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Sample records for con fines forenses

  1. Propuesta de clasificación de un banco de voces con fines de identificación forense

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda López-Escobedo; Julián Solórzano-Soto

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el proyecto que se desarrolla para proponer una clasificación de un banco de voces con fines de identificación forense. Se expone la manera en que la información lingüística puede ser utilizada en una base de datos para reducir el número de falsos positivos y falsos negativos que resultan cuando se llevan a cabo comparaciones automatizadas para la identificación forense de voz. En particular, se abordan los fenómenos fonéticos que se han propuesto para realizar un...

  2. Propuesta de clasificación de un banco de voces con fines de identificación forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda López-Escobedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el proyecto que se desarrolla para proponer una clasificación de un banco de voces con fines de identificación forense. Se expone la manera en que la información lingüística puede ser utilizada en una base de datos para reducir el número de falsos positivos y falsos negativos que resultan cuando se llevan a cabo comparaciones automatizadas para la identificación forense de voz. En particular, se abordan los fenómenos fonéticos que se han propuesto para realizar una clasificación de un banco de voces en este nivel de la lengua. A partir de esta información se describe cómo construir un modelo de base de datos y el tipo de búsquedas que se espera lograr. La propuesta de generar descriptores lingüísticos para la clasificación de un banco de voces pretende ser una metodología que permita coadyuvar en la impartición de justicia en México y otros países de habla hispana.

  3. Estudio macroscópico y genético de piezas dentarias sometidas a calor con fines forenses

    OpenAIRE

    Sioli Durán, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: muchos casos forenses precisan la interpretación de cadáveres humanos quemados, carbonizados y/o incinerados, como es el caso de accidentes aéreos, automovilísticos, atentados con bombas, cremaciones ilícitas, y en menor medida, en homicidios, suicidios, e incluso muertes accidentales. En situaciones extremas, donde la acción del fuego daña o degrada excesivamente la totalidad de los tejidos, suelen ser los huesos y más aún los dientes, la única evidencia disponible en los proce...

  4. Walking a fine line: Forensic mental health practitioners' experience of working with correctional officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretto-Green, Danille; Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Buys, Lisa; Gorman, Tom; Rankel, Marlene

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores mental health professionals' experiences working with correctional staff--one aspect of an interdisciplinary phenomenological study of ethical practice in forensic psychiatry. Professionals describe this relationship as coexisting within the system, despite their often conflicting roles. In correctional officers' overt concern for custody and control, practitioners can perceive a "paramilitary mentality" with which they struggle to work. Conversely, practitioners can experience conflict with security personnel for appearing "too caring" or "too sympathetic" to offenders--being "con-lovers." The balance practitioners establish between working with inmates and working alongside facility security is one of walking a fine line. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  5. PRoFIT: Modelo forense-IoT con integración de requisitos de privacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Ana; Rios, Ruben; Lopez, Javier

    2018-01-01

    [ES] La Internet de las cosas (IoT) complica sobremanera la extracción de evidencias electrónicas que pueden servir de base para una investigación forense. En entornos altamente cambiantes y con una densidad de dispositivos tan elevada, es muy difícil entender completamente el contexto de la ofensa. Es por ello que la cooperación de los individuos, aún no estando directamente implicados en la ofensa, puede ser muy relevante para el analista forense. En este artículo se...

  6. Evaluación de traducciones con fines pedagógicos

    OpenAIRE

    Firmenich Montserrat, Silvia Karina

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final del Màster Universitari en Investigació en Traducció i Interpretació (Pla de 2013). Codi: SBK013. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 La evaluación de traducciones hace referencia, por un lado, a la crítica de traducciones, y por otro, a la evaluación con fines pedagógicos en la f ormación de traductores. De todos los campos de la traductología, la evaluación de traducciones es uno de los que ha recibido menos atención. Situación paradójica si lo que deseamos es que la disciplina siga c...

  7. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual y papel del Trabajador/a Social

    OpenAIRE

    Coterillo García, Ainhoa

    2016-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual es un fenómeno poco visible en nuestra sociedad, que supone graves dificultades a nivel biopsicosocial para las personas que lo sufren. Para la superación de estas dificultades y propiciar su inclusión en la sociedad, es necesario que exista una intervención integral y de calidad desde el Trabajo Social. En el presente Trabajo de Fin de Grado se pretende conocer la realidad que rodea la trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual....

  9. La trata de mujeres de Europa del Este con fines de explotación sexual en el Reino Unido

    OpenAIRE

    Bryl, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    Actas del I Congreso de jóvenes investigadorxs con perspectiva de género (Getafe, 16 y 17 de junio de 2016) organizado por el Instituto Universitario de Estudios de Género de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. La trata de mujeres con fines de explotación sexual se considera la forma más rentable de la trata de personas, ya que las mujeres, como un bien, pueden ser vendidas y utilizadas muchas veces, a diferencia de, por ejemplo, la trata para la extracción de órganos, porque no se puede ...

  10. Comportamiento de rodal artificial de Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) L.f. con fines de manejo sostenido Iquitos-Perú;

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo Cruz, William

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Centro de Investigación y Enseñanza Forestal de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, ubicado en la localidad de Puerto Almendras distrito de San Juan, provincia de Maynas, región Loreto. Tuvo como objetivo general la evaluación de rodal artificial de 2 ha de aguaje de veintiún años de edad instalada con fines de manejo sostenido con diferentes distanciamientos de 3x3m; 4x4m; 5x5m y 6x6m; los parámetros ev...

  11. Resultados funcionales de la procuración corneal con fines de trasplante realizado por un licenciado en Optometría

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    Oswaldo Manuel Aguirre-Luna

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: Todos los pacientes mejoraron visualmente con rechazo similar a lo reportado en otros estudios. Un licenciado en Optometría capacitado podría ser el profesional de salud idóneo para realizar procuraciones corneales con fines de trasplante.

  12. Horizontes de la edición electrônica con fines didácticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2016v12n1p4 La edición digital está cambiando la forma de acercarse a los libros en todos los ámbitos del conocimiento, incluida la educación. Por eso, este artículo propone un acercamiento teórico a las perspectivas de la edición electrónica con fines didácticos. El texto se divide en tres secciones. En un primer momento trataremos de realizar un acercamiento al momento actual en que se encuentran las ediciones académicas y cómo este tipo de edición permite adaptaciones en el entorno escolar y con fines educativos. En la segunda parte se describirá el proceso seguido en la introducción de estas ediciones académicas en las aulas, desde los CD adjuntos a libros de texto hasta los nuevos libros digitales, multimodales e interactivos. Y finalmente se propone una reflexión en torno a el aprovechamiento de las TIC/TAC en la red y su equivalencia en los centros educativos para la práctica de la edición digital en el aula (EDEA.

  13. Tratamiento de aguas residuales del proceso de desengrase de autopartes con fines de reuso

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Gómez, Sebastián; López Gutiérrez, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio presenta los resultados obtenidos al utilizar la electrocoagulación con el fin de reducir las grasas y aceites, la demanda química de oxigeno, el carbono orgánico total, surfactantes y aumentar la biodegradabilidad de aguas residuales provenientes de un proceso de desengrase de autopartes, de una planta ensambladora de autos de la ciudad de Medellín. Se utilizaron cuatro electrodos conectados en paralelo, configuración bipolar, usando hierro como electrodo de sacrificio y alumini...

  14. Estimación del volumen potencial de agua pluvial con fines agropecuarios

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Brown Manrique; Yurisbel Gallardo Ballat; Fidel Diego Navas; José L. Companioni Sanderson; Wilfredo Pérez Duarte

    2009-01-01

    La investigación se desarrolla en la lechería de la Universidad de Ciego de Ávila a partir del estudio de una serie de 28 años de precipitaciones en la que se efectúa el análisis de consistencia y de frecuencia; así como el cálculo de los estadígrafos fundamentales, la probabilidad empírica, el volumen de captación de agua pluvial, el área de captación y el volumen de almacenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que los datos de precipitaciones se pueden utilizar con seguridad en la evaluación d...

  15. Inglés con fines específicos: entonces y ahora English for Specific Purposes: A historical perspective

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    Concepción Bueno Velazco

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza del Inglés con Fines Específicos (IFE ha logrado ocupar un lugar respetable en el campo de la enseñanza del Inglés como lengua extranjera o como segunda lengua. En los momentos actuales resulta familiar para todos los relacionados con esta especialidad el concepto de Inglés para ingenieros, Inglés con fines turísticos, Inglés para empresarios y hombres de negocios, Inglés para médicos, para enfermeros y para estomatólogos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una panorámica de la evolución del IFE desde sus inicios. Para ello se ofrecen las condiciones que propiciaron el surgimiento del IFE hasta llegar a su definición partiendo de criterios inicialmente expuestos en la década del 80 hasta los más recientes aportes en este campo.Por último se abordan muy brevemente las tendencias lingüístico- metodológicas por las que ha atravesado el IFE y su situación en la época actualEnglish teaching with Specific Purposes (ESP has been able to reach a respectable place in the field of English teaching as a foreign or second language. Nowadays, it is familiar to those related to this specialty, the concept of English for engineers, English for tourism, English for managers and businessmen, English for doctors, for nurses and dentists. This work's objective is to offer a panorama of the evolution of ESP from its beginnings. To achieve that, the conditions that propitiated the emergence of the ESP are exposed and that analisis goes on until reaching its definition beginning from the approaches initially exposed in the 80s to the most recent contributions in this area. Finally, the current linguistic and methodological trends ESP has gone through and its current situation are presented

  16. Curso introductorio de Inglés con Fines Médicos Introductory course of English for Medical Purposes

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    María Josefa Moré Peláez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza del inglés con fines médicos juega un papel decisivo en las universidades médicas cubanas. El inglés con fines médicos se enseña en el 4to y 5to años de la carrera de Medicina y en cursos de posgrado. Se presenta un curso introductorio de 40 horas basado en tareas docentes. El curso está diseñado para estudiantes con un nivel intermedio y puede impartirse en pre y posgrado. Este material cubre necesidades específicas de los cursistas en este nivel en tanto permite profundizar aspectos gramaticales y funcionales de la lengua en los que el estudiante aún presente dificultades. Especial atención merece el tecnolecto de la medicina que sirve para expresar aspectos propios de la práctica médica como son la historia clínica, el examen físico, las investigaciones, el diagnóstico y el plan terapéutico. El curso consta de nueve tareas con variadas actividades encaminadas al desarrollo de habilidades de comprensión, lectura, escritura y expresión oral. El curso tiene anexos con aspectos claves en el lenguaje médico y materiales suplementarios. El libro del maestro ofrece un plan detallado de la unidad y orientaciones metodológicas precisas acompañadas de la clave de respuestas para las tareas del libro del alumno.The teaching of English for Medical Purposes plays a decisive role in Cuban medical universities. English for Medical Purposes is taught during the 4th and 5th academic years of medicine and in postgraduate courses. We present a 40-hour-task-based introductory course. It is intended for intermediate level students and can be used in both undergraduate and graduate courses as well. The course-book material is designed to meet specified needs and expose learners to language use with opportunities to review areas of grammar, functional language, which may still be posing special difficulties. Special attention is devoted to the medical terminology used in history taking, physical examination, investigations

  17. Usos potenciales de germoplasma animal masculino con fines de preservación de fauna silvestre

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    Francisco Cabrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available El germoplasma animal comprende células o tejidos que pueden generar nuevos individuos. Su preservación y uso puede instrumentarse en la reproducción de animales en peligro de extinción. El germoplasma animal, además de los gametos, incluye células diploides como las células madre, potencialmente capaces de dividirse indefinidamente. Las células madre espermatogoniales (CMEs generan los espermatozoides en el testículo (espermatogénesis. Las CME ofrecen múltiples opciones biotecnológicas. A diferencia de las células madre ovogoniales (hembras, numerosas CME pueden ser obtenidas durante el periodo postnatal prepuberal pre-meiosico. Estas células pueden ser aisladas, amplificadas in vitro y criopreservadas, para así crear líneas celulares. Las CME pueden inducirse a diferenciar in vivo e in vitro. Las metodologías in vivo, están basadas en el transplante de CMEs del testículo de un animal donador al testículo de otro receptor sin espermatogenesis, técnicas ya establecidas en animales de laboratorio con potencial para utilizarse en animales domésticos y silvestres. Estos últimos, podrían donar CMEs y animales de especies filogenéticamente relacionadas no amenazadas serían receptores para producir espermatozoides de la especie amenazada. Existen técnicas de transplante de material testicular preservado de diversos animales al tejido subcutáneo de ratones, donde se desarrolla la espermatogénesis completa. La espermatogénesis in vitro está disponible en ratones. Independientemente de la metodología utilizada, los espermatozoides obtenidos de CME pueden utilizarse en técnicas de reproducción asistida para generar embriones y/o nuevos individuos a fin de repoblar ecosistemas en desequilibrio o aumentar las tasas de mejoramiento genético en sistemas de producción animal.

  18. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  19. Género y violencia: La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual en Misiones. 16H279

    OpenAIRE

    Moniec, Susana, dir.; Montiel, Sandra; Fuentes, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual es uno de las formas extremas de discriminación de género. Constituye la forma moderna de esclavitud focalizada en la explotación sexual de mujeres prioritariamente y de niños en segundo lugar. Es una nueva forma de servidumbre sexual, con modalidades distintas a partir de la expansión global de los negocios, y de los usos tecnológicos. Pero sostiene como característica principal de todos lo...

  20. EVALUACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DE 25 GENOTIPOS DE MAÍZ (Zea maiz CON FINES FORRAJEROS EN EL VALLE DEL SINÚ MEDIO

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    Roberto Cabrales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar agronómicamente 25 genotipos de maíz con fines forrajeros. Materiales y métodos. La investigación se realizó en predios del centro de Investigación Turipaná de Corpoica, departamento de Córdoba. Se empleó un diseño de campo en latice 5x5, con 25 tratamientos y tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Resultados. Los genotipos de maíz, que mostraron los mayores rendimientos de materia fresca, seca y de grano fueron: HIT 34 con 63.52 Ton/ha de materia fresca,22.11 Ton/ha de materia seca y 3.10 Ton/ha de grano; VERA 225 con 61.13 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 20.11 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.37 Ton/ha de grano; SNLP 111 con 60.62 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 19.20 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.69 Ton/ha de grano; ICA V 156 con 54.51 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 17.1 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.41 Ton/ha de grano. En cuanto a prolificidad mostró como mejores genotipos el vera 225 con 1 mazorca por planta, siendo el segundo genotipo en producción de materia fresca y uno de los mayores en producción de grano; en índice de grano se destaco el SNLP 111 con 82.87%, destacándose como el genotipo de mayor producción de grano. Con respecto a la materia seca de hoja/tallo/mazorca sobresalieron los genotipos CUBA 91 con 33.63%: 20.43%: 45.97% e ICA V 156 con 32.33%: 24.43%: 43.23% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Se cuenta con buenos genotipos de maíz para ser empleados por los ganaderos en procesos de ensilaje.

  1. La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual en España: elementos para la reflexión

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    Belén Blázquez-Vilaplana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la legislación española no reconoce como violencia de género la Trata de Personas con Fines de Explotación Sexual, lo cierto es que desde distintas instancias se está trabajando para su modificación en línea con los acuerdos internacionales firmados y ratificados por el Gobierno español y con las voces que se han alzado desde la sociedad civil. Su estrecha relación con la prostitución, su confusión con el tráfico ilícito de personas y el baile de datos que existe para su cuantificación, lo han convertido en un fenómeno que muchos dicen desconocer pero que alcanza importantes cotas de presencia en el territorio. Visibilizar este fenómeno y abrir espacios para la reflexión son los objetivos de este trabajo.

  2. La trata de mujeres con fines de explotación sexual : la globalización de la violencia de género

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Caballero, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    La trata con fines de explotación sexual se ha convertido en la esclavitud del siglo XXI. La misma afecta fundamentalmente a millones de mujeres, niñas y niños y sus dimensiones de género son incuestionables. En este sentido, la explotación sexual del ser humano se puede producir a través de diversos mecanismos, de los que se pueden destacar entre otros, la pornografía, el matrimonio forzado, la esclavitud sexual, los espectáculos eróticos y sobre todo la prostitución. Es decir: la mayor part...

  3. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  4. Utilización del tai chi chuan con fines recreativos y terapéuticos en los pacientes con VIH SIDA en el sanatorio de Guantánamo

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    María Teresa Díaz Velásquez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo supremo del proyecto social cubano consiste en la mejora de la calidad de vida de toda la población y a ello contribuyen los diversos organismos, entre los cuales se encuentran el Ministerio de Salud Publica y el INDER. A pesar de que el sistema nacional de salud ofrece una atención esmerada a los pacientes que viven con VIH SIDA, su calidad de vida no solo depende de ello, sino también de otras actividades que evitan en gran medida el estado de estrés que los mismos presentan debido al cambio de sus vidas lo cual contribuiría a mejorar su disposición psicológica y a disminuir las incidencias que los fármacos producen en ellos. Algunos proyectos se han encaminado para lograr este objetivo. Con el proyecto “Revivir” dirigido al desarrollo de las actividades recreativas para estos pacientes, y como parte de este proyecto nuestro trabajo, se encamina a la utilización del Tai Chi Chuan en los pacientes con VIH con fines recreativos y terapéuticos.

  5. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  6. EL INGLÉS CON FINES PROFESIONALES EN EL CONTEXTO DE INGENIERÍA ELÉCTRICA: UN PROCESO CENTRADO EN LA COMUNICACIÓN

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    Adelfa Verdecia Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recoge aspectos significativos del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la comunicación en Inglés con Fines Profesionales en el contexto de la ingeniería eléctrica, desde la perspectiva de ciencias que intervienen en su profundización y transformación, principalmente la Didáctica, la Psicología y la Lingüística aplicada o Metodología de lenguas. Se propone fundamentar la investigación a favor de un proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del Inglés con Fines Profesionales, centrado en la comunicación oral y escrita.PALABRAS CLAVE: comunicación oral y escrita; enfoque comunicativo; tareas comunicativas.ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CONTEXT: A PROCESS CENTERED IN COMMUNICATION ABSTRACTThe current article gathers significant aspects of teaching-learning process of communication in English for professional purposes in the particular context of electrical engineering, from the perspective of sciences involved in its deepening and transformation, namely: Didactics, Psychology and Applied Linguistics or Methodology of Languages. The research is supported in favor of a teaching-learning process of English for Professional purposes, centered in oral and written communication.KEYWORDS: Oral and written communication; communicative approach; communicative tasks.

  7. Una metodología para evaluar el comportamiento de interacción genotipo-intrambiente con fines de selección en cabras lecheras

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    B. López

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocida la universalidad del componente de interacción genotipo ambiente en el modelo fenotípico, el cual incluye otros dos componentes: el genotipo con sus efectos aditivos, dominantes y epistáticos, y el componente ambiental con sus efectos permanentes y temporales; se hace evidente que la selección de individuos en un ambiente dado no garantiza que manifiesten el mismo comportamiento cuando el ambiente es diferente. Con los resultados de investigaciones preliminares efectuadas por los autores, se propone una metodología basada en el modelo de regresión lineal, capaz de medir los efectos de interacción genotipo-intrambiente (ambientes fisiológicos de la curva de lactación para su evaluación con fines de selección del comportamiento diferencial que manifiestan los genotipos ante diversas condiciones ambientales. Se utilizan los registros mensuales de la producción láctea anual de 14 cabras «Saanen» en su primera lactación y se compara el comportamiento de interacción genotipo ambiente entre ellas. Los valores α y β de cada recta (cabra, fueron estimados considerando la producción mensual de cada cabra (fenotipo como la variable dependiente y los efectos ecológicos estandarizados como la variable independiente. Se graficaron y proyectaron las rectas de regresión de cada cabra a ± dos desviaciones estándar de los efectos ecológicos en el eje de las abscisas, se comparan los coeficientes β mediante pruebas de hipótesis «t»; poniéndose de manifiesto los efectos de interacción genotipo ambiente entre cabras al demostrarse que las pendientes de las rectas son diferentes. En esta metodología los valores de β cercanos a cero indican que los genotipos son estables

  8. Propuesta de un modelo ecosistémico para la cadena productiva de la coca con fines alternativos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Montoya-Restrepo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo proponer una alternativa socioeconómica para la producción de hoja de coca en Colombia. Metodología: A partir de las propiedades industriales de la planta y sus usos ancestrales se propone la utilización del modelo de integración organizacional para el apoyo de los actuales cultivadores que tienen como único sustento este sistema productivo, ilícito en el país, pero que encuentran en peligro real de perder su capacidad productiva. Resultados: estudios actuales han determinado propiedades industriales farmacéuticas y agrícolas de la planta, con lo cual se puede realizar una integración empresarial. Conclusiones: A partir del modelo propuesto, es posible encontrar alternativas para la solución del cultivo ilícito de hoja de coca en el país, con un modelo de encadenamiento organizacional y productivo.

  9. Aportes del proyecto infodesarrollo en el campo de la internet con fines sociales en el Ecuador en el nuevo milenio

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Lara, Diana Edith

    2002-01-01

    La nueva tecnología de información y comunicación – NTCI, el caso específico de internet, se está convirtiendo con el paso de los años en una importante herramienta para la generación de nuevos procesos de organización y participación en manos de un significativo porcentaje de organizaciones de la sociedad civil –OSCs que han comenzado a inclinar este adelanto tecnológico a favor de un desarrollo más humano para la población y sus comunidades, a través de la estrategia de democratizar la ...

  10. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  11. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  13. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  14. Identificación, uso y transmisión local del conocimiento en plantas medicinales con fines veterinarios en fincas campesinas de tres regiones de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuván Contino Esquijerosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las fincas campesinas son importantes espacios para la producción de plantas medicinales como recurso sociocultural y económico. La flora medicinal y ritual ocupa un espacio destacado en los pueblos indígenas, descendientes de africanos u españoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar las plantas medicinales, su uso y transmisión local con fines veterinarios, en fincas campesinas de tres regiones de Cuba (Pinar del Río, Matanzas y Sancti Espíritus. Se realizaron talleres y se trabajó con la identificación, uso, aprendizajes y mecanismo de diseminación local. Se compartieron las ideas para identificar, usar y capturar-trasmitir conocimientos sobre las plantas medicinales con fines veterinarios. Se realizaron colectas y se socializaron sus formas de preparación. Se identificaron 20 plantas de diversas familias botánicas y se estableció un huerto medicinal en cada región. Las hojas, los tallos y las raíces fueron las partes de la planta más utilizadas para la elaboración de recetas. La falta de medicamentos tradicionales y la carencia de recursos materiales determinan su empleo. El personal entrevistado mostró un profundo conocimiento de su entorno vegetal adquirido de sus ancestros y trasmitido a través de la palabra u oralidad. Este conocimiento tradicional se está perdiendo debido a la invasión de personas no nativas que se han establecido en estas regiones, y han eliminado la vegetación natural, e introducido nuevas especies con otros fines. La sistematización de estos aprendizajes de manera lógica se convierte en punto de partida para futuros proyectos de investigación, que permitan su explicación, aplicación y adaptación a los sistemas agropecuarios sostenibles. ABSTRACT Peasant farms are important areas for the production of medicinal plants as cultural and economic resource . The medicinal and ritual plant occupies a large area in the indigenous peoples of African descent or Spanish . The aim of

  15. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  16. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  17. La trata de seres humanos con fines de explotación sexual: propuestas para un cambio de paradigma en la orientación de las políticas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Nuño Gómez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    En la gran mayoría de las naciones del mundo la trata con fines de explotación sexual está tipificada y castigada por la legislación penal, pese a ello se estima que entre 1,3 y 4,4 millones mujeres y niñas permanecen explotadas por las redes crimina

  18. PROYECTO DE “ELABORACIÓN DE FILTRANTE DE HOJA DE GUANÁBANA CON STEVIA” (PARTIDA ARANCELARIA 2101.20.00.00) CON FINES DE EXPORTACIÓN A SANTIAGO DE CHILE-CHILE DE LA EMPRESA – FILTRANTES PERÚ SAC

    OpenAIRE

    DÍAZ RODRÍGUEZ, FLOR MARGARITA; Instituto de Formación Bancaria; LLAGAS ALVARADO, EDUARDO DAVID; ORTEGA RODRÍGUEZ, JOSEPH FRANK; PINTADO DAMIÁN, MÓNICA DEL PILAR

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente proyecto es ofrecer al mercado un producto innovador, 100% natural, el proyecto se desarrolla en la ciudad de Chiclayo – Lambayeque, con el objetivo de aprovechar los recursos naturales como es la hoja de guanábana, este proyecto consiste en la elaboración y comercialización de filtrante de hoja de guanábana con Stevia, con fines de exportación a Santiago de Chile - Chile, ofreciendo un producto 100% natural con precios accesibles al mercado.Para el desarrol...

  19. ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DEL IDIOMA INGLÉS CON FINES ESPECÍFICOS EN LA CARRERA DE INGENIERÍA DE MINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis Fiol Cuenca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una Estrategia Didáctica de Enseñanza del Idioma Inglés con Fines Específicos en la carrera de Ingeniería de Minas, que tiene su fundamentación epistemológica y praxiológica en considerar el carácter holístico, complejo, interdisciplinar e integrador de los contenidos del idioma y las restantes disciplinas de la carrera de Ingeniería de Minas. La estrategia se encamina al perfeccionamiento del proceso de formación del minero, al responder al vínculo entre el proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje de la lengua inglesa y el modelo del profesional, mediante un tratamiento transversal, a través de las restantes disciplinas de la carrera, lo que contribuiría a revelar la peculiaridad distintiva del proceso de obtención de información y comunicación en el campo de la minería como dinamizador del proceso.PALABRAS CLAVE: Estrategia didáctica;  Inglés con Fines Específicos; proceso de enseñanza.DIDACTIC STRATEGY ON ENGLISH TEACHING FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES IN MINING ENGINEERING MAJORABSTRACTA didactic strategy on English Teaching for Specific Purposes in Mining Engineering major is presented in this work. The groundwork for this study is found from the epistemology and praxis foundations, when considering the complex, disciplinary and integrated character of the study contents among foreign language and the other disciplines in the curriculum. This strategy is guided towards   the improvement  of the miner's formation process, since it  answers to the  bond between  the English language teaching - learning process  and the professional's model, by means of a methodological transverse treatment, with the contribution of the other disciplines of the major, which would contribute to reveal the distinctive peculiarity of the obtaining  information and communication process  in the field of  mining, as a way to make the process  more dynamic.KEYWORDS: Didactic Strategy; English for Specific Purpose

  20. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  1. Desarrollo de hormigones con aglomerante cal-puzolana fina como material cementicio suplementario Development of concrete mixtures with fine lime-pozzolan binder as supplementary cementitious material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Dopico

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La alta resistencia y durabilidad alcanzada en los hormigones de alta y ultra alta resistencia está asociada a la obtención de una matriz muy densa, definida a partir del uso de altos volúmenes de adiciones minerales muy finas, tales como las cenizas volantes, microsílice, metacaolín y polvos finos de cuarzo. El trabajo muestra un estudio sobre el uso del aglomerante cal- puzolana (ACP de alta finura, como adición mineral activa en el hormigón. Las partículas muy finas de la cal, de tamaños entre las 0.1-lOum pueden llenar los vacíos entre los granos de cemento, mientras las partículas más grandes de la puzolana, entre 10-100 [jm, pueden llenar los vacíos entre los granos más finos del agregado, resultando en una matriz más densa. La adición de hidróxido de calcio (HC durante el mezclado del hormigón, también incrementa la concentración de iones Ca+2 y OH", lo cual resulta en una mejor y mas rápida hidratación del Cemento Portland Ordinario (CPO y de la reacción puzolánica. El uso de la ACP como adición mineral activa en hormigones de alta resistencia (HAR, podría contribuir a disminuir los costos del producto sin afectar su resistencia mecánica y durabilidad usando menos cemento, con lo cual se estaría mejorando el perfil ecológico de este material. Resultados iniciales son mostrados en este trabajo, requiriéndose de ensayos adicionales para establecer los beneficios del uso de la ACP en los HAR. Un ejemplo de aplicación de este trabajo en hormigones son también presentados.The very high concrete strength and durability achieved in high and ultra-high-performance concrete is associated with a very dense matrix, accomplished through the use of high volumes of very fine mineral additions, such as fly ash, silica-fume, metakaolin and ground quartz sand. The paper reports on a study where a finely ground lime-pozzolan binder (LPB is used as active mineral addition in concrete. The very fine lime particles, having

  2. Implante subcutáneo de un carcinoma hepatocelular tras la punción aspiración con aguja fina Subcutaneous seeding of hepatocellular carcinoma after fine-needle percutaneous biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez Ramos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes subcutáneos son una complicación rara tras la punción aspiración con aguja fina de los carcinomas hepatocelulares. Los autores describen un caso de implante subcutáneo neoplásico en una mujer de 70 años con cirrosis hepática por virus C complicada con un carcinoma hepatocelular. Se efectuó una punción aspiración con aguja fina en el segmento II hepático. El implante tumoral se desarrolló en el trayecto de la punción aspiración. La tumoración subcutánea fue extirpada quirúrgicamente y el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un carcinoma hepatocelular bien diferenciado.Subcutaneous tumor seeding after fine-needle percutaneous biopsy for hepatocellular carcinoma is a rarely seen complication. The authors describe a case of subcutaneous neoplastic seeding in a 70-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma. Ultrasonically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in segment II of the liver. The neoplastic seeding developed along the needle track used to carry out the fine-needle biopsy. The subcutaneous tumor was excised, and histological examination revealed a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Variables pre-analíticas que afectan las concentraciones de homocisteína: Aplicación para Biobancos con fines de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Serrano Díaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente estudio evaluó el impacto de las variables pre-analíticas sobre las concentraciones séricas de la Homocisteína, y su posible aplicación en biobancos con fines de investigación. Metodología: En diez adultos voluntarios auto declarados sanos, se tomaron muestras de sangre periférica bajo diferentes condiciones de ayuno, posición de toma de la muestra (supino versus sentada y diferentes intervalos de tiempo entre la toma y la separación definitiva de componentes. Todas las alícuotas fueron almacenadas a -800C en el biobanco hasta el momento de ser procesadas. La medición de homocisteína se hizo por duplicado en Immulite® 2000. Se realizó análisis de concordancia por medio de coeficiente de Lin (σ y MANOVA. Resultados: La medición de homocisteína es altamente reproducible (σ=0.908, IC95% 0.861 a 0.955, sin que el ayuno o el tiempo de centrifugación de la muestra afecte su concentración. Sin embrago, la posición al momento de la toma de muestra, implica una reducción media de 14.2% (IC95% 8.4% a 20.0% en la concentración de Homocisteína en poción decúbito supino versus la toma en posición sentado. Conclusión: La homocisteína es un biomarcador estable, sin que su valor se vea alterado por variables pre-analíticas como los tiempos entre toma de muestra, centrifugación y separación de componentes (almacenamiento temporal a 4°C. Sin embargo la postura del participante al momento de la toma de muestra produce una variabilidad significativa. Estos hallazgos reiteran el papel de un biobanco en la estandarización de los procesos de toma, manipulación, almacenamiento y gestión con criterios de excelencia.

  4. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  6. Determinación de Rubidio y Estroncio con fines geocronológicos en rocas silicatadas mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica

    OpenAIRE

    Bea, Fernando; Polo Diez, L.; Gil Galindo, C.

    1980-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se propone un método para la determinación de Rubidio y Estroncio con fines geocronológicos en rocas silicatadas mediante Espectrofotometria de Absorción Atómica. Las disoluciones analíticas son estables, lo que permite la construcción de calibradosfácilmente a partir de rocas standards, con lo que se evitan las interferencias inter elementales. Estroncio y Rubidio se pueden determinar satisfactoriamente a partir de estos calibrados. Las interferencias interelementales sobre el estro...

  7. [Forensic entomology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  8. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  9. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  10. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  11. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  12. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  13. Forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  14. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  16. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  17. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  18. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  19. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  20. Evolución histórica de las actividades físicas en el medio natural con fines educativos = Historical evolution of the phisical activities y the enviroment oriented to educative aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pérez Ordás

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades en el medio natural forman parte de la educación física actual y se utilizan como un excelente medio pedagógico para la formación de los jóvenes. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la evolución histórica de las actividades físicas en el medio natural con fines educativos, a través de las distintas corrientes de la educación física, que se han sucedido a lo largo del tiempo.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Outdoor activities comprise of the present physical education and it is used like excellent pedagogical method for the formation of the young people. The objective of this article is to describe the historical evolution of the outdoor activities with educative aims, through different currents of physical education that followed on time.

  1. La competencia comunicativa en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje del inglés con fines específicos en la carrera de estomatología

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Ortega, Luisa Francisca

    2012-01-01

    El proceso de formación de los profesionales de la salud se sustenta en un modelo pedagógico para la formación de un profesional de amplio perfil. Un papel importante en este sentido corresponde al dominio del Idioma inglés que permita la actualización científico-técnica y el desempeño profesional en cualquier lugar del mundo. En la práctica actual se perciben insuficiencias en la formación de la competencia comunicativa en el Inglés con Fines Específicos en la carrera de Estomatología, para ...

  2. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  3. La pobreza y su relación con los problemas de empleo en Catamarca y Tucumán, Argentina, a fines del siglo xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Osatinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2001 Catamarca era la provincia con menores niveles de pobreza de todo el norte argentino. Por el contrario en Tucumán, cuya economía era la más dinámica de la región, era mayor el porcentaje de hogares pobres. Teniendo en cuenta que entre los procesos económicos y la pobreza existe un fuerte vínculo, y que las dificultades laborales son un componente importante en dicha relación, en este artículo se analiza de qué manera los menores niveles de pobreza en Catamarca fueron consecuencia de que su población resultó menos afectada que la tucumana por las transformaciones productivas regresivas y los problemas de empleo del periodo.

  4. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Características de individuos sometidos a infiltración de materiales extraños con fines estéticos sobre los que se realizó investigación judicial en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cala-Uribe

    Full Text Available Introducción y Objetivo: La infiltración de materiales como silicona en los tejidos blandos es una práctica clandestina documentada en varios lugares del mundo; estos materiales buscan mejorar la apariencia estética y se han vuelto populares entre la población en general. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir las características de individuos sometidos a infiltración de materiales extraños en tejidos blandos con fines estéticos entre los que se desarrolló una investigación judicial en Bogotá, Colombia. Material y Método: Presentamos una serie de 26 pacientes sometidos a investigación judicial por la Fiscalía General de la Nación en Bogotá, Colombia, por muerte o complicaciones asociadas a estos procedimientos entre 2005 y 2015. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes del grupo de estudio fueron mujeres (62%. El procedimiento realizado con mayor frecuencia fue el aumento de glúteos por un esteticista en clínicas de estética o centros de belleza. Del total de pacientes, el 58% falleció por embolismo pulmonar de silicona; entre los supervivientes, la complicación más frecuente fue la aparición de cicatrices inestéticas. Conclusiones: La infiltración de materiales extraños en tejidos blandos es un procedimiento que reporta complicaciones y alta frecuencia de mortalidad; la mayoría de estos procedimientos se realizan en lugares y con materiales no autorizados, y por personal no capacitado. De ahí la importancia de generar acciones que prevengan este tipo de prácticas.

  6. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  7. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  8. Conjunto de Ejercicios Físico con fines Terapéuticos para los pacientes obesos perteneciente al Consejo Popular Pueblo Nuevo del municipio de Consolación del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainel Gómez Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente   trabajo investigativo titulado: Conjunto de Ejercicios Físico con fines Terapéuticos para los pacientes obesos perteneciente al Consejo Popular Pueblo Nuevo del municipio de Consolación del Sur. La obesidad  constituye una de las enfermedades con  mayor  prevalecía     en los países occidentales, considerándose en la actualidad la enfermedad metabólica más frecuente. Puede considerarse un problema de salud pública, pues ocasiona una disminución de la esperanza de vida y constituye la segunda causa de mortalidad prevenible,  dado el tema surge la siguiente interrogante ¿Como contribuir al mejoramiento del Estado de Salud de los pacientes obesos perteneciente al Consejo Popular Pueblo Nuevo del municipio de Consolación del Sur? Esta investigación tiene como objetivo: Integrar  un Conjunto de Ejercicios Físicos con fines Terapéuticos para el mejoramiento del  Estado de Salud de los pacientes obesos perteneciente al Consejo Popular Pueblo Nuevo del municipio mencionado. Este trabajo propone un programa de ejercicios físicos para la disminución del peso corporal en los pacientes  que  presenta       obesidad que conviven en  el  Consejo Popular anteriormente mencionado. Para la realización del mismo se tuvo en cuenta fundamentalmente el método dialéctico–materialista de cual se derivan   los métodos teóricos y métodos empíricos, en los primeros podemos encontrar el Análisis-Síntesis, Histórico-Lógico y El Trabajo con Documentos y en los segundos la Encuesta, la Observación, para a través de los mismos recopilar datos que contribuyan  en el desarrollo satisfactorio de la investigación. La investigación es ubicada dentro de las ciencias biológicas vinculadas con el Deporte y la Cultura Física.  En la misma se resume los datos más importantes sobre ejercicios que contemplan  técnicas tradicionales  y  de  técnicas  orientales como

  9. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  10. Historia clínica de Ortodoncia en la clase de inglés con fines específicos Orthodontic clinical history in ESP lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cuan Corrales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad de Sana'a de Yemen recibió la colaboración de profesores cubanos por primera vez en el año 2002. La docencia de Ortodoncia era teórica y se necesitaba incorporar la atención a pacientes con maloclusiones. Se diseñó un programa de estudio e historia clínica en idioma inglés que constituyeron guías para el diagnóstico, el tratamiento de pacientes, la presentación y la discusión de casos. También propiciaron el registro de la evolución de pacientes ambulatorios. La ejercitación por parte de los 789 estudiantes graduados promovió la obtención de información sobre el paciente. Es interés de los autores que la historia clínica diseñada sea utilizada por estudiantes de cuarto y quinto años de la carrera de Estomatología, auxiliados por docentes de la especialidad e inglés, para ampliar su preparación lingüística y dar solución a problemas de la comunicación científica internacional.The University of Sana′a, Yemen, received Cuban professors for the first time in 2002. Teaching of Orthodontics was mainly theoretical and it excluded assistance to patients with malocclusions. A syllabus and clinical history chart were designed in English. They both became guidelines for patients’ diagnosis and treatment, as well as case presentation and discussion. They also make possible to record outpatient evolution. The practice of 789 graduated students prompted patient information collecting. It is the authors’ interest that 4th- and 5th-year Dentistry students use the history chart designed, with the aid of English professors and specialists, so as to widen students’ linguistic preparation and solve problems of international scientific communication.

  11. Plethora of Cyber Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani

    2011-01-01

    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  12. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  13. Evaluating Digital Forensic Options for the Apple iPad

    OpenAIRE

    Hay , Andrew; Krill , Dennis; Kuhar , Benjamin; Peterson , Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Part 5: ADVANCED FORENSIC TECHNIQUES; International audience; The iPod Touch, iPhone and iPad from Apple are among the most popular mobile computing platforms in use today. These devices are of forensic interest because of their high adoption rate and potential for containing digital evidence. The uniformity in their design and underlying operating system (iOS) also allows forensic tools and methods to be shared across product types. This paper analyzes the tools and methods available for con...

  14. Sistematización de experiencias didácticas con docentes: Las Artes Plásticas y el Currículo Escolar / The systematization of didactic experiences with teachers: The fine arts and the school curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Bonilla, Julieta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo que presento se refiere al desarrollo de actividades de integración curricular, realizadas con docentes que laboran en instituciones de educación preescolar, primaria, secundaria, y que además forman parte de un proyecto denominado “Primero Aprendo”. Deseo rescatar dos aspectos de la experiencia; en primer lugar, una interesante integración entre las artes plásticas y algunos contenidos de los programas de estudio, y en segundo lugar, se resalta un trabajo de equipo en el que participaron, además de la población docente, personas que laboran en actividades culinarias en las mismas instituciones educativas. Durante el desarrollo de las experiencias se enfatizó un trabajo de cooperación, colaboración y entusiasmo, gracias a la apertura mostrada por las direcciones de las instituciones que participaron, situación que favoreció el logro de los objetivos propuestos. Los talleres fueron ofrecidos por profesoras universitarias e investigadoras con experiencia y formación en diferentes especialidades, a saber, música, psicología, educación preescolar y artes plásticas, situación que favoreció en docentes participantes el desarrollo de procesos de integración curricular y aprendizajes, que posteriormente, debían ser aplicados en sus lugares de trabajo.Abstract:The article presented here refers to the development of activities for curricular integration, carried out with teachers at preschools, primary and secondary schools, who also take part in a project called " Primero Aprendo" (First, I Learn. The author wishes to point out two aspects of this experience: Firstly, an interesting integration between the fine arts and some contents of the study programs; and secondly, the teamwork between the teaching staff and the cooking staff at the same schools. During the development of these experiences,working in cooperation, in collaboration and with enthusiasm was emphasized, thanks to the receptiveness of the

  15. Radiochemical Determination of Plutonium for Radiological Purposes; Determination Radiochimique du Plutonium a des Fins Radiologiques; Radiokhimicheskoe opredelenie plutoniya dlya tselej radiologii; Determinacion Radioquimica del Plutonio con Fines Radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J. M.; Beasley, T. M. [Chemical Laboratory, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    los distintos procedimientos. Los autores describen procedimiebtos para disolver completamente muestras de excreta, suelos, huesos, tejidos y plantas, insistiendo en la.necesidad de evitar la formacion de compuestos refractarios de plutonio, dificiles de disolver. Exponen metodos analiticos para efectuar el analisis del plutonio en esos materiales e incluyen la coprecipitacion, la extraccion liquido-liquido, la cromatografia de intercambio ionico y el empleo de los isotopos del plutonio para las determinaciones del rendimiento por analisis de la energia alfa. Recurriendo a razonamientos estadisticos, comparan las sensibilidades que es posible alcanzar en el recuento de particulas alfa de baja energia utilizando camaras de ionizacion, contadores proporcionales, contadores de diodo y emulsiones nucleares. Tambien mencionan el analisis isotopico del plutonio mediante la espectrometria alfa, las tecnicas de emulsion nuclear y el recuento por centelleo liquido. . Los autores tratan asimismo del empleo de los portadores no isotopicos como fuentes de actividad extrana y senalan los valores de la actividad del plutonio en el medio ambiente registrados recientemente en diferentes partes del mundo, relacionandolos con el empleo de muestras 'en blanco'. Indican dos metodos que podrian utilizarse para el analisis del plutonio cuando se requiera una sensibilidad mayor. Se trata del analisis por activacion y del recuento de los fragmentos de fision. (author) [Russian] V stat'e rassmatrivajutsja metody, kotorye ispol'zovalis' i ispol'zujutsja v nastojashhee vremja pri opredelenii mikromikrokolichestv plutonija v biologicheskih obrazcah i obrazcah iz okruzhajushhej sredy. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja analizam vydelenij. Predpolagaemaja skorost' vydelenija s mochoj vyschityvalas' na osnove predpolagaemyh urovnej otlozhenija plutonija s tem, chtoby mozhno bylo sravnit' analiticheskuju chuvstvitel'nost' razlichnyh metodov. Daetsja opisanie metodov polnogo rastvorenija vydelenij, pochvy

  16. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  17. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  19. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit

    OpenAIRE

    Martinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  20. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  1. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  2. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  3. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  4. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  5. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  6. Research in computer forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Hor Cheong

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities on the web, this area of study is catching on in the IT industry and among the law enforcement agencies. The objective of the study is to explore the techniques of computer forensics ...

  7. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H

    2017-04-01

    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  8. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur

    2014-01-01

    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  9. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  10. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate

    OpenAIRE

    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  11. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  12. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  15. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  16. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-21

    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  17. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  18. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  19. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  20. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  1. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  2. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  3. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  4. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  5. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  6. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  7. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  8. Forensic importance of jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  9. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  10. Soil Science Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M

    2009-01-01

    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  11. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  12. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  13. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  14. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  15. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  16. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Comparación forense de voces mediante el análisis multidimensional de las pausas llenas

    OpenAIRE

    Cicres, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    En fonética forense, uno de los parámetros utilizados habitualmente en las comparaciones forenses de voces son las pausas llenas (sonidos dubitativos). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar su potencial discriminante y, en consecuencia, su utilidad en la comparación forense de voces con el fin de lograr identificaciones de voz robustas. Para ello, se han analizado variables relacionadas con la estructura de formantes y la cualidad de voz de esta clase de pausas. Los resultados muestran que l...

  18. CYBER FORENSICS COMPETENCY-BASED FRAMEWORK - AREVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas

    2011-01-01

    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  19. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  20. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  1. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  2. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  3. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  4. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  5. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  6. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  7. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  8. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  9. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  10. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  11. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  12. An introduction to computer forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  13. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  14. Forensic applications of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Ernesto N.

    2002-01-01

    Science and the law are considered to be the two main shaping forces in modern societies. The Regional Seminars on Forensic Physics are organized by (mostly CNEA) scientists in Bariloche with a twofold purpose: to increase the participation of researchers as experts witnesses in the solution of legal problems, and to make judges aware of facilities and techniques that might prove useful. Some of the contributions to the last seminar are discussed, ranging from the numerical simulation of mayor explosions to the behavior of snow avalanches, and from the proper control of a trace laboratory to the distribution of words in the plays of Shakespeare. (author)

  15. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  16. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  18. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  19. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. El control penal de las trabajadoras del sexo en el ámbito de las políticas contra la trata de mujeres con fines de explotación sexual (el caso español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Iglesias Skulj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo retoma los cambios tanto en el ámbito del control de los flujos migratorios como en la emergencia de nuevas subjetividades políticas con el objeto de analizar el fenómeno de las migraciones femeninas. Asimismo, sugiere reexaminar el discurso de la protección de los derechos humanos construido con lógicas securitarias. Para ello se propone explorar las formas en las cuales el género y la sexualidad son visibilizados por las normas y los regímenes de control para producir diferenciaciones y estratificaciones entre la soberanía, las formas de trabajo y la ciudadanía. Por último, se consideran las nuevas gramáticas de control y las tecnologías activadas por el riesgo en el supuesto particular de la trata de mujeres para explotación sexual.

  1. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  2. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  3. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  4. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  5. Evaluación de residuos de la industria forestal por un sistema de FSS de presacarificación con fines a la producción de alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo se pretende colaborar en el desarrollo de la tecnología para la transformación de materiales lignocelulósicos en bioetanol mediante un proceso eficiente y económicamente rentable que facilite su implementación a nivel industrial. En un sistema de fermentación sólida se trataron residuos de la industria forestal mediante un procedimiento en dos etapas.Primero se inoculó el material con microorganismos que presentan actividad ligninolítica (Tramentes versicolor y Pleurotusostreatus y luego con microorganismos con actividad celulolítica (Trichoderma reesei. Para evaluar los resultados se determinó el contenido de azúcares fermentables, donde pudo observarse que las muestrastratadas con hongos mostraron un mayor contenido al ser comparadas con muestras sin tratar. Otros parámetros evaluados fueron el ADF y el NDF, los cuales descendieron en el material tratado, manifestando una probable predigestión. Se realizaron medidas de absorbancia a longitudes de onda entre 200nm y 400nm para evaluar los productos de degradación de lignina, observándose un aumento en las muestras tratadas. Para evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento se realizaron sacarificaciones enzimáticas sobre el material tratado y el material sin tratar, determinándose luego por DNS los azúcares reductores obtenidos. El resultado determinó que con el tratamiento se obtuvo un aumento en los azúcares del 45 %.El aumento en los rendimientos obtenidos permite considerar su utilización como metodología de presacarificación de bajo costo. Se considera promisoria la aplicabilidad del proceso y debido a la variabilidad obtenida se seguirá trabajando en su optimización.AbstractThis work intends to collaborate in the development of the technology needed to transform lignocellulosic materials into bioethanol through a process that is both eficient and profitable so it can be deployed in the industry. In a system of solid fermentation, waste from the

  6. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  7. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: tumey2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  8. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intervención didáctica para la enseñanza de la farmacología en las clases de inglés con fines específicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Molina Raad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cualitativo de intervención, con el objetivo de determinar el vocabulario relacionado con la farmacología, necesario para desarrollar las clases de inglés médico en la carrera de Medicina de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas. El grupo de estudio estuvo constituido por los estudiantes y profesores del 5to año de la carrera de Medicina del curso 2011-2012. Las variables fueron la preparación del colectivo de profesores, las afecciones clínicas incluidas en el programa, los grupos farmacológicos implicados y el nombre en inglés de medicamentos específicos. La información se obtuvo de los libros de textos y los trabajos independientes realizados por los estudiantes. Se constató que la preparación profesional de los docentes en el área de la farmacología depende de la disponibilidad de diccionarios actualizados y de los conocimientos que estos han ido adquiriendo de forma empírica. Se observó una tendencia en los estudiantes a relacionar nombres de medicamentos, cuyas pronunciaciones se desconocen, lo cual entorpece la adquisición correcta del contenido lingüístico en inglés. Se evidenció que cuando se trabajan los grupos farmacológicos con un limitado número de medicamentos específicos y reconocidos, se logra un mejor desempeño lingüístico en los estudiantes.

  10. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  11. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  12. Gobernabilidad desde las agrupaciones usuarias del agua con fines agrícolas en 8 municipios del territorio de la Mancomunidad de Municipios de la cuenca del río Naranjo (MANCUERNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Orozco, Nick Kenner; Mux, Victor

    2011-01-01

    En Guatemala, para alcanzar los Objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio se implemen- tan Programas Conjuntos con el apoyo del Sistema de Naciones Unidas. Existen en la actualidad cinco Programas Conjuntos apoyando temas de seguridad alimen- taria, construcción de la paz, cambio climático, género y gobernabilidad económi- ca del agua. En el marco del programa conjunto: “Gobernabilidad económica en agua y sanea- miento” se decidió realizar un estudio que permitiera conocer la goberna...

  13. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  14. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-01-01

    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  15. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  16. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  17. A history of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-04-01

    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  19. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  1. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  2. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  3. Prostitución y trata de seres humanos con fines de explotación sexual : análisis de la situación actual a través de los anuncios de contactos

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez García, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    La trata de personas es una forma de esclavitud moderna, una violación de derechos humanos que en el 90% de los casos tiene como fin la explotación sexual femenina, bien iniciándolas en la prostitución o en la pornografía, o utilizándolas para el turismo sexual. La prostitución no es una expresión de libertad sexual de la mujer, sino que tiene que ver con la violencia, la marginación, la dificultad económica y la cultura sexista y patriarcal. A pesar de esto, es un negocio que ha ...

  4. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  5. ¿QUIÉN EJERCE LA AUDITORÍA FORENSE EN LOS DELITOS ECONÓMICOS Y FINANCIEROS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pantoja Bravo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la labor del Auditor Forense en el fraude empresarial destacando el papel del Contador, su responsabilidad y su ética, mostrando un caso real de maquillaje de balances de la experiencia del autor, la definición de error y fraude, auditoría financiera, para concluir con la respuesta de que profesional debe ejercer la Auditoría Forense en los delitos económicos y financieros.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  10. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  11. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  13. Forensic seismology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  14. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  15. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  16. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  17. Home - Virginia Department of Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collecting DNA Data Bank Samples Forensic Training Forensic Science Academy Short Course Schedule Forensic gross weights, marijuana food products and search warrant cases. Click anywhere on the image to open the -screen comparison software system to perform and document the comparison. Virginia DNA Data Bank

  18. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dental practitioners of the crucial role of dentist in victim's identification and ... role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following ... matrimonial, or financial reasons6. The first and .... chief physician during the systematic extermination of the Jews at ... of police officers with forensic pathologist and forensic.

  19. Mensajes con fines publicitarios que tornan en Relaciones Públicas en las redes sociales: el caso de Starbucks España y Cash Converters España. The messages for advertising purposes which turn in Public Relations in social networks: the case of Starbucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Carballo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDesde tiempo atrás, la publicidad ha sufrido un deterioro en su credibilidad y ha perdido la confianza de sus públicos, siendo así su efectividad menos notoria. Esta mala imagen ha ido aun peor con el aumento de publicidad en Internet, el abuso de los banners, los mailings y las ventanas emergentes conocidas como spam. Los usuarios rechazan todo tipo de mensaje que tenga un carácter puramente comercial, con las características propias de los mensajes publicitarios. Es por ello, que como se está observando la publicidad no funciona y las organizaciones recurren a las relaciones públicas por se éstas más efectivas y adecuadas para alcanzar los objetivos organizacionales.Starbucks España y Cash Converters España son de las pocas organizaciones que actúan en el mercado español que llevan a cabo este tipo de estrategia comunicativa en las redes sociales, y por lo tanto, han sido elegidas para su análisis. Es objeto de estudio aquellos mensajes comunicativos emitidos por las organizaciones, dirigidos a sus públicos que se encuentran en las redes sociales. Estos mensajes con fines puramente publicitarios reciben un tratamiento que es propio y reconocido como acciones de relaciones públicas. Esta nueva forma comunicativa parece que será el futuro próximo en las comunicaciones y relaciones de las organizaciones con sus públicos en estas plataformas sociales.AbstractFor many years the credibility of advertising has deteriorated and has lost the trust audiences, thereby reducing its effectiveness. This negative image has been magnified through Internet advertising, the abuse of banners, mailings and spam windows. Users reject every kind of message that has a purely commercial nature, with the characteristics of advertising messages. Therefore, as we are seeing that advertising does not work and organizations use public relations to be more effective and appropriate them to achieve organizational objectives.Starbucks and Cash

  20. System Support for Forensic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  1. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  2. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  3. La informática forense y los delitos informáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Canedo Estrada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo da una mirada general acerca de la informática forense, su definición y su implicaciónen la forma como se trata la información en el mundo. Además, muestra la importancia de lainformática forense y su puesta en práctica de manera efectiva, de la mano con diferentesherramientas tecnológicas. En definitiva, explica su aplicación, así como la legislación existenteen materia de delitos informáticos en nuestro país.Palabras claves: Informática forense, delito informático, auditoría informática, seguridad. AbstractThis paper gives a general look about the forensic computer science, its definition and maincharacteristics. Also, it shows the importance that the forensic computer science is put into practicein an effective way, together with deferent technology tools. Finally, explains the application, aswell the existent legislation for computer science crime in our country. Key Words: Forensic computer science, computer science crime, computer science audit,computer science security, technology and tools.

  4. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  5. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  7. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...

  8. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  9. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  10. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  11. Maltrato infantil: normatividad y psicología forense

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo A. Hernández M.; Ángela C. Tapias S.

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo documental, de carácter pedagógico, está dirigido a profesionales que trabajen con casos de maltrato infantil. Introduce al lector sobre la normatividad y las instituciones que se encargan de la protección y atención al menor maltratado, además de los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica forense utilizados. Se presenta el aporte de la psicología jurídica para probar el daño psicológico. Finalmente, se propone como plan de acción recurrir a mecanismos alternativos, menos ...

  12. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  14. Traducción comentada : transcripción y traducción forenses

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Vega, Mª del Pilar

    2016-01-01

    El documento objeto de esta investigación y traducción es un texto sobre la transcripción y traducción forenses. En él se abordan los problemas más habituales a los que se tienen que enfrentar los profesionales de este campo, tales como: 1. falta de concienciación social y del sistema jurídico estadounidense sobre la importancia de tener transcriptores y traductores forenses cualificados, 2. los problemas judiciales que una persona con bajo nivel de inglés padece como consecuencia...

  15. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  16. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  17. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  19. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  20. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  2. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decad...

  3. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  4. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  5. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  6. Biopsia por aspiración y supresión con hormonas tiroideas en el diagnóstico de cáncer tiroideo: comparación con la cirugía en 77 nódulos hipocaptantes Fine-Needle aspiration biopsy and suppression with thyroid hormone in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Aristizábal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 77 pacientes con nódulos tiroideos hipocaptantes, demostrados por gamagrafía, por medio de biopsia tiroidea por aspiración y terapia supresiva con hormonas tiroideas durante 6 meses o más. Se realizó estudio ecográfico del nódulo antes de iniciar la terapia y seis meses después de estarla administrando. Todos fueron intervenidos porque en ninguno desapareció el nódulo con la terapia, a pesar de que se obtuvo supresión de la tirotrofina en plasma. La biopsia tiroidea por aspiración (BT A fue Interpretada en todos los pacientes como bocio coloide o nodular o neoplasia folicular. En contraste, en el estudio de la pieza quirúrgica 52 pacientes presentaron bocio nodular, multinodular o coloide; 16 tenían carcinomas (12 papilares y 4 foliculares y 9 tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Contrariamente a lo esperado se observó que 5 de loS carcinomas (31.3% disminuyeron de volumen durante el tratamiento hormonal; de acuerdo a la ecografía la disminución promedio fue 0.41 cm3. En cambio 4 de los 52 nódulos benignos (7.7% aumentaron de volumen, en promedio 3.7 cm3. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la prueba de supresión con hormonas tiroideas no es confiable para definir si una lesión es benigna o maligna. En el estudio quirúrgico se demostró que 20.8% (16/77 de los nódulos eran carcinomas. A la luz de estos datos la biopsia por aspiración no estableció por lo general el diagnóstico de carcinoma; por ello se debe recurrir a la cirugía aunque la biopsia sea negativa.

    Seventy-seven patients with cold thyroid nodules were studied with flne-needle aspiration biopsy and suppression with thyroid hormone. The volume of the nodule was calculated ultrasonographycally at the beginning of the study and after six months of oral therapy with thyroglobulin, at doses sufficient to maintain TSH at the low limits of the normal

  7. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  8. Biopsia por punción con aguja fina sin aspiración en el diagnóstico prequirúrgico del nódulo del tiroides Fine needle biopsy without aspiration in the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ochoa Torres

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió un grupo de 100 pacientes operados de nódulo único del tiroides en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital “Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo”, para validar el método de la biopsia por punción con aguja fina sin aspiración (citopunción en el diagnóstico prequirúrgico de esa afección. A cada paciente se le realizó una citopunción con aguja No. 25 antes de la intervención quirúrgica; los resultados se clasificaron en negativos (benignos y positivos (malignos y sospechosos y la histología posoperatoria, en benigna y maligna, según los intereses de nuestro trabajo y de criterios preestablecidos en el Departamento de Anatomía Patológica del hospital. El 100 % de las muestras fue útil para diagnóstico con una correspondencia entre citopunción e histología del 83 %. Los valores de los indicadores de validación fueron: sensibilidad: 76 %, especificidad: 85 %, valor predictivo positivo: 57 %, valor predictivo negativo: 93 % y eficacia general del método: 85 %. Concluimos que la citopunción es un método diagnóstico útil en el nódulo único del tiroides y que logra iguales resultados que la BAF, pero la primera es más recomendable por ser de más fácil aplicación, menos traumático y más económico.A group of 100 patients operated on of thyroid nodule at the Service of General Surgery of “Comandante Manuel Fajardo” Hospital was studied aimed at validating the method of biopsy by fine needle puncture without aspiration (cytopuncture in the presurgical diagnosis of this disease. Every patient underwent cytopuncture with needle No. 25 before the operation. The results were classified into negative (benign and positive (malignant and suspected, and postoperative histology into benign and malignant, according to the interests of our investigation and to the criteria preestablished at the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the hospital. 100 % of the samples were useful for the diagnosis with a correspondence

  9. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  10. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  11. La informática forense y los delitos informáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Canedo Estrada

    2010-01-01

    ResumenEste artículo da una mirada general acerca de la informática forense, su definición y su implicaciónen la forma como se trata la información en el mundo. Además, muestra la importancia de lainformática forense y su puesta en práctica de manera efectiva, de la mano con diferentesherramientas tecnológicas. En definitiva, explica su aplicación, así como la legislación existenteen materia de delitos informáticos en nuestro país.Palabras claves: Informática forense, delito informático, audi...

  12. UN ACERCAMIENTO A LOS DESARROLLOS INVESTIGATIVOS EN LA AUDITORÍA FORENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Felipe Arbeláez C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, está enfocado a responder ¿Cuáles son los desarrollos investigativos relacionados con la auditoría forense?; y está sujeto a la tesis de grado de maestría “Enseñanza de la auditoría en el Programa de Contaduría Pública de la Universidad de la Amazonia bajo el enfoque del control latino y anglosajón”. En esta medida, se realizó un estudio documental en el que se pudo inferir que la auditoría forense es aquella labor que se enfoca en la prevención y detección del fraude nanciero; razón por la cual, los resultados del trabajo del Auditor Forense, generalmente son puestos a consideración de la justicia.

  13. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  14. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  15. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  16. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  17. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  19. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...... is on crime cases as these differ from the other types of cases since the biological material often is used for person identification contrary to affinity. Common to all cases, however, is that the DNA is used as evidence in order to assess the probability of observing the biological material given different...... of the DNA evidence under competing hypotheses the biological evidence may be used in the court’s deliberation and trial on equal footing with other evidence and expert statements. These probabilities are based on population genetic models whose assumptions must be validated. The thesis’s first two articles...

  2. A brief overview of forensic herpetology

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of forensic herpetology is reviewed. This research focus, defined here as the application of science to studies of reptiles and amphibians when these animals become the subject of legal investigations, has gained increasing attention in recent years. A diverse range of experts contributes to methods in forensic herpetology including forensic scientists, herpetologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, physicians, pathologists and toxicologists. The English language literature in ...

  3. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  4. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  5. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

    2014-10-01

    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  7. Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    2011-01-01

    Law practitioners are in an uninterrupted battle with criminals in the application of digital/computertechnologies, and require the development of a proper methodology to systematically searchdigital devices for significant evidence. Computer fraud and digital crimes are growing day by dayand unfortunately less than two percent of the reported cases result in confidence. This paperexplores the development of the digital forensics process model, compares digital forensicmethodologies, and fina...

  8. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  9. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  10. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  11. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  12. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  13. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  16. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  17. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  18. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  19. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  20. 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference, ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for

  1. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

    2011-07-01

    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

  2. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  3. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  4. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  5. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  6. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  7. Conversando con...Momoyo Kaijima

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alonso, Carlos; Álvarez Isidro, Eva; Torres Barchino, Ana

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Momoyo Kaijima es profesora en la Facultad de Arte y Diseño de la Universidad de Tsukuba en la Prefectura de Ibaraki y profesora visitante en la ETH de Zürich, en Royal Academy of Fine Arts, en Rice School of Architecture y en Harvard GSD. A lo largo de los años, Atelier Bow Wow ha colaborado con Krešimir Rogina, arquitecto de Zagreb y socio de la firma internacional Penezic&Rogina, en la realización del Grožnjan International Summer School of Architecture, siendo Rogina el nexo indispen...

  8. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  9. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  10. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  11. Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, L.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance

  12. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that...

  13. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  14. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  16. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  17. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  18. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution.

  19. Suicide among forensic psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C; Smith, J; Crowe, C; Donovan, M

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the problem of suicide among patients discharged from a Regional Secure Unit. The stereotype that emerges is a young man with anti-social personality traits, suffering from an affective psychosis, with a history of substance abuse and impulsive violence directed both towards himself and others, who is alienated from care staff and social supports because of his provocative and uncooperative behaviour. In contrast with the general population, forensic patients are more likely to commit suicide using a violent method and are more likely to have a suicide verdict recorded by the coroner. The implications of these findings for treatment and preventive interventions are discussed.

  20. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the studies carried out on cements with the addition of flying ash refer to their characteristics and behaviours in pastes, mortars and concretes, always in relation with Portland cement. This time, there has been developed an experimental work oriented to relate between themselves the cements with additions of flying ash and of natural puzzolan. For this there were manufactured on laboratory scale cements of both types, using the same raw materials, clinker and plaster, and as variables, different percentages of the two additions, which previously complied with the standard requisites concerning their puzzolanic (?? activities. The quality of the cements manufactured was adequate and in accord with that of Portland-puzzolanic (?? cement obtained on an industrial scale with the same clinkers, plaster and natural puzzolan (?? of this study. Later there were determined the characteristics of the experimental cements and normal mortars were prepared for carrying out physical and mechanical tests. The test results indicated that the cements with addition of flying ash (CCV require less water for normal consistency, present greater times of forging and fewer expansions in autoclave than the cements with the addition of puzzolan (CP. The hydration heats at 7 and 28 days were approximately similar for both types of cement. In normal mortars, the CCV cements showed less retraction of drying, greater retentivenness and greater fluidity (for the same quantity of water than the CP cements. In the exudation tests it was observed that this depends more on the fineness than the type of addition. Finally, the mechanical tests showed that the resistances to compression and flexotraction of the mortars with CCV cements are lesser at ages less than 14 days (about 5 to 10% at one day of age, but from then on become greater than those of mortars with CP cements, with growing differences which reach 15% in compression tests, at 120 days of age, for

  1. Teaching forensic pathology to undergraduates at Zhongshan School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Su, Terry; Zhao, Qian-Hao; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Jian-Ding

    2018-04-01

    Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education. In the past few years, this model has resulted in numerous notable forensic students accomplishing achievements in forensic practice and forensic scientific research. We therefore expect this pedagogical model to establish the foundation for forensic pathological education and other subspecialties of forensic medicine in China and abroad.

  2. Forensic Experts′ Opinion Regarding Clinical Forensic Medicine Practice in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanusha Nair Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical forensic medicine is a progressing branch. In Indonesia and Malaysia, there is inadequate information regarding this practice. It is always unclear about the job scopes and practitioners involved in this field. The study outlined in this article is aimed to explore the current clinical forensic medicine practice compared to existing systematic practice globally and hence analyzing for presence of difference in this practice between these two countries. A qualitative study was conducted by forensic experts in Indonesia and Malaysia from September to November 2015. In-depth interview was carried out to obtain data which were then validated using literature and legal documents in Indonesia and Malaysia known as the triangulation validation method. Data were presented in narrative form. In Indonesia, forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine were approached as one whereas in Malaysia separately. This practice was conducted by a general practitioner in collaboration with other specialists if needed in Indonesia; whereas, in Malaysia, this practice was conducted by forensic pathologists or medical officers in the absence of forensic pathologists. Both Indonesia and Malaysia followed the continental regimen in practicing clinical forensic medicine. There was still a lack of involvement of doctors in this field due to lack of understanding of clinical forensic medicine. The current clinical forensic medicine practice has not developed much and has no much difference in both countries. The gap between the current practice with systematic practice cannot be justified due to the absence of one standardized code of practice.

  3. Aplicaciones de la genética molecular en la practica forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. Ramos M.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el desarrollo de las huellas digitales a finales del siglo XIX, la tipificación del ADN por VNTR, representa la innovación más poderosa que se haya desarrollado en las ciencias forenses durante el siglo XX. Con el descubrimiento en 1980 del polimorfismo del ADN en el genoma humano y con la subsecuente demostración de que tal hipervariabilidad esta ampliamente distribuida en los humanos, las ciencias forenses han reconocido el enorme potencial que ofrece la tipificación del ADN para la identificación de un individuo a partir de una muestra biológica dejada en la escena del crimen. La utilidad de la tipificación del ADN como herramienta forense recae no solo en su alto poder de discriminación entre los individuos de una población, sino también porque se pueden utilizar muchos materiales de origen biológico, en diferentes circunstancias, que de otra manera serian inútiles en las pruebas de tipificación tradicional. El debate actual sobre las pruebas de ADN pone de relieve la necesidad de imponer un mayor rigor ante las dificultades que aparecen cuando una tecnología científica bastante compleja se introduce como prueba ante un tribunal de justicia. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones sobre el uso del polimorfismo del ADN en la medicina forense. En Colombia se deben establecer criterios nacionales para que las pruebas forenses del ADN sirvan a los intereses de la justicia, bien sea para identificar a un criminal o para absolver a un inocente.

  4. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  5. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Venchiarutti, C.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent–daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. - Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation formulae for age dating with nuclear chronometers. • Applied to parent–daughter pairs used in nuclear forensics. • Investigated need for better half-life data

  6. Automatización y computación distribuida para laboratorios de informática forense

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Leopoldo Sebastián M.; Herrera, Hernán Horacio; Uribe, Federico

    2016-01-01

    El crecimiento del volumen digital en las pericias informáticas es uno de los factores críticos que lleva al colapso de los laboratorios de informática forense y al aumento de las listas de espera de casos en trámite. Urge entonces comenzar a transitar un nuevo camino en lo que refiere a aspectos metodológicos, junto con la aplicación de nuevas técnicas y herramientas de informática forense apoyadas en recursos tecnológicos que provean una razonable capacidad de cómputo y de almacenamiento ma...

  7. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  8. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  9. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  10. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  11. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  12. A SYSTEM OF PROCEDURES BY PROJECTS FOR THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS OF READING COMPREHENSION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / SISTEMA DE PROCEDIMIENTOS POR PROYECTOS PARA EL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE DE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LENGUAS EXTRANJERAS CON FINES ACADÉMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Velia Domínguez León

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the teaching-learning process of reading comprehension in foreign languages for academic purposes in Cuban universities leads to search for didactic alternatives for its improvement. Hence, in the present work, it is proposed a system of procedures through the method of project work, which allowed students to process textual information from different sources in an effective way and communicate this knowledge in diverse formative contexts. It was also carried out a partial exemplification of this contribution, whose process of evaluation corroborated the feasibility and relevancy for its application, as well as its possibility of adaptation and implementation in other subjects of the English Language Discipline and other foreign languages studied in Cuban Higher Education. In this sense, the qualitative interpretation of the reached results showed an evolution in the teaching-learning process object of investigation, strengthening this way, the apprentices’ level of access to information through the analysis and contextualization, in order to achieve a better academic and professional formation. RESUMEN La dinámica del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la comprensión lectora en lenguas extranjeras con fines académicos en las universidades cubanas conlleva a una búsqueda de alternativas didácticas para su perfeccionamiento. Es por ello, que en el presente trabajo se propone un sistema de procedimientos a través del método de trabajo por proyectos, que les permitió a los estudiantes procesar información textual proveniente de diferentes fuentes de manera efectiva y comunicar estos conocimientos en diversos contextos formativos. Se realizó, de igual forma, una ejemplificación parcial de dicho aporte, cuyo proceso evaluativo corroboró la factibilidad y pertinencia para su aplicación, así como su posibilidad de adaptación e implementación en otras asignaturas de la Disciplina Idioma Inglés y otras lenguas

  13. A fine art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, G.; Raaff, T. [Andritz AG (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The paper describes a new dewatering system for coal fines which challenges established processes by using screenbowl centrifuge and hyperbaric filter combinations. Company acquisitions over the past three to four years enabled Andritz AG to develop a new system combining two technologies. The article describes the benefits of the combination process and explains the basic operation of these machines. 4 figs.

  14. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  15. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  16. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  17. Psychological effects of violence on forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Katherine K; Cabelus, Nancy B

    2003-11-01

    1. Forensic nurses frequently work in violent settings without regard for self-preservation to save the lives of injured individuals or investigate the deaths of deceased individuals. 2. Cases involving children and victims with disfiguring injuries, and incidents when their personal safety was compromised are most disturbing to forensic nurses. 3. Providing means for health care professionals to cope appropriately encourages healthy healing. 4. Forensic nurses must learn to self-assess and recognize the signs and symptoms associated with unhealthy coping, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  18. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of ...

  19. Maltrato infantil: normatividad y psicología forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Hernández M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo documental, de carácter pedagógico, está dirigido a profesionales que trabajen con casos de maltrato infantil. Introduce al lector sobre la normatividad y las instituciones que se encargan de la protección y atención al menor maltratado, además de los instrumentos de evaluación psicológica forense utilizados. Se presenta el aporte de la psicología jurídica para probar el daño psicológico. Finalmente, se propone como plan de acción recurrir a mecanismos alternativos, menos punitivos, concretamente a los mecanismos de la justicia restaurativa.

  20. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  1. Cybercrime, digital forensics and jurisdiction

    CERN Document Server

    Chawki, Mohamed; Khan, Mohammad Ayoub; Tyagi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of law is to prevent the society from harm by declaring what conduct is criminal, and prescribing the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. The pervasiveness of the internet and its anonymous nature make cyberspace a lawless frontier where anarchy prevails. Historically, economic value has been assigned to visible and tangible assets. With the increasing appreciation that intangible data disseminated through an intangible medium can possess economic value, cybercrime is also being recognized as an economic asset. The Cybercrime, Digital Forensics  and Jurisdiction disseminate knowledge for everyone involved with understanding and preventing cybercrime - business entities, private citizens, and government agencies. The book is firmly rooted in the law demonstrating that a viable strategy to confront cybercrime must be international in scope.

  2. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  3. Digital Forensics in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRASCU, A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a rather new technology which has the goal of efficiently usage of datacenter resources and offers them to the users on a pay per use model. In this equation we need to know exactly where and how a piece of information is stored or processed. In today's cloud deployments this task is becoming more and more a necessity and a must because we need a way to monitor user activity, and furthermore, in case of legal actions, we must be able to present digital evidence in a way in which it is accepted. In this paper we are going to present a modular and distributed architecture that can be used to implement a cloud digital forensics framework on top of new or existing datacenters.

  4. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  5. Forensic psychiatry in Africa: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health professionals burdened with large numbers of patients.6. In most ... by the courts for forensic assessments and testimony in the region. .... A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre- ... Homicide and suicide in Benin-.

  6. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.

  7. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  8. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  9. Forensic Accounting And Financial Crisis In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Osuagwwu

    findings of the study show that forensic accounting is significant in the face of the increasing ... and the more sophisticated Information. Communication. Technology. (ICT), .... (9) studied the impact ... financial reporting and internal control.

  10. WHATSAPP FORENSICS PADA ANDROID SMARTPHONE : A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnaen Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu applikasi jejaring sosial yang sangat populer saat ini adalah WhatsApp. Hampir seluruh pengguna smartphone menggunakan applikasi ini sebagai media komunikasi. Berbagai macam perkembangan atau fitur baru telah banyak ditambahkan pengembang sebagai fasilitas yang dapat memanjakan para pengguna. Peranan sistem keamanan tentunya sangat penting untuk menunjang keamanan privasi para pengguna agar kerahasiaan tetap terjaga. Beberapa peneliti telah banyak melakukan experimen mobile forensics untuk mendapatkan berbagai informasi dari para pengguna WhatsApp. Pada paper ini membahas survey berbagai metoda dari berbagai para peneliti WhatsApp forensics. Dalam sebuah proses mobile metoda yang digunakan dalam proses forensics antara lain menggunakan internet protocol dan live memory. Untuk proses mobile forensics khususnya pada applikasi WhatsApp dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda tersebut untuk memperoleh data informasi yang dibutuhkan.

  11. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John; Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  12. Brain injury in a forensic psychiatry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.

  13. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  14. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  15. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  16. PBX Security and Forensics A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I

    2013-01-01

    PBX Security and Forensics begins with an introduction to PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) and the scene, statistics and involved actors. This book discusses confidentiality, integrity and availability threats in PBXs. The author examines the threats and the technical background as well as security and Forensics involving PBXs. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in PBXs, helping both users and administrators safeguard their systems.

  17. Death: clinical and forensic anthropological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati

    2015-01-01

    All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after death—which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...

  18. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  19. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  20. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  1. Principal forensic physicians as educational supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M

    2009-10-01

    This research project was performed to assist the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) with the development of a training programme for Principal Forensic Physicians (PFPs) (Since this research was performed the Metropolitan Police Service have dispensed with the services of the Principal Forensic Physicians so currently (as of January 2009) there is no supervision of newly appointed FMEs or the development training of doctors working in London nor any audit or appraisal reviews.) to fulfil their role as educational supervisors. PFPs working in London were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the extent of their knowledge with regard to their role in the development training of all forensic physicians (FPs) in their group, the induction of assistant FPs and their perceptions of their own training needs with regard to their educational role. A focus group was held at the FFLM annual conference to discuss areas of interest that arose from the preliminary results of the questionnaire. There is a clear need for the FFLM to set up a training programme for educational supervisors in clinical forensic medicine, especially with regard to appraisal. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  2. Peritajes psicológicos forenses en decisiones judiciales de primera instancia en delitos sexuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena M. Rudas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la importancia de los informes psicológicos forenses en la toma de decisiones judiciales de primera instancia en delitos sexuales en la ciudad de Barranquilla (Colombia mediante un enfoque cuantitativo de alcance descriptivo. Se analizaron diversas variables con el propósito de categorizar si en las sentencias judiciales se menciona la pericial por el juez al momento de dictarlas, y cuál es el valor diferencial de los informes psicológicos forenses. También se revisó la concordancia entre la decisión final del juez y los resultados plasmados en el informe psicológico. Como conclusión significativa se obtuvo que en el 80 % de las sentencias hubo mención a la pericial por el juez al fundamentar su decisión; en un 80 % de los casos el juez tomó la decisión de manera concordante con los resultados del informe psicológico. Como conclusión se plantea que para la Administración de Justicia se requiere personal auxiliar especializado y que el psicólogo jurídico en función forense funge como fuente directa de conocimiento, y se constituye en un medio de convicción apreciable.

  3. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  4. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the

  5. The modeling of a digital forensic readiness approach to WLAN digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available digital forensics is seen as not only a counterproposal but as a solution to the rapid increase of cyber crime in WLANs. The key issue impacting WLAN digital forensics is that, it is an enormous challenge to intercept and preserve all the communications...

  6. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  7. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  8. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2017-07-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Book Review: The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sammons, John. (2012. The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 208 pages, Print Book ISBN: 9781597496612.eBook ISBN : 9781597496629. Print: US $29.95. eBook: US$20.97. Includes exercises, case studies, references, and index.Reviewed by Stephen Larson, PhD. Assistant Professor, Slippery Rock University of PAThe Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics is well-named–it really is very basic. And it should be, as the book’s intended audience includes entry-level digital forensics professionals and complimentary fields such as law enforcement, legal, and general information security. Though the copyright is 2012, some of the data is from 2009, and there is mention of estimates for 2010.(see PDF for full review

  10. UN ACERCAMIENTO A LOS DESARROLLOS INVESTIGATIVOS EN LA AUDITORÍA FORENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Felipe Arbeláez C.; Lucelly Correa Cruz; Johana Silva Silva

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo, está enfocado a responder ¿Cuáles son los desarrollos investigativos relacionados con la auditoría forense?; y está sujeto a la tesis de grado de maestría “Enseñanza de la auditoría en el Programa de Contaduría Pública de la Universidad de la Amazonia bajo el enfoque del control latino y anglosajón”. En esta medida, se realizó un estudio documental en el que se pudo inferir que la auditoría forense es aquella labor que se enfoca en la prevención y detección del fraude na...

  11. Forensic and non-forensic psychiatric nursing skills and competencies for psychopathic and personality disordered patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Matt; Mason, Tom

    2012-12-01

    To understand better the skills and competencies for forensic and non-forensic nursing of psychopathic and personality disordered patients. In the UK, there has been growing interest in service provision for this client group, but with little research to support the nursing skills required. A non-experimental design, using a postal survey to 990 forensic and 500 non-forensic nurses. An information gathering schedule was used to generate data about the most desirable skills and competencies and least desirable weaknesses and nursing attributes to nurse this group. The results for the forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being firm, setting limits and defining boundaries. Main weaknesses: inability to engage, inability to resolve conflict and impatience. Main skills and competencies: being non-threatening, non-judgemental and able to expect anything. Least desirable qualities: over-reacting, being judgemental and over-confrontational. The results for the non-forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being non-judgemental, listening skills and good risk assessment. Main weaknesses: frustration with the system, a fear of aggression and no skills to engage. Main skills and competencies: being open-minded, non-judgemental and forming relationships. Least desirable qualities: a supercilious attitude, cynicism and being judgemental. The results highlight the importance of forming therapeutic relationships as the bedrock of both forensic and non-forensic nursing, and they also highlight the important differences with regard to the significance of therapeutic action and therapeutic verbal interaction. The provision of better care for this client group will rely on appropriate training for nurses. This research highlights the need for training that supports the development of engagement skills, communication skills and an ability to use reflection in action as a means of providing therapeutic care. It also highlights the different emphasis on the use of these skills

  12. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  13. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  14. Análisis y estrategias de desarrollo del clúster de la quinua, en el cantón mejía, de la provincia de pichincha, en el marco de la transformación de la matriz productiva, con fines de exportación.

    OpenAIRE

    Bohórquez Montalvo, Diego Fabián

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis se relaciona con la problemática de la quinua en el cantón Mejía, provincia de Pichincha y las oportunidades de internacionalización para los productos con valor agregado, especialmente, TREATS DE QUINUA para mascotas. Es aquí donde inicia este trabajo de graduación cuyo objetivo fue definir la forma en que un Clúster de la Quinua y sus elaborados contribuyan a la transformación de la Matriz Productiva de la Provincia de Pichincha y la exportación de productos, con la recopi...

  15. Robustness and Reliability of the GM Ignition Switch - A forensic Engineering case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Lerche Olesen, Jonas; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses forensic engineering from the perspectives of Robust Design and Reliability Engineering to review one of the most infamous recalls in automotive history, that of the GM ignition switch. The design, engineering and management failures in this case ultimately resulted in a fine of $35...... million, the recall of 2.6 million vehicles and the death of at least 13 people. In a systematic approach, design clarity, tolerance stack-ups, sensitivity analysis, etc. are used to analyse the ignition switch itself and to extend the usual consideration of reliability issues to the impact of variation...

  16. NGST fine guidance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Hutchings, John; Murowinski, Richard G.; Alexander, Russ

    2003-03-01

    Instrumentation for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently in the Phase A definition stage. We have developed a concept for the NGST Fine Guidance Sensor or FGS. The FGS is a detector array based imager which resides in the NGST focal plane. We report here on tradeoff studies aimed at defining an overall configuration of the FGS which will meet the performance and interface requirements. A key performance requirement is a noise equivalent angle of 3 milli-arcseconds to be achieved with 95% probability for any pointing of the observatory in the celestial sphere. A key interface requirement is compatibility with the architecture of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The concept developed consists of two independent and redundant FGS modules, each with a 4' x 2' field of view covered by two 2048 x 2048 infrared detector arrays, providing 60 milli-arcsecond sampling. Performance modeling supporting the choice of this architecture and the trade space considered is presented. Each module has a set of readout electronics which perform star detection, pixel-by-pixel correction, and in fine guiding mode, centroid calculation. These readout electronics communicate with the ISIM Command &Data Handling Units where the FGS control software is based. Rationale for this choice of architecture is also presented.

  17. Good Practices in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript provides an overview for analysts, medical and scientific investigators, and laboratory administrators, the range of factors that should be considered to implement best practice forensic toxicology. These include laboratory influence over the collection of specimens, their proper transport and chain-of-custody before arrival in the laboratory. In addition, the laboratory needs to ensure properly trained staff use suitably validated and documented analytical procedures that meet the intended purpose and type of case in an accredited or suitably quality oriented management system. To assist the investigating officers laboratory results require an interpretation over their possible significance when sufficient details are available over the circumstances of the case. This requires a thorough understanding of the various factors that influence concentrations of substances and ultimately their likely physiological effect. These include consideration of the route of ingestion, influence over chronicity of usage on tissue concentrations and tolerance, possible combined drug effects or likely adverse reactions and consideration of relevant genetic factors that may have influenced pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Leon G; Brosius, Tierney R; Reinhard, Karl J; Carter, David

    2016-09-01

    We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30-90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and vortexed in 10- to 15-sec bursts until all puparia appeared clean (with our samples this required a total of 60-120 sec). (iv) Specimens were removed from the 2% KOH, placed in 75% ethanol, and examined microscopically. (v) Material was stored in 75% ethanol for identification and long-term preservation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  20. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  1. Science Column: Reconstruction: The Experimental Side of Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many in digital forensics seem to forget that the science part of digital forensics means experimentation and that implies a whole lot of things that most practitioners never learned.(see PDF for full column

  2. First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolan, Richard; Baker, Marie; Branson, Jake; Hammerstein, Josh; Rush, Kris; Waits, Cal; Schweinsberg, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics expands on the technical material presented in SEI handbook CMU/SEI-2005-HB-001, First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics [Nolan 05...

  3. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Testing Framework for Mobile Device Forensics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Anobah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile communication and computing devices, in particular smart mobile phones, is almost paralleled with the increasing number of mobile device forensics tools in the market. Each mobile forensics tool vendor, on one hand claims to have a tool that is best in terms of performance, while on the other hand each tool vendor seems to be using different standards for testing their tools and thereby defining what support means differently. To overcome this problem, a testing framework based on a series of tests ranging from basic forensics tasks such as file system reconstruction up to more complex ones countering antiforensic techniques is proposed. The framework, which is an extension of an existing effort done in 2010, prescribes a method to clearly circumscribe the term support into precise levels. It also gives an idea of the standard to be developed and accepted by the forensic community that will make it easier for forensics investigators to quickly select the most appropriate tool for a particular mobile device.

  5. The development and practice of forensic podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Wesley

    2006-01-01

    Forensic podiatry is a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms captured on Closed Circuit Television Cameras. The most valuable techniques relate to the comparison of the foot impressions inside shoes. Tools to describe, measure and compare foot impressions with footwear wear marks have been developed through research with potential for further development. The role of forensic podiatrists is of particular value when dealing with variable factors relating to the functioning and the shod foot. Case studies demonstrate the approach of podiatrists, in footwear identification, when comparing exemplar with questioned foot impressions. Forensic podiatry practice should be approached cautiously and it is essential for podiatrists undertaking this type of work to understand the context within which the process of person identification takes place.

  6. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538

  7. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  8. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  9. Defense Forensic Enterprise: Assessment and Status Report Personnel Accounting Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    pathology , forensic anthropology, forensic toxicology, and DNA analysis to iden- tify human remains. Per DOD Directive 5205.15E, the stakeholders fall...Defense Forensic Enterprise Assessment and Status Report Personnel Accounting Extract Christine A. Hughes • Jeffrey E. Chilton John J. Clifford • C...community-related sections from a CNA report titled, “Defense Forensic Enterprise Assessment and Status Report” [1]. The first sec- tion within this

  10. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  11. A Harmonized Process Model for Digital Forensic Investigation Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Valjarevic , Aleksandar; Venter , Hein

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: FORENSIC MODELS; International audience; Digital forensic readiness enables an organization to prepare itself to perform digital forensic investigations in an efficient and effective manner. The benefits include enhancing the admissibility of digital evidence, better utilization of resources and greater incident awareness. However, a harmonized process model for digital forensic readiness does not currently exist and, thus, there is a lack of effective and standardized implementations...

  12. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  13. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria.

  14. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment... Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement. (a) For the purpose of this subpart B, a... entity incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims of sexual assault...

  15. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  16. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  17. The science and knowledge of forensic odontology: repositioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was based on a survey of the knowledge of forensic odontology among professionals in medicine, dentistry, law and the law enforcement agents. The results show low level knowledge of forensic odontology among the professionals. It is recommended that forensic odontology be introduced as a course in dental ...

  18. Forensic Face Recognition : From characteristic descriptors to strength of evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Christopher Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Forensic Face Recognition (FFR) is the use of biometric face recognition for several appli- cations in forensic science. Biometric face recognition uses the face modality as a means to discriminate between human beings; forensic science is the application of science and tech- nology to law

  19. Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

  20. Preliminary study and Identification of insects' species of forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proper identification of the insect and arthropod species of forensic importance is the most crucial element in the field of forensic entomology. The main objective in this study was the identification of insects' species of forensic importance in Urmia (37°, 33 N. and 45°, 4, 45 E.) and establishment of a preliminary ...

  1. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  2. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  3. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  4. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  5. Forensic SNP genotyping with SNaPshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fondevila, M; Børsting, C; Phillips, C

    2017-01-01

    to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics......This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique...... of an unidentified contact trace donor. However, this technology, as resourceful as it is, displays several features that depart from the usual STR genotyping far enough to demand a certain degree of expertise from the forensic analyst before tackling the complex casework on which SNaPshot application provides...

  6. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M

    2016-03-13

    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  7. Developing a Forensic Continuous Audit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S. Kearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased attention to internal controls and risk assessment, traditional audit approaches do not seem to be highly effective in uncovering the majority of frauds. Less than 20 percent of all occupational frauds are uncovered by auditors. Forensic accounting has recognized the need for automated approaches to fraud analysis yet research has not examined the benefits of forensic continuous auditing as a method to detect and deter corporate fraud. The purpose of this paper is to show how such an approach is possible. A model is presented that supports the acceptance of forensic continuous auditing by auditors and management as an effective tool to support the audit function, meet management’s regulatory objectives, and to combat fraud. An approach to developing such a system is presented.

  8. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  9. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  10. The future of forensic DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  11. Role of Radiology in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging utilizing radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matter pertaining to the law. Postmortem dental radiographs are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during the forensic examination procedures. Pathologists regularly use radiographic images during the course of autopsy to assist them in identification of foreign bodies or determination of death. Forensic radiology can be used in suspicious death or murder, in analysis of adverse medical events, solving legal matters, to detect child abuse, drug trafficking, body identification and disease identification. Using the possibilities of radiology, special characteristics of the internal structures of the dentomaxillofacial region can be revealed. We can also detect endodontic treatments, healing extraction sockets, implants or even tooth colored restoration. Therefore, we can give answers to problems dealing with identification procedures, mass disaster and dental age estimation.

  12. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconstructing recent human phylogenies with forensic STR loci: A statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Faisal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forensic Short Tandem Repeat (STR loci are effective for the purpose of individual identification, and other forensic applications. Most of these markers have high allelic variability and mutation rate because of which they have limited use in the phylogenetic reconstruction. In the present study, we have carried out a meta-analysis to explore the possibility of using only five STR loci (TPOX, FES, vWA, F13A and Tho1 to carry out phylogenetic assessment based on the allele frequency profile of 20 world population and north Indian Hindus analyzed in the present study. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on two different approaches – genetic distance and maximum likelihood along with statistical bootstrapping procedure involving 1000 replicates was carried out. The ensuing tree topologies and PC plots were further compared with those obtained in earlier phylogenetic investigations. The compiled database of 21 populations got segregated and finely resolved into three basal clusters with very high bootstrap values corresponding to three geo-ethnic groups of African, Orientals, and Caucasians. Conclusion Based on this study we conclude that if appropriate and logistic statistical approaches are followed then even lesser number of forensic STR loci are powerful enough to reconstruct the recent human phylogenies despite of their relatively high mutation rates.

  14. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  15. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  16. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.

  17. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  18. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  19. Decapitation in reality and fine art: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Valentina; Savić, Slobodan; Antunović, Vaso; Marinković, Slobodan; Andrieux, Charlotte; Tomić, Irina

    2017-11-01

    The aim of our study was to examine all types of decapitation from forensic literature, including our own case, and to analyze the presentation of beheading in fine art, popular literature, and music. To do this, over 200 scientific articles in regard to decapitation were analyzed, as well as more than 10,000 artworks, and several hundreds of literary works and music pieces. In addition, a macroscopic examination of a decapitated victim was performed. Finally, a multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) examination of the cervical spine in two live volunteers was undertaken to present the osteological relationships. The forensic and criminal investigation revealed that a female victim was murdered by her jealous husband by applying several strikes with an axe, which resulted in an incomplete decapitation. All the main neck structures were transected, including the cervical spine, except a smaller part of the skin and soft tissue in the nuchal region. The mentioned MSCT examination in both the neutral position and flexion showed that the mandible can also be injured in a higher cervical location of the severance line. Various types of beheading were mentioned, including a homicidal, suicidal, accidental, judicial, internal, pathophysiological, and foetal ones. The status of consciousness and emotions in individuals just before and after decapitation was discussed. Finally, it was found that decapitation was the subject of many artists, and some writers and musicians. In conclusion, we presented a rare case of a homicide beheading performed with an axe. In addition, forensic importance of decapitation was discussed, as well as its great medical, social, anthropological, and artistic significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  1. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  2. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  3. Children's developmental characteristics in the forensic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.

  4. Forensic 3D documentation of skin injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible...... methods (p > 0.05). The results of intra- and inter-observer tests indicated perfect agreement between the observers with mean value differences of ≤ 0.02 cm. This study demonstrated the validity of using photogrammetry for documentation of injuries in a forensic pathological context. Importantly...

  5. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian

    2008-07-02

    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  6. The Research on Linux Memory Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Che, ShengBing

    2018-03-01

    Memory forensics is a branch of computer forensics. It does not depend on the operating system API, and analyzes operating system information from binary memory data. Based on the 64-bit Linux operating system, it analyzes system process and thread information from physical memory data. Using ELF file debugging information and propose a method for locating kernel structure member variable, it can be applied to different versions of the Linux operating system. The experimental results show that the method can successfully obtain the sytem process information from physical memory data, and can be compatible with multiple versions of the Linux kernel.

  7. Using noise inconsistencies for blind image forensics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/saic-using%20noise%20inconsistencies%20for%20blind%20image%20forensics.pdf

  8. Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) y su importancia en Entomología Forense e investigación aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Ivorra Cazorla, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp, 1883) es un múscido de origen tropical y subtropical, siendo la única especie conocida dentro del género Synthesiomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893. Se trata de una especie con gran importancia forense para la estimación del intervalo postmortem, en diferentes zonas del mundo (p. ej.: Costa Rica, Estados Unidos, India, Malasia, Tailandia). Su presencia en España y Europa es relativamente reciente y en los últimos años se ha citado con cierta frecuencia en a...

  9. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. © 2013.

  10. Human DNA Extraction by Two Extraction Methods for Forensic Typification from Human Feces on FTA Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Arias, Shirleny Monserrat

    2014-01-01

    La identificación de sospechosos en casos criminales se ha facilitado desde la aplicación de pruebas de ADN a diferentes muestras. El uso de esta técnica para la tipificación forense a partir de muestras fecales humanas aún presenta complicaciones, por lo que en esta investigación se evaluaron dos protocolos de extracción de ADN con ciertas modificaciones para determinar el de mayor efectividad. Se realizaron extracciones orgánicas y mediante el kit comercial “DNA IQTM Casework Sample Kit par...

  11. Nuclear forensics and nuclear analytical chemistry - iridium determination in a referred forensic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Ghosh, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear approaches for compositional characterization has bright application prospect in forensic perspective towards assessment of nature and origin of seized material. The macro and micro physical properties of nuclear materials can be specifically associated with a process or type of nuclear activity. Under the jurisdiction of nuclear analytical chemistry as well as nuclear forensics, thrust areas of scientific endeavor like determination of radioisotopes, isotopic and mass ratios, analysis for impurity contents, arriving at chemical forms/species and physical parameters play supporting evidence in forensic investigations. The analytical methods developed for this purposes can be used in international safeguards as well for nuclear forensics. Nuclear material seized in nuclear trafficking can be identified and a profile of the nuclear material can be created

  12. Digital Records Forensics: A New Science and Academic Program for Forensic Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Duranti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Digital Records Forensics project, a research endeavour located at the University of British Columbia in Canada and aimed at the development of a new science resulting from the integration of digital forensics with diplomatics, archival science, information science and the law of evidence, and of an interdisciplinary graduate degree program, called Digital Records Forensics Studies, directed to professionals working for law enforcement agencies, legal firms, courts, and all kind of institutions and business that require their services. The program anticipates the need for organizations to become “forensically ready,” defined by John Tan as “maximizing the ability of an environment to collect credible digital evidence while minimizing the cost of an incident response (Tan, 2001.” The paper argues the need for such a program, describes its nature and content, and proposes ways of delivering it.

  13. Guidelines for procedures of a harmonised digital forensic process in network forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new computing paradigm that presents fresh research issues in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing builds upon virtualisation technologies and is distributed in nature. Depending on its implementation, the cloud can...

  14. Paciente con esquizofrenia tratado con ziprasidona + clozapina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Yanguas E.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available P es un paciente diagnosticado de esquizofrenia, sigue en un piso tutelado un programa de rehabilitación, está medicado con clozapina 500 mg/día y ziprasidona 280 mg/ día. Padece hipercolesterolemia, tabaquismo y sus hábitos alimenticios no son buenos. La medicación que utiliza desde 2007 hasta ahora se refleja en la tabla 1. El último tratamiento se le introdujo el 7 de agosto de 2012, habiendo presentado un electro cardiograma (ECG normal, pero con ligera taquicardia ventricular y prolactinemia de 44,8 ng/ml (valores normales: 2-18 ng/ml.

  15. Significance of Dental Records in Personal Identification in Forensic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is a branch that connects dentistry and the legal profession. One of the members in the forensic investigation team is a dentist. Dentists play an important and significant role in various aspects of the identification of persons in various forensic circumstances. However, several dentists and legal professionals are quite ignorant of this fascinating aspect of forensic odontology. A need was felt to fill this gap. The dental record is a legal document possessed by the dentist and it contains subjective and objective information about the patient. A PubMed search and Google search were done for articles highlighting the importance of dental records in forensic sciences using the key words "forensic odontology, forensic dentistry, forensic dentists, identification, dental records, and dental chart". A total of 42 articles relevant to the title of the article were found and reviewed. The present article highlights the role of dentists in forensic sciences, their possible contributions to forensics, and the various aspects of forensic dentistry, thus bridging the gap of knowledge between the legal and the dental fraternities.

  16. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  17. Herramientas de análisis forense y su aplicabilidad en la investigación de delitos informáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Arnedo-Blanco, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    El aumento progresivo de la tecnología, en lo referente a equipos informáticos y de telecomunicaciones con acceso a internet, ha traído como consecuencia que se incremente de manera significativa los incidentes de seguridad informática. Aquí es donde entra a jugar un papel importante la informática forense, la cual se enfoca en la búsqueda de posibles autores de delitos informáticos. La informática forense aplica una serie de técnicas y métodos de investigación que permiten reconstruir,...

  18. Metodología y caso práctico de análisis forense en iOS 10

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Lorente, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este Trabajo Final de Master es realizar una metodología para el Análisis Forense Digital adaptada a dispositivos de Apple con Sistema Operativo iOS 10. Se hará un recorrido sobre el estado del arte en las principales herramientas de Análisis Forense de iOS existentes, tanto herramientas open source como propietarias y se validará el correcto funcionamiento en iOS 10 de las herramientas mediante pruebas en diferentes dispositivos y circunstancias. En función de los result...

  19. Sistema de tanatología forense para la división médico legal III de Arequipa

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Maldonado, Gino

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación titulado "Sistema de Tanatología Forense para la División Médico Legal III de Arequipa". Se ha realizado en la ciudad de Arequipa con la finalidad de implementar un Sistema Automatizado, que facilite el trabajo diario que realiza la División Médico Legal III de Arequipa solucionando problemas referentes al manejo de información del área forense. Se ha considerado como población a los trabajadores de la División Médico Legal 111 de Arequipa, se utilizó como instrume...

  20. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Kearns

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Accounting students, however, may not view information technology as vital to their career paths and need motivation to acquire forensic knowledge and skills. This paper presents a curriculum design methodology for teaching graduate accounting students computer forensics. The methodology is tested using perceptions of the students about the success of the methodology and their acquisition of forensics knowledge and skills. An important component of the pedagogical approach is the use of an annotated list of over 50 forensic web-based tools.

  1. Scenario-Based Digital Forensics Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Miranda Lopez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal.

  2. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  3. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  4. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Analysis of forensic odontological examinations at the National Forensic Service of Korea from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Won-Joon; Seo, Jeong-Uk; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2018-03-02

    The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010. Majority of the requests were internal (further dental examinations after autopsy) rather than external (direct requests from other agencies such as police departments). Regarding evidence materials, "Teeth" (including teeth and resected jaws) were dominant evidences. Due to the seasonal effects in Korea, the highest number of requests was in September of each year, but the number of requests in April has recently increased. Evidence materials were mostly found in suburban and rural area, especially in mountainous area due to the geographic characteristics of Korea. Regarding specific examinations, profiling, including age estimation, accounted for majority of the requests; this number had increased relative to the findings of a previous study, whereas the number of requests for dental identification and bite mark analysis had decreased. With this analysis, trends in forensic odontology can be observed, and we expect that these trends would be served as a reference for designing study and making training protocol for forensic odontology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  8. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  9. Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

    The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

  10. Microfluidic chips for clinical and forensic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested

  11. Unsupervised signature extraction from forensic logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, S.M.; Menkovski, V.; Petkovic, M.; Altun, Y.; Das, K.; Mielikäinen, T.; Malerba, D.; Stefanowski, J.; Read, J.; Žitnik, M.; Ceci, M.

    2017-01-01

    Signature extraction is a key part of forensic log analysis. It involves recognizing patterns in log lines such that log lines that originated from the same line of code are grouped together. A log signature consists of immutable parts and mutable parts. The immutable parts define the signature, and

  12. SOFIR: Securely Outsourced Forensic Image Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Forensic image recognition tools are used by law enforcement agencies all over the world to automatically detect illegal images on confiscated equipment. This detection is commonly done with the help of a strictly confidential database consisting of hash values of known illegal images. To detect and

  13. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  14. Best practice approach to live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. At the time of writing, this Liforac model is the first document of this nature that could be found for analysis. It serves as a foundation for future models that can refine the current processes....

  15. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  16. Service audit of a forensic rehabilitation ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Needham-Bennett, Humphrey; Chick, Kay

    2009-10-01

    An open forensic rehabilitation ward provides an important link bridging the gap between secure and community provisions. This paper provides an audit of such a service by examining the records of an open forensic rehabilitation ward over a five-year period from 1 June 2000 until 31 May 2005. During the audit period there were 51 admissions, involving 45 different patients, and 50 discharges. The majority of the patients came from secure unit facilities, acute psychiatric wards or home. Thirty-nine patients were discharged either into hostels (66%) or their home (12%). The majority of patients (80%) had on admission a primary diagnosis of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Most had an extensive forensic history. The focus of their admission was to assess and treat their mental illness/disorder and offending behaviour and this was successful as the majority of patients were transferred to a community placement after a mean of 15 months. It is essential that there is a well-integrated care pathway for forensic patients, involving constructive liaison with generic services and a well-structured treatment programme which integrates the key principles of the 'recovery model' approach to care.

  17. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  18. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Warren, M.W.; Falsetti, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone

  19. Extraction and Forensic Analysis of wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, J.; Geradts, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wearables are an increasingly big item in mobile forensics, in large part due to the ever increasing popularity of social media. A device that falls into this category is Google Glass. A big part of the Google Glass interface is dedicated to social media functions. A side-effect of these functions

  20. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  1. Forensic Psychology in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polišenská, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2007), s. 55-67 ISSN 1544-4759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/07/0261 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : forensic psychology * Czech Republic * institutions Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Domain-Specific Optimization in Digital Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Bos (Jeroen); T. van der Storm (Tijs); Z. Hu; J. de Lara

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractFile carvers are forensic software tools used to recover data from storage devices in order to find evidence. Every legal case requires different trade-offs between precision and runtime performance. The resulting required changes to the software tools are performed manually and under

  3. Automatic Speaker Recognition for Mobile Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Algabri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, lawyers, law enforcement agencies, and judges in courts use speech and other biometric features to recognize suspects. In general, speaker recognition is used for discriminating people based on their voices. The process of determining, if a suspected speaker is the source of trace, is called forensic speaker recognition. In such applications, the voice samples are most probably noisy, the recording sessions might mismatch each other, the sessions might not contain sufficient recording for recognition purposes, and the suspect voices are recorded through mobile channel. The identification of a person through his voice within a forensic quality context is challenging. In this paper, we propose a method for forensic speaker recognition for the Arabic language; the King Saud University Arabic Speech Database is used for obtaining experimental results. The advantage of this database is that each speaker’s voice is recorded in both clean and noisy environments, through a microphone and a mobile channel. This diversity facilitates its usage in forensic experimentations. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for feature extraction and the Gaussian mixture model-universal background model is used for speaker modeling. Our approach has shown low equal error rates (EER, within noisy environments and with very short test samples.

  4. Implant - Identification Tool for Forensic Dentistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Zvárová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 9 (2008), s. 926-926 ISSN 0905-7161. [EAO Annual Scientific Meeting /17./. 18.09.2008-20.09.2008, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic dentistry * identification * electronic health record Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Electronic Health Record for Forensic Dentistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana; Dostálová, T.; Hanzlíček, Petr; Teuberová, Z.; Nagy, Miroslav; Pieš, Martin; Seydlová, M.; Eliášová, H.; Šimková, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2008), s. 8-13 ISSN 0026-1270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008

  6. Digital forensic readiness in a cloud environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -jurisdictions. As such, service providers hosting the data that may be required for digital forensic investigation may be reluctant to comply with foreign law enforcement agencies. Even if they comply, this may be a costly and time-consuming exercise, given the amount...

  7. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  8. Qualify of Life of Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, C. van; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the quality of life (QoL) of mentally disordered offenders was investigated. The data of 44 forensic psychiatric inpatients were analyzed using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQoLP), Rehabilitation Evaluation Hall and Baker (REHAB), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

  9. Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Joachim Salize

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economically struggling societies forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo- a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e. the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations.

  10. Biometric Score Calibration for Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    When two biometric specimens are compared using an automatic biometric recognition system, a similarity metric called “score‿ can be computed. In forensics, one of the biometric specimens is from an unknown source, for example, from a CCTV footage or a fingermark found at a crime scene and the other

  11. Forensic accounting in the fraud auditing case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simeunović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.

  12. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-07

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Update of Standard Practices for New Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Sarah M R; Coucke, Wim; De Baere, Thierry; Peters, Frank T

    2017-01-01

    International agreement concerning validation guidelines is important to obtain quality forensic bioanalytical research and routine applications as it all starts with the reporting of reliable analytical data. Standards for fundamental validation parameters are provided in guidelines as those from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the German speaking Gesellschaft fur Toxikologie und Forensische Chemie (GTFCH) and the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX). These validation parameters include selectivity, matrix effects, method limits, calibration, accuracy and stability, as well as other parameters such as carryover, dilution integrity and incurred sample reanalysis. It is, however, not easy for laboratories to implement these guidelines into practice as these international guidelines remain nonbinding protocols, that depend on the applied analytical technique, and that need to be updated according the analyst's method requirements and the application type. In this manuscript, a review of the current guidelines and literature concerning bioanalytical validation parameters in a forensic context is given and discussed. In addition, suggestions for the experimental set-up, the pros and cons of statistical approaches and adequate acceptance criteria for the validation of bioanalytical applications are given. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  15. Book Review: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Liu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin (2007. Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices. Pearson/Prentice Hall. 534 pages, ISBN: 0-13-154727-5 (paper, US$85.33Reviewed by Jigang Liu (Jigang.Liu@metrostate.edu, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN 55106“Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices” by Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin, published by Pearson/Prentice Hall in 2007 is one of the newest computer forensics textbooks on the market. The goal of the book, as the authors put it, is to teach “students who want to learn about electronic evidence – including what types exist and where it may be found – and the computer forensics methods to investigate it” so that they will be prepared “in a career in information security, criminal justice, accounting, law enforcement, and federal investigations – as well as computer forensics.”Linda, Reynaldo, and Jana are not only experienced college professors, but also industry bounded professionals. All of them have substantial working experience with law firms or law enforcement in dealing with both civil and criminal cases. They are all certified information system security professionals (CISSP. Their teaching experience at the college level and their working experience on real cases make this book a must-read book for a college professor.(see PDF for full review

  16. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2014-09-01

    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  19. A call for more science in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Sah, Sunita; Albright, Thomas D; Gates, S James; Denton, M Bonner; Casadevall, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms. This process generated a National Academy of Science report in 2009 that was highly critical of many forensic practices and eventually led to the establishment of the National Commission for Forensic Science (NCFS) in 2013. The NCFS was a deliberative body that catalyzed communication between nonforensic scientists, forensic scientists, and other stakeholders in the legal community. In 2017, despite continuing problems with forensic science, the Department of Justice terminated the NCFS. Just when forensic science needs the most support, it is getting the least. We urge the larger scientific community to come to the aid of our forensic colleagues by advocating for urgently needed research, testing, and financial support.

  20. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluación de la emergencia y las características morfológicas iniciales de Tamarindus indica L. con fines agroforestales Evaluation of the emergence and the initial morphological characteristics of Tamarindus indica L. with agroforestry purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Flores

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el estado Zulia, Venezuela, se evaluó en un primer experimento el efecto de la posición de siembra (PS y el tiempo de almacenamiento (TA de semillas de Tamarindus indica L., y en un segundo ensayo se analizó la emergencia y las características morfológicas de las plántulas mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado. La PS correspondió a semillas sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo, el hilo hacia arriba colocadas horizontalmente; mientras que el TA fue de uno y ocho meses. Transcurridos 30 días, los efectos de la PS, el TA y la interacción PSxTA fueron significativos en el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, la longitud de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH y el número de nudos (NN por plántula. Las semillas con un mes de almacenamiento y sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo mostraron los mejores resultados (PE: 97,5%; TE: 22,3 días; mientras que las semillas recién cosechadas sin almacenamiento y sembradas con el hilo hacia abajo, aportaron resultados sobresalientes (PE: 96,56%; TE: 22,92 días. Se observó una correlación significativa en todas las variables medidas, excluyendo el NH con AC, y el DT con AC y NH. Se concluye que para propagar eficazmente T. indica y establecer sistemas agroforestales, se deben emplear semillas recién cosechadas o bien con un mes de almacenamiento, sembrándolas con el hilo hacia abajo.In the Zulia state, Venezuela, a first trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting position (PP and storage time (ST of Tamarindus indica L. seeds, and in a second trial the emergence and morphological characteristics of the seedlings were analyzed by means of a completely randomized design. The PP corresponded to seeds planted with the hilum facing down, the hilum facing up horizontally placed; while ST was one and eight months. After 30 days the effects of PP, ST and the PP x ST interaction were significant on the emergence percentage (EP, emergence

  2. The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene and his primary functions are the exterior and interior examination of the cadaver by analyzing the extent of antemortem injuries and the postmortem changes and the recovery of physical evidence. He is responsible for determining how, when and why of any death which is the result of violence, suspicious or unexplained circumstances or a death which is sudden or unattended, defending and explaining the reasons for making these diagnoses in a courtroom. The forensic entomologist can provide invaluable aid in death cases where human remains are colonized by insects and in the overall investigation. His principal role is to identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence. He is responsible for determining the period of insect activity according to all the variables affecting insect invasion of remains and their development. The major goal of medico-criminal entomology is to contribute to the determination of the time, cause, manner and place of the investigated death (especially on badly decomposed corpses or skeletonized human remains) with the support of all the elements which can be inferred from the study of insects found on the cadaver or nearby. The application of techniques devised recently in forensic entomology can allow experts in the field to collect strong entomological evidence and provide useful information not only in a death investigation including movement or storage of the remains following death, time of dismemberment, postmortem artifacts

  3. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  4. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  5. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  6. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  7. When forensic odontology met biochemistry: Multidisciplinary approach in forensic human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Thomas, Christian; Ubelaker, Douglas H; C Zapico, Sara

    2018-03-01

    When human remains are found, the priority of the investigation is to ascertain the identity of the deceased. A positive identification is a key factor in providing closure for the family of the deceased; it is also required to issue the death certificate and therefore, to settle legal affairs. Moreover, it is difficult for any forensic investigation involving human remains to be solved without the determination of an identity. Therefore, personal identification is necessary for social, legal and forensic reasons. In the last thirty years forensic odontology has experienced an important transformation, from primarily involving occasional dental identification into a broader role, contributing to the determination of the biological profile. In the same way, "DNA fingerprinting" has evolved not only in terms of improving its technology, but also in its application beyond the "classical": helping with the estimation of sex, age and ancestry. As these two forensic disciplines have developed independently, their pathways have crossed several times through human identification operations, especially the ones that require a multidisciplinary approach. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the contributions of both forensic odontology and molecular biology/biochemistry to human identification, demonstrating how a multidisciplinary approach can lead to a better and more efficient identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in Australia; are they keeping forensically valuable dental records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Abdul Rahman; Harford, Jane; James, Helen

    2015-03-30

    Forensic odontologists provide an important service to the community by identifying unknown deceased people, allowing both legal outcomes and family closure. Non-visual identification may be achieved by comparison of post-mortem data with ante-mortem dental records provided by oral health practitioners. Success is dependent largely on the accuracy and adequacy of data in the dental records. An online self-administered questionnaire evaluated Australian dentists' knowledge and behaviours relevant to forensic odontology. Reported record keeping practices were assessed for detail, legibility, accessibility and retention. Behaviours were classified according to the frequency of response. Dentists reported overall reasonable awareness of the major applications of forensic odontology. Personal information and details of restorative treatment were recorded at high levels, while tooth anomalies, photography, additional patient details and denture marking were recorded inadequately. Legible tooth coding was reported at a high level, while other key legibility practices were recorded inadequately. Few of the behaviours related to retention or to maximise accessibility were recorded at a high level. Australian dentists have high expectations of the forensic value of their dental records; however many practices that would enhance the diagnostic, medico-legal and forensic value of dental records are not routinely applied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  10. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities

  11. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities.

  12. Evaluation of stature estimation from the database for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca J; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2010-05-01

    Trotter and Gleser's (1-3) stature equations, conventionally used to estimate stature, are not appropriate to use in the modern forensic context. In this study, stature is assessed with a modern (birth years after 1944) American sample (N = 242) derived from the National Institute of Justice Database for Forensic Anthropology in the United States and the Forensic Anthropology Databank. New stature formulae have been calculated using forensic stature (FSTAT) and a combined dataset of forensic, cadaver, and measured statures referred to as Any Stature (ASTAT). The new FSTAT-based equations had an improved accuracy in Blacks with little improvement over Ousley's (4) equations for Whites. ASTAT-based equations performed equal to those of FSTAT equations and may be more appropriate, because they reflect both the variation in reported statures and in cadaver statures. It is essential to use not only equations based on forensic statures, but also equations based on modern samples.

  13. Meeting a Forensic Podiatry Admissibility Challenge: A Daubert Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This article is an introduction to the United States Supreme Court's standard of admissibility of forensic evidence and testimony at trial, known as the Daubert standard, with emphasis on how this standard applies to the field of forensic podiatry. The author, a forensic podiatrist, provided law enforcement with evidence tying a bloody sock-clad footprint found at the scene of a homicide to the suspect. In 2014, the author testified at a pretrial hearing, known as "a Daubert hearing," to address the admissibility of this evidence in court. This was the first instance of forensic podiatry being the primary subject of a Daubert hearing. The hearing resulted in the court ordering this evidence admissible. The expert's testimony contributed to the suspect's conviction. This article serves as a reference for forensic podiatrists and experts in similar fields that involve impression evidence, providing evidentiary standards and their impact on expert evidence and testimony. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  15. Addressing Attribution - Advances in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzenkirchen, K.; Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear forensic investigations the information is typically used to find out the origin of the material including its production place and process. As nuclear material is an industrial product, the respective production process will unavoidably leave a 'fingerprint' in the material. In consequence, parameters related to process and source material are measured and conclusions about the history and origin of the nuclear material can be drawn. Chemical impurities, microstructure, molecular structure or isotopic composition are examples of such parameters, which compose a characteristic 'signature'. The rare-earth elemental (REE) pattern has been found to be an important signature to determine the type of ore used as source material for the production of uranium ore concentrate, since the REE pattern is invariable in most hydrometallurgical processes. Generally, Decrypting the information for nuclear forensic investigations requires sophisticated methodology, subject matter expertise and reference data. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  16. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  17. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  18. Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Arnaud

    2009-02-01

    Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

  19. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  20. The Forensics Aspects of Event Data Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Daily

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The proper generation and preservation of digital data from Event Data Recorders (EDRs can provide invaluable evidence to automobile crash reconstruction investigations. However, data collected from the EDR can be difficult to use and authenticate, complicating the presentation of such information as evidence in legal proceedings. Indeed, current techniques for removing and preserving such data do not meet the court’s standards for electronic evidence. Experimentation with an EDR unit from a 2001 GMC Sierra pickup truck highlighted particular issues with repeatability of results. Fortunately, advances in the digital forensics field and memory technology can be applied to EDR analysis in order to provide more complete and usable data. The presented issues should assist in the identification and development of a model for forensically sound collection and investigation techniques for EDRs.

  1. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  2. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  3. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grover Kearns

    2010-01-01

    Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants). Accounting stu...

  4. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Nieto; Ruben Rios; Javier Lopez

    2018-01-01

    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntar...

  5. A SURVEY ON DOCUMENT CLUSTERING APPROACH FOR COMPUTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Raghuvanshi*, Rahul Patel

    2016-01-01

    In a forensic analysis, large numbers of files are examined. Much of the information comprises of in unstructured format, so it’s quite difficult task for computer forensic to perform such analysis. That’s why to do the forensic analysis of document within a limited period of time require a special approach such as document clustering. This paper review different document clustering algorithms methodologies for example K-mean, K-medoid, single link, complete link, average link in accorandance...

  6. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a wireless forensic readiness model (WFRM)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ] Solomon, M.G., Barrett, D. & Broom, N. (2005). Computer forensics, The Best First Step towards a Career in Computer Forensics. SYBEX Inc, San Francisco, London. [13] RICCA Act, (22 January 2002). Regulation of Interception of Communications...: http://www.guidancesoftware.com/ediscovery/index.aspx, (Accessed 05 April 2009). [15] Forensic Toolkit. (10 July 2008). Access Data, A pioneer in digital investigations since 1987. Available from: http...

  8. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  9. Opportunities to preserve forensic evidence in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Matthew

    2016-11-10

    Victims of violence often seek assistance from emergency departments, so emergency nurses are ideally placed to identify them, and other 'forensic' patients, and protect the evidence that could support any ensuing legal process. Emergency nurses who are trained to identify, collect and preserve forensic evidence can support the identification, elimination and prosecution of suspects. This article gives an overview of forensic evidence, and explains how emergency nurses can preserve and collect samples effectively.

  10. What is the future of imaging in forensic practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jamie J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen increased use of imaging in forensic practice. Although radiography has been used historically, the evidence base for the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in forensic practice appears to be growing. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of radiography, CT and MRI in an attempt to ascertain the future use of these imaging techniques in forensic medicine.

  11. Videojuego con Realidad Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    González Mora, César

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es el desarrollo de un videojuego deportivo que utilice realidad mixta. El videojuego se podrá utilizar con dispositivos de tipo cardboard, y utilizará realidad aumentada para la interacción del jugador con el videojuego. En el desarrollo se utilizará el motor Unity para conseguir una aplicación multiplataforma, y la librería Vuforia para implementar realidad mixta.

  12. Sistemas integrados con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    EL YAKOUTI, MOHAMMED

    2017-01-01

    Design of a robot prototype remotely controllable from Bluetooth using Arduino. Control and testing of sensors and events interacting with Arduino and Bluetooth. Diseño de un prototipo de robot controlable remotamente con Bluetooth utilizando Arduino. Control y verificación de los sensores y eventos que interactúan mediante el Arduino y el Bluetooth. El Yakouti, M. (2017). Sistemas integrados con Arduino. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/89274. TFGM

  13. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  14. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Lazzez; Thabet Slimani

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the sec...

  15. Nondestructive assay methodologies in nuclear forensics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, the nondestructive assay (NDA) methodologies used for analysis of nuclear materials as a part of nuclear forensic investigation have been described. These NDA methodologies are based on (i) measurement of passive gamma and neutrons emitted by the radioisotopes present in the nuclear materials, (ii) measurement of gamma rays and neutrons emitted after the active interrogation of the nuclear materials with a source of X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons

  16. Statistics and Biomedical Informatics in Forensic Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2009), s. 743-750 ISSN 1180-4009. [TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. Mikulov, 16.08.2007-20.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biomedical informatics * biomedical statistics * genetic information * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  17. In defense of forensic social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goldberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Like the navigation tools that freed ancient sailors from the need to stay close to the shoreline—eventually affording the discovery of new worlds—Big Data might open us up to new sociological possibilities by freeing us from the shackles of hypothesis testing. But for that to happen we need forensic social science: the careful compilation of evidence from unstructured digital traces as a means to generate new theories.

  18. Personnel Audit Using a Forensic Mining Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Adesesan B. Adeyemo; Oluwafemi Oriola

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies forensic data mining to determine the true status of employees and thereafter provide useful evidences for proper administration of administrative rules in a Typical Nigerian Teaching Service. The conventional technique of personnel audit was studied and a new technique for personnel audit was modeled using Artificial Neural Networks and Decision Tree algorithms. Atwo-layer classifier architecture was modeled. The outcome of the experiment proved that Radial Basis Function ...

  19. Speech pattern recognition for forensic acoustic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Martínez, Marcelo; Aldana Blanco, Andrea Lorena; Guzmán Palacios, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a software for analysis of acoustic voice parameters (APAVOIX), which can be used for forensic acoustic purposes, based on the speaker recognition and identification. This software enables to observe in a clear manner, the parameters which are sufficient and necessary when performing a comparison between two voice signals, the suspicious and the original one. These parameters are used according to the classic method, generally used by state entit...

  20. Forensic neutron activation analysis - the Japanese scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tohru.

    1986-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis/FNAA/ in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences /e.g.,paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks/ and drug sample differenciation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author)

  1. Approach of forensic medicine to gossypiboma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, M Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A Feran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and preventive measures for gossypibomas and their medico-legal implications in forensic medicine in the Turkish legal system. This study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of 39 patients with gossypiboma. Records were available from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution and were surveyed for faulty treatment between 2008 and 2012. Parameters such as distribution of the cases according to specializations, elective and emergency procedures, surgical procedures, radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy availability, routine sponge and instrument counting, number of nurses for counting, and control of the operative field by a second surgeon were investigated. All cases were evaluated by the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute 3rd Expertise Committee. This committee comprised of specialists from the departments of forensic medicine, orthopedics and traumatology, general surgery, neurology, internal medicine, pediatrics, chest disease, and infectious diseases. All cases were considered as poor medical practice (malpractice) and surgeons were found to be responsible. In 16 of these 39 cases (41%) emergency procedures were performed. No unexpected event was reported in any procedure. In 16 cases (41%), sponge count was performed and was reported to be complete. Operation notes were available in 16 (41%) cases. Control of the operative field was performed by 1 surgeon, and sponge and instrument count was performed by 1 scrub nurse. Radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy were available in 9 (23%) centers in these cases. Gossypiboma can be prevented not only with surgeons' care but also with adequate support of medical device and material. However, it is considered as a poor medical practice. Presence of only 1 general surgeon in the expertise committee and ignorance of the working conditions by the surgeons should be questioned.

  2. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  3. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  4. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  5. Interparietal bone in forensic practice: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In forensic autopsy, pathologists pay attention to skull fracture lines. They are not much interested in the anatomical morphological variations of the skull bones, as long as the variations are not present. The interparietal bone is one of the anatomical variations that could be of interest for forensic pathologists. Case Outline. We present a case of a 54-year-old man who, after a fall overlived a head injury for six weeks. By chance, autopsy revealed an undivided interparietal bone. Its lateral sutures were fused with parietal bones and unrecognizable from the anterior skull bones, while the sutura mendosa was clearly visible. Conclusion. The forensic pathologist should be able to recognize anatomic morphological variations, including those of skull bones. The interparietal bone could be interpreted wrongly as belonging to the fractured occipital bone, i.e. as a broken fragment. This is of particular significance in the cases, for example, of murder or child abuse. Its inferior suture can be seen by X-ray and possibly wrongly interpreted as a fracture line. The presence of this variation may be occasionally useful in the identification of an unknown or lost person.

  6. THE FORENSIC ACCOUNTING AND CORPORATE FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at analyzing the characteristics of forensic accounting services performed by the accounting firms in Brazil, using an exploratory approach. At the end, performs a discourse analysis on a speech proffered by the CEO of one of the key players of forensic accounting service provider (Kroll in Brazil. In order to orientate this reflection, we pose the following question: what is the characteristic of forensic accounting that substantiates it as professional accountants’ innovation to curb corporate accounting malpractices? In this intent, we accept the premise that the bone of contention in some unhealthy business environment is the inability of auditor to track frauds. We used the icons (categories and/or nodes that dynamically represent formalism in the theory of self re-production to explain the patterns met in the speech. Our finding makes us to conclude that the idea that frauds have been least detected by auditors begins to gain shape as auditors are more adequately trained to detect fraud instead of emphasizing the traditional segregation of duties and safeguard of assets.

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofanelli, Mirko [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Pardini, Lorenzo [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Borrini, Matteo [Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra [Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via A. Volta, 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo de [Instituto de Fìsica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no Campus da Praia Vermelha, CEP 24210-346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Santa Maria, 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied. - Highlights: • The LIBS analysis of (animal) bones is presented, to establish its feasibility for forensic studies. • Untreated bones and bones subjected to high temperatures (boiled, burned) were analyzed. • A simple calibration, using a single reference sample, gave reasonable quantitative results. • The comparison of the results demonstrates that LIBS analysis can provide nutritional information. • The nutritional information obtained are the same on untreated, boiled and burned bones.

  8. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  9. Nails in Forensic Toxicology: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Minutillo, Adele; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nails as a keratinized matrix to detect drugs or illicit substances has been increasingly used in forensic and clinical toxicology as a complementary test, especially for the specific characteristics of stably accumulating substances for long periods of time. This allows a retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse, monitoring continuous drug or pharmaceutical use, reveal in utero drug exposure or environmental exposures. We herein review the recent literature investigating drug incorporation mechanisms and drug detection in nails for forensic toxicological purposes. Mechanisms of drug incorporation have not yet been fully elucidated. However, some research has lately contributed to a better understanding of how substances are incorporated into nails, suggesting three potential mechanisms of drug incorporation: contamination from sweat, incorporation from nail bed and incorporation from germinal matrix. In addition, numerous methods dealing with the determination of drugs of abuse, medications and alcohol biomarkers in nails have been reported in studies over the years. The latter methods could find application in clinical and forensic toxicology. The studies herein reviewed point out how important it is to standardize and harmonize the methodologies (either pre-analytical or analytical) for nails analysis and the optimization of sampling as well as the development of proficiency testing programs and the determination of cut-off values. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  11. Book Review: System Forensics, Investigation, and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Keith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vacca, J. R. and Rudolph, K. (2011. System Forensics, Investigation, and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 339 + xv pages, ISBN: 978-0-7637-9134-6, US$89.95.Reviewed by Nate Keith, MBA, (natejkeith@gmail.comI recently expressed an interest to a respected colleague in finding a way to “give back” to the forensic community. He suggested writing a review for a text he recently received and provide feedback to the community. It is my intent to present an objective analysis of System Forensics, Investigation, and Response.Written by John R. Vacca and K Rudolph, this book is part of the Jones and Bartlett Learning Information Systems Security & Assurance Series.  Both Vacca and Rudolph have considerable experience in the information technology field as is demonstrated by the back cover notes: “John R. Vacca is an information technology consultant and internationally known best-selling author based in Pomeroy, Ohio.  Since 1982, he has written 62 books and more than 600 articles in the areas of advanced storage, computer security, and aerospace technology.(see PDF for full review

  12. Forensic Entomology in Animal Cruelty Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, A; Byrd, J H

    2016-09-01

    Forensic entomology can be useful to the veterinary professional in cases of animal cruelty. A main application of forensic entomology is to determine the minimum postmortem interval by estimating the time of insect colonization, based on knowledge of the rate of development of pioneer colonizers and on insect species succession during decomposition of animal remains. Since insect development is temperature dependent, these estimates require documentation of the environmental conditions, including ambient temperature. It can also aid in the detection and recognition of wounds, as well as estimate the timing of periods of neglect. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of insects that colonize animal remains may suggest that there has been movement or concealment of the carcass or can create associations between a suspect, a victim, and a crime scene. In some instances, it can aid in the detection of drugs or toxins within decomposed or skeletonized remains. During animal cruelty investigations, it may become the responsibility of the veterinary professional to document and collect entomological evidence from live animals or during the necropsy. The applications of forensic entomology are discussed. A protocol is described for documenting and collecting entomological evidence at the scene and during the necropsy, with additional emphasis on recording geographic location, meteorological data, and collection and preservation of insect specimens. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Importance of entomology in veterinary forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomological evidence is legal evidence in the form of insects or related artropodes, and a field of their study in the aim of medicocriminal applications and veterinary-medical forensic cases is forensic entomology. The most obvious and widely present fauna on the animal and human corpse in early stages of the decomposition process are insect larvae that use the corps as an important food source. The insects found on the corpse represent a significant source of information for determining the time of death, which is an evaluation of the post-morted interval. Additionally, by comparing fauna around the body with fauna found on the body one can obtain information if the corpse was moved after death. Often, insects found on the body point out that infestation by larvae started before death. That implicates animal abuse and defines its duration. Based on these elements, a forensic doctor can deduce which level of abuse is in question. Entomology is an expanding field and the more cases are being shown and the more researchers are being taught how to use insects as a way of proving responsibility, the more it will develop. It is becoming more common for entomological evidence to be case-breaking in the determination of post mortem intervals, in both early and late decomposition phase.

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofanelli, Mirko; Pardini, Lorenzo; Borrini, Matteo; Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra; D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo de; Lezzerini, Marco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied. - Highlights: • The LIBS analysis of (animal) bones is presented, to establish its feasibility for forensic studies. • Untreated bones and bones subjected to high temperatures (boiled, burned) were analyzed. • A simple calibration, using a single reference sample, gave reasonable quantitative results. • The comparison of the results demonstrates that LIBS analysis can provide nutritional information. • The nutritional information obtained are the same on untreated, boiled and burned bones

  15. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  16. Survey of Forensically Important Calliphoridae in Samsun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kökdener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted from June 2009 to 2010 in north of Turkey, province Samsun. The objective was to determine forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera species and their seasonal distribution on dog carrcass during one year, this studies were carried out in a three different area of Samsun. Material and Methods: Three dogs carcass (Canis lupus familiaris L., weighing approximately 15-20 kg each, were used as models for studying decomposition and insect succession in each experiments. Ambient daily temperature (maximum and minimum, relative humidity (RH were recorded and existing keys were used for identification of different species. Results: Lucillia sericata (Meigen, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy species were encountered. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. Chrysomya albiceps was observed in summer, auntumn and spring. In the spring and winter, the dominant fly species were Calliphora vicina. The rate of carcass's decomposition was faster in summer and autumn as compared to spring and winter. Results indicated that ambient temperature is the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Conclusion: This report also identified some of the Calliphoridae that occur in north of Turkey. The importance of regional faunistic studies of the calliphoridous community, the results of which may be applied to forensic practice in the future. Keywords: Forensic entomology, insect succession, corpse, postmortem interval, decomposition.

  17. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  18. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  19. Founding editorial--forensics and TheScientificWorld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W

    2001-10-30

    At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross's Handbuch f1/4r Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle's novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross's manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross's book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions.

  20. Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Founding Editorial – Forensics and TheScientificWorld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross’s Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle’s novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross’s manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross’s book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions.

  2. Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed.

  3. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  4. Forensic psychiatric nursing: skills and competencies: I role dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T; Lovell, A; Coyle, D

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic psychiatric nurses from the perspective of three groups: (A) forensic psychiatric nurses; (B) non-forensic psychiatric nurses; and (C) other disciplines. A national survey of forensic psychiatric services in the UK was conducted, and information gathered on the perceived skills and competencies in this growing field of psychiatric practice. From 3360 questionnaires, 1172 were returned, making a response rate of 35%. The results indicate a small discrepancy between forensic nurses' and non-forensic nurses' perceptions of the role constructs of forensic practice. However, a larger difference was noted between nurses' perceptions and other disciplines' perceptions of the constituent parts to forensic psychiatric nursing. Nurses tended to focus on personal qualities both in relation to themselves and the patients, while the other disciplines focused on organizational structures both in defining the role and in the resolution of perceived deficits. The findings have implications for multidisciplinary working, as well as policy formulation and curriculum development in terms of the skills and competencies of forensic nurse training.

  5. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Development of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum for emergency physicians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, W S

    1994-06-01

    To address the forensic needs of living patients, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, USA initiated the first clinical forensic medicine training programme in the USA. In July 1991, formal training in clinical forensic medicine was incorporated into the core curriculum of the USA's second oldest academic emergency medicine training programme. The University of Louisville, in cooperation with the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, developed the curriculum to provide the emergency physician with the knowledge base and technical skills to perform forensic evaluations of living patients. Forensic lectures are given monthly by local and regional forensic experts including: forensic pathologists, prosecuting attorneys, firearm and ballistics examiners, law enforcement officers, forensic chemists and forensic odontologists. Topics which are presented include: forensic pathology, forensic photography, ballistics and firearms analysis, paediatric physical and sexual assault, crime scene investigation, forensic odontology, courtroom and expert testimony and the forensic evaluation of penetrating trauma. As a result of the introduction of clinical forensic medicine into the core curriculum of an emergency medicine training programme the residents are now actively addressing the forensic issues encountered in the Emergency department. Key, often short-lived forensic evidence, which was frequently overlooked or discarded while delivering patient care is now recognized, documented and preserved. The development and introduction of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum into emergency medicine training has greatly enhanced the emergency physician's ability to recognize, document and address the forensic needs of their patients who are victims of violent and non-fatal trauma.

  7. Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems Digital Forensics Field Guides

    CERN Document Server

    Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M

    2010-01-01

    Dissecting the dark side of the Internet with its infectious worms, botnets, rootkits, and Trojan horse programs (known as malware) is a treaterous condition for any forensic investigator or analyst. Written by information security experts with real-world investigative experience, Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems is a "tool" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. *A condensed hand-held guide complete with on-the-job tasks and checklists *Specific for Windows-based systems, the largest running OS in the world

  8. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  9. Python forensics a workbench for inventing and sharing digital forensic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2014-01-01

    Python Forensics provides many never-before-published proven forensic modules, libraries, and solutions that can be used right out of the box. In addition, detailed instruction and documentation provided with the code samples will allow even novice Python programmers to add their own unique twists or use the models presented to build new solutions. Rapid development of new cybercrime investigation tools is an essential ingredient in virtually every case and environment. Whether you are performing post-mortem investigation, executing live triage, extracting evidence from mobile devices or cl

  10. Development of forensic medicine in post reform Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah; Novita, Nita; Sunjaya, Deni K

    2018-05-03

    Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected. It is thus important to identify the scope of the problems plaguing the development of forensic medicine, as well as its causes. We conducted a qualitative study to explain the problems and propose solutions. The results show that the standards of practice have developed more slowly than those in many other branches of medicine, despite its increasing popularity from its role in counterterrorism and disaster victim identification. A strong thriving spirit exists in forensic science, although growth in forensic research activities should be facilitated more. The 2009 Health Law has included forensic medicine practice in the health system to cover the role of forensic medicine for health and medical education purposes. It also potentially provides a way to support the justice system without exposing forensic practitioners to possible conflicts of interest, for instance, by utilizing a tiered referral system. To this aim, an alternative is proposed: to place forensic medicine practice within the context of the health system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. ¿Qué minería aurífera, por quiénes y con fines de qué desarrollo? Una mirada a la minería aurífera en la Zona Minera Indígena Remanso Chorrobocón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sofía Rivera Sotelo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo cuestiona el discurso de desarrollo extractivista facilitado por marcos jurídicos de ilegalidad, discurso que colisiona con visiones y prácticas de desarrollo local en la Zona Minera Indígena Remanso Chorrobocón. El marco conceptual intersecta estudios críticos del desarrollo, ecología política y pluralismo legal, y la metodología complementa la revisión de cubrimiento de medios, marcos normativos, literatura primaria y secundaria, observación participante, y una visita de campo a Inírida y a la Zona Minera Indígena.

  12. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  13. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  14. disegnare con ... Alberto Pratelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mingucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Con questa breve intervista ad Alberto Pratelli, (non a caso scelto per aprire questa nuova rubrica intendia-mo inaugurare un dialogo con personalità significati-ve del Disegno di Architettura, che consenta riflessioni dedicate alle sue varie dimensioni, oggi più che mai da approfondire. La suggestione a farlo, viene da un’idea di Pablo Rodri-guez Navarro ed abbiamo quindi pensato di avviarla proprio in questo numero, che Pablo ha accettato di curare su un tema a lui particolarmente caro.

  15. Violence and Personality in Forensic Patients: Is There a Forensic Patient-Specific Personality Profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Ihm, Helga; Strack, Micha

    2009-01-01

    Concerning the discussion about the connection of personality traits, personality disorders, and mental illness, this study focused on the personality profiles of male forensic patients, prison inmates, and young men without criminal reports. The main topic centered on group-specific personality profiles and identifying personality facets…

  16. Personalized Medicine Applied to Forensic Sciences: New Advances and Perspectives for a Tailored Forensic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; La Russa, Raffaele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  18. The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.

  19. Electrosmotic conductivity in fine grained soils; Permeabilita' elettroosmotica in terreni a grana fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fava, G.; Giaco' , A.; Pasqualini, E.; Sani, D. [Ancona Univ., Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dei Materiali e della Terra

    1999-10-01

    In this work, aspects relating to the process of mass and energy flows in fine grained soil under an electrical field are considered. A suitable apparatus for the study of electrokinetic phenomena and the measure of electrosmotic conductivity coefficients is projected and constructed. The obtained results are reliable and in accord with the common literature data. The values of the electrosmotic conductivity obtained depend on the cation exchange capacity of utilised soils and on the effective porosity of investigated samples. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro sono presi in esame gli aspetti generali relativi ai processi che regolano i flussi di materia e di energia nei terreni a grana fine in presenza di un campo elettrico. Vengono presentati i risultati di una sperimentazione su di un dispositivo appositamente progettato e realizzato per la misura della permeabilita' elettroosmotica e lo studio del trasporto elettrocinetico. I dati ottenuti sono risultati ripetibili e confrontabili con valori di letteratura consolidati. E' stato riscontrato che i coefficienti di permeabilita' elettroosmotica dipendono dalla capacita' di scambio cationico del terreno selezionato e dalla porosita' efficace dei campioni.

  20. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.