strain (i.e. ratcheting). The accurate prediction of the structural response of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit requires the development of a reliable constitutive model that must be characterized by a reduced complexity to allow its application in an industrial context. In this framework, the main goal of the current dissertation is to formulate, calibrate and implement in a commercial Finite Element code, a constitutive model that is suitable for the stainless stain grade 316L subjected to complex loading conditions. As a first task, a characterization of the mechanical behavior of 316L subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial strain-controlled conditions (including LCF and ratcheting) is carried out performing several tests in the laboratories of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) and of Politecnico di Milano (Italy). The uniaxial experiments demonstrate that, prescribing a strain-controlled ratcheting path, a harder material response

  19. The influence of gas–solid reaction kinetics in models of thermochemical heat storage under monotonic and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, T.; Shao, H.; Roßkopf, C.; Linder, M.; Wörner, A.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed analysis of cyclic and monotonic loading of thermochemical heat stores. • Fully coupled reactive heat and mass transport. • Reaction kinetics can be simplified in systems limited by heat transport. • Operating lines valid during monotonic and cyclic loading. • Local integral degree of conversion to capture heterogeneous material usage. - Abstract: Thermochemical reactions can be employed in heat storage devices. The choice of suitable reactive material pairs involves a thorough kinetic characterisation by, e.g., extensive thermogravimetric measurements. Before testing a material on a reactor level, simulations with models based on the Theory of Porous Media can be used to establish its suitability. The extent to which the accuracy of the kinetic model influences the results of such simulations is unknown yet fundamental to the validity of simulations based on chemical models of differing complexity. In this article we therefore compared simulation results on the reactor level based on an advanced kinetic characterisation of a calcium oxide/hydroxide system to those obtained by a simplified kinetic model. Since energy storage is often used for short term load buffering, the internal reactor behaviour is analysed under cyclic partial loading and unloading in addition to full monotonic charge/discharge operation. It was found that the predictions by both models were very similar qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of thermal power characteristics, conversion profiles, temperature output, reaction duration and pumping powers. Major differences were, however, observed for the reaction rate profiles themselves. We conclude that for systems not limited by kinetics the simplified model seems sufficient to estimate the reactor behaviour. The degree of material usage within the reactor was further shown to strongly vary under cyclic loading conditions and should be considered when designing systems for certain operating regimes

  20. Experimental investigation and analysis of damage evolution in concrete under high-cyclic fatigue loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Marc

    2016-01-01

    structure. The results of the investigation indicated that rather the fatigue related changes in material behavior are mainly a result of viscous processes in cement stone especially in phase I and II of the fatigue process. Furthermore, it was observed that creep in concrete leads to similar but lesser changes in material behavior of concrete. Beside this, tests with different scales of specimens have shown an appreciable effect of size on the resulting material behavior under static and cyclic loadings respectively. From these experimental findings a detailed description was derived about the processes which take place within the material structure during the fatigue loading and also leads to the observed macroscopic changes in material behavior. In this context, the tests have shown that relating to stiffness reduction a scalar value could not capture the damage effect on the stressstrain- relationship caused by fatigue. A following consideration gives an overview about applicability of the different measured parameters for the detection of the degree of fatigue damage with regard to a reliable damage indicator. Finally an approach is presented which is able to describe the investigated developments of significant values within the observed fatigue process.

  1. Dynamic Aftershock Triggering Correlated with Cyclic Loading in the Slip Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic stress changes have been shown to contribute to aftershock triggering, but the physical triggering mechanisms are not fully understood. Some proposed mechanisms are based on dynamic stress loading of the target fault in a direction that encourages earthquake slip (e.g. dynamic Coulomb stress triggering), while other mechanisms are based on fault weakening due to shaking. If dynamic stress loading in the fault slip direction plays a role in aftershock triggering, we would expect to see a relationship between the dynamic stress orientations and the aftershock focal mechanisms. Alternatively, if dynamic stress change triggering functions only through a fault weakening mechanism that is independent of the slip direction of the target fault, no such relationship is expected. I study aftershock sequences of 4 M≥6.7 mainshocks in southern California, and find a small but significant relationship between modeled dynamic stress direction and aftershock focal mechanisms. The mainshock dynamic stress changes have two observed impacts: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the dynamic stress change, and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the dynamic stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly more aligned with the dynamic stress changes than the preshock mechanisms for only the first 0.5-1 year following most mainshocks, although for at least 10 years following Hector Mine. Dynamic stress effects on focal mechanisms are best observed at long periods (30-60 sec). Dynamic stress effects are only observed when using metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction, for example considering the dominant stress orientation over the full time series, and not for the peak dynamic stress. These results imply that dynamic aftershock triggering operates at least in part through cyclic loading in the direction of fault slip, although

  2. Influence of Hold Time and Stress Ratio on Cyclic Creep Properties Under Controlled Tension Loading Cycles of Grade 91 Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung; Ekaputra, I Made Wicaksana; Kim, Seon Jin

    2017-01-01

    Influences of hold time and stress ratio on cyclic creep properties of Grade 91 steel were systemically investigated using a wide range of cyclic creep tests, which were performed with hold times (HTs) of 1 minute, 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes and stress ratios (R) of 0.5, 0.8, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.95 under tension loading cycles at 600°C. Under the influence of HT, the rupture time increased to HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95, but there was no influence at R = 0.50, 0.80, and 0.85. The creep rate was constant regardless of an increase in the HT, except for the case of HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95. Under the influence of stress ratio, the rupture time increased with an increase in the stress ratio, but the creep rate decreased. The cyclic creep led to a reduction in the rupture time and an acceleration in the creep rate compared with the case of monotonic creep. Cyclic creep was found to depend dominantly on the stress ratio rather than on the HT. Fracture surfaces displayed transgranular fractures resulting from microvoid coalescence, and the amount of microvoids increased with an increase in the stress ratio. Enhanced coarsening of the precipitates in the cyclic creep test specimens was found under all conditions

  3. Influence of combined impact and cyclic loading on the overall fatigue life of forged steel, EA4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Hadidi-Moud, S.; Farhangdoost, Kh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The performance of forged steel, EA4T, used in rail industry, under simulated in service conditions, i.e. combined impact - cyclic loading, was investigated through a comprehensive experimental programme. The standard Paris-Erdogan fatigue design curve parameters, m and C, were calibrated to account for the effect of the impact component of loading. A minimum threshold for impact load component, identified in the experiments, was also incorporated in the proposed empirical model. Comparison with experimental findings indicated that this “modified” Fatigue design curve could predict the fatigue life of pre impact loaded specimens with sufficient accuracy. It was therefore suggested that the modified model may be used as a novel design tool for predicting the overall fatigue life of components made of this material under the specified combined impact and fatigue loading conditions.

  4. Squeeze-Film Lubrication of the Human Ankle Joint Subjected to the Cyclic Loading Encountered in Walking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 1 (2005), s. 141-147 ISSN 0742-4787 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/04/0150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : cyclic loading * human ankle joint * squeeze-film lubrication * synovial fluid filtration * synovial gel formation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2005

  5. Behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N.H.; Suhatril, Meldi; Shariati, Ali; Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M.; Sinaei, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► C-shaped angle connectors show 8.8–33.1% strength degradation under cyclic loading. ► Connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle shear connectors. ► In push-out samples, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. ► C-shaped angle connectors show good behaviour in terms of the ultimate shear capacity. ► C-shaped angle connectors did not fulfil the requirements for ductility criteria. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the structural behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors in composite beams, suitable for transferring shear force in composite structures. The results of the experimental programme, including eight push-out tests, are presented and discussed. The results include resistance, strength degradation, ductility, and failure modes of C-shaped angle shear connectors, under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading. The results show that connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle connectors and after the failure, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. On top of that, by comparing the shear resistance of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and cyclic loading, these connectors showed 8.8–33.1% strength degradation, under fully reversed cyclic loading. Furthermore, it was concluded that the mentioned shear connector shows a proper behaviour, in terms of the ultimate shear capacity, but it does not satisfy the ductility criteria, imposed by the Eurocode 4, to perform a plastic distribution of the shear force between different connectors along the beam length.

  6. One-dimensional model of cable-in-conduit superconductors under cyclic loading using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefik, M.; Schrefler, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An artificial neural network with two hidden layers is trained to define a mechanical constitutive relation for superconducting cable under transverse cyclic loading. The training is performed using a set of experimental data. The behaviour of the cable is strongly non-linear. Irreversible phenomena result with complicated loops of hysteresis. The performance of the ANN, which is applied as a tool for storage, interpolation and interpretation of experimental data is investigated, both from numerical, as well as from physical viewpoints

  7. Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ply unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates [0]12 were fabricated from the prepreg tape of P3252-20 (TORAY). They were laid up by hand and cured in...Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature Takafumi Suzuki 1 and...Development of an engineering model for predicting the off-axis ratcheting behavior of a unidirectional CFRP laminate has been attempted. For this purpose

  8. Fatigue behavior of boxing welded joint under biaxial cyclic loads; 2juku kurikaeshi kajuka ni okeru kakumawashi yosetsu keishu no hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Takada, A.; Akiyama, S.; Ushijima, M.; Maenaka, H. [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Various forces such as gravity, wave induced force, inertial force etc. compositely act on a ship body from various directions. Therefore, while discussing strength or life of structural elements of ship body, it is necessary to understand the effects of the composite force condition. In this study, fatigue tests of boxing welded joint under rectangular biaxial cyclic loads are performed, the following results are obtained. Even under he biaxial cyclic loads, it is the same as the uniaxial test, the cracks occurred at the boxing weld toes propagate almost in the straight y-direction, but no oblique propagation of the cracks caused by the lad in the y-direction occurs. That the crack at initial stage of the crack progress is improved in y-direction can be illustrated by the facts that the residual stress in x-direction near the toes reaches to the yield stress, and the stress concentration in the welded toes is bigger in x-direction than that in y-direction. But as for prediction of the progress route, a further study including amplitude ratio of the biaxial loads, effects of width of test specimen is necessary. 4 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Experimental primers containing synthetic and natural compounds reduce enzymatic activity at the dentin–adhesive interface under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Cristina; Leme-Kraus, Ariene Arcas; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of experimental primers (chlorhexidine, enriched mixture of proanthocyanidins and doxycycline) on the adhesive properties and gelatinolytic activity at dentin-resin interfaces of occlusal Class I restorations. Methods The inactivation of enzymes by the experimental primers was assessed by fluorescence assay and gelatin zymography. To assess the adhesive properties, occlusal Class I cavities were prepared in sound human molars, etched with phosphoric acid and restored with one of the primers and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond Plus - 3M ESPE). After the restorative procedures, the specimens were divided into two subgroups (n = 6) consisting of storage in incubation buffer or axial cyclic loading at 50 N and 1,000,000 cycles. Then, the sectioned and sliced specimens were assigned to in situ zymography assay and microtensile bond strength (TBS) test. Results Fluorescence assay and gelatin zymography revealed that the experimental primers inactivated rMMPs. In situ zymography (2-way ANOVA, Tukey, p 0.05). Significance The use of experimental primers impaired the enzymatic activity at the dentin-adhesive interface after cyclic loading and the activity of rMMPs. Cyclic loading did not have a significant effect on the bond strength. PMID:27524231

  10. Propagation of semi-elliptical surface cracks in ferritic and austenitic steel plates under thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1989-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of crack growth under thermal and thermomechanical fatigue loading are presented. The experiments were performed with a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and an austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 18 11. A plate containing a semi-elliptical surface crack is heated up to a homogeneous temperature and cyclically cooled down by a jet of cold water. On the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics stress-intensity factors are calculated with the weight function method. The prediction of crack growth under thermal fatigue loading using data from mechanical fatigue tests is compared with the experimental result. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of new composite rigid joint under cyclic loading and its effect on one-floor composite frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Haghighat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of structure against lateral and gravity loads, new systems known as composite systems consisting of the reinforced concrete columns and steel beams (RCS can be used and thereby the advantages of concrete beside steel are acquired. RCS joints can be implemented as either through-beam-type joint or through-column-type joint. In this paper, a concrete joint as standard reference joint and a proposed composite joint through-column‎ with new details were built and tested under cyclic loading. Then, using numerical analysis by finite element method, the behavior of composite joint under cyclic loading has been studied and the behavior and performance of proposed composite joint has been studied by comparing the results with that of concrete joint. The results showed that the joint composition in this way resulted in decreasing of the compressive and tensile damages of concrete and increasing in loading capacity, ductility, stiffness and energy absorption. General results of application of composite joint at the one floor-one span composite frame indicating that lateral loading capacity of frame was increased and the performance of frame was improved.

  12. Multi-scale analysis of behavior and fatigue life of 304L stainless under cyclic loading with pre-hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belattar, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of loading history on the cyclic stress-strain curve and fatigue behavior of 304L stainless steel at room temperature. Tension-compression tests were performed on the same specimen under controlled strain, using several loading sequences of increasing or decreasing amplitude. The results showed that fatigue life is significantly reduced by the previous loading history. A previously developed method for determining the effect of prehardening was evaluated. Microstructural analyses were also performed; the microstructures after pre-loading and their evolution during the fatigue cycles were characterized by TEM. The results of these analyses improve our understanding of the macroscopic properties of 304L stainless steel and can help us identify the causes of failure and lifetime reduction. (author)

  13. Limit State of Trapezoidal Metal Sheets Exposed to Concentrated Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Jurdová

    2013-01-01

    In most industrial compounds are used trapezoidal metal sheets like a roof decks. These trapezoidal metal sheets are exposed by concentrated loads, usually by service loads arise from installation of air distribution, sanitary distribution, sprinkler system or wiring installation. In objects of public facilities (like shopping centre, tennis hall, etc.) they can be used for hanging advertising posters etc, too. These systems work as “building kit”. These anchoring systems are represented by c...

  14. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading by means of high-resolution microstructural examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    Materials subjected to cyclic loading experience a change in the microstructure which may affect the service life. Quantification of the microstructural changes and allocation of the microstructural condition to the corresponding point on the fatigue curve for the component material allows the usage factor to be derived. Taking the low-alloy, fine-grained structural steel 20MnMoNi55 (quenched and tempered structure) as an example, the relationship between microstructure and number of load cycles can be represented in the form of a reference curve. High-resolution examination allows the usage factor to be determined up to η=N/N f ≅0.5 under the given cyclic loading. Only a small specimen volume is required for examination using a transmission electron microscope. It can be taken from the component without affecting the required minimum wall thickness. The location of the specimen must, however, be stipulated, e.g. the location of highest loading according to calculations. When removing the specimen, care must be taken to ensure that the micro-structure is not affected. If these requirements are observed, high-resolution microstructural examination provides a method for checking the usage factor of a component. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of combined hardening parameters for type 304LN stainless steel under strain-controlled cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Vishnuvardhan, S.; Raghava, G.

    2016-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue (LCF) is the primary degradation mechanism affecting coolant piping of pressurized water reactor (PWR) caused by combination of pressure and transient mechanical or thermal loads. In the case of LCF, stresses are high enough for plastic deformation to occur and the fatigue life is correlated with the cyclic plastic strain. Modelling cyclic plastic deformation of a material requires hardening parameters, which have to be obtained from LCF test results. It is customary in low cycle fatigue tests that the strain ranges are kept constant and the stresses are allowed to vary which typically leads to a hysteresis loop that consists of linear and nonlinear parts. In this paper, numerical studies on mechanical behaviour of Type 304LN stainless steel under fully reversed strain-controlled cyclic loading have been carried out. A linear combination of the two hardening types, isotropic and kinematic, governed by a scalar parameter, β (0 ≤β ≤ 1) is used. A value of β=1 indicates a pure isotropic hardening while a value of β=0 indicates pure kinematic hardening. The details of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model are also presented. Constitutive relations for the classical von Mises theory along with a bilinear hardening theory have been used. The model is implemented in finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine written in FORTRAN, UMAT. An iterative method is adopted to arrive at the model's hardening parameters and the value of β. (author)

  16. In-Plane Anisotropy in Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Commercially Pure Titanium in Tensile and Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Subhasis; Gurao, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Tensile and cyclic deformation behavior of three samples oriented at 0, 45, and 90 deg to the rolling direction in the rolling direction-transverse direction (RD-TD) plane of cold-rolled and annealed plate of commercially pure titanium is studied in the present investigation. The sample along the RD (R0) shows the highest strength but lowest ductility in monotonic tension. Although ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of samples along 45 and 90 deg to the RD (R45 and R90, respectively) are similar, the former has significantly higher yield strength than the latter, indicating different strain-hardening behavior. It is found that the R90 sample exhibits the highest monotonic ductility as well as fatigue life. This is attributed to a higher propensity for twinning in this sample with the presence of multiple variants and twin intersections. Cyclic life is also influenced by the high tendency for detwinning of contraction twins in this orientation. Elastoplastic self-consistent (EPSC) simulations of one-cycle tension-compression load reversal indicate that the activity of pyramidal 〈 c + a〉 slip and extension twinning oscillates during cyclic loading that builds up damage in a cumulative manner, leading to failure in fatigue.

  17. Effect of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on removal torque in external and internal hex implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hnd Hadi; Lee, Jin-Han; Bae, Ji-Myung; Cho, Hye-Won

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on the removal torque (RTV) in external hex (EH) and internal hex (IH) implants. Forty screw-retained single crowns were connected to external and internal hex implants. The prepared titanium abutment screws were classified into 8 groups based on the number of threads (n = 5 per group): EH 12.5, 6.5, 3.5, 2.5 and IH 6.5, 5, 3.5, 2.5 threads. The abutment screws were tightened with 20 Ncm torque twice with 10-minute intervals. After 5 minutes, the initial RTVs of the abutment screws were measured with a digital torque gauge (MGT12). A customized jig was constructed to apply a load along the implant long axis at the central fossa of the maxillary first molar. The post-loading RTVs were measured after 16,000 cycles of mechanical loading with 50 N at a 1-Hz frequency. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The post-loading RTVs were significantly lower than the initial RTVs in the EH 2.5 thread and IH 2.5 thread groups (P<.05). The initial RTVs exhibited no significant differences among the 8 groups, whereas the post-loading RTVs of the EH 6.5 and EH 3.5 thread groups were higher than those of the IH 3.5 thread group (P<.05). Within the limitations of this study, the external hex implants with short screw lengths were more advantageous than internal hex implants with short screw lengths in torque maintenance after cyclic loading.

  18. Concentrations in ambient air and emissions of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Andreas M; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bogdal, Christian; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-07-02

    Tens of thousands of tonnes of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used each year globally, which leads to high and continuous cVMS emissions to air. However, field measurements of cVMS in air and empirical information about emission rates to air are still limited. Here we present measurements of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in air for Zurich, Switzerland. The measurements were performed in January and February 2011 over a period of eight days and at two sites (city center and background) with a temporal resolution of 6-12 h. Concentrations of D5 and D6 are higher in the center of Zurich and range from 100 to 650 ng m(-3) and from 10 to 79 ng m(-3), respectively. These values are among the highest levels of D5 and D6 reported in the literature. In a second step, we used a multimedia environmental fate model parametrized for the region of Zurich to interpret the levels and time trends in the cVMS concentrations and to back-calculate the emission rates of D5 and D6 from the city of Zurich. The average emission rates obtained for D5 and D6 are 120 kg d(-1) and 14 kg d(-1), respectively, which corresponds to per-capita emissions of 310 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D5 and 36 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D6.

  19. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads

  20. Fatigue life and cyclic deformation behaviour of quenched and tempered steel AISI 4140 at two-step stress- and total-strain-controlled push-pull loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, V.; Lang, K.H.; Macherauch, E. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde I, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The behaviour of steels at multi-step cyclic loading was explored up to now almost exclusively in fatigue-life-oriented investigations. Thus, only few works exist dealing with the cyclic deformation behaviour at two- and multi-step loading. Therefore, the cyclic deformation behaviour at two-step experiments with a single amplitude change (2-block experiments) and with multiple changes between two blocks of certain length and different amplitudes (multi-block experiments) was investigated in this work at the technically important steel AISI 4140 (German grade 42CrMo4). (orig.)

  1. Observations on bucket foundations under cyclic loading in dense saturated sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms will play a significant role in the European energy supply of the coming years. Today, one of the main challenges faced by the offshore wind market is to reduce the cost of turbine foundations. The monopod bucket foundation is a possible solution to this problem. The long......-term cyclic response of this foundation is not fully understood. In this article, a single gravity physical model is described, an experimental campaign is presented and the observed results are discussed. The aim of the study is to explore the general pattern of response of the foundation under cyclic...

  2. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  3. Toward an MRI-based method to measure non-uniform cartilage deformation: an MRI-cyclic loading apparatus system and steady-state cyclic displacement of articular cartilage under compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, C P; Hull, M L

    2003-04-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown potential for measuring non-uniform deformations throughout the volume (i.e. three-dimensional (3D) deformations) in small orthopedic tissues such as articular cartilage. However, to analyze cartilage deformation using MRI techniques, a system is required which can construct images from multiple acquisitions of MRI signals from the cartilage in both the underformed and deformed states. The objectives of the work reported in this article were to 1) design an apparatus that could apply highly repeatable cyclic compressive loads of 400 N and operate in the bore of an MRI scanner, 2) demonstrate that the apparatus and MRI scanner can be successfully integrated to observe 3D deformations in a phantom material, 3) use the apparatus to determine the load cycle necessary to achieve a steady-state deformation response in normal bovine articular cartilage samples using a flat-surfaced and nonporous indentor in unconfined compression. Composed of electronic and pneumatic components, the apparatus regulated pressure to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder so that (1) load-controlled compression cycles were applied to cartilage samples immersed in a saline bath, (2) loading and recovery periods within a cycle varied in time duration, and (3) load magnitude varied so that the stress applied to cartilage samples was within typical physiological ranges. In addition the apparatus allowed gating for MR image acquisition, and operation within the bore of an MRI scanner without creating image artifacts. The apparatus demonstrated high repeatability in load application with a standard deviation of 1.8% of the mean 400 N load applied. When the apparatus was integrated with an MRI scanner programmed with appropriate pulse sequences, images of a phantom material in both the underformed and deformed states were constructed by assembling data acquired through multiple signal acquisitions. Additionally, the number of cycles to reach

  4. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-03-28

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material's fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11-20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11-20} tensile twins.

  5. Down-regulation of Cell Surface Cyclic AMP Receptors and Desensitization of Cyclic AMP-stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Cyclic AMP in Dictyostelium discoideum. Kinetics and Concentration Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    cAMP binds to Dictyostelium discoideum surface receptors and induces a transient activation of adenylate cyclase, which is followed by desensitization. cAMP also induces a loss of detectable surface receptors (down-regulation). Cells were incubated with constant cAMP concentrations, washed free of

  6. Concentration of stresses and strains in a notched cyclinder of a viscoplastic material under harmonic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Ya A.; Senchenkov, I. K.

    1999-02-01

    Certain aspects of the correct definitions of stress and strain concentration factors for elastic-viscoplastic solids under cyclic loading are discussed. Problems concerning the harmonic kinematic excitation of cylindrical specimens with a lateral V-notch are examined. The behavior of the material of a cylinder is modeled using generalized flow theory. An approximate model based on the concept of complex moduli is used for comparison. Invariant characteristics such as stress and strain intensities and maximum principal stress and strain are chosen as constitutive quantities for concentration-factor definitions. The behavior of time-varying factors is investigated. Concentration factors calculated in terms of the amplitudes of the constitutive quantities are used as representative characteristics over the cycle of vibration. The dependences of the concentration factors on the loads are also studied. The accuracy of Nueber's and Birger's formulas is evaluated. The solution of the problem in the approximate formulation agrees with its solution in the exact formulation. The possibilities of the approximate model for estimating low-cycle fatigue are evaluated.

  7. Ratchetting behavior of primary heat transport (PHT) piping material SA-333 carbon steel subjected to cyclic loads at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Desai, Y.M.; Kant, T.; Reddy, G.R.; Gupta, C.; Chakravarthy, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ratchetting behavior of SA-333 Gr. 6 carbon steel used as primary heat transport (PHT) piping material has been investigated with three constitutive models proposed by Armstrong-Frederick, Chaboche and Ohno-Wang involving different hardening rules. Performance of the above mentioned models have been evaluated for a broad set of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. The uniaxial ratchetting simulations have been performed for a range of stress ratios (R) by imposing different stress amplitudes and mean stress conditions. Numerical simulations indicated significant ratchetting and opening of hysteresis loop for negative stress ratio with constant mean stress. Application of cyclic stress without mean stress (R = -1.0) has been observed to produce negligible ratchet-strain accumulation in the material. Simulation under the biaxial stress condition was based on modeling of an internally pressurized thin walled pipe subjected to cyclic bending load. Numerical results have been validated with the experiments as per simulation conditions. All three models have been found to predict the observed accumulation of circumferential strain with increasing number of cycles. However, the Armstrong Frederick (A-F) model was found to be inadequate in simulating the ratchetting response for both uniaxial as well as biaxial loading cases. The A-F model actually over-predicted the ratchetting strain in comparison with the experimental strain values. On the other hand, results obtained with the Chaboche and the Ohno-Wang models for both the uniaxial as well as biaxial loading histories have been observed to closely simulate the experimental results. The Ohno-Wang model resulted in better simulation for the presents sets of experimental results in comparison with the Chaboche model. It can be concluded that the Ohno-Wang model suited well compared to the Chaboche model for above sets of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. (authors)

  8. Phase Transformations in Nickel base Superalloy Inconel 718 during Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jambor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base superalloys are hi-tech materials intended for high temperature applications. This property owns a complex microstructure formed by matrix of Ni and variety of precipitates. The type, form and the amount of these phases significantly affect the resulting properties of these alloys. At sufficiently long exposure to high temperatures, the transformation phase can occur, which can lead to degradation of properties of these alloys. A cyclic plastic deformation can accelerate these changes, and they could occur at significantly lower temperatures or in shorter time of exposure. The aim of this study is to describe phase transformation, which can occur by a cyclic plastic deformation at high temperatures in nickel base superalloy Inconel 718.

  9. Cyclic Mechanical Loading Is Essential for Rac1-Mediated Elongation and Remodeling of the Embryonic Mitral Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Russell A; Yalcin, Huseyin C; MacKay, Joanna L; Sauls, Kimberly; Norris, Russell; Kumar, Sanjay; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2016-01-11

    During valvulogenesis, globular endocardial cushions elongate and remodel into highly organized thin fibrous leaflets. Proper regulation of this dynamic process is essential to maintain unidirectional blood flow as the embryonic heart matures. In this study, we tested how mechanosensitive small GTPases, RhoA and Rac1, coordinate atrioventricular valve (AV) differentiation and morphogenesis. RhoA activity and its regulated GTPase-activating protein FilGAP are elevated during early cushion formation but decreased considerably during valve remodeling. In contrast, Rac1 activity was nearly absent in the early cushions but increased substantially as the valve matured. Using gain- and loss-of-function assays, we determined that the RhoA pathway was essential for the contractile myofibroblastic phenotype present in early cushion formation but was surprisingly insufficient to drive matrix compaction during valve maturation. The Rac1 pathway was necessary to induce matrix compaction in vitro through increased cell adhesion, elongation, and stress fiber alignment. Facilitating this process, we found that acute cyclic stretch was a potent activator of RhoA and subsequently downregulated Rac1 activity via FilGAP. On the other hand, chronic cyclic stretch reduced active RhoA and downstream FilGAP, which enabled Rac1 activation. Finally, we used partial atrial ligation experiments to confirm in vivo that altered cyclic mechanical loading augmented or restricted cushion elongation and thinning, directly through potentiation of active Rac1 and active RhoA, respectively. Together, these results demonstrate that cyclic mechanical signaling coordinates the RhoA to Rac1 signaling transition essential for proper embryonic mitral valve remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of cyclic and dynamic loads on carbon steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Scott, P.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of four 152-mm (6-inch) diameter, unpressurized, circumferential through-wall-cracked, dynamic pipe experiments fabricated from STS410 carbon steel pipe manufactured in Japan. For three of these experiments, the through-wall crack was in the base metal. The displacement histories applied to these experiments were a quasi-static monotonic, dynamic monotonic, and dynamic, cyclic (R = -1) history. The through-wall crack for the third experiment was in a tungsten-inert-gas weld, fabricated in Japan, joining two lengths of STS410 pipe. The displacement history for this experiment was the same history applied to the dynamic, cyclic base metal experiment. The test temperature for each experiment was 300 C (572 F). The objective of these experiments was to compare a Japanese carbon steel pipe material with US pipe material, to ascertain whether this Japanese steel was as sensitive to dynamic and cyclic effects as US carbon steel pipe. In support of these pipe experiments, quasi-static and dynamic, tensile and fracture toughness tests were conducted. An analysis effort was performed that involved comparing experimental crack initiation and maximum moments with predictions based on available fracture prediction models, and calculating J-R curves for the pipe experiments using the η-factor method

  11. Cyclic fatigue resistance tests of Nickel-Titanium rotary files using simulated canal and weight loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-In Cho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi files obtained in a conventional test using a simulated canal with a newly developed method that allows the application of constant fatigue load conditions. Materials and Methods ProFile and K3 files of #25/.06, #30/.06, and #40/.04 were selected. Two types of testing devices were built to test their fatigue performance. The first (conventional device prescribed curvature inside a simulated canal (C-test, the second new device exerted a constant load (L-test whilst allowing any resulting curvature. Ten new instruments of each size and brand were tested with each device. The files were rotated until fracture and the number of cycles to failure (NCF was determined. The NCF were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test for each method. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed to examine any association between methods. Results Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ = -0.905 showed a significant negative correlation between methods. Groups with significant difference after the L-test divided into 4 clusters, whilst the C-test gave just 2 clusters. From the L-test, considering the negative correlation of NCF, K3 gave a significantly lower fatigue resistance than ProFile as in the C-test. K3 #30/.06 showed a lower fatigue resistance than K3 #25/.06, which was not found by the C-test. Variation in fatigue test methodology resulted in different cyclic fatigue resistance rankings for various NiTi files. Conclusions The new methodology standardized the load during fatigue testing, allowing determination fatigue behavior under constant load conditions.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Trung Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.

  13. A boundary element analysis on the influence of Krc and e/d on the performance of cyclically loaded single pile in clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basack

    Full Text Available The environment prevalent in oceans necessitates the piles supporting offshore structures to be designed against lateral cyclic loading initiated by wave action. Such quasi-static load reversal induces deterioration in the strength and stiffness of the soil-pile system, introducing progressive reduction in the bearing capacity associated with increased settlement of the pile foundation. To understand the effect of lateral cyclic load on axial response of single piles in soft clay, a numerical model was previously developed and validated by the author. Using the methodology, further analysis has been carried out to investigate how the variation in relative pilesoil stiffness and eccentricity effects the degradation of axial pile capacity due to the effect of lateral cyclic load. This paper presents a brief description of the methodology, analysis and interpretations of the theoretical results obtained from the further analysis and the relevant conclusions drawn there from.

  14. Time of flight measurements of unirradiated and irradiated nuclear graphite under cyclic compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodel, W., E-mail: william.bodel@hotmail.com [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Atkin, C. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton (United Kingdom); Marsden, B.J. [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The time-of-flight technique has been used to investigate the stiffness of nuclear graphite with respect to the grade and grain direction. A loading rig was developed to collect time-of-flight measurements during cycled compressive loading up to 80% of the material's compressive strength and subsequent unloading of specimens along the axis of the applied stress. The transmission velocity (related to Young's modulus), decreased with increasing applied stress; and depending on the graphite grade and orientation, the modulus then increased, decreased or remained constant upon unloading. These tests were repeated while observing the microstructure during the load/unload cycles. Initial decreases in transmission velocity with compressive load are attributed to microcrack formation within filler and binder phases. Three distinct types of behaviour occur on unloading, depending on the grade, irradiation, and loading direction. These different behaviours can be explained in terms of the material microstructure observed from the microscopy performed during loading.

  15. Fatigue data for polyether ether ketone (PEEK) under fully-reversed cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rakish; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the data obtained from the uniaxial fully-reversed fatigue experiments conducted on polyether ether ketone (PEEK), a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, are presented. The tests were performed in either strain-controlled or load-controlled mode under various levels of loading. The data are categorized into four subsets according to the type of tests, including (1) strain-controlled fatigue tests with adjusted frequency to obtain the nominal temperature rise of the specimen surface, (2) strain-controlled fatigue tests with various frequencies, (3) load-controlled fatigue tests without step loadings, and (4) load-controlled fatigue tests with step loadings. Accompanied data for each test include the fatigue life, the maximum (peak) and minimum (valley) stress-strain responses for each cycle, and the hysteresis stress-strain responses for each collected cycle in a logarithmic increment. A brief description of the experimental method is also given.

  16. The Investigation of Knitted Materials Bonded Seams Behaviour upon Cyclical Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research uniaxial tension behaviour of PES knitted materials with bonded seams is analysed. The objects of the investigation were two types of knitted materials, having the same fibre composition (93 % PES, 7 % EL, but different in knitting pattern, i. e. plain single jersey and rib 1 × 1. Bonded overlap seams were formed by changing the orientation of knitted materials strips, i. e. parallel/parallel, parallel/bias, parallel/perpendicular, bias/bias and bias/perpendicular. The strips of each knitted material were joined by two types of thermoplastic polyurethane (PU films different in thickness (75 mm and 150 mm. Mechanical characteristics of bonded seams were defined in longitudinal direction. During uniaxial tension such parameters as maximal force Fmax (N and maximal elongation ɛmax (% were recorded from typical tension diagrams. The changes of tested specimens strength and deformation were compared before and after cyclical fatigue tension the conditions of which were 50 cycles up to tension force F equal 24.5 N. The results have shown that changes before and after cyclical fatigue tension are mostly determined by the structure of knitted materials, the orientation of knitted materials strips in bonded seam, but not effected by thermoplastic polyurethane film. These results are opposite compared to the results of biaxial tension of the same type of specimens, which have shown that changes before and after cyclical fatigue punching are mostly determined by the type of thermoplastic film, but not effected by the orientation of knitted materials strips in bonded seams. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16065

  17. Contribution to life-time predictions of gas turbine components under cyclic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, R.

    1982-02-15

    The low cycle fatique life of gas turbine components is analysed using the turbine blade of the ATAR 101 F jet engine turbine as example. The results show that, among other things thermal stresses during start-up and shut-off cause considerable damage to the material. Tests using a model rig showed that damage caused by material creep and LCF-mechanisms stongly depended on cyclic parameters such as temperature, temperature development, and power etc. Two long-term tests confirm that the Manson model can be used to give a reasonable prediction of turbine blade life.

  18. Fracture Resistance of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Bonded to Teeth with Class V Composite Fillings after Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadighpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs are sometimes required to be used for teeth with composite fillings. This study examined the fracture strength of PLVs bonded to the teeth restored with different sizes of class V composite fillings. Materials and Methods. Thirty-six maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups (n=12: intact teeth (control and teeth with class V composite fillings of one-third or two-thirds of the crown height (small or large group, resp.. PLVs were made by using IPS e.max and bonded with a resin cement (RelyX Unicem. Fracture resistance (N was measured after cyclic loading (1 × 106 cycles, 1.2 Hz. For statistical analyses, one-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used (α=0.05. Results. There was a significant difference between the mean failure loads of the test groups (P=0.004, with the Tukey-HSD test showing lower failure loads in the large-composite group compared to the control (P=0.02 or small group (P=0.05. The control and small-composite groups achieved comparable results (P>0.05. Conclusions. Failure loads of PLVs bonded to intact teeth and to teeth with small class V composite fillings were not significantly different. However, extensive composite fillings could compromise the bonding of PLVs.

  19. anisotropic crack modelling of reinforced concrete structures with an enhanced kinematics: application to bidimensional elements under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishta, Ejona

    2016-01-01

    Civil engineering buildings, massive and unique, are mostly made of reinforced or prestressed concrete. Sustainability, tightness and safety are the major pillars of a building's performance. Cracking is a major phenomenon which impacts the buildings' behaviour under different loadings in terms of sustainability and structural capacity. Development of numerical models which describe accurately the response of quasi-brittle materials under complex loading remains an important research topic for the scientific community. The objective of this work is the development of a numerical model which represents explicitly cracking of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete degradation process, characterised by the appearance of several anisotropic crack families, is described by means of an anisotropic damage model accounting for oriented crack families. The kinematics of this model is enriched with a displacement jump in order to reproduce the development of cracks in the material during loading. This displacement jump is identified as the crack opening. The developed model is validated on simulations of plain concrete structures exhibiting model as well as mixed-mode failure. The performances of the enriched model are shown by the simulation of reinforced concrete structures such as a shear wall submitted to cyclic loading. (author) [fr

  20. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP Shear Walls and Steel Strips under Cyclic Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Askarizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main elements of resistance against lateral loads in reinforced concrete structures. These walls should not only provide sufficient resistance but also provide sufficient ductility in order to avoid brittle fracture, particularly under strong seismic loads. However, many reinforced concrete shear walls need to be stabilized and reinforced due to various reasons such as changes in requirements of seismic regulations, weaknesses in design and execution, passage of time, damaging environmental factors, patch of rebar in plastic hinges and in some cases failures and weaknesses caused by previous earthquakes or explosion loads. Recently, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP components have been extensively and successfully used in seismic improvement. This study reinforces FRP reinforced concrete shear walls and steel strips. CFRP and steel strips are evaluated by different yield and ultimate strength. Numerical and experimental studies are done on walls with scale 1/2. These walls are exposed to cyclic loading. Hysteresis curves of force, drift and strain of FRP strips are reviewed in order to compare results of numerical work and laboratory results. Both numerical and laboratory results show that CFRP and steel strips increase resistance, capacity and ductility of the structure.

  1. Fracture toughness of Ti-Al3Ti-Al-Al3Ti laminate composites under static and cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patselov, A. M.; Gladkovskii, S. V.; Lavrikov, R. D.; Kamantsev, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The static and cyclic fracture toughnesses of a Ti-Al3Ti-Al-Al3Ti laminate composite material containing at most 15 vol % intermetallic compound are studied. Composite specimens are prepared by terminating reaction sintering of titanium and aluminum foils under pressure. The fracture of the titanium layers is quasi-cleavage during cyclic crack growth and is ductile during subsequent static loading.

  2. Performance study of K{sub e} factors in simplified elastic plastic fatigue analyses with emphasis on thermal cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.lang@areva.com [AREVA NP GmbH, PEEA-G, Henri-Dunant-Strasse 50, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Rudolph, Juergen; Ziegler, Rainer [AREVA NP GmbH, PEEA-G, Henri-Dunant-Strasse 50, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    As code-based fully elastic plastic code conforming fatigue analyses are still time consuming, simplified elastic plastic analysis is often applied. This procedure is known to be overly conservative for some conditions due to the applied plastification (penalty) factor K{sub e}. As a consequence, less conservative fully elastic plastic fatigue analyses based on non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) or simplified elastic plastic analysis based on more realistic K{sub e} factors have to be used for fatigue design. The demand for more realistic K{sub e} factors is covered as a requirement of practical fatigue analysis. Different code-based K{sub e} procedures are reviewed in this paper with special regard to performance under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Other approximation formulae such as those by Neuber, Seeger/Beste or Kuehnapfel are not evaluated in this context because of their applicability to mechanical loading excluding thermal cyclic loading conditions typical for power plant operation. Besides the current code-based K{sub e} corrections, the ASME Code Case N-779 (e.g. Adam's proposal) and its modification in ASME Section VIII is considered. Comparison of elastic plastic results and results from the Rules for Nuclear Facility Components and Rules for Pressure Vessels reveals a considerable overestimation of usage factor in the case of ASME III and KTA 3201.2 for the examined examples. Usage factors according to RCC-M, Adams (ASME Code Case N-779), ASME VIII (alternative) and EN 13445-3 are essentially comparable and less conservative for these examples. The K{sub v} correction as well as the applied yield criterion (Tresca or von Mises) essentially influence the quality of the more advanced plasticity corrections (e.g. ASME Code Case N-779 and RCC-M). Hence, new proposals are based on a refined K{sub v} correction.

  3. Performance study of Ke factors in simplified elastic plastic fatigue analyses with emphasis on thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Hermann; Rudolph, Juergen; Ziegler, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    As code-based fully elastic plastic code conforming fatigue analyses are still time consuming, simplified elastic plastic analysis is often applied. This procedure is known to be overly conservative for some conditions due to the applied plastification (penalty) factor K e . As a consequence, less conservative fully elastic plastic fatigue analyses based on non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) or simplified elastic plastic analysis based on more realistic K e factors have to be used for fatigue design. The demand for more realistic K e factors is covered as a requirement of practical fatigue analysis. Different code-based K e procedures are reviewed in this paper with special regard to performance under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Other approximation formulae such as those by Neuber, Seeger/Beste or Kuehnapfel are not evaluated in this context because of their applicability to mechanical loading excluding thermal cyclic loading conditions typical for power plant operation. Besides the current code-based K e corrections, the ASME Code Case N-779 (e.g. Adam's proposal) and its modification in ASME Section VIII is considered. Comparison of elastic plastic results and results from the Rules for Nuclear Facility Components and Rules for Pressure Vessels reveals a considerable overestimation of usage factor in the case of ASME III and KTA 3201.2 for the examined examples. Usage factors according to RCC-M, Adams (ASME Code Case N-779), ASME VIII (alternative) and EN 13445-3 are essentially comparable and less conservative for these examples. The K v correction as well as the applied yield criterion (Tresca or von Mises) essentially influence the quality of the more advanced plasticity corrections (e.g. ASME Code Case N-779 and RCC-M). Hence, new proposals are based on a refined K v correction.

  4. Study the Cyclic Plasticity Behavior of 508 LAS under Constant, Variable and Grid-Load-Following Loading Cycles for Fatigue Evaluation of PWR Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barua, Bipul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an update of an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for components in light water reactors. This report is a deliverable in September 2016 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2016 report, we presented a detailed thermal-mechanical stress analysis model for simulating the stress-strain state of a reactor pressure vessel and its nozzles under grid-load-following conditions. In this report, we provide stress-controlled fatigue test data for 508 LAS base metal alloy under different loading amplitudes (constant, variable, and random grid-load-following) and environmental conditions (in air or pressurized water reactor coolant water at 300°C). Also presented is a cyclic plasticity-based analytical model that can simultaneously capture the amplitude and time dependency of the component behavior under fatigue loading. Results related to both amplitude-dependent and amplitude-independent parameters are presented. The validation results for the analytical/mechanistic model are discussed. This report provides guidance for estimating time-dependent, amplitude-independent parameters related to material behavior under different service conditions. The developed mechanistic models and the reported material parameters can be used to conduct more accurate fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components.

  5. Mechanical Degradation of Porous NiTi Alloys Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Pore characteristics and morphology have significant effect on mechanical behavior of porous NiTi specimens. In this research, porous NiTi with different pore sizes, shapes and morphology were produced by powder metallurgy methods using space-holder materials. The effect of the pore characteristics on the mechanical properties was investigated by static and cyclic compression tests at body temperature. The results show that specimens with low porosity and isolated pores exhibit more mechanical strength and recoverable strain. The specimen with 36% porosity produced without space holder could preserve its properties up to 10% strain and its strain recovery was complete after cyclic compression tests. On the other hand, the specimens produced by a urea space holder with more than 60% interconnected porosity show rapid degradation of their scaffolds. The highly porous specimens degraded even below 5% strain due to crack formation and propagation in the thin pore walls. For highly porous specimens produced by a NaCl space holder, the pores are partially interconnected with a cubic shape; nevertheless, their mechanical behavior is close to low-porosity specimens.

  6. Observations during static and cyclic undrained loading of dense Aalborg University sand no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    . Soil strength and stiffness are found to change depending on the type of loading applied. Effective friction angle is found to be changing during various phases of loading. Linear Mohr Coulomb model could potentially be sufficient for modeling the full spectrum of dense sand behavior if extended...... with a changing friction angle following the examined patterns of response. A total stress path based material model is presented in this paper....

  7. Microstructural modeling of fatigue fracture of shape memory alloys at thermomechanical cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Fedor S.; Evard, Margarita E.; Volkov, Aleksandr E.

    2018-05-01

    A microstructural model of shape memory alloys (SMA) describing their deformation and fatigue fracture is presented. A new criterion of fracture has been developed which takes into account the effect of hydrostatic pressure, deformation defects and material damage. It is shown that the model can describe the fatigue fracture of SMA under various thermomechanical cycling regimes. Results of calculating the number of cycles to failure at thermocycling under a constant stress, at symmetric two-sided cyclic deformation, at straining-unloading cycles, at cycling in the regime of the thermodynamic cycles of a SMA working body in the hard (strain controlled) and soft (stress controlled) working cycles, is studied. Results of calculating the number of cycles to failure are presented for different parameters of these cycles.

  8. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage due to cyclic stress loading at 77 K for MOCVD-YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M; Yoshida, Y; Hojo, M; Shikimachi, K; Hirano, N; Nagaya, S

    2008-01-01

    Tensile fatigue tests were carried out at 77 K for YBCO-coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The S-N relationship, variation of critical current (I c ) during cyclic loading and microscopic fatigue damage were investigated. Fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles was evaluated to be σ max = 1300 MPa and 890 MPa under the stress ratios of 0.5 and 0.1. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage, depending on the number of stress cycles to failure, were observed. In one of the fracture mechanisms, fatigue behavior is characterized by overall fracture which occurs at 10 4 -10 5 cycles. For these specimens, I c after unloading does not degrade before overall fracture. Although only shallow slip bands were found at the Ag surface, fatigue cracks were found on the Hastelloy C-276 surface of the fractured specimen. These results suggest that overall fracture due to cyclic stress was caused by fatigue of the Hastelloy substrate. In the other fracture mechanism, even though overall fracture did not occur at 10 6 cycles, a slight decrease of I c was detected after 10 5 cycles. No fatigue crack was found on the Hastelloy surface, while deep slip bands corresponding to the initial stage of fatigue crack were observed on the Ag surface. From these results, we concluded that I c degradation at a high cycle number is attributed to the fatigue of the Ag stabilizing layer

  9. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  10. Study of the behavior of welded assemblies subjected to cyclic loads of variable amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumier, A.

    1977-01-01

    The optimum design of structures subjected to variable loads requires the fatigue loading to be defined not only by the extreme stresses which can occur in the structure, but also by the distribution of the amplitudes of loadings. This emphasizes the importance of relations allowing the definition of permissible stresses under variable amplitude loading on the basis of permissible stresses under constant amplitude loading: such relations lead to a thorough use of the very numerous results acquired in classical fatigue testings. The statistical analysis of our tests results confirms, for four as welded joints, the good fit of theoretical values calculated on the basis of BIERETT's theory, so that this theory seems precise enough for calculations rules. However, the differences between theory and experiments, as well as regards the passage from classical fatigue to programmed fatigue, as for the definition of resistance of a welded joint on the basis of classes in classial fatigue, can reach as much as 30%. This lack of precision can be reduced by precise definition of joints classes, also defining permissible sizes of welds defects, on the one hand, and by the precise definition of a curve taking account of an influence of the severity of the notch effect of joints on the passage from classical fatigue to programmed fatigue, on the other hand. Our tests results, which were obtained on joints with very weak or very strong notches led to suggest such a curve

  11. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold R. Ebenbichler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG data.Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's, an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise.Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise.Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior.

  12. First attempts towards the early detection of fatigued substructures using cyclic-loaded 20 MnMoNi 5 5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobmann, G.; Seibold, A.

    1992-01-01

    Materials subjected to cyclic loading undergo substructural changes which may affect service life. The low alloy, fine-grained structural steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 is used to demonstrate how substructural changes detected using TEM techniques are a function of the number of cycles undergone. For a given cyclic loading the usage factor η=N/N f =0.5 can be derived. Initial investigations using nondestructive examination methods have indicated that substructural changes and magnetic variables can be correlated. (orig.)

  13. Crack propagation behaviour in stainless steel AISI 316L at elevated temperatures under static and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental investigations of crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions are presented. The experiments were performed with the austenitic steel AISI 316L, that will be used in fast breeder reactors. A comparison of crack propagation behaviour at temperatures of T = 550deg C and T = 700deg C in common through-thickness cracked specimens and in plates containing surface cracks is carried out by application of several fracture mechanics parameters. The quantitative description of crack initiation times and crack velocities is persued particularly. The propagation rate of one-dimensional cracks under cyclic loading conditions at T = 550deg C is also treated with fracture mechanical methods. The influence of the hold periods on crack speed is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Dynamic processes of domain switching in lead zirconate titanate under cyclic mechanical loading by in situ neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojprapai, Soodkhet; Luo, Zhenhua; Clausen, Bjorn; Vogel, Sven C.; Brown, Donald W.; Russel, Jennifer; Hoffman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The performance of ferroelectric ceramics is governed by the ability of domains to switch. A decrease in the switching ability can lead to degradation of the materials and failure of ferroelectric devices. In this work the dynamic properties of domain reorientation are studied. In situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction is used to probe the evolution of ferroelastic domain texture under mechanical cyclic loading in bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics. The high sensitivity of neutron diffraction to lattice strain is exploited to precisely analyze the change of domain texture and strain through a full-pattern Rietveld method. These results are then used to construct a viscoelastic model, which explains the correlation between macroscopic phenomena (i.e. creep and recovered deformation) and microscopic dynamic behavior (i.e. ferroelastic switching, lattice strain).

  15. Quasi-static characterisation of trained pseudoelastic shape memory alloy wire subjected to cyclic loading: transformation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic law for constitutive modelling of shape memory alloys is proposed in order to increase model predictability in comparison with experimental data. The proposed law is based on cubic Bézier curves and contains curvature controlling parameters. The kinetic law and also the Duhem–Madelung sub......-loop model are implemented in a state-of-the-art constitutive model based on the framework by Lagoudas and coworkers. The original and modified models are fitted to consistent experimental results from mechanical cyclic loading under isothermal conditions (0–800 MPa, 30–70 °C) of a trained pseudoelastic...... shape memory alloy wire. Quantitative measures of goodness of fit show that both models perform well, but use of the modified model results in 31% reduction of the residual standard deviation compared with the original model (21.4 versus 14.8 MPa) in model calibration and 23% in model validation...

  16. Qualification and post-mortem characterization of tungsten mock-ups exposed to cyclic high heat flux loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, G., E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bobin-Vastra, I.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP PTCMI-F, Centre Technique, Fusion, F-71200 Le Creusot (France); Gavila, P. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Rödig, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Riccardi, B. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We characterize tungsten mono-block components after exposure to ITER relevant heat loads. • We qualify the manufacturing technology, i.e., hot isostatic pressing and hot radial pressing, and repair technologies. • We determine the microstructural influences, i.e., rod vs. plate material, on the damage evolution. • Needle like microstructures increase the risk of deep crack formation due to a limited fracture strength. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the option to start the ITER operation with a full tungsten (W) divertor, high heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility FE200, Le Creusot, France. Thereby, in total eight small-scale and three medium-scale monoblock mock-ups produced with different manufacturing technologies and different tungsten grades were exposed to cyclic steady state heat loads. The applied power density ranges from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2} with a maximum of 1000 cycles at each particular loading step. Finally, on a reduced number of tiles, critical heat flux tests in the range of 30 MW/m{sup 2} were performed. Besides macroscopic and microscopic images of the loaded surface areas, detailed metallographic analyses were performed in order to characterize the occurring damages, i.e., crack formation, recrystallization, and melting. Thereby, the different joining technologies, i.e., hot radial pressing (HRP) vs. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of tungsten to the Cu-based cooling tube, were qualified showing a higher stability and reproducibility of the HIP technology also as repair technology. Finally, the material response at the loaded top surface was found to be depending on the material grade, microstructural orientation, and recrystallization state of the material. These damages might be triggered by the application of thermal shock loads during electron beam surface scanning and not by the steady state heat load only. However, the superposition of thermal fatigue loads and thermal shocks as also expected

  17. Safety assessment of reactor components under complex multiaxial cyclic loading. Final report; Sicherheitsbewertung kerntechnischer Komponenten bei komplexer, mehrachsiger Schwingbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesich, Thomas M.; Herter, Karl-Heinz; Schuler, Xaver

    2012-12-15

    Objective of the project was the experimental assurance of investigations on the theoretical basis of multiaxial fatigue loading. The review of the applicability of existing hypotheses, as well as the extension of the corresponding data base was carried out by experimental studies in fatigue tests under complex multiaxial loading for a ferritic and austenitic material. To investigate the influence of complex multiaxial stress conditions on the fatigue behavior, in this project notched cylindrical specimens were examined under alternating tensile/pressure loading and alternating torsional loading. Through the notch in the notched section inhomogeneous, multiaxial stress states are generated. By uniaxial alternating tests on unnotched specimens and a further series of tests on unnotched specimens under alternating torsional loading an evaluation of the impact and influence of the notch of stress on fatigue behavior was possible. A series of experiments with superimposition of alternating torsional and alternating tensile/pressure loading permits verification of the effect of phase-shifted stress and rotating principal coordinate system. All experiments were performed at room temperature. As part of the research project, the experimental results with the ferritic and austenitic materials were evaluated in terms of material behavior (hardening or softening) under cyclic loading. These were to uniaxial alternating tensile/pressure tests, alternating torsional tests (unnotched cylindrical specimens), alternating tensile/pressure tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating torsional tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating tensiontorsion tests with complex proportional stresses on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components), as well as alternating tension-torsion tests with complex non-proportional strain on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components with 90 phase

  18. Changes in calmodulin concentration and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in skeletal muscle of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, T; Iwase, K; Yoshimochi, I; Sawai, Y; Oda, N; Nishida, Y; Mokuno, T; Kotake, M; Nakai, A; Hayakawa, N

    1995-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroid states occasionally induce skeletal muscle dysfunction i.e. periodic paralysis and thyroid myopathy. The etiology of these diseases remains unclear, but several findings suggest that the catecholamine-beta-receptor-cAMP system or other messenger systems are disturbed in these diseases. In this context, we evaluated changes in the cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide metabolic enzyme, cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and calmodulin concentrations in skeletal muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats. Activities of cyclic AMP-PDE were low in skeletal muscle both from hyper- and hypothyroid rats, and calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats, as compared with normal rats. DE-52 column chromatographic analysis showed that the cGMP hydrolytic activity in peak I and the cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak II were decreased in hypothyroid rats, whereas cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was unchanged. The cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was decreased in hyperthyroid rats, but the activities in peaks I and II were unchanged. These findings indicate that cAMP and calmodulin may have some role in skeletal muscle function in the hyperthyroid state, and that cAMP and calmodulin-dependent metabolism may be suppressed in the hypothyroid state.

  19. Numerical Calculation of Damping for Monopile Foundations under Cyclic Load During Steady-State Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Andersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    in ABAQUS by coding input files, utilizing Python and MATLAB. A parametric study is performed to illustrate the effects of model size, soil properties such as permeability, void ratio, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, and load parameters such as amplitude and frequency. It is found that by increasing the bulk...

  20. Lateral capacity of rock sockets in limestone under cyclic and repeated loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report contains the results from full scale lateral load testing of two short rock socketed shafts in : limestone, and the development of recommendations for p-y analysis using those results. Two short shafts 42 : inches in diameter were constru...

  1. Lateral capacity of rock sockets in limestone under cyclic and repeated loading : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Drilled shafts are a type of deep foundation that is capable of supporting very large vertical and lateral loads. Drilled shafts are constructed by drilling a hole from the ground surface to the target depth or formation and filling the hole with rei...

  2. The effects of irradiation on the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Mori, Masaki; Honke, Yoshifumi

    1983-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on both the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver were investigated. The liver concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after the irradiation of 1,000 rad/l fraction. The glucocorticoid receptor in the liver cytosol was determined by the measurement of the cytosol binding to 3 H-dexamethasone. The cytosol and nuclear corticosterone levels reached a peak 1 day after the irradiation of the rat liver and declined to the control levels after 2 days. The increase in corticosterone levels may be due to the direct stimulation of the right adrenal gland and/ or the stress induced by the irradiation. The binding capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in rat liver cytosol decreased to the minimum 1 day after the irradiation, and the recovery occurred at 4 days. The Kd value of the glucocorticoid receptor remained unchanged from 1 hour until 4 days but was high at 4 and 7 days. The distinctly increased levels of cyclic GMP in the rat liver were found from 1 hour through 7 days after the irradiation, while cyclic AMP did not change. The inversed relationship between the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and corticosterone levels in cytosol and the nuclei indicates that the receptor-bound corticosterone in cytosol can be transferred to a nucleus and remain there in the presence of appropriate amounts of corticosterone in cytosol, after which the receptor is released from the nucleus into cytosol. The high Kd values observed 4 -- 7 days after the irradiation may be either due to the direct effect of irradiation or to the replenishment of the receptor with a low affinity. (author)

  3. Fatigue crack propagation under combined cyclic mechanical loading and electric field in piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakihara, Kaori; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyoshi; Mukai, Hirokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation tests of PZT specimens were performed under cyclic four-point bending with and without superposition of electric fields. The specimens were poled in the longitudinal direction (PL specimens) perpendicular to the crack plane. The crack propagation rate for the case of open circuit was faster than that for the case of short circuit. The application of a negative or positive electric field parallel to the poling direction accelerated the crack propagation rate, and the amount of acceleration was larger for the case of the negative field. The change of the crack propagation rate with crack extension can be divided into three regions. In the region I, the crack propagation rate decreases with increasing crack length, and then turn to increase in the region III. In the region II, the propagation rate is nearly constant. The mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation were correlated to domain switching near the crack tip. The grain boundary fracture was predominant in the low-rate region, while transgranular fracture became abundant on the unstable fracture surface. (author)

  4. Fracture mechanics analysis of a longitudinally cracked bend under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Uhlmann, D.; Koski, K.; Hunger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Where information is available about the actual crack configuration, the boundary conditions of the load case, the geometry, and the material characteristics, extensive numerical calculations by means of the finite element method allow crack growth to be calculated for pipe bends carrying longitudinal cracks. If the influence of multiple-crack fields is taken into account in the crack growth calculations, good agreement is obtained with experimental findings. Less sophisticated assessments of individual cracks furnish results which are on the safe side. (author)

  5. Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccoli, L.; Müller, U.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, September (2017), s. 29-36 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : rammed earth * pseudo-dynamic loads * shear-compression tests * strengthening * polyester fabric strips Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817310000

  6. Effects of Carbon Nanomaterial Reinforcement on Composite Joints Under Cyclic and Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    prepreg . 2 Figure 1. Composite decks on DDG1000. (From [3]) Figure 2. USV built from nanotube-reinforced carbon fiber composites. (From [2...been proven that the infusion of CNTs enhances the strength and fracture toughness of CFRP laminates under static loading (mode I and mode II...Kostopoulos et al. [5] investigated the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the impact and after-impact behavior of CFRP laminates

  7. Seismic performance of interior precast concrete beam-column connections with T-section steel inserts under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketiyot, Rattapon; Hansapinyo, Chayanon

    2018-04-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of precast beam-column concrete connections using T-section steel inserts into the concrete beam and joint core, under reversed cyclic loading. Six 2/3-scale interior beam-column subassemblies, one monolithic concrete specimen and five precast concrete specimens were tested. One precast specimen was a simple connection for a gravity load resistant design. Other precast specimens were developed with different attributes to improve their seismic performance. The test results showed that the performance of the monolithic specimen M1 represented ductile seismic behavior. Failure of columns and joints could be prevented, and the failure of the frame occurred at the flexural plastic hinge formation at the beam ends, close to the column faces. For the precast specimens, the splitting crack along the longitudinal lapped splice was a major failure. The precast P5 specimen with double steel T-section inserts showed better seismic performance compared to the other precast models. However, the dowel bars connected to the steel inserts were too short to develop a bond. The design of the precast concrete beams with lap splice is needed for longer lap lengths and should be done at the beam mid span or at the low flexural stress region.

  8. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONSEISMICALLY DETAILED INTERIOR RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION UNDER REVERSED CYCLIC LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis of non-seismically detailed RC beam column connections under reversed cyclic load. The test of half-scale nonductile reinforced concrete beam-column joints was conducted. The tested specimens represented those of the actual mid-rise reinforced concrete frame buildings designed according to the non-seismic provisions of the ACI building code.  The test results show that specimens representing small and medium column tributary area failed in brittle joint shear while specimen representing large column tributary area failed by ductile flexure though no ductile reinforcement details were provided. The nonlinear finite element analysis was applied to simulate the behavior of the specimens. The finite element analysis employs the smeared crack approach for modeling beam, column and joint, and employs the discrete crack approach for modeling the interface between beam and joint face. The nonlinear constitutive models of reinforced concrete elements consist of coupled tension-compression model to model normal force orthogonal and parallel to the crack and shear transfer model to capture the shear sliding mechanism. The FEM shows good comparison with test results in terms of load-displacement relations, hysteretic loops, cracking process and the failure mode of the tested specimens. The finite element analysis clarifies that the joint shear failure was caused by the collapse of principal diagonal concrete strut.

  9. Three-dimensional stress and strain around real shape Si particles in cast aluminum alloy under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teranishi, Masaki [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kuwazuru, Osamu, E-mail: kuwa@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Gennai, Shota [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Toda, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The crack initiation mechanism of cast Al-Si-Mg alloy under low-cycle fatigue was addressed by using the synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) and the image-based finite element analysis. The fatigue test and its in situ CT observation were conducted to visualize the crack initiation behavior. In the low-cycle fatigue, the cracking generally started with the voiding by the fracture of silicon particles, and the coalescence of these voids formed the crack. To elucidate the mechanism of silicon particle fracture, the finite element elastic-plastic analyses were performed with regard to twelve silicon particles including the fractured and intact particles detected by the chronological CT observation. By using the image-based modeling technique, the interested particle was embedded in the finite element model along with the surrounding particles as they were in the specimen. The material properties of silicon phase and aluminum matrix were identified by the nanoindentation tests. Ten cycles of loading by the uniform stress which was equivalent to the load in the fatigue test was applied to the finite element model, and the stress, strain and their cyclic response around the silicon particles were simulated. The morphology analysis was also carried out for the interested particles, and the geometrical parameters affecting the particle fracture were examined. By comparing the results of fractured and intact particles, we found that there were some geometrical conditions for the fracture of silicon particles, and a certain magnitude of hydrostatic stress was required to break the particles.

  10. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading using high-resolution microstructural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    The usage factor can be derived from the quantification of the structure changes and the allocation of the microstructural state to the fatigue curves of the component materials. Using the example of the low alloy fine grain structural steel 20 Mn Mo Ni 5 5 (annealed structure), the relationship between micro-structure and the number of load cycles is shown in the form of a calibration curve. By high resolution structural investigation, the usage factor can be determined to n = N/N B ≅ 0.5 under given vibration stress. Only a small volume sample is required for the electron microscope examination. (orig./DG) [de

  11. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination...... of the time when cows are in oestrus to increase the rate of succesful inseminations. In this paper we propose a state space model for data with a continuous and cyclic trend in the mean. Furthermore a matching Kalman filter is developed. The model is tested on progesterone data from 112 cow...

  12. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  13. Analysis of Thermo-Acoustic Emission from Damage in Composite Laminates under Thermal Cyclic Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Bok; Min, Dae Hong; Lee, Deok Bo; Choi, Nak Sam

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on nondestructive evaluation of thermal stress-reduced damage in the composite laminates (3mm in thickness and [+45 6 /-45 6 ] S lay-up angles) has been performed using the thermo-acoustic emission technique. Reduction of thermo-AE events due to repetitive thermal load cycles showed a Kaiser effect. An analysis of the thermo-AE behavior determined the stress free temperature of composite laminates. Fiber fracture and matrix cracks were observed using the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ultrasonic C-sean. Short-Time Fourier Transform of thermo-AE signals offered the time-frequency characteristics which might classify the thermo-AE as three different types to estimate the damage processes of the composites

  14. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  15. Torque loss of different abutment sizes before and after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Izabela Cristina; Faria, Adriana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3.8- and 4.8-mm abutments submitted to simulations of masticatory cycles to examine whether abutment diameter and cemented vs screw-retained crowns affect torque loss of the abutments and crowns. Forty implant/abutment sets were divided into the following groups (n = 10 in each group): (1) G4.8S included 4.8-mm abutment with screw-retained crown; (2) G4.8C included 4.8-mm abutment with cemented crown; (3) G3.8S included 3.8-mm abutment with screw-retained crown; and (4) G3.8C included 3.8-mm abutment with cemented crown. All abutments were tightened with torque values of 20 Ncm, and 10 Ncm for screw-retained crowns. Torque loss was measured before and after cycling loading (300,000 cycles). Torque loss of screw-retained crowns significantly increased after cycling in abutments of groups G3.8S (P ≤ .05) and G4.8S (P = .001). No difference was noted between the abutments before cycling (P = .735), but G3.8S abutments presented greater torque loss than the other groups after cycling (P = .008). Significant differences were noted in the abutment torque loss before and after cycling loading only for the G3.8C group (P ≤ .05). The abutment diameter affects torque loss of screw-retained crowns and leads to failure during the test; mechanical cycling increases torque loss of abutment screw and screw-retained crowns.

  16. Experimental behavior of full-scale exterior beam-column space joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim G. Shaaban

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of the traditional reinforced concrete frame buildings, existing across the Middle East, lack adequate confinement in beam-column joints, or in other words, are shear deficient because they were constructed before the introduction of seismic codes for construction. This research studies the experimental behavior of full-scale beam-column space (three-dimensional joints under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. Eleven joint specimens, included a traditionally reinforced one (without adequate shear reinforcement, a reference one with sufficient shear reinforcement according to ACI 318, and nine specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers, were experimentally tested to evaluate a retrofit technique for strengthening shear deficient beam column joints. The studied variables were the number of layers, orientation angle of expanded wire mesh per layer, and presence of steel angles in the corners of joint specimen prior to wrapping with ferrocement layers. The experimental results showed that proper shear reinforcement for the test joints, according to ACI 318, enhanced the behavior of the specimen over that of the traditionally reinforced specimens without adequate shear reinforcement. The joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers showed higher ultimate capacity, higher ultimate displacement prior to failure (better ductility, and they did not suffer heavily damage as observed for the traditionally reinforced one. Increasing the number of ferrocement layers for retrofitted specimens led to improving performance for such specimens compared to the traditionally reinforced ones in terms of enhancing the ultimate capacity and ultimate displacement. Specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers reinforced by expanded wire mesh of 60° orientation angle showed slightly better performance than those of 45° orientation angles. Retrofitting using steel angles in addition to ferrocement layers improves the seismic performance of the specimens

  17. Deformation and lifetime behaviour of cyclic loaded rail and wheel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denne, B.; Lang, K.-H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1

    2000-07-01

    Corrugation, shelling and squats are some unexpected technical problems caused by increasing service tonnage, increasing load of the rails and increasing train speed at Deutsche Bahn AG lines since the last decades. As the complex phenomena of rolling contact fatigue in the rail / wheel system is difficult to understand extensive investigations have to be done to describe the multiaxial rolling contact fatigue processes and to develop and verify multiaxial fatigue criteria and lifetime predictions. To reach this aim a reliable fatigue data base of the utilised steels is required. To obtain such data, specimens were worked out of rails and wheels used in high speed traffic. With these specimens the lifetime behaviour and the endurance limit were estimated from push-pull tests. For the rail steel stress and total strain controlled fatigue tests were performed. The resulting lifetime behaviour is compared. In the wheel there are several regions with different microstructures due to the heat treatment at the end of the manufacturing process. Specimens were taken from the wheel rim representing these different microstructures. With these specimens stress controlled fatigue tests were performed. The influence of the different microstructures on the deformation and lifetime behaviour is showed. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic deformation and failure characteristic of rock foundation by means of effect of cyclic shear loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Hibino, Satoshi; Kanagawa, Tadashi; Komada, Hiroya; Nakagawa, Kameichiro

    1984-01-01

    The main structures of nuclear power plants are built on hard and soft rocks. The rock-dynamic properties used for investigating the stability of the structures have been determined so far by laboratory tests for soft rocks. In hard rocks, however, joints and cracks exist, and the test including these effects is not able to be performed in laboratories at present. Therefore, a dynamic repeating shearing test equipment to be used under the condition including the joints and cracks of actual ground has been made for a base rock of tuff breccia. In this paper, the test results are reported as follows. The geological features of the testing site and the arrangement of tested rocks, the preparation for tests, test equipment, loading method, measuring method, analysis, and the result and the examination. The results of dynamic deformation and failure characteristics were as follows: (1) the dynamic shear-elasticity-modulus Gd of the base rock showed greater values as the normal stress increased, while Gd decreased and showed the strain dependence as the dynamic shear strain amplitude γ increased; (2) the relationship between Gd and γ was well represented with the equation proposed by Hardin-Drnevich; (3) damping ratio increased as γ increased, and decreased as normal stress increased; (4) When a specimen was about to break, γ suddenly increased, and the dynamic shear strain amplitude at yield point was in the range of approximately (3.4 to 4.1) x 10 -3 . (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Characterization of ITER tungsten qualification mock-ups exposed to high cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, Gerald, E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bednarek, Maja; Gavila, Pierre [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gerzoskovitz, Stefan [Plansee SE, Innovation Services, 6600 Reutte (Austria); Linke, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lorenzetto, Patrick; Riccardi, Bruno [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, Frederic [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Mechanical deformation of CuCrZr in case a thermal barrier layer has been formed due to impurity content in the cooling water. • Crack formation at the W/Cu interface starting at the block edge. • Porosity formation in the pure Cu interlayer. • Microstructural changes in tungsten down to the W/Cu interface, which indicates also high temperatures for the pure Cu interlayer. • Macrocrack formation in tungsten which is assumed to be ductile at the initiation point and brittle when proceeding toward the cooling tube. - Abstract: High heat flux tested small-scale tungsten monoblock mock-ups (5000 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and up to 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}) manufactured by Plansee and Ansaldo were characterized by metallographic means. Therein, the macrocrack formation and propagation in tungsten, its recrystallization behavior and the surface response to different heat load facilities were investigated. Furthermore, debonding at the W/Cu interface, void formation in the soft copper interlayer and microcrack formation at the inner surface of the CuCrZr cooling tube were found.

  20. Experimental Studies on the Behavior of a Newly-Developed Type of Self-Insulating Concrete Masonry Shear Wall under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Bakre Abdelmoneim Elamin Mohamad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the inelastic behavior of a newly-developed type of self-insulating concrete masonry shear wall (SCMSW under in-plane cyclic loading. The new masonry system was made from concrete blocks with special configurations to provide a stronger bond between units than ordinary concrete masonry units. A total of six fully-grouted SCMSWs were prepared with different heights (1.59 to 5.78 m and different vertical steel configurations. The developed masonry walls were tested under in-plane cyclic loading and different constant axial load ratios. In addition, the relationship between the amount of axial loading, the amount of the flexural reinforcement and the wall aspect ratios and the nonlinear hysteretic response of the SCMSW was evaluated. The results showed that the lateral load capacity of SCMSW increases with the amount of applied axial load and the amount of vertical reinforcement. However, the lateral load capacity decreases as the wall aspect ratio increases. The existence of the boundary elements at the SCMSW ends increases the ductility and the lateral load capacity. Generally, the SCMSW exhibited predominantly flexural behavior. These results agreed with those reported in previous research for walls constructed with ordinary units.

  1. Settling of abutments into implants and changes in removal torque in five different implant-abutment connections. Part 1: Cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seong; Han, Jung-Suk; Lim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the settling of abutments into implants and the removal torque values (RTVs) before and after cyclic loading. Five different implant-abutment connections were tested: Ext = external butt joint + two-piece abutment; Int-H2 = internal hexagon + two-piece abutment; Int-H1 = internal hexagon + one-piece abutment; Int-O2 = internal octagon + two-piece abutment; and Int-O1 = internal octagon + one-piece abutment. Ten abutments from each group were secured to their corresponding implants (total n = 50). All samples were tested in a universal testing machine with a vertical load of 250 N for 100,000 cycles of 14 Hz. The amount of settling of the abutment into the implant was calculated from the change in the total length of the implant-abutment sample before and after loading, as measured with an electronic digital micrometer. The RTV after cyclic loading was compared to the initial RTV with a digital torque gauge. Statistical analysis was performed at a 5% significance level. A multiple-comparison test showed specific significant differences in settling values in each group after 250 N cyclic loading (Int-H1, Ext abutment type and related to the design characteristics of the implant-abutment connection.

  2. Abutments with reduced diameter for both cement and screw retentions: analysis of failure modes and misfit of abutment-crown-connections after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze failure modes and misfit of abutments with reduced diameter for both cement and screw retentions after cyclic loading. Forty morse-taper abutment/implant sets of titanium were divided into four groups (N = 10): G4.8S-4.8 abutment with screw-retained crown; G4.8C-4.8 abutment with cemented crown; G3.8S-3.8 abutment with screw-retained crown; and G3.8C-3.8 abutment with cemented crown. Copings were waxed on castable cylinders and cast by oxygen gas flame and injected by centrifugation. After, esthetic veneering ceramic was pressed on these copings for obtaining metalloceramic crowns of upper canine. Cemented crowns were cemented on abutments with provisional cement (Temp Bond NE), and screw-retained crowns were tightened to their abutments with torque recommended by manufacturer (10 N cm). The misfit was measured using a stereomicroscope in a 10× magnification before and after cyclic loading (300,000 cycles). Tests were visually monitored, and failures (decementation, screw loosening and fractures) were registered. Misfit was analyzed by mixed linear model while failure modes by chi-square test (α = 0.05). Cyclic loading affected misfit of 3.8C (P ≤ 0.0001), 3.8S (P = 0.0055) and 4.8C (P = 0.0318), but not of 4.8S (P = 0.1243). No differences were noted between 3.8S with 4.8S before (P = 0.1550) and after (P = 0.9861) cyclic loading, but 3.8C was different from 4.8C only after (P = 0.0015) loading. Comparing different types of retentions at the same diameter abutment, significant difference was noted before and after cyclic loading for 3.8 and 4.8 abutments. Analyzing failure modes, retrievable failures were present at 3.8S and 3.8C groups, while irretrievable were only present at 3.8S. The cyclic loading decreased misfit of cemented and screw-retained crowns on reduced diameter abutments, and misfit of cemented crowns is greater than screw-retained ones. Abutments of reduced diameter failed more than

  3. Effect of Degeneration on Fluid–Solid Interaction within Intervertebral Disk Under Cyclic Loading – A Meta-Model Analysis of Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Khalaf, Kinda; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disk degeneration results in degradation of disk solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid–fluid interactions of degenerative disks to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid–solid interactions in disks can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element (FE) models. We developed a robust disk poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid–fluid interactions within disk subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in vitro experiments was used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine disks. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disk deformations during the in vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disk groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disk. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disk, but less change the strength of disk. PMID:25674562

  4. Effect of Degeneration on Fluid-Solid Interaction within Intervertebral Disk Under Cyclic Loading - A Meta-Model Analysis of Finite Element Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Khalaf, Kinda; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disk degeneration results in degradation of disk solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid-fluid interactions of degenerative disks to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid-solid interactions in disks can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element (FE) models. We developed a robust disk poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid-fluid interactions within disk subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in vitro experiments was used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine disks. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disk deformations during the in vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disk groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disk. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disk, but less change the strength of disk.

  5. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  6. On the thermal cyclic loading behaviour of a directional eutectic superalloy based on the Co-Cr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, U.W.; Nicoll, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various modifications of the eutectic, directionally solidified superalloy 73 C were investigated with respect to creep fatigue effects. This was carried out using a thermal cycling apparatus where a mechanical uniaxial load could be applied. A high volume fraction of carbides had an impairing effect on fatigue life. An improvement, however, could be obtained using low concentrations of refractory elements which form monocarbides. (orig.) [de

  7. Design rules of mechanical structure of reactors. Damage due to cyclic loading. Progressive distortion. Practical analysis of ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Gerard; Cousseran, Pierre; Lebey, Jacques; Moulin, Didier; Roche, Roland; Tremblais, Andre.

    1982-08-01

    At first is given a definition of what is ratcheting. A short discussion shows that computation results do not agree with experimental results. This is attributed to the complexity of the real material behavior. These considerations lead to try to build a design rule mainly based on the results of experimental tests. A large experimental program is in progress at CEN-Saclay. Using these results and the results available in open litterature, it was possible to propose a rule based on the concept of effective primary stress Psub(eff). The effective primary stress is a fictitious primary stress giving the same effects that the real loading (it is to say the same effect that the combination of an applied primary stress P and a cyclic straining). Determination of an upper bound value of Psub(eff) is made with the help of an efficiency diagram. More precisely the efficiency diagram include a curve giving a conservative value of an efficiency index V=P/Psub(eff) as a function of the secondary quotient SQ=ΔQ/P. Finally limitation of Psub(eff) intensity is discussed in regard with the current practice [fr

  8. Loading Concentrations of Pollutant in Alur Ilmu at UKM Bangi Campus: Event Mean Concentration (EMC) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinur Md Din; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Water pollutant loadings and river discharge are among the basic data used in determining the dynamicity of a river. The input of water quality and river discharge are usually available through the collection of water samples in the field or at the observatory, and are done automatically using the data logger sensor. This paper discusses the concentrations pollutant load water quality and its relationship with discharge (m 3 / s) using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) in the Alur Ilmu, UKM source from the Diptrokarp forest at Hutan Simpan Bangi (2 degree 55' 1 4.72 N 101 degree 46' 5 7.37 E). Alur Ilmu is a 1.79 km long stretching across the main campus of National University of Malaysia before flowing into the Langat River. Water quality was measured using automatic gauging and continuous water quality stations which are installed at downstream of Alur Ilmu (2 degree 55 ' 40.33 N 100 degree 46 ' 47.15 E) and involves in measuring the parameters of total dissolved solid (TDS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Laboratory analysis carried out for chemical parameters such as ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in accordance with guidelines American Public Health Association (APHA, 1995). The normal discharge rate recorded at Alur Ilmu is 0.33 m 3 / s and the wet discharge is 13.04 m 3 / s.The total estimated pollutant loadings according to EMC as DO (18.51±3.01 mg/ L), TDS (794.92±186.72 mg/ L), BOD (11.57±0.28 mg/ L), COD (201.29±1.55 mg/ l), TSS (470.03±27.63 mg/ L) and Ammonia Nitrogen (2.52±0.0 mg/ L). Correlation test showed a direct relationship between rainfall and flow (Q) and several pollutant loadings with R 2 =1 at a significance level of 0.05. The study also classified some of the pollutants concentrations in class III and IV as determined by the Water Quality Index (WQI). (author)

  9. Effect of Repeated Screw Joint Closing and Opening Cycles and Cyclic Loading on Abutment Screw Removal Torque and Screw Thread Morphology: Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mahnaz; Mahgoli, Hosseinali; Payaminia, Leila

    To evaluate the effect of repeated screw joint closing and opening cycles and cyclic loading on abutment screw removal torque and screw thread morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three groups (n = 10 in each group) of implant-abutment-abutment screw assemblies were created. There were also 10 extra abutment screws as new screws in group 3. The abutment screws were tightened to 12 Ncm with an electronic torque meter; then they were removed and removal torque values were recorded. This sequence was repeated 5 times for group 1 and 15 times for groups 2 and 3. The same screws in groups 1 and 2 and the new screws in group 3 were then tightened to 12 Ncm; this was also followed by screw tightening to 30 Ncm and retightening to 30 Ncm 15 minutes later. Removal torque measurements were performed after screws were subjected to cyclic loading (0.5 × 10⁶ cycles; 1 Hz; 75 N). Moreover, the surface topography of one screw from each group before and after cyclic loading was evaluated with SEM and compared with an unused screw. All groups exhibited reduced removal torque values in comparison to insertion torque in each cycle. However, there was a steady trend of torque loss in each group. A comparison of the last cycle of the groups before loading showed significantly greater torque loss value in the 15th cycle of groups 2 and 3 compared with the fifth cycle of group 1 (P abutment is definitively placed.

  10. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the fracture resistance of nuclear piping steels. Technical report, October 1992--April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results of the material property evaluation efforts performed within Task 3 of the IPIRG-2 Program. Several related investigations were conducted. (1) Quasi-static, cyclic-load compact tension specimen experiments were conducted using parameters similar to those used in IPIRG-1 experiments on 6-inch nominal diameter through-wall-cracked pipes. These experiments were conducted on a TP304 base metal, an A106 Grade B base metal, and their respective submerged-arc welds. The results showed that when using a constant cyclic displacement increment, the compact tension experiments could predict the through-wall-cracked pipe crack initiation toughness, but a different control procedure is needed to reproduce the pipe cyclic crack growth in the compact tension tests. (2) Analyses conducted showed that for 6-inch diameter pipe, the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve can be used in making cyclic pipe moment predictions; however, sensitivity analyses suggest that the maximum moments decrease slightly from cyclic toughness degradation as the pipe diameter increases. (3) Dynamic stress-strain and compact tension tests were conducted to expand on the existing dynamic database. Results from dynamic moment predictions suggest that the dynamic compact tension J-R and the quasi-static stress-strain curves are the appropriate material properties to use in making dynamic pipe moment predictions.

  11. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the fracture resistance of nuclear piping steels. Technical report, October 1992--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results of the material property evaluation efforts performed within Task 3 of the IPIRG-2 Program. Several related investigations were conducted. (1) Quasi-static, cyclic-load compact tension specimen experiments were conducted using parameters similar to those used in IPIRG-1 experiments on 6-inch nominal diameter through-wall-cracked pipes. These experiments were conducted on a TP304 base metal, an A106 Grade B base metal, and their respective submerged-arc welds. The results showed that when using a constant cyclic displacement increment, the compact tension experiments could predict the through-wall-cracked pipe crack initiation toughness, but a different control procedure is needed to reproduce the pipe cyclic crack growth in the compact tension tests. (2) Analyses conducted showed that for 6-inch diameter pipe, the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve can be used in making cyclic pipe moment predictions; however, sensitivity analyses suggest that the maximum moments decrease slightly from cyclic toughness degradation as the pipe diameter increases. (3) Dynamic stress-strain and compact tension tests were conducted to expand on the existing dynamic database. Results from dynamic moment predictions suggest that the dynamic compact tension J-R and the quasi-static stress-strain curves are the appropriate material properties to use in making dynamic pipe moment predictions

  12. Study on fatigue strength of specimens with stress concentrators accounting for inelastic cyclic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshchenko, V.T.; Khamaza, L.A.; Mishchenko, Yu.D.

    1978-01-01

    A possibility of plotting the fatigue curves for structural elements with stress concentrators was examined according to the results of testing smooth specimens made of 1Kh2M steel. The technique has been suggested, based on using the Neuber formula, while taking into account the dependence of the effective coefficient of stresses concentration on the number of cycles prior to failure. A good agreement between the calculated and the experimental data has been obtained

  13. Development of Viscoelastic Multi-Body Simulation and Impact Response Analysis of a Ballasted Railway Track under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Nishiura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM and a finite element method (FEM. In this study, a quadruple discrete element method (QDEM was developed for dynamic analysis of viscoelastic materials using a simpler algorithm compared to the standard FEM. QDEM easily incorporates the contact algorithm used in DEM. As the first step toward multi-body simulation, the fundamental performance of QDEM was investigated for viscoelastic analysis. The amplitude and frequency of cantilever elastic vibration were nearly equal to those obtained by the standard FEM. A comparison of creep recovery tests with an analytical solution showed good agreement between them. In addition, good correlation between the attenuation degree and the real physical viscosity was confirmed for viscoelastic vibration analysis. Therefore, the high accuracy of QDEM in the fundamental analysis of infinitesimal viscoelastic deformations was verified. Finally, the impact response of a ballast and sleeper under cyclic loading on a railway track was analyzed using QDEM as an application of deformable multi-body dynamics. The results showed that the vibration of the ballasted track was qualitatively in good agreement with the actual measurements. Moreover, the ballast layer with high friction reduced the ballasted track deterioration. This study suggests that QDEM, as an alternative to DEM and FEM, can provide deeper insights into the contact dynamics of a large number of deformable bodies.

  14. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  15. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 1: Electron beam irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.H., E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK2, Euratom Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Clear evidence of microscopic damage and crack formation at the notch root in the early stage of the fatigue loading (50–100 load cycles). • Propagation of fatigue crack at the notch root in the course of subsequent cyclic heat-flux loading followed by saturation after roughly 600 load cycles. • No sign of damage on the notch-free surface up to 800 load cycles. • No obvious effect of the pulse time duration on the crack extension. • Slight change in the grain microstructure due to the formation of sub-grain boundaries by plastic deformation. - Abstract: Recently, the idea of bare steel first wall (FW) is drawing attention, where the surface of the steel is to be directly exposed to high heat flux loads. Hence, the thermo-mechanical impacts on the bare steel FW will be different from those of the tungsten-coated one. There are several previous works on the thermal fatigue tests of bare steel FW made of austenitic steel with regard to the ITER application. In the case of reduced-activation steel Eurofer97, a candidate structural material for the DEMO FW, there is no report on high heat flux tests yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of the Eurofer-based bare steel FW under cyclic heat flux loads relevant to DEMO operation. To this end, we conducted a series of electron beam irradiation tests with heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2} on water-cooled mock-ups with an engraved thin notch on the surface. It was found that the notch root region exhibited a marked development of damage and fatigue cracks whereas the notch-free surface manifested no sign of crack formation up to 800 load cycles. Results of extensive microscopic investigation are reported.

  16. Cyclic deformation behaviour of quenched and tempered AISI 4140 at two-step tensile-compressive-loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, V.; Lang, K.-H.; Voehringer, O.; Macherauch, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1

    1997-08-30

    The cyclic deformation behaviour in stress-controlled two-step experiments with one or more changes between two blocks of certain lengths and amplitudes was investigated at the technically important steel AISI 4140 (German grade 42 CrMo 4). In all two-step experiments cyclic worksoftening behaviour is found. The degree of work softening is discussed in comparison to single-step experiments. In several cases effects of static strain-ageing can be found. (orig.) 10 refs.

  17. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Yang; Meng Gong; Ying Hei Chui

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1) the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflecti...

  18. Buckling of thin-walled beams under concentrated transverse loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menken, C.M.; Erp, van G.M.; Krupta, V.; Drdacky, M.

    1991-01-01

    The transversely loaded thin-walled beam under a non-uniform bending moment forms an example of the detrimental influence that a local effect may have on the overall behaviour. The local effect is the plate buckling in the region of maximum bending moment. The overall behaviour is the

  19. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P meniscus significantly decrease the ability of the meniscus to dissipate tibiofemoral loads, predisposing patients to early osteoarthritis. Improving the ability to repair medial meniscal radial tears in a way that withstands cyclic loads and heals in an anatomic position could significantly

  20. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  1. Concentrations and trophic magnification of cyclic siloxanes in aquatic biota from the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Chan, Cecilia; Drouillard, Ken G.; Keir, Michael J.; Clark, Mandi G.; Backus, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS. -- Highlights: • We investigated trophic magnification of siloxanes in aquatic biota from Lake Erie. • Trophic magnification estimates were variable and sensitive to food web structure. • Lipid partitioning of siloxanes and PCBs differ and may contribute to variability. -- Biomagnification estimates for siloxanes in Lake Erie are sensitive to food web structure, contaminant exposure pathways, and lipid partitioning differences between PCBs and siloxanes

  2. Characterization of cyclic deformation behaviour of tempered and quenched 42CrMoS4 at single step and variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelp, M.; Eifler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic single steps tests were performed on tempered and quenched specimens of the steel 42CrMoS4. Strain, temperature and electrical resistance measurements yielded an empirical prediction of fatigue life according to Coffin, Manson and Morrow. All measured values are based on physical processes and therefore show a strong interaction. A new testing procedure was developed permitting hysteresis measurements to be used for the characterization and description of fatigue behaviour under variable amplitude loading. The basic idea is to combine fatigue tests with any kind of load spectrum with single step tests. This offers the possibility to apply lifetime prediction methods normally used for single step tests for those with random or service loading. (orig.)

  3. Influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings in lost foam casting A319 alloy by using 3D in-situ analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Long, E-mail: longwang_calt@163.com [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France); Limodin, Nathalie; El Bartali, Ahmed; Witz, Jean-François; Seghir, Rian [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France); Buffiere, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire Matériaux, Ingénierie et Sciences (MATEIS), CNRS UMR5510, INSA-Lyon, 20 Av. Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Charkaluk, Eric [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Arts et Metiers Paris tech, FRE 3723 – LML – Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2016-09-15

    Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is replacing the conventional gravity Die Casting (DC) process in automotive industry for the purpose of geometry optimization, cost reduction and consumption control. However, due to lower cooling rate, LFC produces in a coarser microstructure that reduces fatigue life. In order to study the influence of the casting microstructure of LFC Al-Si alloy on damage micromechanisms under monotonic tensile loading and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) at room temperature, an experimental protocol based on the three dimensional (3D) in-situ analysis has been set up and validated. This paper focuses on the influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic and cyclic tensile loadings. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allowed the microstructure of material being characterized in 3D and damage evolution being followed in-situ also in 3D. Experimental and numerical mechanical fields were obtained by using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation respectively. Pores were shown to have an important influence on strain localization as large pores generate enough strain localization zones for crack initiation both in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings.

  4. Influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings in lost foam casting A319 alloy by using 3D in-situ analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Limodin, Nathalie; El Bartali, Ahmed; Witz, Jean-François; Seghir, Rian; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Charkaluk, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is replacing the conventional gravity Die Casting (DC) process in automotive industry for the purpose of geometry optimization, cost reduction and consumption control. However, due to lower cooling rate, LFC produces in a coarser microstructure that reduces fatigue life. In order to study the influence of the casting microstructure of LFC Al-Si alloy on damage micromechanisms under monotonic tensile loading and Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) at room temperature, an experimental protocol based on the three dimensional (3D) in-situ analysis has been set up and validated. This paper focuses on the influence of pores on crack initiation in monotonic and cyclic tensile loadings. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allowed the microstructure of material being characterized in 3D and damage evolution being followed in-situ also in 3D. Experimental and numerical mechanical fields were obtained by using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) technique and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation respectively. Pores were shown to have an important influence on strain localization as large pores generate enough strain localization zones for crack initiation both in monotonic tensile and cyclic loadings.

  5. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  6. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  7. Attempt to demonstrate an in vivo effect of mianserin hydrochloride on erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase activity and cyclic AMP concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, G. S.; Buckley, D. E.; Boardman, L. J.; Smith, A. H. W.; Moody, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    1 There is evidence that erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase activity and erythrocyte cyclic AMP change on recovery from a depressive illness. Mianserin is a recently introduced antidepressant but its mode of action is unknown. The present study was therefore designed to investigate in vivo the effect of mianserin on erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase and cyclic AMP. 2 Biochemical estimations were made on blood from depressed patients before beginning either mianserin or matched placebo treatment, after 1 week, and again after 2 weeks' treatment. 3 Neither the erythrocyte Na+-K+-ATPase, nor the erythrocyte cyclic AMP concentration, changed significantly in either the mianserin- or the placebo-treated group. 4 The study sheds no light on the possible mechanism of action of mianserin. PMID:203308

  8. Effects of cyclic tensile loading on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility for sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in 290 C high purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, H.; Tokiwai, M.; Hirano, H.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of load waveform on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility have been examined for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels in a 290 C high purity water loop. Concerning the strain rate in the trapezoidal stress waveform, it was found that IGSCC susceptibility was higher for smaller values of the strain rate. It was also shown that IGSCC susceptibility became higher when the holding time at the upper stress was prolonged, and when the upper stress was high. The occurrence of IGSCC for sensitized Type 304 stainless steel became easy due to the application of cyclic tensile stress in 290 C high purity water

  9. [Wear intensity and surface roughness of microhybrid composite and ceramic occlusal veneers on premolars after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Jiang, T; Cheng, M X; Zhang, Y W

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the wear intensity and surface roughness of occlusal veneers on premolars made of microhybrid composite resin or two kinds of ceramics in vitro after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests. In the study,24 fresh extracted human premolars without root canal treatment were prepared (cusps reduction of 1.5 mm in thickness to simulate middle to severe tooth wear, the inclinations of cusps were 20°). The prepared teeth were restored with occlusal veneers made of three different materials: microhybrid composite, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate ceramic in the thickness of 1.5 mm. The occlusal veneers were cemented with resin cement. The specimens were fatigued using the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests after being stored in water for 72 h. The wear of specimens was measured using gypsum replicas and 3D laser scanner before and after the thermocycling and cyclic mechanical loading tests and the mean lost distance (mm) was used to indicate the level of wear. The surfaces of occlusal contact area were observed and the surface roughness was recorded using 3D laser scanning confocal microscope before and after the fatigue test. Differences between the groups were compared using ONE-way ANOVA(Pcomposite group, heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic group, and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic group was (-0.13±0.03) mm, (-0.05±0.01) mm and (-0.05±0.01) mm, the wear of microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite was significantly higher than the two ceramic groups(Pcomposite(P=0.005) and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic (P=0.010). From the view of wear speed, microhybrid composite was significantly higher than the two kinds of ceramics, but it was similar to enamel when the opposing tooth was natural. The surface roughness before the themocycling and cyclic mechanical loading test of microhybrid

  10. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: Prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudzina, T.; Goetz, N. von; Bogdal, C.; Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic

  11. Eficiencia de los motores de inducción con carga cíclica; Efficiency of Induction Motors with Cyclic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías de la Rosa Masdueño

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un nuevo método para determinar la eficiencia de trabajo de los motores de inducción queaccionan cargas cíclicas tales como bombas reciprocantes, martinetes, etc. El método se basa en lasegregación de pérdidas, y la determinación del gráfico de corriente y la energía total del ciclo. Se muestrauna comprobación experimental basada en un método de Monte Carlo.  A new method for finding the working efficiency of the induction motors moving cyclic loads is proposed.This type of loading is frequent in mechanism like piston pumps, hammers, etc. The method is based inthe losses segregation and the determination of the current graphic and the total energy in the cycle. Anexperimental proof based on Monte Carlo method is shown.

  12. Nectar loads as fuel for collecting nectar and pollen in honeybees: adjustment by sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-06-01

    When honeybee foragers leave the nest, they receive nectar from nest mates for use as fuel for flight or as binding material to build pollen loads. We examined whether the concentration of nectar carried from the nest changes with the need for sugar. We found that pollen foragers had more-concentrated nectar (61.8 %) than nectar foragers (43.8 %). Further analysis revealed that the sugar concentration of the crop load increased significantly with waggle duration, an indicator of food-source distance, in both groups of foragers. Crop volume also increased with waggle duration. The results support our argument that foragers use concentrated nectar when the need for sugar is high and suggest that they precisely adjust the amount of sugar in the crop by altering both volume and nectar concentrations. We also investigated the impact of the area where foragers receive nectar on the crop load concentration at departure. Although nectar and pollen foragers tend to load nectar at different areas in the nest, area did not have a significant effect on crop load concentration. Departing foragers showed an average of 2.2 momentary (nectar with inappropriate concentrations during these contacts.

  13. Anterior cement augmentation of adjacent levels after vertebral body replacement leads to superior stability of the corpectomy cage under cyclic loading-a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Ludwig; Krüger, Antonio; Hörth, Dominik; Hack, Juliana; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Fleege, Christoph; Rauschmann, Michael; Arabmotlagh, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In the operative treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body fractures, a dorsal stabilization in combination with a corpectomy of the fractured vertebral body might be necessary with respect to the fracture morphology, whereby the osteoporotic bone quality may possibly increase the risk of implant failure. To achieve better stability, it is recommended to use cement-augmented screws for dorsal instrumentation. Besides careful end plate preparation, cement augmentation of the adjacent end plates has also been reported to lead to less reduction loss. The aim of the study was to evaluate biomechanically under cyclic loading whether an additional cement augmentation of the adjacent end plates leads to improved stability of the inserted cage. Methodical cadaver study. Fourteen fresh frozen human thoracic spines with proven osteoporosis were used (T2-T7). After removal of the soft tissues, the spine was embedded in Technovit (Kulzer, Germany). Subsequently, a corpectomy of T5 was performed, leaving the dorsal ligamentary structures intact. After randomization with respect to bone quality, two groups were generated: Dorsal instrumentation (cemented pedicle screws, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA)+cage implantation (CAPRI Corpectomy Cage, K2M, Leesburg, VA, USA) without additional cementation of the adjacent endplates (Group A) and dorsal instrumentation+cage implantation with additional cement augmentation of the adjacent end plates (Group B). The subsequent axial and cyclic loading was performed at a frequency of 1 Hz, starting at 400 N and increasing the load within 200 N after every 500 cycles up to a maximum of 2,200 N. Load failure was determined when the cages sintered macroscopically into the end plates (implant failure) or when the maximum load was reached. One specimen in Group B could not be clamped appropriately into the test bench for axial loading because of a pronounced scoliotic misalignment and had to be excluded. The mean strength for implant

  14. Biomechanical comparison between concentrated, follower, and muscular loads of the lumbar column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Weng, Pei-Wei; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Lee, Chian-Her

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods have been extensively used to simulate the lumbar kinematics and mechanics. One of the basic parameters is the lumbar loads. In the literature, both concentrated and distributed loads have been assumed to simulate the in vivo lumbar loads. However, the inconsistent loads between those studies exist and make the comparison of their results controversial. Using finite-element method, this study aimed to numerically compare the effects of the concentrated, follower, and muscular loads on the lumbar biomechanics during flexion. Two conditions of equivalent and simple constraints were simulated. The equivalent condition assumes the identical flexion at the L1 level and loads at the L5 level for the three types of loads. Another condition is to remove such kinematic and mechanical constraints on the lumbar. The comparison indices were flexed profile, distributed stress, and transferred loads of the discs and vertebrae at the different levels. The results showed that the three modes in the equivalent condition show the nearly same flexed profiles. In the simple condition, however, the L1 vertebra of the concentrated mode anteriorly translates about 3 and 5 times that of the follower and muscular mode, respectively. By contrast, the flexion profiles of the follower and muscular are comparable. In the equivalent condition, all modes consistently show the gradually increasing stress and loads toward the caudal levels. The results of both concentrated and muscular modes exhibit the quite comparable trends and even magnitudes. In the simple condition, however, the removal of flexion and load constraints makes the results of the concentrated mode significantly different from its counterparts. In both conditions, the predictedindices of the follower mode are more uniform along the lumbar. In conclusion, the kinematic and mechanical constraints significantly affect the profile, stress, and loads of the three modes. In the equivalent condition

  15. Role of loading direction on cyclic behaviour characteristics of AM30 extrusion and its fatigue damage modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roostaei, Ali A., E-mail: aaroostaei@uwaterloo.ca; Jahed, Hamid, E-mail: hjahed@uwaterloo.ca

    2016-07-18

    Anisotropic fatigue and cyclic behaviour of AM30 Mg alloy extrusion is investigated by performing fully-reversed strain-controlled tension-compression cyclic tests at strain amplitudes between 0.3% and 2.3%, along extrusion (ED) and transverse (TD) directions. The shapes of half-life hysteresis loops suggest the predominance of slip and twinning/de-twinning mechanisms below and above the strain amplitude of 0.5%, respectively. The twinning/de-twinning occurrence is found to be more extensive during straining along ED, which results in higher asymmetry of hysteresis loops, and thereby, higher induced mean stress. This adversely affects the fatigue resistance and yields to less number of cycles before failure in ED. Optical microscopy and texture analysis are employed to validate the findings. In addition, fracture surfaces are studied by scanning electron microscopy to identify the sources of fatigue crack initiation. Persistent slip bands (PSBs) and twin lamellae interfaces are evidenced as crack initiation sites at low and high strain amplitudes, respectively. Cracks emanated from debonded inclusion interface are also observed. Lastly, estimated fatigue life by Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) and Jahed-Varvani (JV) fatigue models are compared with experimental life obtained through this study as well as the ones reported in the literature. The JV energy model is proven to yield better life predictions.

  16. Effect of ventilation rate and board loading on formaldehyde concentration : a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Myers

    1984-01-01

    A critical literature review has been carried out on the influence of ventilation rate (N, hr.-1) and board loading (L, m2/m3) on steady state formaldehyde concentrations (Cs, ppm) resulting from particleboard and plywood emissions. Large differences exist among boards in the extent to which their formaldehyde concentrations change with N or L in laboratory chambers....

  17. Investigations On Crack Propagation Under Cyclical Isothermal And Thermo-mechanical Loadings For A Type 304-L Stainless Steel Used For Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Cédric

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of structures exhibiting flaws in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR has to be assessed to meet safety criteria. This paper deals with crack-propagation under cyclic thermo-mechanical loadings, as encountered in class I austenitic pipes of PWR’s. To have a conservative and reliable assessment of the crack propagation due to the in-service loading, various codes and standards use simplified method. For example, the RSE-M Code introduces a plastic correction depending on the proportion of the mechanical loading. An improvement of the current method requires additional investigations. Moreover, components loaded with transient or thermal fluctuations are not really in loadcontrolled conditions. To this end, a device called PROFATH was designed. The specimen is a pre-cracked thick-walled tube undergoing a set of thermal cycles and loaded with a static mechanical force. During the first part of the thermal cycle, a high frequency induction coil heats the external wall of the tube. Then, the heating system stops and the specimen is cooled down by running water inside the tube. Finite element calculations show that only a region half-way along the tube should be heated to ensure adequate structural effect. In the heated zone, the machining of a sharp circumferential groove ensures the propagation of a unique crack. An electro-mechanical jack controls the level of the mechanical static load. Tests have been carried out, and these tests allow having an evaluation of the pertinence of the correction proposed by the RSE-M Code for a significant plasticity.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Shear Walls and Steel Strips under Cyclic Loads Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Askarizadeh, N.; Mohammadizadeh, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main elements of resistance against lateral loads in reinforced concrete structures. These walls should not only provide sufficient resistance but also provide sufficient ductility in order to avoid brittle fracture, particularly under strong seismic loads. However, many reinforced concrete shear walls need to be stabilized and reinforced due to various reasons such as changes in requirements of seismic regulations, weaknesses in design and execution, p...

  19. Analytical solution for a strained reinforcement layer bonded to lip-shaped crack under remote mode Ⅲ uniform load and concentrated load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-wen LIU; Chao XIE; Chun-zhi JIANG; Qi-hong FANG

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the analytical solution of stress field for a strained reinforcement layer bonded to a lip-shaped crack under a remote mode Ⅲ uniform load and a concentrated load is obtained explicitly in the series form by using the technical of conformal mapping and the method of analytic continuation.The effects of material combinations,bond of interface and geometric configurations on interfacial stresses generated by eigenstrain,remote load and concentrated load are studied.The results show that the stress concentration and interfacial stresses can be reduced by rational material combinations and geometric configurations designs for different load forms.

  20. Effects of load on ground reaction force and lower limb kinematics during concentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Arambatzi, Fotini; Papadopoulos, Christos

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external load on vertical ground reaction force, and linear and angular kinematics, during squats. Eight males aged 22.1 +/- 0.8 years performed maximal concentric squats using loads ranging from 7 to 70% of one-repetition maximum on a force plate while linear barbell velocity and the angular kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle were recorded. Maximum, average and angle-specific values were recorded. The ground reaction force ranged from 1.67 +/- 0.20 to 3.21 +/- 0.29 times body weight and increased significantly as external load increased (P squat exercises is not achieved at the same position of the lower body as external load is increased. In contrast, joint velocity coordination does not change as load is increased. The force-velocity relationship was linear and independent from the set of data used for its determination.

  1. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  2. A biomechanical comparison of 2 transosseous-equivalent double-row rotator cuff repair techniques using bioabsorbable anchors: cyclic loading and failure behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Jeffrey T; Buchmann, Stefan; Brucker, Peter U; Kouloumentas, Panos; Obst, Tobias; Schröder, Manuel; Burgkart, Rainer; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2009-08-01

    A novel double-row configuration was compared with a traditional double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair. In 10 matched-pair sheep shoulders in vitro repair was performed with either a double-row technique with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row (group A) or a double-row technique with a new tape-like suture material with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows (group B). Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 150 N for 100 cycles, followed by unidirectional failure testing. Gap formation and strain within the repair area for the first and last cycles were analyzed with a video digitizing system, and stiffness and failure load were determined from the load-elongation curve. The results were similar for the 2 repair types. There was no significant difference between the ultimate failure loads of the 2 techniques (421 +/- 150 N in group A and 408 +/- 66 N in group B, P = .31) or the stiffness of the 2 techniques (84 +/- 26 N/mm in group A and 99 +/- 20 N/mm in group B, P = .07). In addition, gap formation was not different between the repair types. Strain over the repair area was also not different between the repair types. Both tested rotator cuff repair techniques had high failure loads, limited gap formation, and acceptable strain patterns. No significant difference was found between the novel and conventional double-row repair types. Two double-row techniques-one with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row and one with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows-provided excellent biomechanical profiles at time 0 for double-row repairs in a sheep model. Although the sheep model may not directly correspond to in vivo conditions, all-insertion anchor double-row constructs are worthy of further investigation.

  3. A new elasto-plastic spring element for cyclic loading of piles using the p-y curve concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole; Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    2010-01-01

    Modeling the response of large diameter piles subjected to lateral loading is most often done by means of p-y-curves in combination withWinkler beam models. Traditionally the p-y curves are formulated as non-linear (elastic) relations between the lateral movement y and the soil response pressure p....... The present model can account for effects like pre-consolidation and creation of gaps between pile and soil at reversed loading. Results indicate that the model is able to capture hysteresis during loading with full cycles and model the accumulated displacement observed on piles subjected to “half cycles......” as e.g. seen from centrifuge tests carried out. This article presents the theoretical formulations, discusses numerical implementation and finally presents simulations....

  4. Crack growth in Fe-2.7 wt% Si single crystals under cyclic loading and 3D atomistic results in bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Michal; Machová, Anna; Uhnáková, Alena; Pokluda, J.; Lejček, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, June (2016), s. 63-70 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/0698; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20666S; GA ČR GA13-13616S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : grack growth * cyclic loading * Bcc iron Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S014211231500448X/1-s2.0-S014211231500448X-main.pdf?_tid=96e3e5a0-fb08-11e5-92cb-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1459845181_19fcdd93d31b1f140714e52b835b33d8

  5. Internal stress relaxation and load redistribution during the twinning-detwinning-dominated cyclic deformation of a wrought magnesium alloy, ZK60A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Agnew, S.R.; Brown, D.W.; Stoica, G.M.; Clausen, B.; Jain, A.; Fielden, D.E.; Liaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the internal strain (stress) evolution during cyclic deformation dominated by {101-bar2} twinning and detwinning mechanisms within a magnesium alloy, ZK60A, was conducted using in situ neutron diffraction. It is shown that once the matrix grains twin, the (00.2) matrix and twin grains are relaxed relative to the neighbors. This load redistribution between the soft- and hard-grain orientations is a result of plastic anisotropy. The twins which formed during the initial compression sustain a tensile stress along the c-axis, when the applied compressive stress is less than ∼80 MPa upon unloading. This local (intergranular) tensile stress is hypothesized to be effective for driving the detwinning event under a macroscopic compressive field along the c-axis. The activation stresses, 15 and 6 MPa, respectively, for the {101-bar2} extension twinning and detwinning, are approximated, based on the relaxation of the internal stresses in the matrix and twin grains

  6. Dynamic strain distribution measurement and crack detection of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint under cyclic loading using embedded FBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Xiaoguang; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Kanai, Makoto; Ohsawa, Isamu; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic strain distribution measurement of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint was carried out in a cyclic load test using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor embedded into the adhesive/adherend interface along the overlap length direction. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrates were bonded by epoxy resin to form the joint, and the FBG sensor was embedded into the surface of one substrate during its curing. The measurement was carried out with a sampling rate of 5 Hz by the sensing system, based on the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) throughout the test. A finite element analysis (FEA) was performed for the measurement evaluation using a three-dimensional model, which included the embedded FBG sensor. The crack detection method, based on the longitudinal strain distribution measurement, was introduced and performed to estimate the cracks that occurred at the adhesive/adherend interface in the test. (paper)

  7. Vibration mitigation by the reversible fcc/hcp martensitic transformation during cyclic tension-compression loading of an Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Sahu, Puspendu; Kikuchi, Takehiko; Ogawa, Kazuyuki; Kajiwara, Setsuo; Kushibe, Atsumichi; Higashino, Masahiko; Ogawa, Takatoshi

    2006-01-01

    The present work concerns the damping behavior of an Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr-0.5NbC (mass%) shape memory alloy determined by low cycle fatigue tests, and the corresponding deformation mechanism under cyclic tension-compression loading. The specific damping capacity increases with increasing strain amplitude and reaches saturation at ∼80%, above the strain amplitude of 0.4%. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analyses and microstructural observations using atomic force microscopy revealed that a significant amount of the tensile stress-induced ε martensite is reversely transformed into the austenite by subsequent compression; in other words, the stress-induced 'reverse' martensitic transformation takes place in the alloy

  8. Study on the estimation of safety margin of piping system against seismic loading. 1st report, damage observations of the straight pipes subjected to cyclic load amplitudes of various levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Otani, Akihito; Shiratori, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue failure accompanied by ratchet deformation is well known as one of the failure modes of pressurized pipes under high-level cyclic load. In this research, the process of failure of such pipes was investigated based on the experimental result in which a straight pipe failed by repeatedly increasing cyclic input displacement amplitude in stages. The strain behavior, moment-deflection relationship, and observed damage were compared with the stress level used in the seismic design of the piping system. As a result, no significant damage was observed and the moment-deflection relationship remained almost linear within the primary stress limit of 3S m , although the strain showed elastic-plastic behavior at some measurement points. In the experiment, damage was observed at the applied load levels of approximately 5S m of the primary stress, and 0.15 and more of the fatigue damage index, i.e., the usage factor based on the design. The test results showed that there is a certain time margin before failure occurs to actual piping systems, compared with its designed stress limitation. (author)

  9. Effects of air-abrasion pressure on the resin bond strength to zirconia: a combined cyclic loading and thermocycling aging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Z. Al-Shehri,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the combined effect of fatigue cyclic loading and thermocycling (CLTC on the shear bond strength (SBS of a resin cement to zirconia surfaces that were previously air-abraded with aluminum oxide (Al2O3 particles at different pressures. Materials and Methods Seventy-two cuboid zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the air-abrasion pressures (1, 2, and 2.8 bar, and each group was further divided into 2 groups depending on aging parameters (n = 12. Panavia F 2.0 was placed on pre-conditioned zirconia surfaces, and SBS testing was performed either after 24 hours or 10,000 fatigue cycles (cyclic loading and 5,000 thermocycles. Non-contact profilometry was used to measure surface roughness. Failure modes were evaluated under optical and scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and χ2 tests (α = 0.05. Results The 2.8 bar group showed significantly higher surface roughness compared to the 1 bar group (p < 0.05. The interaction between pressure and time/cycling was not significant on SBS, and pressure did not have a significant effect either. SBS was significantly higher (p = 0.006 for 24 hours storage compared to CLTC. The 2 bar-CLTC group presented significantly higher percentage of pre-test failure during fatigue compared to the other groups. Mixed-failure mode was more frequent than adhesive failure. Conclusions CLTC significantly decreased the SBS values regardless of the air-abrasion pressure used.

  10. Misfit of Three Different Implant-Abutment Connections Before and After Cyclic Load Application: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Prados Frutos, Juan Carlos; Prados-Privado, María; Dedavid, Berenice Anina; Granero Marín, Jose Manuel; Calvo Guirado, José Luiz

    This study aimed to evaluate the misfit of three different implant-abutment connections before and after cycling load. One hundred twenty dental implants and correspondent prefabricated titanium abutments were used. Three different implant-abutment connections were evaluated: Morse taper (MT group), external hexagon (EH group), and internal hexagon (IH group). Forty implants and 40 abutments were used per group. The parameters for the mechanical evaluation were set as: 360,000 cycles, load of 150 N, and frequency of 4 Hz. Samples were sectioned in their longitudinal and transversal axes, and the misfit of the implant-abutment connection was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. One-way analyses of variance, Tukey post hoc analyses (α = .05), and t test (P .05). Transversally, only the MT group showed full fitting after cycling load compared with the other groups (EH and IH) (P abutment connection in internal, external, and Morse taper connections. In the longitudinal direction, the accommodation decreases and/or eliminates the gap observed initially (before load). In the horizontal direction, Morse cone implant-abutment connections experience a complete accommodation with the elimination of the gap.

  11. A biomechanical comparison of tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading between single-row, triple-loaded cuff repairs and double-row, suture-tape cuff repairs using biocomposite anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Drew, Otis R

    2012-09-01

    To compare tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading in a single-row, triple-loaded anchor repair with a suture-tape, rip-stop, double-row rotator cuff repair. Using 18 human shoulders from 9 matched cadaveric pairs, we created 2 groups of rotator cuff repairs. Group 1 was a double-row, rip-stop, suture-tape construct. Group 2 was a single-row, triple-loaded construct. Before mechanical testing, the supraspinatus footprint was measured with calipers. A superiorly positioned digital camera optically measured the tendon footprint motion during 60° of humeral internal and external rotation. Specimens were secured at a fixed angle not exceeding 45° in reference to the load. After preloading, each sample was cycled between 10 N and 100 N for 200 cycles at 1 Hz, followed by destructive testing at 33 mm/s. A digital camera with tracking software measured the repair displacement at 100 and 200 cycles. Ultimate load and failure mode for each sample were recorded. The exposed anterior footprint border (6.5% ± 6%) and posterior footprint border (0.9% ± 1.7%) in group 1 were statistically less than the exposed anterior footprint border (30.3% ± 17%) and posterior footprint border (29.8% ± 14%) in group 2 (P = .003 and P row rotator cuff repair had greater footprint coverage, less rotational footprint displacement, and a greater mean ultimate failure load than the triple-loaded, single-row repair on mechanical testing. No double-row or single-row constructs showed 5 mm of displacement after the first 100 cycles. The most common failure mode for both constructs was suture tearing through the tendon. Differences in cuff fixation influence rotational tendon movement and may influence postoperative healing. Stronger repair constructs still fail at the suture-tendon interface. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental study on one-thirtieth scale model of reinforced concrete reactor building under cyclic lateral loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Y.; Hirashima, S.; Shobara, R.

    1981-01-01

    The test models, three types of earthquake-resistant components, are reduced to a scale of one-thirtieth of the prototype which is based on the design of the reactor building for a BWR Mark II Improved Type 1100 MWe Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Experiments on earthquake-resistant components are conducted as a first step. Three types of components are selected: Outer Box (a box-shape outer wall of an auxiliary building), Inner Box (a box-shape building wall inside the Outer Box) and Shield Wall (a conical-shape innermost shield wall). Outer Box has one story, Inner Box four stories and Shield Wall three stories, respectively. Lateral forces are statically applied to each height of a specimen and axial force is simultaneously applied on top of the specimen. The shear reinforcement ratio is 1.2% for both Outer Box and Inner Box, 1.6% for Shield Wall. The test results are discussed to confirm safety factors for the design load and the relationships between loads and displacements, and then they are compared with analytical results. The ratio of the maximum load to the design load is above 2.5. Flexural and shear displacements are analyzed independently in the tests. The relationships of moment-curvature and shear stress-shear strain, and the relationships of load-displacement which are calculated from these two show good agreement with those in conventional analyses. The FEM non-linear analysis shows good agreement with the experiments. (orig./HP)

  13. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Kimble, Christopher J; Covey, Daniel P; Blaha, Charles D; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H; Garris, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between -0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 mum) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by approximately 100 microm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2

  14. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading; Plasticite cyclique d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique sous chargement biaxial non-proportionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, V

    2001-11-15

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10{sup -5}) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  15. Rye cover crop and gamagrass strip effects on NO3 concentration and load in tile drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, T C; Jaynes, D B; Parkin, T B; Moorman, T B

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or "tiles." Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concentrations in subsurface drainage to acceptable levels; therefore, additional approaches need to be devised. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainage water for a no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) management system. In one treatment, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) was grown in permanent 3.05-m-wide strips above the tiles. For the second treatment, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was seeded over the entire plot area each year near harvest and chemically killed before planting the following spring. Twelve 30.5x42.7-m subsurface-drained field plots were established in 1999 with an automated system for measuring tile flow and collecting flow-weighted samples. Both treatments and a control were initiated in 2000 and replicated four times. Full establishment of both treatments did not occur until fall 2001 because of dry conditions. Treatment comparisons were conducted from 2002 through 2005. The rye cover crop treatment significantly reduced subsurface drainage water flow-weighted NO3 concentrations and NO3 loads in all 4 yr. The rye cover crop treatment did not significantly reduce cumulative annual drainage. Averaged over 4 yr, the rye cover crop reduced flow-weighted NO3 concentrations by 59% and loads by 61%. The gamagrass strips did not significantly reduce cumulative drainage, the average annual flow-weighted NO3 concentrations, or cumulative NO3 loads averaged over the 4 yr. Rye winter cover crops grown after corn and soybean have the potential to reduce the NO3 concentrations and loads delivered to surface waters by subsurface drainage systems.

  16. Dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in streams of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model that has improved the understanding of sources, loads, yields, and concentrations of dissolved solids in streams of the conterminous United States.

  17. Environmental effect on cracking of an 304L austenitic stainless steels in PWR primary environment under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huin, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to get further insights on cracking mechanisms in a 304L stainless steel. More precisely, a first objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various cold working conditions on the cyclic stress-strain behavior and the fatigue life in air and in PWR primary environment. In air a prior hardening was found to reduce the fatigue life in the LCF regime but not in primary environment. In both environments, the fatigue limit of the hardened materials was increased after cold working.The second objective addresses the effect of the air and the PWR primary environments on the cracking mechanisms (initiation and propagation) in the annealed material in the LCF regime. More precisely, the kinetics of crack initiation and micro crack propagation were evaluated with a multi scale microscopic approach in air and in primary environment. In PWR primary environment, during the first cycles, preferential oxidation occurs along emerging dissociated dislocation and each cycle generates a new C-rich/Fe-rich oxide layer. Then, during cycling, the microstructure evolves from stacking fault into micro twinning and preferential oxidation occurs by continuous shearing and dissolution of the passive film. Beyond a certain crack depth (≤3 μm), the crack starts to propagate with a direction close to a 90 degrees angle from the surface. The crack continues its propagation by successive generation of shear bands and fatigue striations at each cycle up to failure. The role of corrosion hydrogen on these processes is finally discussed. (author)

  18. Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Dahlström, Örjan; Karlsson, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Whether cognitive load-and other aspects of task difficulty-increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal-task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information-which decreases distractibility-as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

  19. Experimental assessment and numerical modeling of the nonlinear behavior of the masonry shear walls under in-plane cyclic loading considering the brickwork-setting effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Karimi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the main purpose is nonlinear analysis of the cyclic behavior of the masonry shear walls including brickwork setting using finite element method. Three different brickwork-settings including running bond style, herringbone style and Zarbi style (herreh style were investigated. To this end, the walls (in dimension of 195×1500×1720 mm were tested in the laboratory and then were simulated using macro modeling method by Abaqus software, and their hysteretic curves was drawn. The concrete damaged plasticity criteria in the Abaqus software is a model used in this research.In this method, the main failure mechanisms of fracture are cracking in tension and crushing in compression. The macro modeling method was used for numerical assessment of the masonry walls. After numerical modeling and drawing hysteretic curves and contrasting them with laboratory results, it was proven that the concrete damaged plasticity model, which is behavioral model for simulating concrete material, can be used for modeling masonry materials under seismic loading. However, this model cannot be used to simulate pinching effect in hysteretic curve drawn from seismic loading. The envelope curve resulted from the numerical analysis of all three brickwork layouts had a good agreement with the results of the laboratory tests, but in Hysteretic curve of Herringbone style and Zarbi style the pinching effect did not match experimental results

  20. Crack growth prediction method considering interaction between multiple cracks. Growth of surface cracks of dissimilar size under cyclic tensile and bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Miyokawa, Eiichi; Kikuchi, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    When multiple cracks approach one another, the stress intensity factor is likely to change due to the interaction of the stress field. This causes change in growth rate and shape of cracks. In particular, when cracks are in parallel position to the loading direction, the shape of cracks becomes non-planar. In this study, the complex growth of interacting cracks is evaluated by using the S-Version finite element method, in which local detailed finite element mesh (local mesh) is superposed on coarse finite element model (global mesh) representing the global structure. In order to investigate the effect of interaction on the growth behavior, two parallel surface cracks are subjected to cyclic tensile or bending load. It is shown that the smaller crack is shielded by larger crack due to the interaction and stops growing when the difference in size of two cracks is significant. Based on simulations of various conditions, a procedure and criteria for evaluating crack growth for fitness-for-service assessment is proposed. According to the procedure, the interaction is not necessary to be considered in the crack growth prediction when the difference in size of two cracks exceeds the criterion. (author)

  1. Computation of major solute concentrations and loads in German rivers using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Regression functions between concentrations of several inorganic solutes and specific conductance and between specific conductance and stream discharge were derived from intermittent samples collected for 2 rivers in West Germany. These functions, in conjunction with daily records of streamflow, were used to determine monthly and annual solute loadings. -from Author

  2. The geochemistry of the Yangtze River: Seasonality of concentrations and temporal trends of chemical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Beat; Berg, Michael; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoã®T.; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan

    2012-06-01

    The Yangtze is the largest river in Asia and its water composition reflects the activities of about 400 Mio people in its catchment. Its chemical loads have a large impact on the biogeochemistry of the East China Sea. We discuss and quantify the annual dynamics of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements from samples collected monthly at Datong Station from May 2009 to June 2010. The Yangtze today carries 192 × 106 tons of total dissolved solids annually to the East China Sea, which is an increase of 25% compared to the average of 1958-1990. While the loads of dissolved silica (SiO2), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Ca2+ and Mg2+compared well with the long-term averages since the 1950s, loads of Na+, Cl-, SO42-, have tripled since 1958-1990. The increase of SO42- is attributed to the burning of coal in the catchment, and 18% of the F- load is estimated to originate from this source. The increase of Na+ and Cl-loads may be anthropogenic as well. The load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) has increased 15 fold since the early measurements around 1970 and amounts to 1.6 Mt-N/yr today. The particulate concentrations of the typical anthropogenic trace metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn showed enrichment factors between 0.7 - 7 compared to the natural background. Their annual peak concentrations all exceeded the quality targets recommended by the EC up to two times. However, the load of trace elements at Datong decreased by 73-86% (As: 50%) in the past ten years.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Remodeling in Response to Eccentric vs. Concentric Loading: Morphological, Molecular, and Metabolic Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino V. Franchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively; however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT. Nonetheless, prevalence of either ECC RT or CON RT in inducing gains in muscle mass is still an open issue, with some studies reporting greater hypertrophy with eccentric, some with concentric and some with similar hypertrophy within both training modes. Recent observations suggest that such hypertrophic responses to lengthening vs. shortening contractions are achieved by different adaptations in muscle architecture. Whilst the changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to acute and chronic concentric and eccentric exercise bouts seem very similar, the molecular mechanisms regulating the myogenic adaptations to the two distinct loading stimuli are still incompletely understood.Thus, the present review aims to, (a critically discuss the literature on the contribution of eccentric vs. concentric loading to muscular hypertrophy and structural remodeling, and, (b clarify the molecular mechanisms that may regulate such adaptations.We conclude that, when matched for either maximum load or work, similar increase in muscle size is found between ECC and CON RT. However, such hypertrophic changes appear to be achieved through distinct structural adaptations, which may be regulated by different myogenic and molecular responses observed between lengthening and shortening contractions.

  4. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of slabs on ground subjected to concentrated loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Jan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental program is presented where a slab on ground is subjected to concentrated loading at the centre, the edges and at the corners. Analytical solutions for the ultimate load capacity fit well with the results obtained in the tests. The non-linear behaviour of the slab is captured by performing nonlinear finite element analyses. The soil is modelled as a no-tension bedding and a smeared crack approach is employed for the concrete. Through a parametric study, the finite element model has been used to assess the influence of subgrade stiffness and shrinkage. The results indicate that drying shrinkage can cause severe cracking in slabs on grade.

  6. Assessment of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with pre-stressed CFPR subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojatkashani, Ata; Zanjani, Sara

    2018-03-01

    Rehabilitation of weak and damaged structures has been considered widely during recent years. A relatively modern way of strengthening concrete components is to confine parts under tension and shear by means of carbon fiber reinforce polymer (CFRP). This way of strengthening due to the conditions of composite materials such as light weight, linear elastic behavior until failure point, high tensile strength, high elastic modulus, resistance against corrosion, and high fatigue resistance has become so common. During structural strengthening by means of not pre-stressed FRP materials, usually, it is not possible to benefit from the maximum capacity of FRP materials. In addition, sometimes, the expensive cost of such materials will not make a suitable balance between rates of strengthening and consuming spending. Thus, pre-stressing CFRP materials has an undeniable role in the effective use of materials. In the current research, general procedure of simulation using finite-element method (FEM) by means of the numerical package ABAQUS has been presented. In this article, 12 reinforced concrete (RC) models in two states (strengthened with simple and pre-stressed CFRP) under cycling loading have been considered. A parametric study has been carried out in this research on the effects of parameters such as CFRP surface area, percentage of tensile steel rebar and pre-stressing stress on ultimate load carrying capacity (ULCC), stiffness, and the ability of depreciation energy for the samples. In the current article also, for design parameters, percentages of tensile steel rebars, surface area of CFPR sheets, and the effective pre-stressing stress in RC beams retrofitted with pre-stressed CFPR sheets have investigated. In this paper, it was investigated that using different amount of parameters such as steel rebar percentage, CFRP surface area percentage, and CFRP pre-stressing, the resulted ULCC and energy depreciation of the specimens was observed to be increasing and

  7. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  8. Microstructure Evolution and Protrusion of Electroplated Cu-Filled Through-Silicon Vias Subjected to Thermal Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; An, Tong; Qin, Fei; Chen, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSVs) have become an important technology for three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) packaging. Protrusion of electroplated Cu-filled vias is a critical reliability issue for TSV technology. In this work, thermal cycling tests were carried out to identify how the microstructure affects protrusion during thermal cycling. Cu protrusion occurs when the loading temperature is higher than 149°C. During the first five thermal cycles, the grain size of Cu plays a dominant role in the protrusion behavior. Larger Cu grain size before thermal cycling results in greater Cu protrusion. With increasing thermal cycle number, the effect of the Cu grain size reduces and the microstrain begins to dominate the Cu protrusion behavior. Higher magnitude of microstrain within Cu results in greater protrusion increment during subsequent thermal cycles. When the thermal cycle number reaches 25, the protrusion rate of Cu slows down due to strain hardening. After 30 thermal cycles, the Cu protrusion stabilizes within the range of 1.92 μm to 2.09 μm.

  9. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  10. Cyclic heat load testing of improved CFC/Cu bonding for the W 7-X divertor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Chaudhuri, P.; Schlosser, J.; Friedrich, T.; Plankensteiner, A.; Tivey, R.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive high heat flux cycling testing of pre-series targets was performed in the neutral beam facility GLADIS to establish the industrial process for the manufacturing of 890 targets, which will be needed for the installation of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X divertor. The targets are manufactured of flat tiles of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material bonded by an Active Metal Casting copper interlayer onto a water-cooled CuCrZr structure. Based on the results of the 3D thermo-mechanical FEM analysis of the CFC/Cu interface, an additional set of 17 full-scale pre-series elements including three design variations was manufactured by PLANSEE SE. The insertion of an additional plastically compliant copper interlayer between the cooling structure and the Active Metal Casting interlayer showed the best results. No critical tile detachment was observed during >5000 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 . These results demonstrated the sufficient life time of the component for the expected heat load in operation.

  11. Buckling model of longitudinal reinforcing bars under reverse cyclic load; Koban kurikaeshi kajuka ni okeru chukin no zakutsu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Y.; Suda, K.; Ichinomiya, T.; Shinbo, H. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-31

    For RC (reinforced concrete) columns such as towers of long-span cable-stayed bridges or high-rise piers, there is desired development of an analytical method including a method of arranging reinforcing bars for increasing their ductility against strong earthquake motion. For this, it is necessary to investigate their characteristics after their being rendered to maximum load and their final states, and hence there must be newly investigated the properties of a plastic hinge formed on the bottom of the column, particularly determination of the buckling point of reinforcing bars and a hysteresis model after the buckling. In this study, there is developed a direct method of measuring the stress of reinforcing bars embedded in a model specimen which is conventionally difficult to be measured, and there is investigated the stress-strain hysteresis of the bars before and after the buckling thereof. The principle of the method of measuring the stress is such that only a local minimum portion of objective reinforcing bars is rendered to rf quenching, and a distortion gauge is sticked to the center of the quenching. This is based upon a fact that that portion keeps a linear relationship between the stress and the strain even if a host material is yielded. On the basis of an experimental result, a mechanism of buckling of these bars is clarified and a buckling model of the reinforcing bars at the plastic hinge. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Transposing Concentration-Discharge Curves onto Unmonitored Catchments to Estimate Seasonal Nutrient Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, C.; Moatar, F.; Abbott, B. W.; Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Pinay, G.; Roubeix, V.; Danis, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many lakes and reservoirs in Europe suffer from severe eutrophication. Accurate quantification of nutrient loads are critical for effective mitigation measures, but this information is often unknown. For example, in France, only 50 out of 481 lakes and reservoirs have national monitoring allowing estimation of interannual nitrogen and phosphorus loads, and even these loads are computed from low-frequency data. To address this lack of data, we developed a straightforward method to predict seasonal loads in lake tributaries. First, we analyzed concentration-discharge (C-Q) curves in monitored catchments and identified slopes, intercepts, and coefficient of variation of the log(C)-log(Q) regressions determined for both low and high flows, separated by the median daily flow [Moatar et al., 2017]. Then, we used stepwise multiple linear regression models to empirically link the characteristics of C-Q curves with a set of catchment descriptors such as land use, lithology, morphology indices, climate, and hydrological indicators. Modeled C-Q relationships were then used to estimate annual and seasonal nutrient loads in nearby and similar unmonitored catchments. We implemented this approach on a large dataset from France where stream flow was surveyed daily and water quality (suspended solids, nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate concentrations) was measured on a monthly basis at 233 stations over the past 20 years in catchments from 10 to 3000 km². The concentration at the median daily flow (seen here as a metric of the general level of contamination in a catchment) was predicted with uncertainty ranging between 30 and 100 %, depending on the variable. C-Q slopes were predicted with large errors, but a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of C-Q slopes uncertainties on computed annual and seasonal loads. This approach allows estimation of seasonal and annual nutrient loads and could be potentially implemented to improve protection and

  13. Biofilm formation and antibiotic production in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Magdenoska, Olivera; Melchiorsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    species Ruegeria mobilis are associated with intracellular concentrations of the signal compound cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate (c-di-GMP), which in bacteria regulates transitions between motile and sessile life stages. Genes for diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are involved in c-di-GMP...... signalling, were found in the genome of R. mobilis strain F1926. Ion pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed 20-fold higher c-di-GMP concentrations per cell in biofilm-containing cultures than in planktonic cells. An introduced diguanylate cyclase gene increased c-di-GMP and enhanced biofilm...... formation and production of the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). An introduced phosphodiesterase gene decreased c-di-GMP and reduced biofilm formation and TDA production. tdaC, a key gene for TDA biosynthesis, was expressed only in attached or biofilm-forming cells, and expression was induced...

  14. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  15. Cyclic deformation behaviour of quenched and tempered 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140) at two-block push-pull-loading; Zum Wechselverformungsverhalten von verguetetem 42CrMo4 bei zweistufiger Zug-Druck-Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1; Lang, K.-H.; Voehringer, O.; Macherauch, E.

    1998-11-01

    The behaviour of steels in the course of two- and multi-block cyclic loading has been investigated up to now almost exclusively regarding the fatigue life. According to this, only a few papers exist, dealing with the cyclic deformation behaviour at two- and multi-block-push-pull-loading. Therefore, in stress- and total strain-controlled experiments with a single change of the amplitude (two-block-experiments) and multiple changes between two blocks of different lengths and amplitudes (multi-block-experiments) the cyclic deformation processes have been investigated for the quenched and tempered steel grade 42 CrMo 4 (equivalent to AISI 4140). Using the data of stress- and strain-Woehler-curves determined in usual fatigue tests, damages defined according to Miner`s rule were adjoined to the blocks. The Miner-damages at failure observed in the two-block-experiments with changes from high to low amplitudes were smaller than one and at inverse changes of amplitudes larger than one. In contrast to this, in multi-block-experiments no universally valid correlations were observed between the Miner-damages at failure and the test-parameters applied. At all tests cyclic work-softening was observed as in single-step-experiments. However, work-softening processes at high amplitude loadings yield to much larger plastic strain amplitudes after changing to smaller amplitudes than in single-step tests. Contrarily, in multi-block-tests work-softening at higher amplitude loadings reduces with decreasing block-length and increasing portion of the blocks with the smaller amplitude. This is attributed to effects of static strain-ageing. Total-strain-controlled two-block cyclic deformation experiments yield to similar effects as in stress-controlled tests. 18 refs.

  16. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-01-01

    concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m−1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence......The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87...... the prediction in wavelengths above 520nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC–CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44gCm−2yr−1, and 1...

  17. Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.

    1979-01-01

    Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood

  18. Stress-strain time-dependent behavior of A356.0 aluminum alloy subjected to cyclic thermal and mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, G. H.; Ghodrati, M.; Azadi, M.; Rezvani Rad, M.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the cyclic behavior of the A356.0 aluminum alloy under low-cycle fatigue (or isothermal) and thermo-mechanical fatigue loadings. Since the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) test is time consuming and has high costs in comparison to low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests, the purpose of this research is to use LCF test results to predict the TMF behavior of the material. A time-independent model, considering the combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law, was used to predict the TMF behavior of the material. Material constants of this model were calibrated based on room-temperature and high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests. The nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law could accurately estimate the stress-strain hysteresis loop for the LCF condition; however, for the out-of-phase TMF, the condition could not predict properly the stress value due to the strain rate effect. Therefore, a two-layer visco-plastic model and also the Johnson-Cook law were applied to improve the estimation of the stress-strain hysteresis loop. Related finite element results based on the two-layer visco-plastic model demonstrated a good agreement with experimental TMF data of the A356.0 alloy.

  19. Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB, Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Blasetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1.

  20. Cyclic life of superalloy IN738LC under in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongjun; Wahi, R.P.; Wever, H.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic life of IN738LC, a widely used nickel base superalloy for blades in stationary gas turbines, was investigated under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading using a temperature variation range of 1023 to 1223 K, with temperature variation rate in the range of 6 to 15 K/min. Simple thermo-mechanical cycles with linear sequences corresponding to in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) tests were performed. Both the IP and OP tests were carried out at different constant mechanical strain ranges varied between 0.8 to 2.0% and at a constant mechanical strain rate of 10 -5 s -1 . Thermo-mechanical fatigue lives under both test conditions were compared with each other and with those of isothermal LCF tests at a temperature of 1223 K. The results show that the life under thermo-mechanical fatigue is strongly dependent on the nature of the test, i.e. stress controlled or strain controlled. (orig.)

  1. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  2. Stress State Analysis and Failure Mechanisms of Masonry Columns Reinforced with FRP under Concentric Compressive Load

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Witzany; Radek Zigler

    2016-01-01

    The strengthening and stabilization of damaged compressed masonry columns with composites based on fabrics of high-strength fibers and epoxy resin, or polymer-modified cement mixtures, belongs to novel, partially non-invasive and reversible progressive methods. The stabilizing and reinforcing effect of these fabrics significantly applies to masonry structures under concentric compressive loading whose failure mechanism is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cra...

  3. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Steele Bayou Basin, northwestern Mississippi, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew B.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Stocks, Shane J.

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Vicksburg District, monitored streamflow, water quality, and sediment at two stations on the Steele Bayou in northwestern Mississippi from October 2010 through September 2014 to characterize nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in areas where substantial implementation of conservation efforts have been implemented. The motivation for this effort was to quantify improvements, or lack thereof, in water quality in the Steele Bayou watershed as a result of implementing large- and small-scale best-management practices aimed at reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads. The results of this study document the hydrologic, water-quality, and sedimentation status of these basins following over two decades of ongoing implementation of conservation practices.Results from this study indicate the two Steele Bayou stations have comparable loads and yields of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment when compared to other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States. However, nitrate plus nitrite yields from basins in the Mississippi River alluvial plain, including the Steele Bayou Basin, are generally lower than other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States.Seasonal variation in nutrient and sediment loads was observed at both stations and for most constituents. About 50 percent of the total annual nutrient and sediment load was observed during the spring (February through May) and between 25 and 50 percent was observed during late fall and winter (October through January). These seasonal patterns probably reflect a combination of seasonal patterns in precipitation, runoff, streamflow, and in the timing of fertilizer application.Median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment were slightly higher at the upstream station, Steele Bayou near Glen Allan

  4. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  5. Modeling of creep-fatigue interaction of zirconium {alpha} under cyclic loading at 200 C; Modelisation du comportement et de l`endommagement en fatigue-fluage du zirconium {alpha} a 200C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, C.

    1996-04-01

    The present work deals with mechanical behaviour of zirconium alpha at 200 deg. C and crack initiation prediction methods, particularly when loading conditions lead to interaction of fatigue and creep phenomena. A classical approach used to study interaction between cyclic effects and constant loading effects does not give easy understanding of experimental results. Therefore, a new approach has been developed, which allow to determine a number of cycles for crack initiation for complex structures under large loading conditions. To study influence of fatigue and creep interaction on crack initiation, a model was chosen, using a scalar variable, giving representation of the material deterioration state. The model uses a non linear cumulating effect between the damage corresponding to cyclic loads and the damage correlated to time influence. The model belongs to uncoupled approaches between damage and behaviour, which is described here by a two inelastic deformations model. This mechanical behaviour model is chosen because it allows distinction between a plastic and a viscous part in inelastic flow. Cyclic damage is function of stress amplitude and mean stress. For the peculiar sensitivity of the material to creep, a special parameter bas been defined to be critical toward creep damage. It is the kinematic term associated to state variables describing this type of hardening in the viscous mechanism. (author).

  6. The effect of different accentuated eccentric load levels in eccentric-concentric loading contractions on acute neuromuscular, growth hormone and blood lactate responses during a hypertrophic protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ojasto, Timo

    2007-01-01

    When accentuated load is applied during the eccentric (ECC) phase of eccentric-concentric (ECC-CON) contractions, it is defined as dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) exercise. This study monitored acute neuromuscular responses, growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate (La) concentrations to find out the most efficient ECC-CON loading strategy for muscle hypertrophy by employing various DAER resistances in the bench-press. Male subjects (age=32.4±4.3years, n=11) were assigned as subje...

  7. Effect of Increased Cyclic AMP Concentration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.; Bridge, K. Y.; Smith, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Analogies of epinephrine are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle when fed to animals. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through interaction with the P-adrenergic receptor. Since the intracellular signal generated by the Beta-adrenergic receptor is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in cell culture to determine if artificial elevation of cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter muscle protein metabolism and P-adrenergic receptor expression. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were treated with 0.2-30 micrometers forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the treatment period, both the concentration of cAMP and the quantity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were measured. Concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, the quantity of MHC was increased approximately 50% above control cells at 0.2 micrometers forskolin, but exhibited a gradual decline at higher levels of forskolin so that the quantity of MHC in cells treated with 30 micrometers forskolin was not significantly different from controls. Curiously, the intracellular concentration of cAMP which elicited the maximum increase in the quantity of MHC was only 40% higher than cAMP concentration in control cells.

  8. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  9. Pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff from different land uses in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; He, Qiang; Ai, Hainan; Wang, Zhentao; Zhang, Qianqian

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff in Chongqing, six typical land use types were selected and studied from August 2009 to September 2011. Statistical analysis on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in all water samples shows that pollutant concentrations fluctuate greatly in rainfall-runoff, and the concentrations of the same pollutant also vary greatly in different rainfall events. In addition, it indicates that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from urban traffic roads (UTR) are significantly higher than those from residential roads (RR), commercial areas (CA), concrete roofs (CR), tile roofs (TRoof), and campus catchment areas (CCA); and the EMCs of total phosphorus (TP) and NH3-N from UTR and CA are 2.35-5 and 3 times of the class-II standard values specified in the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). The EMCs of Fe, Pb and Cd are also much higher than the class-III standard values. The analysis of pollution load producing coefficients (PLPC) reveals that the main pollution source of TSS, COD and TP is UTR. The analysis of correlations between rainfall factors and EMCs/PLPC indicates that rainfall duration is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TSS for TRoof and TP for UTR, while rainfall intensity is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TP for both CR and CCA. The results of this study provide a reference for better management of non-point source pollution in urban regions.

  10. Stress State Analysis and Failure Mechanisms of Masonry Columns Reinforced with FRP under Concentric Compressive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The strengthening and stabilization of damaged compressed masonry columns with composites based on fabrics of high-strength fibers and epoxy resin, or polymer-modified cement mixtures, belongs to novel, partially non-invasive and reversible progressive methods. The stabilizing and reinforcing effect of these fabrics significantly applies to masonry structures under concentric compressive loading whose failure mechanism is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks accompanied by an increase in horizontal masonry strain. During the appearance of micro and hairline cracks (10−3 to 10−1 mm, the effect of non-pre-stressed wrapping composite is very small. The favorable effect of passive wrapping is only intensively manifested after the appearance of cracks (10−1 mm and bigger at higher loading levels. In the case of “optimum” reinforcement of a masonry column, the experimental research showed an increase in vertical displacements δy (up to 247%, horizontal displacements δx (up to 742% and ultimate load-bearing capacity (up to 136% compared to the values reached in unreinforced masonry columns. In the case of masonry structures in which no intensive “bed joint filler–masonry unit” interaction occurs, e.g., in regular coursed masonry with little differences in the mechanical characteristics of masonry units and the binder, the reinforcing effect of the fabric applies only partially.

  11. The MANAGE database: nutrient load and site characteristic updates and runoff concentration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Qian, Song; Reckhow, Ken; Casebolt, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    The "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database was developed to be a readily accessible, easily queried database of site characteristic and field-scale nutrient export data. The original version of MANAGE, which drew heavily from an early 1980s compilation of nutrient export data, created an electronic database with nutrient load data and corresponding site characteristics from 40 studies on agricultural (cultivated and pasture/range) land uses. In the current update, N and P load data from 15 additional studies of agricultural runoff were included along with N and P concentration data for all 55 studies. The database now contains 1677 watershed years of data for various agricultural land uses (703 for pasture/rangeland; 333 for corn; 291 for various crop rotations; 177 for wheat/oats; and 4-33 yr for barley, citrus, vegetables, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, fallow, and peanuts). Across all land uses, annual runoff loads averaged 14.2 kg ha(-1) for total N and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for total P. On average, these losses represented 10 to 25% of applied fertilizer N and 4 to 9% of applied fertilizer P. Although such statistics produce interesting generalities across a wide range of land use, management, and climatic conditions, regional crop-specific analyses should be conducted to guide regulatory and programmatic decisions. With this update, MANAGE contains data from a vast majority of published peer-reviewed N and P export studies on homogeneous agricultural land uses in the USA under natural rainfall-runoff conditions and thus provides necessary data for modeling and decision-making related to agricultural runoff. The current version can be downloaded at http://www.ars.usda.gov/spa/manage-nutrient.

  12. Quantifying Nutrient and Mercury Concentrations and Loads in Lake Tahoe Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C.; Obrist, D.; Schumer, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent climate models predict a large decrease in Sierra Nevada snowpack over the next fifty years as a result of climate change. This decrease will not only affect the hydrologic balance but also change inputs of nutrients and pollutants through atmospheric deposition. In the Lake Tahoe basin, winter precipitation dominates and snowfall provides approximately 70 percent of the annual water input. From the first snowfall until the end of melting, snowpack acts as a temporary storage for atmospheric deposition that accumulates throughout winter and spring. Through melt and runoff processes, these nutrients and pollutants can enter the aquatic ecosystem where they can have detrimental effects on lake clarity and health. Most previous studies in this basin have focused on direct atmospheric deposition loads to the lake surface, and little temporal and spatial information is available on the dynamics of atmospheric deposition in the basin's snowpack. We here present nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and mercury (Hg) concentrations and pool sizes in snowpack along two elevational transects in the Tahoe Basin from January to April of 2012. Total N and P concentrations in the snowpack ranged from 0.07 mg/L to 0.38 mg/L and 0.003 mg/L to 0.109 mg/L, respectively. P concentrations showed strong increases from the west-side to the east-side of the basin which we attribute to local (e.g., urban or road-dust), in-basin sources that are distributed along the dominant west-wind patterns. N species, on the other hand, generally showed little spatial trends, indicating that its sources were more diffuse and possibly from out-of- basin. Hg concentrations ranged from 0.81 ppt to 6.25 ppt and showed similar spatial patterns as N. Hg, however, also showed significant snowpack concentration decreases during storm-free periods which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg back to the atmosphere from photochemical reduction. These emissions are further supported by lower Hg concentrations in

  13. Dietary phosphorus concentrations related to breaking load and chemical bone properties in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S N; Lawrence, L A; McDowell, L R; Warnick, A C; Wilkinson, N S

    1990-04-01

    Effects of dietary P on breaking load and chemical properties of bone were evaluated in growing beef heifers. Initially, 14 weaned Angus heifers received ad libitum a low P diet (.10% P dry basis) for 270 d. Heifers were subsequently randomly allotted into two groups (7 heifers/group) and received ad libitum either .12 or .20% P (dry basis). The experimental endpoint was 245 d of the treatment phase for nonpregnant and 3 wk postpartum for pregnant heifers. Results indicate that chemical and physical properties of bovine bones are sensitive to dietary P. Mineralization of rib bones was less at .12% P (dry basis). Rib bone density (g/cm3) and mineral content expressed on a per unit volume basis (mg/cm3) were the most sensitive parameters measured. Breaking load results of 12th ribs also indicated a greater amount of mineral present in heifers receiving .20% P (153.8 vs. 114.3 kg). Vertebral bone density and mineral concentrations on a per unit volume basis were also sensitive to dietary P and clearly ranked the two dietary P amounts, whereas percentage of bone ash or mineral concentration expressed on an ash basis did not.

  14. The calculation of dissipated work, elastoplastic cyclic stress and cyclic strain in a structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xucheng; Xie Yihuan.

    1986-01-01

    With the development of the reactor technique, there is being an increasing interest in the calculation of elastoplastic response of a structure to its complex loading. This paper introduces a constitutive relation of a material for discribing unloading property, and uses it in an analysis of a real structure under a cyclic loading. The results, which include cyclic stress, cyclic strain and dissipated work, are meaningful in the researches of the structure behavior under complex loading and of the structural safety

  15. The acute effects of moderately loaded concentric-only quarter squats on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Aaron J; Kawamori, Naoki; Stone, Michael H; Haff, G Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Limited research exists examining the effect of moderately loaded conditioning activities that are employed as part of a strength-power potentiating complex (SPPC). Additionally, no studies to date have explored the effects of using a concentric-only quarter back squat protocol as part of an SPPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a moderately loaded (50-65% of 1RM) concentric-only quarter back squat protocol on the occurrence of potentiation effects at various time points. Twenty men who could quarter back squat a minimum of 2.4 times their body mass (3.7 ± 0.7 kg·per body mass) participated in this investigation. All subjects participated in 3 conditions: control (CT), a 50% of 1RM trial (50POT), and a 65% of 1RM trial (65POT). One minute before each condition, a maximal countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) was performed. One minute later, the subject performed 1 of 3 conditions: CT condition, 50POT, or 65POT, followed by vertical jumps at 0.5, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after conditioning activity. A force plate was used to quantify displacement, peak power output, peak force, and the rate of force development for each CMJ. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in any of the performance measures quantified during the CMJ trials when comparing the CT, 50POT, and 65POT treatment conditions. However, 48% of the subjects demonstrated some degree of potentiation at the 30 seconds after completing the 65POT trial, but this percent increase was not statistically significant. From a practical perspective, if the goal of the SPPC is to create a maximization of the potentiation effect, moderately loaded activities may not be the best alternative.

  16. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Slotton, Darell G.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Ayers, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of 18 O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water

  17. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Slotton, Darell G.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Ayers, Shaun M

    2004-07-05

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of {sup 18}O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water.

  18. Effects of resistance training using known vs unknown loads on eccentric-phase adaptations and concentric velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Davó, J L; Sabido, R; Behm, D G; Blazevich, A J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare both eccentric- and concentric-phase adaptations in highly trained handball players to 4 weeks of twice-weekly rebound bench press throw training with varying loads (30%, 50% and 70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) using either known (KL) or unknown (UL) loads and to examine the relationship between changes in eccentric- and concentric-phase performance. Twenty-eight junior team handball players were divided into two experimental groups (KL or UL) and a control group. KL subjects were told the load prior each repetition, while UL were blinded. For each repetition, the load was dropped and then a rebound bench press at maximum velocity was immediately performed. Both concentric and eccentric velocity as well as eccentric kinetic energy and musculo-articular stiffness prior to the eccentric-concentric transition were measured. Results showed similar increases in both eccentric velocity and kinetic energy under the 30% 1-RM but greater improvements under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads for UL than KL. UL increased stiffness under all loads (with greater magnitude of changes). KL improved concentric velocity only under the 30% 1-RM load while UL also improved under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads. Improvements in concentric movement velocity were moderately explained by changes in eccentric velocity (R 2 =.23-.62). Thus, UL led to greater improvements in concentric velocity, and the improvement is potentially explained by increases in the speed (as well as stiffness and kinetic energy) of the eccentric phase. Unknown load training appears to have significant practical use for the improvement of multijoint stretch-shortening cycle movements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 2: Finite element analysis of damage evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jeong-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m 2 produced substantial stresses and inelastic strains in the heat-loaded surface region, especially at the notch root. • The notch root exhibited a typical notch effect such as stress concentration and localized inelastic yield leading to a preferred damage development. • The predicted damage evolution feature agrees well with the experimental observation. • The smooth surface also experiences considerable stresses and inelastic strains. However, the stress intensity and the amount of inelastic deformation are not high enough to cause any serious damage. • The level of maximum inelastic strain is higher at the notch root than at the smooth surface. On the other hand, the amplitude of inelastic strain variation is comparable at both positions. • The amount of inelastic deformation is significantly affected by the length of pulse duration time indicating the important role of creep. - Abstract: In the preceding companion article (part 1), the experimental results of the high-heat-flux (3.5 MW/m 2 ) fatigue tests of a Eurofer bare steel first wall mock-up was presented. The aim was to investigate the damage evolution and crack initiation feature. The mock-up used there was a simplified model having only basic and generic structural feature of an actively cooled steel FW component for DEMO reactor. In that study, it was found that microscopic damage was formed at the notch root already in the early stage of the fatigue loading. On the contrary, the heat-loaded smooth surface exhibited no damage up to 800 load cycles. In this paper, the high-heat-flux fatigue behavior is investigated with a finite element analysis to provide a theoretical interpretation. The thermal fatigue test was simulated using the coupled damage-viscoplastic constitutive model developed by Aktaa. The stresses, inelastic deformation and damage evolution at the notch groove and at the smooth surface are compared. The different damage

  20. Effect of Cyclic Dynamic Compressive Loading on Chondrocytes and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Co-Cultured in Highly Elastic Cryogel Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we first used gelatin/chondroitin-6-sulfate/hyaluronan/chitosan highly elastic cryogels, which showed total recovery from large strains during repeated compression cycles, as 3D scaffolds to study the effects of cyclic dynamic compressive loading on chondrocyte gene expression and extracellular matrix (ECM production. Dynamic culture of porcine chondrocytes was studied at 1 Hz, 10% to 40% strain and 1 to 9 h/day stimulation duration, in a mechanical-driven multi-chamber bioreactor for 14 days. From the experimental results, we could identify the optimum dynamic culture condition (20% and 3 h/day to enhance the chondrocytic phenotype of chondrocytes from the expression of marker (Col I, Col II, Col X, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and IGF-1 genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR and production of ECM (GAGs and Col II by biochemical analysis and immunofluorescence staining. With up-regulated growth factor (TGF-β1 and IGF-1 genes, co-culture of chondrocytes with porcine adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs was employed to facilitate chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs during dynamic culture in cryogel scaffolds. By replacing half of the chondrocytes with ASCs during co-culture, we could obtain similar production of ECM (GAGs and Col II and expression of Col II, but reduced expression of Col I, Col X and TNF-α. Subcutaneous implantation of cells/scaffold constructs in nude mice after mono-culture (chondrocytes or ASCs or co-culture (chondrocytes + ASCs and subject to static or dynamic culture condition in vitro for 14 days was tested for tissue-engineering applications. The constructs were retrieved 8 weeks post-implantation for histological analysis by Alcian blue, Safranin O and Col II immunohistochemical staining. The most abundant ectopic cartilage tissue was found for the chondrocytes and chondrocytes + ASCs groups using dynamic culture, which showed similar neo-cartilage formation capability with half of the

  1. Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D; Zipper, Carl E; Zelazny, Lucian W; Hyer, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Turbidity is an effective tool for estimating and monitoring suspended sediments in aquatic systems. Turbidity can be measured in situ remotely and at fine temporal scales as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), providing opportunity for a more complete record of SSC than is possible with physical sampling approaches. However, there is variability in turbidity-based SSC estimates and in sediment loadings calculated from those estimates. This study investigated the potential to improve turbidity-based SSC, and by extension the resulting sediment loading estimates, by incorporating hydrologic variables that can be monitored remotely and continuously (typically 15-min intervals) into the SSC estimation procedure. On the Roanoke River in southwestern Virginia, hydrologic stage, turbidity, and other water-quality parameters were monitored with in situ instrumentation; suspended sediments were sampled manually during elevated turbidity events; samples were analyzed for SSC and physical properties including particle-size distribution and organic C content; and rainfall was quantified by geologic source area. The study identified physical properties of the suspended-sediment samples that contribute to SSC estimation variance and hydrologic variables that explained variability of those physical properties. Results indicated that the inclusion of any of the measured physical properties in turbidity-based SSC estimation models reduces unexplained variance. Further, the use of hydrologic variables to represent these physical properties, along with turbidity, resulted in a model, relying solely on data collected remotely and continuously, that estimated SSC with less variance than a conventional turbidity-based univariate model, allowing a more precise estimate of sediment loading, Modeling results are consistent with known mechanisms governing sediment transport in hydrologic systems.

  2. Mechanical behavior of confined self-compacting reinforced concrete circular columns under concentric axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Khairallah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is abundant research information on ordinary confined concrete, there are little data on the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC under such condition. Due to higher shrinkage and lower coarse aggregate content of SCC compared to that of Normal Concrete (NC, its composite performance under confined conditions needs more investigation. This paper has been devoted to investigate and compare the mechanical behavior of confined concrete circular columns cast with SCC and NC under concentric axial loading. The parameters affecting are including concrete compressive strength and confinement configuration. Twenty column specimens were casted and confined using four confinement techniques, CFRP wrap, FRP tube, GFRP wrap, and spiral steel hoops. The performance of the tested column specimens is evaluated based on mode of failure, load–displacement curve, stress–strain characteristics, ultimate strength, ductility, and degree of confinement.

  3. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  4. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  5. Influences of rainfall variables and antecedent discharge on urban effluent concentrations and loads in wet weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuxin; Xiong, Lijun; Li, Huaizheng; Liao, Zhengliang; Yin, Hailong; Wu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Chen, Hao

    2017-04-01

    For storm drainages inappropriately connected with sewage, wet weather discharge is a major factor that adversely affects receiving waters. A study of the wet weather influences of rainfall-discharge variables on storm drainages connected with sewage was conducted in the downtown Shanghai area (374 ha). Two indicators, event mean concentration (EMC) and event pollutant load per unit area (EPL), were used to describe the pollution discharge during 20 rain events. The study showed that the total rainfall and discharge volume were important factors that affect the EMCs and EPLs of the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and especially those of NH 4 + -N. The pollutant concentrations at the beginning of the discharge and the discharge period were also major factors that influence the EMCs of these three pollutants. Regression relationships between the rainfall-discharge variables and discharge volume/ EPLs (R 2 = 0.824-0.981) were stronger than the relationships between the rainfall-discharge variables and EMCs. These regression equations can be considered reliable in the system, with a relative validation error of less than ±10% for the discharge volume, and less than ±20% for the EPLs. The results presented in this paper provide guidance for effectively controlling pollution in similar storm drainages.

  6. A damage model of Zr {alpha} under cyclic loading at 200 degree Celsius; Modelisation de l`endommagement du Zr {alpha} sous chargement cyclique a 200 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, C.; Drubay, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Cailletaud, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France); Mottot, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees

    1994-12-31

    A damage model for anticipating zirconium {alpha} test-piece rupture under cyclic solicitations at 200 degree Celsius is presented. The article is divided into three parts : an experimental approach, the damage model presentation and the application of this model. (O.L.). 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A biphasic and brain-region selective down-regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations supports object recognition in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïte Hotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to further understand the relationship between cAMP concentration and mnesic performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rats were injected with milrinone (PDE3 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p., rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p. and/or the selective 5-HT4R agonist RS 67333 (1 mg/kg, i.p. before testing in the object recognition paradigm. Cyclic AMP concentrations were measured in brain structures linked to episodic-like memory (i.e. hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices before or after either the sample or the testing phase. Except in the hippocampus of rolipram treated-rats, all treatment increased cAMP levels in each brain sub-region studied before the sample phase. After the sample phase, cAMP levels were significantly increased in hippocampus (1.8 fold, prefrontal (1.3 fold and perirhinal (1.3 fold cortices from controls rat while decreased in prefrontal cortex (∼0.83 to 0.62 fold from drug-treated rats (except for milrinone+RS 67333 treatment. After the testing phase, cAMP concentrations were still increased in both the hippocampus (2.76 fold and the perirhinal cortex (2.1 fold from controls animals. Minor increase were reported in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex from both rolipram (respectively, 1.44 fold and 1.70 fold and milrinone (respectively 1.46 fold and 1.56 fold-treated rat. Following the paradigm, cAMP levels were significantly lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices from drug-treated rat when compared to controls animals, however, only drug-treated rats spent longer time exploring the novel object during the testing phase (inter-phase interval of 4 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a "pre-sample" early increase in cAMP levels followed by a specific lowering of cAMP concentrations in each brain sub-region linked to the object recognition paradigm support learning efficacy after a middle-term delay.

  8. Selenium concentrations and loads from coal mining operations in the Elk River Watershed, Southeastern BC : 2004-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, M.; Orr, P.; Franklin, W.; Fraser, C.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which selenium concentrations were measured at 27 receiving and 40 discharge water stations in British Columbia's Elk River watershed, where Teck Coal Ltd. operates 5 coal mines. Monthly measurements were taken in the Elk River and its major tributaries from 2004 to 2009 to evaluate trends for selenium concentrations in receiving waters, and for concentrations and loads at selected discharges. Selenium concentrations were found to be much higher than background levels of 1 g/L in areas downstream of mine discharges in the Fording River, Line Creek, Michel Creek and in the lower Elk River below its confluence with the Fording River. Concentrations increased considerably over time in the Fording and lower Elk Rivers, and in Line Creek. Most of the selenium loads discharged to the Elk River and its tributaries were found to originate from less than 10 major sources. Concentrations increased with time at most major sources. At some sources, selenium loads increased with time, but decreased at others. The increase in concentrations in the lower Elk River and at several major sources from 2007 to 2009 may be attributed in part to a decrease in flow. Options for reducing selenium loads discharged to downstream receiving waters are being investigated by the mines.

  9. Assessing roadway contributions to stormwater flows, concentrations, and loads with the StreamStats application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Granato, Gregory E.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2018-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and other state departments of transportation need quantitative information about the percentages of different land cover categories above any given stream crossing in the state to assess and address roadway contributions to water-quality impairments and resulting total maximum daily loads. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with ODOT and the FHWA, added roadway and land cover information to the online StreamStats application to facilitate analysis of stormwater runoff contributions from different land covers. Analysis of 25 delineated basins with drainage areas of about 100 mi2 indicates the diversity of land covers in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. On average, agricultural, developed, and undeveloped land covers comprise 15%, 2.3%, and 82% of these basin areas. On average, these basins contained about 10 mi of state highways and 222 mi of non-state roads. The Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model was used with available water-quality data to simulate long-term yields of total phosphorus from highways, non-highway roadways, and agricultural, developed, and undeveloped areas. These yields were applied to land cover areas obtained from StreamStats for the Willamette River above Wilsonville, Oregon. This analysis indicated that highway yields were larger than yields from other land covers because highway runoff concentrations were higher than other land covers and the highway is fully impervious. However, the total highway area was a fraction of the other land covers. Accordingly, highway runoff mitigation measures can be effective for managing water quality locally, they may have limited effect on achieving basin-wide stormwater reduction goals.

  10. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Observation on the transformation domains of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy and their evolutions during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xi; Kan, Qianhua; Kang, Guozheng; Li, Jian; Qiu, Bo; Yu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The strain field of a super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) and its variation during uniaxial cyclic tension-unloading were observed by a non-contact digital image correlation method, and then the transformation domains and their evolutions were indirectly investigated and discussed. It is seen that the super-elastic NiTi (SMA) exhibits a remarkable localized deformation and the transformation domains evolve periodically with the repeated cyclic tension-unloading within the first several cycles. However, the evolutions of transformation domains at the stage of stable cyclic transformation depend on applied peak stress: when the peak stress is low, no obvious transformation band is observed and the strain field is nearly uniform; when the peak stress is large enough, obvious transformation bands occur due to the residual martensite caused by the prevention of enriched dislocations to the reverse transformation from induced martensite to austenite. Temperature variations measured by an infrared thermal imaging method further verifies the formation and evolution of transformation domains. (paper)

  12. Observation on the transformation domains of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy and their evolutions during cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi; Kan, Qianhua; Kang, Guozheng; Li, Jian; Qiu, Bo; Yu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The strain field of a super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) and its variation during uniaxial cyclic tension-unloading were observed by a non-contact digital image correlation method, and then the transformation domains and their evolutions were indirectly investigated and discussed. It is seen that the super-elastic NiTi (SMA) exhibits a remarkable localized deformation and the transformation domains evolve periodically with the repeated cyclic tension-unloading within the first several cycles. However, the evolutions of transformation domains at the stage of stable cyclic transformation depend on applied peak stress: when the peak stress is low, no obvious transformation band is observed and the strain field is nearly uniform; when the peak stress is large enough, obvious transformation bands occur due to the residual martensite caused by the prevention of enriched dislocations to the reverse transformation from induced martensite to austenite. Temperature variations measured by an infrared thermal imaging method further verifies the formation and evolution of transformation domains.

  13. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  14. Stress concentration factors for integral and pad reinforced nozzles in spherical pressure vessels subjected to radial load and moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.F.; Gill, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Charts are presented giving the elastic stress concentration factors in spherical pressure vessels with pad and integral reinforcement for radial branches subjected to radial load and moment. The effect of all the geometrical parameters is discussed, including the limitations of thin shell theory on the validity of the results. (author)

  15. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  16. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  17. Doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSphere microspheres: plasma pharmacokinetics and intratumoral drug concentration in an animal model of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  18. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A.; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  19. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  20. Creep behaviour of the alloys NiCr22Co12Mo and 10CrMo9 10 under static and cyclic load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.

    1990-01-01

    The creep behaviour of NiCr20Co12Mo is investigated under static strain and at 800deg C, with stresses applied ranging from 105 MPa to 370 MPa. The ferritic steel 10CrMo 9 10 is tested for its creep behaviour under static strain and at the temperatures of 600deg C and 550deg C, with stresses applied between 154 MPa and 326 MPa (at 600deg C), or between 250 MPa and 458 MPa (at 550deg C). The experiments are made to determine the effects of changes in strain on the materials' deformation behaviour, placing emphasis on transient creep and elastic or anelastic response. The mean internal stress is determined from changes in strain. Cyclic creep is analysed as a behaviour directly responding to the pattern of change in strain. Effects of certain strain changes not clarified so far are analysed. The cyclic strain experiments are analysed according to the velocity factor concept. The usual models of creep deformation (theta projection concept) are compared with the model of effective strain, which is based on the fundamental equation of plastic deformation by dislocation motion (Orowan equation). (MM) [de

  1. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  2. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  3. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Stasuk, Alexander; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  4. Effect of geometry, material and pressure variability on strain and stress fields in dented pipelines under static and cyclic pressure loading using probability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muslim, Husain Mohammed; Arif, Abul Fazal M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    Mechanical damage in transportation pipelines is an issue of extreme importance to pipeline operators and many others. Appropriate procedures for severity assessment are necessary. This paper mainly studies the effect of geometry, material and pressure variability on strain and stress fields in dented pipelines subjected to static and cyclic pressure. Finite element analysis (FEA) has often been used to overcome the limitations of a full-scale test, but it is still impossible to run FEA for all possible combinations of parameters. Probabilistic analysis offers an excellent alternative method to determine the sensitivity of the strain and stress fields to each of those input parameters. A hundred cases were randomly generated with Monte Carlo simulations and analyzed, a general formula was proposed to relate the output variables in terms of practically measured variables, and regression analysis was performed to confirm the appropriateness of the general formula.

  5. Computing time-series suspended-sediment concentrations and loads from in-stream turbidity-sensor and streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Doug; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, use of a method for computing suspended-sediment concentration and loads using turbidity sensors—primarily nephelometry, but also optical backscatter—has proliferated. Because an in- itu turbidity sensor is capa le of measuring turbidity instantaneously, a turbidity time series can be recorded and related directly to time-varying suspended-sediment concentrations. Depending on the suspended-sediment characteristics of the measurement site, this method can be more reliable and, in many cases, a more accurate means for computing suspended-sediment concentrations and loads than traditional U.S. Geological Survey computational methods. Guidelines and procedures for estimating time s ries of suspended-sediment concentration and loading as a function of turbidity and streamflow data have been published in a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 3, Chapter C4. This paper is a summary of these guidelines and discusses some of the concepts, s atistical procedures, and techniques used to maintain a multiyear suspended sediment time series.

  6. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  7. Explaining and modeling the concentration and loading of Escherichia coli in a stream-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaozi; Schneider, Rebecca L; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Dahlke, Helen E; Walter, M Todd

    2018-09-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) level in streams is a public health indicator. Therefore, being able to explain why E. coli levels are sometimes high and sometimes low is important. Using citizen science data from Fall Creek in central NY we found that complementarily using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression provided insights into the drivers of E. coli and a mechanism for predicting E. coli levels, respectively. We found that stormwater, temperature/season and shallow subsurface flow are the three dominant processes driving the fate and transport of E. coli. PLS regression modeling provided very good predictions under stormwater conditions (R 2  = 0.85 for log (E. coli concentration) and R 2  = 0.90 for log (E. coli loading)); predictions under baseflow conditions were less robust. But, in our case, both E. coli concentration and E. coli loading were significantly higher under stormwater condition, so it is probably more important to predict high-flow E. coli hazards than low-flow conditions. Besides previously reported good indicators of in-stream E. coli level, nitrate-/nitrite-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus were also found to be good indicators of in-stream E. coli levels. These findings suggest management practices to reduce E. coli concentrations and loads in-streams and, eventually, reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreak. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of depth-averaged concentration and bed load flux sediment transport models of dam-break flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-heng Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of dam-break flow over a movable bed. Two different mathematical models were compared: a fully coupled formulation of shallow water equations with erosion and deposition terms (a depth-averaged concentration flux model, and shallow water equations with a fully coupled Exner equation (a bed load flux model. Both models were discretized using the cell-centered finite volume method, and a second-order Godunov-type scheme was used to solve the equations. The numerical flux was calculated using a Harten, Lax, and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the contact wave restored (HLLC. A novel slope source term treatment that considers the density change was introduced to the depth-averaged concentration flux model to obtain higher-order accuracy. A source term that accounts for the sediment flux was added to the bed load flux model to reflect the influence of sediment movement on the momentum of the water. In a one-dimensional test case, a sensitivity study on different model parameters was carried out. For the depth-averaged concentration flux model, Manning's coefficient and sediment porosity values showed an almost linear relationship with the bottom change, and for the bed load flux model, the sediment porosity was identified as the most sensitive parameter. The capabilities and limitations of both model concepts are demonstrated in a benchmark experimental test case dealing with dam-break flow over variable bed topography.

  9. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  10. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  11. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS CONFINED BY OVERLAPPING HOOPS SUBJECTED TO RAPID CONCENTRIC LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate sensitivity of concrete material was discovered approximately one hundred years ago, and it has a marked effect on the behaviour of concrete members subjected to dynamic loadings such as strong earthquake and impact loading. Because of the great importance of the confined reinforced concrete (RC columns in RC structures, the dynamic behaviour of the columns induced by the strain rate effect has been studied, but only few experiments and analyses have been conducted. To investigate the behaviour of overlapping hoop-confined square reinforced normal-strength concrete columns, considering the strain rate effect at a strain rate of 10-5/sec to 10-1/sec induced by earthquake excitation, an explicit dynamic finite element analysis (FEA model was developed in ABAQUS to predict the behaviour of confined RC columns subjected to the rapid concentric loading. A locally modified stress-strain relation of confined concrete with the strain rate sensitivity of the concrete material and the confining effect of overlapping hoops were proposed to complete the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of concrete with the concrete plastic-constitutive model in ABAQUS. The finite element predictions are consistent with the existing test results. Based on the FEA model, a parametric investigation was conducted to capture more information about the behaviour of confined RC columns under varying loading rates.

  12. Stimulation of tendon repair by platelet concentrate, CDMP-2 and mechanical loading in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Virchenko, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Growth factor delivery may be useful to accelerate the rate of tendon healing. We studied Platelet Concentrate, which in effect can be regarded as a cocktail of growth factors relevant for tendon healing. In a rat Achilles tendon transection model, one postoperative injection of Platelet Concentrate resulted in increased strength even 3 weeks later. Mechanical stimulation improves the repair of ruptured tendons. We studied the effects of platelets upon Achilles tendon regenerates in rats 3, 5...

  13. Simulation, Experimental and Analitical Study of Deflection at End Curved Beam Affected by Single Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deflection has an important role in order to design structure or machine component, beside consideration of stresscalculation. This is due to although stress is still smaller then stress allowed by material strength, but probably happen thatdeflection exceeds limit allowed. That condition affects serious hazard on machine elements or structure due to it can affectof component deviate from its main function. One of element which is often experience of deflection is beam. Beams playsignificant roles in many engineering applications, including buildings, bridges, automobiles, and airplane structures. In thisresearch, material to be used was Steel ASTM 1060, with specimen in the form of curved beam. Physical condition of beamwas modeled use of BEAM3 2D. Variation of loads to be applied were W = 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and550 gr in vertical direction. The result of simulation was verificated by analytical and experimental data. Evaluation wascarried out by statistical test (t-test. The result of simulation is categorized to be good if the result of simulation is samewith analytical and experimental data. The result of research shows that loading has a significant effect on the deflection.The higher load affect the higher of deflection Modeling use of BEAM3 2D gave good result of deflection. This is showedfrom t-test have done, where the result of simulation was same with analytical and experimental data. Other advantage ofsimulation was deflection result obtained was not limited only at the end of beam, but it can predict of deflection at eachnode or point desired

  14. Concentrations, loads and yields of organic carbon from two tropical peat swamp forest streams in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Yupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF stores large quantities of carbon. To estimate how much organic C is released from this type of landscape we determined organic carbon (C concentrations, loads and yields in two contrasting watercourses draining from PSF in Riau Province, Sumatra (Indonesia. Meranti Ditch (MD is an artificial watercourse whose small catchment (estimated area 4.8 km2 is in semi-intact condition, whereas Turip River (TR has a large natural catchment (estimated area 458 km2 covered with fairly intact PSF where > 75 % of the original canopy trees remain. The organic C load (Gg C yr-1 of each watercourse was calculated by combining TOC concentration with water discharge rate to give organic C yield (g C m-2 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the dominant (95.0–99.8 % component of total organic carbon (TOC in the water. TOC concentration was 85–94 mg C L-1 in MD and 50–58 mg C L-1 in TR. The high concentration in MD was not surprising because this catchment had been disturbed by repeated phases of logging and a dense network of ditches was excavated ten years ago. The TOC loads were 0.23 Gg C yr-1 in MD and 14.0 Gg C yr-1 in TR. TOC yields (i.e. TOC fluxes through the fluvial system were 41.6–55.5 g C m-2 yr-1 in MD and 26.2–34.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in TR.

  15. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex GABA Concentration in Humans Predicts Working Memory Load Processing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Grandelis, Anthony; Maddock, Richard J

    2016-11-16

    The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach. Twenty-three healthy adults completed a task that measured the unique contribution of major WM components (memory load, maintenance, and distraction resistance) to performance. This was done to address the possibility that components have differing GABA dependencies and the failure to parse WM into components would lead to missing true associations with GABA. The subjects then had their DLPFC GABA content measured by single-voxel proton magnetic spectroscopy. We found that individuals with lower DLPFC GABA showed greater performance degradation with higher load, accounting for 31% of variance, p (corrected) = 0.015. This relationship was component, neurochemical, and brain region specific. DLPFC GABA content did not predict performance sensitivity to other components tested; DLPFC glutamate + glutamine and visual cortical GABA content did not predict load sensitivity. These results confirm the involvement of DLPFC GABA in WM load processing in humans and implicate factors controlling DLPFC GABA content in the neural mechanisms of WM and its impairments. This study demonstrated for the first time that the amount of gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, in an individual's prefrontal cortex predicts working memory (WM) task performance. Given that WM is required for many of the most characteristic cognitive and

  16. Cyclic inelastic deformation aspects of fatigue-crack-growth analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leis, B.N.; Zahoor, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a J-integral analysis of fatigue crack growth. Data on cyclic plasticity are analyzed showing that there are limitations to the usefulness of the deformation theory in applications to cyclic plasticity. 56 refs.

  17. Characterization of naproxen-loaded solid SMEDDSs prepared by spray drying: the effect of the polysaccharide carrier and naproxen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Tertiary treatment of textile wastewater with combined media biological aerated filter (CMBAF) at different hydraulic loadings and dissolved oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng; Liu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    An up-flow biological aerated filter packed with two layers media was employed for tertiary treatment of textile wastewater secondary effluent. Under steady state conditions, good performance of the reactor was achieved and the average COD, NH 4 + -N and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were 31, 2 and 8 mg/L, respectively. For a fixed dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, an increase of hydraulic loading resulted in a decrease in substrate removal. With the increase of hydraulic loadings from 0.13 to 0.78 m 3 /(m 2 h), the removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and TN all decreased, which dropped from 52 to 38%, from 90 to 68% and from 45 to 33%, respectively. In addition, the results also confirmed that the increase of COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiencies resulted from the increase of DO concentrations, but this variation trend was not observed for TN removal. With the increase of DO concentrations from 2.4 to 6.1 mg/L, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH 4 + -N were 39-53% and 64-88%, whenas TN removal efficiencies increased from 39 to 42% and then dropped to 35%

  19. Model for calculation of concentration and load on behalf of accidents with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, L.A.M.; Heugten, W.H.H. van

    1987-04-01

    In the project 'Information- and calculation-system for disaster combatment', by order of the Dutch government, a demonstration model has been developed for a diagnosis system for accidents. In this demonstration a model is used to calculate the concentration- and dose-distributions caused by incidental emissions of limited time. This model is described in this report. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Cyclic AMP in rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, V.; Borglund, E.; Cerasi, E.; Uppsala Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 3 H]adenine into cyclic AMP was studied in rat pancreatic islets under varying conditions of labeling. Prolonging the exposure to [ 3 H]adenine progressively augmented the islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP level. Islets labeled for different periods of time and subsequently incubated (without adenine) in the presence of D-glucose or cholera toxin showed stimulations of intra-islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP that were proportionate to the levels of radioactive nucleotide present under non-stimulatory conditions. Labeling the islets in a high glucose concentration (27.7 mM) did not modify the nucleotide responses to glucose or cholera toxin. The specific activity of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP, determined by simultaneous assay of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP and total cyclic AMP, was not influenced by glucose or cholera toxin. Glucose had no effect on the specific activity of labeled ATP

  1. Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: Effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagarajah, P., E-mail: p.kanagarajah@uni-paderborn.de [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Brenne, F. [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Direct Manufacturing Research Center (DMRC), Mersinweg 3, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Niendorf, T. [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Maier, H.J. [Direct Manufacturing Research Center (DMRC), Mersinweg 3, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Institut für Werkstoffkunde, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    Nickel-based superalloys, such as Inconel 939, are a long-established construction material for high-temperature applications and profound knowledge of the mechanical properties for this alloy produced by conventional techniques exists. However, many applications demand for highly complex geometries, e.g. in order to optimize the cooling capability of thermally loaded parts. Thus, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have recently attracted substantial interest as they provide for an increased freedom of design. However, the microstructural features after AM processing are different from those after conventional processing. Thus, further research is vital for understanding the microstructure-processing relationship and its impact on the resulting mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and to reveal the differences to the conventional cast alloy. Thorough examinations were conducted using electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and mechanical testing. It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the SLM-material is highly influenced by the heat flux during layer-wise manufacturing and consequently anisotropic microstructural features prevail. An epitaxial grain growth accounts for strong bonding between the single layers resulting in good mechanical properties already in the as-built condition. A heat treatment following SLM leads to microstructural features different to those obtained after the same heat treatment of the cast alloy. Still, the mechanical performance of the latter is met underlining the potential of this technique for producing complex parts for high temperature applications.

  2. Mass concentration coupled with mass loading rate for evaluating PM_2_._5 pollution status in the atmosphere: A case study based on dairy barns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, HungSoo; Park, Kihong; Lee, Kwangyul; Ndegwa, Pius M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated particulate matter (PM) loading rates and concentrations in ambient air from naturally ventilated dairy barns and also the influences of pertinent meteorological factors, traffic, and animal activities on mass loading rates and mass concentrations. Generally, relationships between PM_2_._5 concentration and these parameters were significantly poorer than those between the PM loading rate and the same parameters. Although ambient air PM_2_._5 loading rates correlated well with PM_2_._5 emission rates, ambient air PM_2_._5 concentrations correlated poorly with PM_2_._5 concentrations in the barns. A comprehensive assessment of PM_2_._5 pollution in ambient air, therefore, requires both mass concentrations and mass loading rates. Emissions of PM_2_._5 correlated strongly and positively with wind speed, temperature, and solar radiation (R"2 = 0.84 to 0.99) and strongly but negatively with relative humidity (R"2 = 0.93). Animal activity exhibited only moderate effect on PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity did not significantly affect PM_2_._5 emissions. - Highlights: • Sink PM_2_._5 loading rates correlate well with source PM_2_._5 emission rates. • Sink PM_2_._5 concentrations correlate poorly with source PM_2_._5 concentrations. • Mass loading rate complements mass concentration in appraising sink PM_2_._5 status. • PM_2_._5 emissions is dependent on wind speed, temp, solar strength, and RH. • Cow traffic activity affects PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity does not. - Both PM mass loading rate and concentrations are required for comprehensive assessment of pollution potential of PM released into the atmosphere.

  3. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  4. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  5. Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?―Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data―

    OpenAIRE

    塚本, 泰司; 田中, 滋

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of ...

  6. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, Andrea J.; Fisher, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities ( -1 y -1 ) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  7. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Andrea J., E-mail: a.britton@macaulay.ac.u [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julia M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities (<7.5 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  8. Influences of salt concentration, loading and pH on strontium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Kaplan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr on clay with contains zeolites and montmorillonite mixtures was investigated in solutions of NaCl by means of a batch technique. Sr retention was reduced with increasing NaCl concentration from 5*10 -4 to 5*10 -1 M. Distribution coefficients (K d ) linearly increased with pH in the acidic region but they were almost independent of pH in neutral and alkaline solutions. By fitting the data of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, the mean energies of adsorption and adsorption capacities of Sr at different pH values were calculated. The results showed that the mode of adsorption below pH 4.5 is ion exchange, while above that value a multilayer adsorption occurs. Adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and from empirical Freundlich parameters a site distribution function was calculated. (author)

  9. Chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in four watersheds along Interstate 95, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-11: factors that affect peak chloride concentrations during winter storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Martin, Joseph W.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2015-07-01

    Chloride (Cl-) concentrations and loads and other water chemistry characteristics were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on streamwater quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I–95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2011. Streamflow and water quality were studied in the Four Mile River, Oil Mill Brook, Stony Brook, and Jordan Brook watersheds, where developed land ranged from 9 to 32 percent. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired water-quality monitoring sites, upstream and downstream from I–95. Specific conductance values were related to Cl- concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-deicing operations on the levels of Cl-in the streams. Streamflow and water-quality data were compared with weather data and with the timing, amount, and composition of deicers applied to State highways. Grab samples were collected during winter stormwater-runoff events, such as winter storms or periods of rain or warm temperatures in which melting takes place. Grab samples were also collected periodically during the spring and summer and during base-flow conditions.

  10. Adsorption of Sr(II) on clay minerals: effects of salt concentration, loading and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, P.; Shiao, S.Y.; Binz, C.M.; Meyer, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr(II) on a number of clay minerals has been investigated by means of a batch technique in solutions of sodium salts. Generally the results can be approximated by ideal ion exchange equations. Distribution coefficients at trace loading follow the linear relation log D = s log [Na(I)sub(aq)] + b where b is a constant and s had values of from about - 1.5 to - 2.0, which are fairly close to the ideal valve of - 2. Adsorption isotherms at constant pH and salt concentration are linear in the low loading region. Distribution coefficients for montmorillonite are almost independent of pH in the intermediate pH region 5 to 7 but for illite and kaolinite, increases in the distribution coefficient with pH are observed. Comparison of these results with literature values, insofar as it is possible, shows that distribution coefficients are usually within a factor of two or three for the same mineral with similar capacities under the same conditions even if techniques of preparation and measurement are different, but values may vary considerably more if the capacities of the different mineral samples are greatly different. Values of the distribution coefficient at very high salt concentration are very low, considerably less than unity at 4 M NaCl. Thus migration rates of Sr(II), relative to water flow, through geologic formations whose adsorption behavior is dominated by these clay minerals are likely to be high at high salt concentrations. (author)

  11. The Effect of Weld Reinforcement and Post-Welding Cooling Cycles on Fatigue Strength of Butt-Welded Joints under Cyclic Tensile Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, Oscar; Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2018-04-12

    This research deals with the fatigue behavior of butt-welded joints, by considering the geometry and post-welding cooling cycles, as a result of cooling in quiet air and immersed in water. ASTM A-36 HR structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process with welding electrode E6013. The welding reinforcement was 1 mm and 3 mm, respectively; axial fatigue tests were carried out to determine the life and behavior in cracks propagation of the tested welded joints, mechanical characterization tests of properties in welded joints such as microhardness, Charpy impact test and metallographic analysis were carried out. The latter were used as input for the analysis by finite elements which influence the initiation and propagation of cracks and the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIF). The latter led to obtaining the crack propagation rate and the geometric factor. The tested specimens were analyzed, by taking photographs of the cracks at its beginning in order to make a count of the marks at the origin of the crack. From the results obtained and the marks count, the fatigue crack growth rate and the influence of the cooling media on the life of the welded joint are validated, according to the experimental results. It can be concluded that the welded joints with a higher weld reinforcement have a shorter fatigue life. This is due to the stress concentration that occurs in the vicinity of the weld toe.

  12. Cyclic compression maintains viability and induces chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin gel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Daniel; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Cheung, Herman S

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading has long been shown to modulate cartilage-specific extracellular matrix synthesis. With joint motion, cartilage can experience mechanical loading in the form of compressive, tensile or shearing load, and hydrostatic pressure. Recent studies have demonstrated the capacity of unconfined cyclic compression to induce chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) in agarose culture. However, the use of a nonbiodegradable material such as agarose limits the applicability of these constructs. Of the possible biocompatible materials available for tissue engineering, fibrin is a natural regenerative scaffold, which possesses several desired characteristics including a controllable degradation rate and low immunogenicity. The objective of the present study was to determine the capability of fibrin gels for supporting chondrogenesis of hMSCs under cyclic compression. To optimize the system, three concentrations of fibrin gel (40, 60, and 80 mg/mL) and three different stimulus frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz) were used to examine the effects of cyclic compression on viability, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our results show that cyclic compression (10% strain) at frequencies >0.5 Hz and gel concentration of 40 mg/mL fibrinogen appears to maintain cellular viability within scaffolds. Similarly, variations in gel component concentration and stimulus frequency can be modified such that a significant chondrogenic response can be achieved by hMSC in fibrin constructs after 8 h of compression spread out over 2 days. This study demonstrates the suitability of fibrin gel for supporting the cyclic compression-induced chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. A self-loading microfluidic device for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Nate J; Ho, Jack Y; Dueck, Megan E; Weibel, Douglas B

    2012-03-21

    This article describes a portable microfluidic technology for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against bacteria. The microfluidic platform consists of a set of chambers molded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) that are preloaded with antibiotic, dried, and reversibly sealed to a second layer of PDMS containing channels that connect the chambers. The assembled device is degassed via vacuum prior to its use, and the absorption of gas by PDMS provides the mechanism for actuating and metering the flow of fluid in the microfluidic channels and chambers. During the operation of the device, degas driven flow introduces a suspension of bacterial cells, dissolves the antibiotic, and isolates cells in individual chambers without cross contamination. The growth of bacteria in the chambers in the presence of a pH indicator produces a colorimetric change that can be detected visually using ambient light. Using this device we measured the MIC of vancomycin, tetracycline, and kanamycin against Enterococcus faecalis 1131, Proteus mirabilis HI4320, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli MG1655 and report values that are comparable to standard liquid broth dilution measurements. The device provides a simple method for MIC determination of individual antibiotics against human pathogens that will have applications for clinical and point-of-care medicine. Importantly, this device is designed around simplicity: it requires a single pipetting step to introduce the sample, no additional components or external equipment for its operation, and provides a straightforward visual measurement of cell growth. As the device introduces a novel approach for filling and isolating dead-end microfluidic chambers that does not require valves and actuators, this technology should find applications in other portable assays and devices.

  14. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    Separation of 137 cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137 Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137 Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137 Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137 Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm 2 /d. (author)

  16. An exploratory study of using external fluid loading on a vibrating tube for measuring suspended sediment concentration in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y-S; Hwang, Y-F; Huang, J H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of using external fluid loading on a vibrating tube for measuring the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in bodies of water such as rivers and reservoirs. This new measuring concept provides an opportunity for an automated on-site monitoring of the conditions in a body of water by taking the fluid sample instantaneously in the area surrounding the vibrating tube. The physical properties of the fluid sample are those of the fluid that naturally flows around the tube, and are more representative of those of the water with SSC to be measured. The theoretical analysis presented in this paper shows that the resonance frequencies of an immersed vibrating tube change significantly with mass density variations that normally occur in bodies of water with suspended sediment. These changes are sensitive enough to have a possible 1% resolution of the measured fluid density. The signal processing issues are discussed, and a schematic of a conceptual measuring setup is proposed. Based on the theoretical analyses and other measurement issues presented in the paper, using the loading by external fluid on a vibrating tube is feasible for measuring the SSC in water bodies

  17. Analytical validation of an ultraviolet-visible procedure for determining lutein concentration and application to lutein-loaded nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jéssica Thaís do Prado; Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Geiss, Julia Maria Tonin; de Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes; Becker, Daniela; Bracht, Lívia; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Bona, Evandro; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-09-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid presenting known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Lutein-rich diets have been associated with neurological improvement as well as reduction of the risk of vision loss due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Micro and nanoencapsulation have demonstrated to be effective techniques in protecting lutein against degradation and also in improving its bioavailability. However, actual lutein concentration inside the capsules and encapsulation efficiency are key parameters that must be precisely known when designing in vitro and in vivo tests. In this work an analytical procedure was validated for the determination of the actual lutein content in zein nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Method validation followed the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines which evaluate linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, accuracy and precision. The validated methodology was applied to characterize lutein-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. The city has spent millions of dollars over the last decade to eliminate taste and odor problems in the drinking water from the Eucha-Spavinaw system, which may be attributable to blue-green algae. Increases in the algal biomass in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient concentrations in the lakes and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in water samples and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations during base flow and runoff for two streams discharging to Lake Eucha for the period January 2002 through December 2009. This report updates a previous report that used data from water-quality samples collected from January 2002 through December 2006. Based on the results from the Mann-Whitney statistical test, unfiltered total nitrogen concentrations were significantly greater in runoff water samples than in base-flow water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Maysville and near Cherokee City, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Nitrogen concentrations in runoff water samples collected from all stations generally increased with increasing streamflow. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected in Spavinaw Creek significantly increased from the station furthest upstream (near Maysville) to the Sycamore station and then significantly decreased from the Sycamore station to the station furthest downstream (near Colcord). Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Beaty Creek were significantly less than base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek. Based on the results

  19. Experimental study under uniaxial cyclic behavior at room and high temperature of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Guozheng; Gao Qing; Yang Xianjie; Sun Yafang

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out of the cyclic properties of 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial strain and stress at room and high temperature. The effects of cyclic strain amplitude, temperature and their histories on the cyclic deformation behavior of 316L stainless steel are investigated. And, the influences of stress amplitude, mean stress, temperature and their histories on ratcheting are also analyzed. It is shown that either uniaxial cyclic property under cyclic strain or ratcheting under asymmetric uniaxial cyclic stress depends not only on the current temperature and loading state, but also on the previous temperature and loading history. Some significant results are obtained

  20. Investigations into the penetration and pressure drop of HEPA filter media during loading with submicron particle aerosols at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are typically employed in particle removal and retention within the air cleaning systems of clean rooms in the pharmaceutical, nuclear and semiconductor industries for dust concentrations of some μg/m 3 . Their extremely high removal efficiencies for submicron particles make them attractive candidates in complying with increasingly lower emission limits for industrial processes that involve dust concentrations of up to several g/m 3 . Cost-effective operation under such conditions requires the filter units to be recleanable. The recleanability of HEPA filter media depends not only on the operating conditions during the cleaning process but also on the filtration conditions during particle loading. The structure and location of the particles captured by the glass fiber matrix greatly affect the degree to which they can be subsequently dislodged and removed from the filter medium. Changes in filtration efficiency with service time for various particle diameters in the critical submicron size range, as well as the effects of filtration velocity on the increase in pressure drop, are important criteria with regard to recleaning HEPA filter units. Of special significance for the recleanability of HEPA filter media is knowledge of how operating conditions affect dust cake formation. (author)

  1. Estimation of fatigue under cyclic loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovskij, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proceeding from the variability of fatigue mechanisms at different stages of time deformation it is suggested to estimate fatigue at the 1st stage prior to the main crack initiation using basic ideas of the continuous fracture mechanics, at the 2nd stage of survivability - employing solutions of the linear failure mechanics. Notions on deformation and time measures of structural damage of the material are introduced which underlie obtaining of the equations to calculate fatigue at the 1st stage supposing either power or exponential law of the damage accumulation. Experimental check of one of these equations shows its satisfactory correspondence to the test. Qualitative conclusions obtained from the both equations are identical. Formulas to evaluate survivability are obtained on the basis of the introduced measure of the local damage of the body by a crack

  2. Behaviour of ODS Steels in Cyclic Loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuběna, Ivo; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2016), s. 309-313 ISSN 0972-2815. [International Conference on CREEP , FATIGUE and CREEP -FATIGUE INTERACTION /7./. Kalpakkam, 19.01.2016-22.01.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ODS steels * low cycle fatigue * small fatigue crack * microstructure Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12666-015-0814-3

  3. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations and loads of sediment and chemicals delivered to Newark and Raritan Bays by five major tributaries: the Raritan, Passaic, Rahway, Elizabeth, and Hackensack Rivers. This study was initiated by the State of New Jersey as Study I-C of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor, working under the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP). The CARP is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the levels and sources of toxic contaminants to the tributaries and estuarine areas of the NY-NJ Harbor, including Newark and Raritan Bays. The Raritan and Passaic Rivers are large rivers (mean daily discharges of 1,189 and 1,132 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively), that drain large, mixed rural/urban basins. The Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers are small rivers (mean daily discharges of 25.9 and 49.1 ft3/s, respectively) that drain small, highly urbanized and industrialized basins. The Hackensack River drains a small, mixed rural/urban basin, and its flow is highly controlled by an upstream reservoir (mean daily discharge of 90.4 ft3/s). These rivers flow into urbanized estuaries and ultimately, to the Atlantic Ocean. Each of these tributaries were sampled during two to four storm events, and twice each during low-flow discharge conditions. Samples were collected using automated equipment installed at stations adjacent to U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations near the heads-of-tide of these rivers. Large-volume (greater than 50 liters of water and a target of 1 gram of sediment), flow-weighted composite samples were collected for chemical analysis using filtration to collect suspended particulates and exchange resin (XAD-2) to sequester dissolved contaminants. Composite whole-water samples were collected for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and for trace element analysis. Additional discrete grab samples were collected

  4. History-independent cyclic response of nanotwinned metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingsong; Zhou, Haofei; Lu, Qiuhong; Gao, Huajian; Lu, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Nearly 90 per cent of service failures of metallic components and structures are caused by fatigue at cyclic stress amplitudes much lower than the tensile strength of the materials involved. Metals typically suffer from large amounts of cumulative, irreversible damage to microstructure during cyclic deformation, leading to cyclic responses that are unstable (hardening or softening) and history-dependent. Existing rules for fatigue life prediction, such as the linear cumulative damage rule, cannot account for the effect of loading history, and engineering components are often loaded by complex cyclic stresses with variable amplitudes, mean values and frequencies, such as aircraft wings in turbulent air. It is therefore usually extremely challenging to predict cyclic behaviour and fatigue life under a realistic load spectrum. Here, through both atomistic simulations and variable-strain-amplitude cyclic loading experiments at stress amplitudes lower than the tensile strength of the metal, we report a history-independent and stable cyclic response in bulk copper samples that contain highly oriented nanoscale twins. We demonstrate that this unusual cyclic behaviour is governed by a type of correlated ‘necklace’ dislocation consisting of multiple short component dislocations in adjacent twins, connected like the links of a necklace. Such dislocations are formed in the highly oriented nanotwinned structure under cyclic loading and help to maintain the stability of twin boundaries and the reversible damage, provided that the nanotwins are tilted within about 15 degrees of the loading axis. This cyclic deformation mechanism is distinct from the conventional strain localizing mechanisms associated with irreversible microstructural damage in single-crystal, coarse-grained, ultrafine-grained and nanograined metals.

  5. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  6. 3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP

  7. Studies on as separation behaviour of polymer blending PI/PES hybrid mixed membrane: Effect of polymer concentration and zeolite loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of polymer concentration of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending on the gas separation performance of hybrid mixed matrix membrane. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The efefct of PI/PES concentrations and zeolite loading on the dope solution were investigated for gas separation performance. The results from the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM analysis confirmed that polymer concentration and zeolite loading was affected the morphology of membrane and gas separation performance. ‘Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed the poor adhesion between polymer and zeolite at higher zeolite loading. The gas separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes were relatively higher compared to that of the neat polymeric membrane.

  8. Increase in cyclic AMP concentration in a cerebral giant interneuron mimics part of a memory trace for conditioned taste aversion of the pond snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Emi; Matsunaga, Miho; Okada, Ryuichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Okuta, Akiko; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be classically conditioned in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and subsequently be consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The neural trace that subserves CTA-LTM can be summarized as follows: A polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential recorded in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell in the conditioned snails as a result of activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) is larger and lasts longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is ultimately activated by the CGC via the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell. That is, the inhibitory monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell are facilitated. The N1M and N3t cells are the members of feeding central pattern generator, whereas the CGC is a multimodal interneuron thought to play a key role in feeding behavior. Here we examined the involvement of a second messenger, cAMP, in the establishment of the memory trace. We injected cAMP into the CGC and monitored the potentials of the B3 motor neuron activated by the CGC. B3 activity is used as an index for the synaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. We found that the B3 potentials were transiently enlarged. Thus, when the cAMP concentration is increased in the CGC by taste aversion training, cAMP-induced changes may play a key role in the establishment of a memory trace in the N3t cell.

  9. Antibiotics in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta and Pearl River Estuary, China: Concentrations, mass loading and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weihai; Yan, Wen; Li, Xiangdong; Zou, Yongde; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shichun

    2013-01-01

    Ten antibiotics belonging to three groups (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were investigated in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China for assessing the importance of riverine runoff in the transportation of contaminants from terrestrial sources to the open ocean. All antibiotics were detected in the eight outlets with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 127 ng L −1 . The annual mass loadings of antibiotics from the PRD to the PRE and coast were 193 tons with 102 tons from the fluoroquinolone group. It showed that antibiotics decreased from the riverine outlets to the PRE and open ocean. Risk assessment showed that most of these antibiotics showed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms, in which ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin (ETM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) posed high ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments. -- Highlights: •Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river water and costal water in the Pearl River Delta. •Antibiotics exhibited distinct temporal and spatial trends in the riverine runoff outlets. •Annual outflows of antibiotics were 193 tons from the Pearl River to coastal ocean. •Some antibiotics posed high risks to some organisms in the PRD environments. -- Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river and coastal water in the Pearl River Delta and posed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms

  10. Cyclic Creep Behavior of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel at 600 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Dae Whan; Jang, Jin Sung; Park, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic deformation behavior is important in practice because high-temperature structural components are exposed under the cyclic conditions of repeated loading. In static creep (SC), the response of the material is simple as a static state of monotonic loading. However, in cyclic creep (CC), it is complex as dynamic loading. Cyclic creep data have been rarely reported until now. In particular, it is not understood well whether cyclic creep will accelerate or retard the creep rate compared with static creep, because it is not only the plastic deformation under cyclic loading is drastically different from monotonic loading, but also the cyclic response is dependent on the cycling frequency, stress range, stress ratio, and hold periods of cycling. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the cyclic creep behavior influencing the creep deformation and fracture process. In this study, a series of cyclic creep tests was carried out using magnitudes of stress range of constant stress ratio (R=0.1) under continuous tension-tension loading cycles at a hold time of 10 minutes. Cyclic curves were monitored and obtained with time variations, and the properties of the cyclic creep tests were compared with those of static creep tests. The fracture microstructures were observed and analyzed

  11. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  12. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  13. Estimation of Constituent Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in Streams of Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, Using Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring and Regression Models, Octobe