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Sample records for con disgenesia gonadal

  1. EMBARAZO EXITOSO EN PACIENTE CON DISGENESIA GONADAL PURA

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    Claudia Ortiz A.

    2010-12-01

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    Resumen

    Objetivo: Reporte de un caso de embarazo exitoso en una paciente con disgenesia gonadal pura.
    Diseño de estudio: Informe de caso.
    Lugar: Centro de Fertilidad y Reproducción Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá (REPROTEC.
    Paciente: Una paciente con disgenesia gonadal 46,XY confi rmada.
    Intervención: Gonadectomía por laparoscopia, fertilización in vitro con donación de oocitos, transferencia de embriones en blastocisto (2 y parto por cesárMea.
    Resultado principal: Embarazo exitoso y nacido vivo.
    Conclusiones: Las pacientes con disgenesia gonadal pura 46,XY; tienen como opción de fertilidad, la donación de ovocitos y transferencia de embriones con adecuadas tasas de embarazos exitosos.

    Palabras clave: síndrome de Swyer, disgenesia gonadal pura, fertilización in vitro

    SUCCESSFUL PREGNANCY IN A PATIENT WITH PURE GONADAL DYSGENESIS

    Abstract

    Sexual differentiation is a complex process, that begins from conception with determination of genetic sex and from sixth week, gonadal differentiation; any alteration in any of the tracts can cause conditions where there is discordance between phenotype and genotype, that are called alterations in sexual development. Swyers syndrome and the syndrome of androgen insensitivity share the characteristics of a female phenotype with 46, XY karyotype.

    Key words: Swyer Syndrome, Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, in vitro fertilization.

  2. Gen SRY y ausencia de tejido testicular en una mujer 47XYY con disgenesia gonadal.

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    William Jubiz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa conceptos actuales sobre determinación y diferenciación sexual con base en el estudio genético de una niña de 13 años que consultó por talla baja y aumento de peso. El examen físico mostró Tanner I en mamas y en vello púbico, sin signos de androgenización. Mientras el nivel de la hormona de crecimiento (GH era normal, las hormonas folículoestimulante (FSH y luteinizante (LH estaban aumentadas. Mediante laparoscopia y posterior estudio patológico se demostró la presencia de gonadas rudimentarias con ausencia de tejido testicular. Aunque el cariotipo obtenido fue 47XYY y el análisis molecular identificó la presencia del gen SRY, su funcionalidad es incierta, lo que hace necesaria su secuenciación, con la finalidad de determinar posibles mutaciones. En respuesta a la terapia con estrógenos y progesterona se desarrollaron tanto los caracteres sexuales secundarios como una menstruación normal. Aunque es posible que en la paciente haya una doble alteración genética donde concurran la mutación de novo de un gen y una no disyunción en la meiosis paterna, el caso descrito es ilustrativo de la importancia del estudio genético en la evaluación de la disgenesia gonadal.

  3. Disgenesia gonadal mixta con fórmula cromosómica 45,X/46,X, (mar. Presentación de una paciente Mixed gonodal dysgenesis with chromosomic formula 45,X/46,X (mar. A case report

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    Pedro González Fernández

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó una paciente con estigmas turnerianos y cariotipo 45,X/46,XX con diagnóstico inicial de síndrome de Turner a la que se le realizó clitoridectomía por hipertrofia del clítoris a los 8 meses de edad. Se reevaluó a los 6 años de edad y se le realizó cariotipo con técnicas de bandas G (GTG con fórmula cromosómica de 45,X/46,X, (cromosoma marcador -mar; dicho marcador dio la impresión de una deleción del cromosoma X desde Xq13 ®Xq ter y Xp22 ®Xp ter. Se completó dicho estudio con técnica molecular de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y se identificó el gen SRY en el cromosoma marcador. Se realizó intervención quirúrgica por mínimo acceso y se comprobó ausencia de útero así como trompa en el lado derecho con ausencia de gónada y en el lado opuesto, testículo rudimentario; se planteó el diagnóstico de disgenesia gonadal mixta.A patient with Turner stigmas and karyotype 45,X/46,XX with initial diagnosis of Turner's syndrome is presented. Clitoridectomy was performed due to hypertrophy of the clitoris when she was 8. She was reevaluated at 6 and karyotype was made by using G bands techniques (GTG with chromosomic formula of 45,X/46,X, (marker chromosome -mar; such marker gave the impression of a deletion of chromosome X from Xq13 ®Xq ter and Xp22 ®Xp ter. This study was completed with the molecular technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the SRY gene was identified in the marker chromosome. The patient underwent minimum access surgery and it was proved the absence of uterus and tube on the right side with no gonad and a rudimentary testis on the opposite side. Mixed gonodal dysgenesis was diagnosed.

  4. Estudo morfometrico gonadal : condição necessaria a confirmação histologica da disgenesia gonadal parcial

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    Marcia Ribeiro Scolfaro

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: Justificativa: A Disgenesia Gonadal Parcial (DGP) é um distúrbio da diferenciação sexual caracterizado por testículos disgenéticos bilaterais, derivados dos duetos de Müller e criptorquidismo em pacientes com cariótipo 46,XY. Entretanto, os critérios histológicos diagnósticos são pouco utilizados. Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações histológicas das gônadas de crianças com DGP. Casuística e Metodologia: Entre 1996 e 1998, 13 crianças com DGP foram avaliadas em nosso serviço. O diagnóstico...

  5. Disgenesia gonadal mixta como forma de presentación de un desorden de la diferenciación sexual de causa cromosómica

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    María del Carmen Valdés Alonso

    Full Text Available La diferenciación sexual es un proceso genéticamente determinado y controlado, que puede ser alterado por diferentes tipos de mutaciones genéticas, o por el efecto de hormonas u otros disruptores ambientales que actúan sobre el embrión, resultando en la formación de genitales externos que no se corresponden con el sexo genético y con los genitales internos. La disgenesia gonadal mixta clasifica en los desórdenes de la diferenciación sexual de causa cromosómica. Se describe un paciente de un año de edad que es atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan Manuel Márquez”, por presentar genitales externos atípicos. El diagnóstico del paciente fue de disgenesia gonadal mixta, y se realizó con los complementarios siguientes: ecografía ginecológica, estudios hormonales y cariotipo. El tratamiento instaurado inicialmente, fue quirúrgico en dos tiempos operatorios, y el seguimiento hormonal hasta la pubertad (14 años, cuando se inició terapia de reemplazo hormonal según lo establecido por la edad de la paciente.

  6. Infertilidad, alternativas reproductivas y complicaciones obstétricas en pacientes afectas con Síndrome de Turner

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    Del Rio Riego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    El Síndrome de Turner es un trastorno genético caracterizado por la pérdida o anomalías estructurales de un cromosoma X y que afecta a 1 de cada 2.500 mujeres nacidas vivas. Etiológicamente viene determinado por no disyunción meiótica, haploinsuficiencia de genes y mecanismos de imprinting. Las manifestaciones clínicas varían entre pacientes, pero generalmente se relaciona con talla baja, coartación aórtica, disgenesia gonadal e insuficiencia ovárica primaria. Las terapias endocrinas administ...

  7. PRODUCCION A ESCALA PILOTO DE HEMBRAS DE CHORO ZAPATO CON COLOR GONADAL MODIFICADO MEDIANTE TECNICAS BIOTECNOLOGICAS

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    TARIFEÑO S., EDUARDO

    2010-01-01

    El Choro zapato (Choromytilus chorus) es un mejillón autóctono en Chile con grandes condiciones para su cultivo masivo por su tamaño y rápido crecimiento, comparado con la especie principal de la mitilicultura chilena, el chorito chileno (Mytilus chilensis). Sin embargo, el color café oscuro de las gónadas de las hembra del choro zapato es un factor limitante que frena el interés de los mitilicultores por su cultivo. En base a los resultados del proyecto FONDEF D01-1110 “Biotecnología aplicad...

  8. Síndrome de Turner: el riesgo de tumores gonadales en pacientes con secuencias del cromosoma Y Turner Syndrome: Gonadal Tumor Risk in Patients with Y Chromosome Sequences

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    SB Copelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión, se muestra que la existencia de secuencias del cromosoma Y en las mujeres con síndrome de Turner es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de gonadoblastoma, sobre todo si está presente en el cariotipo de las pacientes en forma de mosaico y/o como secuencias del Y ocultas. En la literatura, se han encontrado en los estudios epidemiológicos de cáncer, resultados controversiales en los casos que presentan gonadoblastoma u otros tumores malignos de ovario, en el síndrome de Turner. Algunas mujeres tienen Y pero no desarrollan tumores gonadales. En una población argentina de 282 mujeres con síndrome de Turner se evaluó la presencia de material del cromosoma Y en mosaico por PCR y en 8 de estos pacientes (2,83 % con secuencias del Y, se halló gonadoblastoma luego de extirpar la gónada. En la literatura, la frecuencia de material "escondido" de cromosoma Y (en mosaico es alta en el síndrome de Turner, pero la aparición de gonadoblastoma entre los pacientes con estas secuencias parece ser baja. Las secuencias del gen SRY solo pueden estudiarse como un marcador de mosaicismo, en pacientes con síndrome de Turner, porque el locus para gonadoblastoma/disgerminoma, probablemente se encuentra cerca del centrómero del Y lejos de SRY. Publicaciones recientes, sugieren que la evaluación del riesgo real de desarrollo de tumores gonadales en pacientes con ST con secuencias derivadas del Y, en su constitución cromosómica puede requerir un estudio histopatológico específico, tal como la inmunohistoquímica con OCT4. Por lo tanto, es evidente que la exéresis de las gónadas sigue siendo una herramienta importante para la prevención en pacientes con síndrome de Turner, con sospecha de cromosoma Y ¨escondido¨ o en mosaico, hasta que sea posible aislar los genes implicados en el gonadoblastoma. La autora declara no poseer conflictos de interés.In this review, we show that the existence of Y chromosome sequences in women with

  9. Habilidades sociales: Su importancia en mujeres con diagnóstico de Síndrome de Turner

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    María Soledad Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología Positiva postula la importancia de trabajar desde una mirada integradora de cada persona incluyendo sus fortalezas y debilidades. Esta mirada resulta importante al trabajar con poblaciones físicas, psicológicas y socialmente vulnerables. El Síndrome de Turner es un trastorno cromosómico determinado por la deleción del cromosoma X en el sexo femenino, siendo la talla y la disgenesia gonadal sus principales características físicas. Las mismas tienen un gran impacto en el desarrollo psicológico de esta población generando problemas en la capacidad de establecer relaciones sociales óptimas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es referenciar la importancia del desarrollo de habilidades sociales en el Síndrome de Turner, principalmente durante la niñez y la adolescencia, considerando que las mismas operan como un recurso salugénico para evitar trastornos mayores en la vida adulta.

  10. [Gonadal function in Turner syndrome].

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    Alves, Márcia; Bastos, Margarida; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A síndrome de Turner caracteriza-se pela ausência, parcial ou total, de um cromossoma X no sexo feminino, sendo uma das cromossomopatias mais frequentes. O diagnóstico é realizado através do cariótipo e as suas manifestações incluem o hipogonadismo primário, antes ou após a puberdade (disgenesia gonadal). O grau de disfunção e a extensão dos defeitos gonadais são variáveis.Objectivos: Pretendeu-se avaliar a clínica, cariótipo, função gonadal e características ecográficas do útero e ovários de mulheres com síndrome de Turner.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de doentes com síndrome de Turner, seguidas nos Serviços de Endocrinologia ou Reprodução Humana dos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra - Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, E.P.E. Avaliou-se toda a amostra e consideraram-se o grupo 1 (com puberdade e menarca espontânea) e grupo 2 (sem puberdade espontânea). Parâmetros avaliados: idade do estudo inicial, puberdade, cariótipo, FSH, ecografia pélvica inicial e pós-pubertária, celioscopia e indução pubertária. Estudo estatístico: SPSS (20.0).Resultados: Amostra: 79 doentes, 14,7 ± 6,6 anos. Ausência de sinais pubertários em 57,1%, amenorreia primária 67,1% e secundária 6,6%. Cariótipo: monossomia X-37,2%, mosaico-37,2%, alterações estruturais de X-25,6%. Mediana da FSH 59,5mUI/mL. Ecografia inicial: útero normal-34,2%, atrófico-65,8%; ovários normais-21,6%, atróficos-78,4%, com folículos-5,1%. Ecografia pós-pubertária: útero normal-67,9%, atrófico-32,1%; ovários normais-36,4%, atróficos-63,6%. A laparoscopia realizada em 16 (20,3%) doentes confirmou os achados ecográficos. Duas mulheres com puberdade induzida engravidaram: uma espontaneamente, sem evolução; outra pordoação de ovócitos, evolutiva. Grupo 1 (com puberdade e menarca espontânea): 20 (25,3%) doentes, 16,1 ± 8,9 anos. Puberdade na avaliação inicial: M1-22,2%, M2-33,3%, M3-16,7%, M4-16,7%, M5-11,1%. Cari

  11. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

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    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  12. LA IDENTIDAD SEXUAL: PERSONAS TRANSEXUALES Y CON TRASTORNOS DEL DESARROLLO GONADAL «NO EXISTEN SEXOS, SÓLO ROLES»: UN EXPERIMENTO ANTROPOLÓGICO NECESITADO DE LA BIOTECNOLOGÍA

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    Natalia López Moratalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se está llevando a cabo un experimento antropológico, con aplicación de biotecnología, iniciado sin garantía de éxito. Puede sintetizarse en la idea cultural de superación de los dos sexos biológicos. Sin embargo, es un hecho que el sexo corporal está determinado en la herencia recibida a nivel del par de cromosomas sexuales XX o XY. Los órganos gónadas y cerebro, al igual que las estructuras secundarias sexuales, «tienen» sexo. Los experimentos de la biotecnología con roedores para conseguir gametos in vitro desde células inmaduras de macho o de hembra, o cambiar el tipo de gameto que genera un organismo macho, o a la inversa, no ha dado resultados, que pudieran extrapolarse a humanos. Hoy por hoy, transmitir la propia vida de forma independiente de la identidad biológica corporal es mera ciencia ficción. El desarrollo armónico, que aporta y mantiene la identidad personal, permite que coincida el sexo cerebral y psicológico con el corporal. Las personas transexuales se sienten del sexo opuesto al de su cuerpo. La causa, que es genética, hace que en la etapa prenatal de la vida el cerebro esté expuesto a un exceso de esteroides. Investigaciones recientes sugieren una disfunción en la percepción cerebral del propio cuerpo, que no es una simple cuestión de preferencia dependiente del entorno social o del aprendizaje. Por ello, se debate que la armonía psique/corporalidad se alcance con las intervenciones quirúrgicas y los tratamientos hormonales que cambian el sexo genital y los caracteres sexuales secundarios. Existen, además, personas con condición intersexual, de origen genético, con un trastorno del desarrollo gonadal -«ovotesticular»-, que presentan ambigüedad en las estructuras gonadales y en los genitales. Se trata de una malformación que no conlleva efectos cerebrales, ni transexualismo. Los investigadores recomiendan no tener prisa en asignarles desde el nacimiento un sexo, de forma arbitraria.

  13. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the estrogen hypothesis: a quantitative meta-analysis A síndrome da disgenesia testicular e a hipótese do estrogênio: uma meta-análise quantitativa

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    Olwenn Martin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS. The only quantitative summary estimate of the link between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago; other reviews of the link between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES, and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER-α-mediated mode of action was specifically explored. Eight studies were included, investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population.Sugeriu-se que anomalias do trato reprodutivo masculino como hipospádia e criptorquidismo, assim como o câncer de testículo, componham uma síndrome comum com diminuição da espermatogênese, e de etiologia comum, a interrupção do desenvolvimento gonadal na fase fetal, a síndrome de disgenesia testicular (SDT. O único levantamento quantitativo da relação entre exposição pré-natal a agentes estrogênicos e câncer de testículo data de mais de dez anos; outras revisões da relação entre compostos estrogênicos diferentes do potente estrogênio sint

  14. Fisiopatología de la disfunción gonadal en la Amenorrea Hipotalámica funcional (AHF y su relación con la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal Pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction in functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA and its relation to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Fiszlejder

    2011-06-01

    cortisol sérico no son suprimidos por la administración de dexametasona y además la respuesta del ACTH postestímulo con CRH está atenuada. Estas observaciones sugieren una alteración de los mecanismos de "feedback" negativo del cortisol sobre la secreción del CRH-ACTH. Los mecanismos de esta resistencia al cortisol no están completamente dilucidados. Experiencias en animales sugieren que el estrés prolongado modifica la densidad y la relación de los receptores gluco/mineralocorticoideos y la actividad posreceptor. Por extrapolación se podría inferir que esta resistencia al cortisol en estas pacientes amenorreicas constituye un mecanismo tendiente a perpetuar la hiperactividad del eje adrenal. En adición, la activación del sistema simpático con el aumento de norepinefrina y epinefrina y su asociación con otros factores, produce un incremento en la liberación de glucosa y el aumento en la disponibilidad de NEFA, ácidos grasos libres y aminoácidos, mayor actividad cardíaca, estados de alerta y ansiedad. Estos aspectos pueden ser observados en estas pacientes con AHF, quienes frecuentemente presentan un importante componente psicosomático en su etiopatogenia. Conclusiones: la activación en el hipotálamo del NPY-CRH y sistemas opioide, serotoninérgico, GABAérgico, dopaminérgico y noradrenérgico, no solo afecta la función gonadal, sino que también puede estar involucrada en el desarrollo de osteoporosis y su riesgo de fracturas, inmunodepresión, aumento del riesgo cardiovascular y muerte súbita, una eventualidad latente en estas pacientes desnutridas con AHF.Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA is a secondary process to an adaptive response in women with inadequate diets and modified body composition. This process triggers hormonal reactions in the hypothalamus for preservation of metabolic homeostasis. It involves a "central circuit" made up of a network of hypothalamic hormones interrelated with a "peripheral circuit" made up of leptin and

  15. [Female gonadal venous insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Samos, R; Zorita, A; Ortega, J M; Morán, C; Morán, O; Vázquez, J; Vaquero, F

    1993-01-01

    The varicocele is a disease recognized and studied in the man. Dilatation of the ovarian veins and the pelvic varicosities secondaries to a varicocele in the woman is a rarely described disease but, if it were researched, it could be more frequent. Diverse syndromes of chronic abdominal pain in the woman with unrecognized etiology and associated with urologic and/or gynecologic symptomatology could be caused by this pathology, but the absence of a clinical description difficult the diagnosis of the most part of cases. The practice of gonadal selective venographies shows a high percentage of dilatation of the gonadal veins associated to a dilatation of the pelvic veins and of the lower limbs veins. The study of the anatomy of the gonadal veins shows diverse anomalies respect to the classical descriptions. Furthermore, the varicocele could be the cause of a high part of the "essential" varicosities presents during the pregnancy. We present a case that instead of being treated by Services of Urology or Gynecology, it was treated by the Vascular Surgery Service. So, the literature about the respect was reviewed. We think that, some entities, like the feminine varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, pelvic congestion syndrome chronic pelvic pain, pelvic varicosities, vulvar varicosities and some "essential" pregnant varicosities at the lower limbs could be enclosed into the same clinical entity (with a common etiology, physiopathology, clinical presentation and treatment). It should be intending to unify criteria (etiologic, diagnostic and therapeutics criteria) by the different Specialized Unities in such type of pathology.

  16. Gonadal development in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  17. Gonadoblastoma arising in undifferentiated gonadal tissue within dysgenetic gonads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Cools (Martine); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); J.A. Stoop (Hans); A.M. Kersemaekers (Anne-Marie); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); J.-P. Bourguignon (J.); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); K. Kula (Krzysztof); S.M.H. Faradz (Sultana)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of the study was to define the histological origin of gonadoblastomas, allowing the identification of high-risk patients. Experimental Design: Sixty paraffin-embedded gonadectomy or gonadal biopsy samples of 43 patients with gonadal dysgenesis were selected from our

  18. Clinical, neuroimaging and cytogenetic findings in 20 patients with corpus callosum dysgenesis Achados clínicos, citogenéticos e de neuroimagem em 20 pacientes com disgenesia do corpo caloso

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    Anna Cláudia Evangelista dos Santos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty children with corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia were evaluated under a standardized investigation protocol. Psychomotor retardation, seizures, and craniofacial anomalies were the most prominent findings. There were three cases of chromosomal anomalies, all of them representing trisomy of chromosome 8.Vinte pacientes com disgenesia do corpo caloso foram avaliados através de um protocolo padronizado. Retardo neuropsicomotor, convulsões e dismorfias faciais foram os achados mais proeminentes. Três casos de anomalia cromossômica foram observados, todos representados por trissomia do cromossomo 8.

  19. Fisiopatología de la disfunción gonadal en la Amenorrea Hipotalámica funcional (AHF) y su relación con la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal Pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction in functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) and its relation to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    León Fiszlejder

    2011-01-01

    ... hipotalámicas que se interrelacionan con un "circuito periférico" integrado por la leptina y adiponectina, entre otras adipokinas, y la ghrelina, sintetizada en el tracto gastrointestinal superior...

  20. Fisiopatología de la disfunción gonadal en la Amenorrea Hipotalámica funcional (AHF) y su relación con la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal Pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction in functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) and its relation to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    OpenAIRE

    León Fiszlejder

    2011-01-01

    La amenorrea hipotalámica funcional (AHF) constituye un proceso secundario de una respuesta de adaptación en mujeres que consumen dietas inadecuadas y presentan modificaciones en la composición corporal de su organismo. Ello origina reacciones hormonales en el hipotálamo destinadas a preservar la homeostasis metabólica. En este proceso de adaptación intervienen un "circuito central" constituido por una red de hormonas hipotalámicas que se interrelacionan con un "circuito periférico" integrado...

  1. Fisiopatología de la disfunción gonadal en la Amenorrea Hipotalámica funcional (AHF) y su relación con la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal Pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction in functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) and its relation to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    OpenAIRE

    León Fiszlejder

    2011-01-01

    La amenorrea hipotalámica funcional (AHF) constituye un proceso secundario de una respuesta de adaptación en mujeres que consumen dietas inadecuadas y presentan modificaciones en la composición corporal de su organismo. Ello origina reacciones hormonales en el hipotálamo destinadas a preservar la homeostasis metabólica. En este proceso de adaptación intervienen un "circuito central" constituido por una red de hormonas hipotalámicas que se interrelacionan con un "circuito periférico" integrado...

  2. Gonadal dysgenesis and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, V; Euller-Ziegler, L

    2001-02-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis is defined as congenital hypogonadism related to abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Because sex steroids play a central role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass, studies have been done to investigate bone status in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, particularly Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome, which are the two most common types. The severe estrogen deficiency characteristic of Turner's syndrome (44, X0) is associated with a significant bone mass decrease ascribable to increased bone turnover, as shown by histological studies and assays of bone turnover markers. Estrogen therapy is followed by a significant bone mass gain and a return to normal of bone turnover markers, suggesting that it is the estrogen deficiency rather than the chromosomal abnormality that causes the bone mass deficiency, although abnormalities in the renal metabolism of vitamin D have been reported. Combined therapy with estrogens and growth hormone seems beneficial during the prepubertal period. In Klinefelter's syndrome (47XXY), serum testosterone levels are at the lower end of the normal range and dihydrotestosterone levels are low. Histological studies show depressed osteoblast function and a decrease in 5-alpha-reductase activity responsible for partial tissue resistance to androgens. Assays of bone turnover markers show evidence of increased bone turnover. The bone deficiency is most marked at the femoral neck and seems correlated with serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Androgen therapy has favorable effects on the bone only if it is started before puberty. Recent data suggest that estrogens may contribute to the development of demineralization in KS and that bisphosphonate therapy may be beneficial.

  3. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in a 45,X neonate with chromosome Y material in the dysgenetic gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatza, Ageliki; Chrysis, Dionisios; Stefanou, Eunice-Georgia; Mantagos, Stefanos; Salakos, Christos

    2009-11-01

    We report on a neonate with a disorder of sex development, Prader 3-4 external genitalia and a palpable structure in the right inguinal canal suggestive of gonadal tissue. Chromosome studies on blood lymphocytes showed monosomy of chromosome X. Laparoscopy identified a streak-like gonad on the left side, unicorn uterus and a dysgenetic testis on the right, attached to a Fallopian tube. Because of the unilateral palpable gonad and the presence of ambiguous genitalia we investigated further for the presence of Y material. Quantitative fluorescent PCR analysis of material from the dysgenetic gonad and skin fibroblasts revealed the presence of chromosome Y-derived sequences, suggesting sex chromosome mosaicism. In 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, chromosome studies carried out on peripheral lymphocytes do not always reflect the proportion of cell lines in the gonads. The detection of Y chromosome material in a dysgenetic gonad is extremely significant, due to the high risk of malignant transformation.

  4. Variant course of left gonadal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Y

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the arteries that develop from the mesonephric arteries, including renal, gonadal and suprarenal arteries are common. Variations in the anatomical relationship of the gonadal arteries to the renal vessels are frequently reported. We here present a case of an unusual origin and course of a left testicular artery arching over left renal vein. The arching of the left testicular artery over the left renal vein could be a possible cause of the left renal vein compression. Therefore, knowledge of the possible existence of arching gonadal vessels in relation to the renal vein could be of paramount importance to vascular surgeons and urologists during surgery in the retroperitoneal region.

  5. Gonadal ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropoda: occurrence and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark R; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Rees, Huw H

    2009-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are demonstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the tissue source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.

  6. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  7. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA......-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated...

  8. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature.

  9. [XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis and XYY syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis is a disease related to Turner's syndrome. Patients of this disease are characterized by normal female external genitalia, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Recently, it has been reported that point mutations of the FSH receptor gene may be one of cause of this disease. The relationship between criminal behavior and XYY syndrome is still controversial. Increased incidence of disomic sperm in 47,XYY males has been reported by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Genetic counseling should be done when they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  10. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Presslauer

    Full Text Available A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf, growth differentiation factor (Gdf9, and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75, all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329 were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a

  11. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Özpolat, B. Duygu; Sloane, Emily S; Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    ... these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi...

  12. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  13. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  14. Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads and brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Eriksson, Hanna; Söderqvist, Anneli; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2009-01-31

    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal wastewater treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stages 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE(2). Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazole-exposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41 and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE(2)-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE(2) on brain aromatase

  15. Disgenesia do corpo caloso e más-formações associadas: achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and associated malformations: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Montandon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O termo disgenesia do corpo caloso refere-se a uma má-formação deste com origem na embriogênese do telencéfalo. O relato analisa os achados de tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética em 11 pacientes com disgenesia calosa e em um caso de corpo caloso normal com lipoma associado. Esta pode ser distinguida em três grupos: agenesia total (três casos, agenesia parcial (seis casos e hipoplasia (dois casos. Anomalias associadas foram observadas em nove casos, incluindo má-formação de Chiari tipo II (um caso, esquizencefalia (um caso, cisto inter-hemisférico (dois casos, heterotopia nodular (um caso, cisto de Dandy-Walker (um caso e lipoma do corpo caloso (quatro casos. Este artigo demonstra um espectro destes distúrbios, auxiliando na sua interpretação diagnóstica.Callosal dysgenesis is a malformation of the corpus callosum with origins in the embryogenesis of the telencephalon. We reviewed the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of 11 patients with callosal dysgenesis and one patient with normal corpus callosum associated with a lipoma. The patients were divided into three distinct groups: total agenesis (three patients, partial agenesis (six patients and hypoplasia (two patients. Associated abnormalities were observed in nine patients, including Chiari II malformation (one patient, schizencephaly (one patient, interhemispheric cyst (two patients, Dandy-Walker cyst (one patient, nodular heterotopy (one patient and lipoma of the corpus callosum (four patients. This paper presents a review that may contribute to the diagnosis of these disorders.

  16. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette L McGuire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meagre. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH. Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology.

  17. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  18. A perspective on fish gonad manipulation for biotechnical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The gonad is an essential organ for generating sperm and ova in vertebrates. This review describes several pilot studies on gonad gene manipulation and development in fish. With antisense RNA techniques, we suppressed the gonad development, and thus the fertility, of an antisense gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) transgenic common carp. Then, using a tissue-specific exogenous gene excision strategy with sexual compensation, we knocked out the gonad-specific transgene. Under the control of the rainbow trout protamine promoter, the transgenic fish expressed the reporter gene eGFP specifically in the spermary. These results indicate that the fish gonad is a new model organ that can improve contemporary biotechnology experiments. Herein we discuss the potential of fish gonad manipulation for resolving important biosafety problems regarding transgenic fish generation and producing the new transgenic animal bioreactor.

  19. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Duygu Özpolat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. Results We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  20. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Sloane, Emily S; Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  1. Migratory mechanisms of chick primordial germ cells toward gonadal anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, T; Rogulska, T

    1999-07-01

    After appearing at the germinal crescent region, chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate toward the presumptive gonads (pG) till stage 19 (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). This study seeks to elucidate the roles of passive and active factors in the PGC-migration, physical trapping of circulating PGCs by the capillary network and PGC attraction by chemotactic factor from presumptive gonads. Firstly, latex beads/pollens (the same size or larger than PGCs) were injected into the embryonic bloodstream at stage 13-19 (when PGCs are in the migrating and settlement phase to the presumptive gonad) in ovo in order to determine whether the PGCs passively reach pG. Most of such particles accumulated in the head region (60%), whereas the remainder did the same in the gonadal region (23% at the peak) at stage 16 when both the head and gonadal regions are rich in capillary plexus. After 3 days, most particles in the gonadal region were located at the angles of dorsal mesentery near the developing gonads where many extra-gonadal PGCs had been located, and a few particles were detected close to the gonad. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of PGC-migration to the developing gonads is an autonomous trapping of PGCs by the capillary network quite close to the germinal epithelium (GE) and passive translocation by morphogenetic movement. Secondly, the attraction for PGCs by the gonadal anlage proper was examined in ovo using chick and quail embryos. Grafts of quail gonadal anlage containing gonadal epithelium and neighbouring mesenchymal tissue were excised from the quail embryo at stages 12 to 16 (staging by Zacchei, 1961). With the aims of eliminating the influence of surrounding tissue, the quail graft was ectopically transplanted into the posterior to the optic vesicle of 8 to 17 somite chick embryo from the point of a posterior region to the auditory vesicle by a fine tungsten needle under the illumination by the method of Hara (1971). Then the region posterior to

  2. Expression of miRNAs in ovine fetal gonads: potential role in gonadal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winger Quinton A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal differentiation in the mammalian fetus involves a complex dose-dependent genetic network. Initiation and progression of fetal ovarian and testicular pathways are accompanied by dynamic expression patterns of thousands of genes. We postulate these expression patterns are regulated by small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of miRNAs in mammalian fetal gonads using sheep as a model. Methods We determined the expression of 128 miRNAs by real time PCR in early-gestational (gestational day (GD 42 and mid-gestational (GD75 sheep ovaries and testes. Expression data were further examined and validated by bioinformatic analysis. Results Expression analysis revealed significant differences between ovaries and testes among 24 miRNAs at GD42, and 43 miRNAs at GD75. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a number of differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to target genes known to be important in mammalian gonadal development, including ESR1, CYP19A1, and SOX9. In situ hybridization revealed miR-22 localization within fetal testicular cords. As estrogen signaling is important in human and sheep ovarian development, these data indicate that miR-22 is involved in repressing estrogen signaling within fetal testes. Conclusions Based on our results we postulate that gene expression networks underlying fetal gonadal development are regulated by miRNAs.

  3. Calculation the Received dose by gonads arising from some common diagnostic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zarghani

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: One of the ways for patient and gonadal dose reduction is to use appropriate shields for radiosensitive organs such as gonads. Hence its recommended to use appropriate shields for gonads because of their high radiosensitivity.

  4. Dissecting the Role of Hedgehog Pathway in Murine Gonadal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Ivraym Boshra

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the universal pathways involved in animal development. This dissertation focuses on Hh role in the mammalian gonad development, which is a central part of mammalian sexual development and identity. The central dogma of mammalian sex development is that genetic sex determines the gonadal sex, which in turn…

  5. EFFECTS OF GONADAL HORMONES ON MET-ENKEPHALIN IN BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGYing-Xiu; LIUGuo

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between gonadal hormones and Met-enkephalin ( MEK ) in the brain was investigated to explore the role of gonadal hormones in regulating the contents of MEK, Experiments were performed on rats of both sexes. The animals were divided into

  6. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: disadvantages prevail over benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, M.J.; Robben, S.; Postma, A.A.; Zoetelief, J.; Wildberger, J.E.; Kemerink, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To re-evaluate gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography in terms of attainable radiation risk reduction and associated loss of diagnostic information. Methods A study on patient dose and the quality of gonad shielding was performed retrospectively using 500 pelvic radiographs of ch

  7. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  8. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Ossewaarde, L.; Backstrom, T.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial b

  9. Gonadal function in male and female patients with classic galactosemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Gubbels, C. S.; Bakker, J. A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; Wodzig, W. K. W. H.; Land, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic infertility is the most burdensome complication for females suffering from classic galactosemia. In contrast, male gonadal function seems less affected. The underlying mechanism is not understood and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Timing of the les

  10. Premature sternal fusion in gonadal dysgenesis with coarctation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, T.E.; Kushner, D.C.; Cleveland, R.H.

    1985-07-01

    In reviewing lateral chest roentgenograms in three infants with Turner's syndrome and aortic coarctation, and in infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and aortic coarctation, we have found obvious sternal fusion abnormalities which are reported here.

  11. [Asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis. Report of a case (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapoy, P; Mattei, J F; Exbrayat, C; Louchet, E

    The authors report a case of asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis related to 45XO-46XY mosaicism in a 16 year old girl. Delayed, growth and puberty, Turner's dysmorphism without sexual ambiguity and skeletal abnormalities are the main clinical features suggesting the diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy reveals infantil uterus, bilateral falopian tubes and streak gonads. A right dysgenetic testis is identified on electron microscopic examination. Theories on pathogenesis of this unusual genetic defect are discussed.

  12. Pathogenetics of 45,X/46,XY gonadal mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K S; Sulcova, V

    1998-01-01

    Five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism ranging from 8% to 66% of 46, XY lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were studied. Their age when chromosome studies were performed ranged from a few days to 37 yr. The phenotypic presentations were two females with gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome features (cases 1 and 2), two males with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (cases 3 and 4), and an infertile male with an atrophic testis (case 5). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual-color X and Y probes on paraffin-embedded sections of the gonads was performed to assess mosaicism. A mosaic cell line with a Y chromosome was present in the streak ovary, dysgenetic gonad, and testis. In the mixed gonadal dysgenesis cases (cases 3 and 4), the testis had a higher percentage (greater than two fold) of XY cells than the ovary had. However, the highest ratio of cells with a Y chromosome was in the atrophic testis of the infertile male (case 5). The distribution of mosaic clones in the different gonadal cell types was examined. Both females (cases 1 and 2) with dysgenetic gonads had scant ovarian stroma and nests of Leydig or hilus cells. In FISH studies, the coelomic epithelial cells were predominantly 46,XY; in comparison, the Leydig and hilus cells had a lower percentage and the ovarian stroma the least number of cells with a Y signal. A mixed gonadal dysgenesis case (case 3) possessed a right testis with an XY complement in approximately 21% of Sertoli cells and approximately 14% of Leydig cells. The infertile male had an atrophic testis with interstitial hyperplasia (case 5). His testis contained Sertoli cells but no evidence of spermatogenesis. FISH detected a Y signal in about 50-60% of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.

  13. Case of microgastria in association with splenic-gonadal fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G.A.; Alavi, A.; Heyman, S.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1983-03-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with asplenia. In this 2 1/2-year-old presenting with left hydrocele and inguinal hernia multiple accessory spleens were found in the inguinal-scrotal region compatible with splenic-gonadal fusion. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid scanning is helpful in microgastria searching for the presence of splenic tissue and in splenic-gonadal fusion for the location of accessory heterotopic spleens.

  14. [SF-1, a key player in adrenal and gonadal differentiation: implications in gonadal dysgenesis and primary ovarian insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinerie, L; Bouvattier, C; Lombes, M

    2009-09-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene, identified by Keith Parker in 1992, encodes for an orphan nuclear receptor, NR5A1, whose expression is detected during fetal life in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenic tissues, but also in the developing hypothalamus and in pituitary gonadotropic cells. SF-1 knock-out mouse models exhibit complete adrenal and gonadal agenesis. Human mutations of this transcription factor, were initially associated with primary adrenal failure and male gonadal dysgenesis with various degrees of under androgenization. More recently, identification of novel SF-1 mutations responsible for isolated 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis or 46, XX primary ovarian insufficiency, underscores its central role in the control and maintenance of adrenal and reproductive functions. A better understanding in the regulatory mechanisms of SF-1 signaling pathway, will open new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic managements of sex differentiation disorders and infertilities.

  15. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations and the availability of gonad shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments. Materials and Methods A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study on the application of gonad shielding, the availability of gonad shields and the existence of gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments was performed in five different hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Results The highest application of gonad shielding was 6.6% for the pediatric hospital. The prevalence of gonad shielding was less than 0.2%. In 64.3% of the radiography rooms, at least one flat-contact gonad shield of a large size was available. Only large-sized gonad shields were available. Curved-contact and shadow gonad shields did not exist. Gonad shielding protocols were not existence in any of the fourteen radiography rooms investigated. Conclusions Comprehensive protection programs with on-the-job training courses for staff members are strongly recommended, as well as, the provision of radiological shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments to reduce the patient’s radiation dose during radiological examinations.

  16. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496].

  17. Testing the gonadal regression-cytoprotection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B A; Spaliviero, J A; Simpson, J M; Handelsman, D J

    1998-11-15

    Germinal damage is an almost universal accompaniment of cancer treatment as the result of bystander damage to the testis from cytotoxic drugs and/or irradiation. Cancer treatment for the most common cancers of the reproductive age group in men has improved such that most are now treated with curative intent, and many others are treated with likelihood of prolonged survival, so that the preservation of fertility is an important component of posttreatment quality of life. This has led to the consideration of developing adjuvant treatments that may reduce the gonadal toxicity of cancer therapy. One dominant hypothesis has been based on the supposition that the immature testis was resistant to cytotoxin damage. Hence, if hormonal treatment were able to cause spermatogenic regression to an immature state via an effective withdrawal of gonadotrophin secretion, the testis might be maintained temporarily in a protected state during cytotoxin exposure. However, clinical studies have been disappointing but have also been unable to test the hypothesis definitively thus far, due to the inability to completely suppress gonadotrophin secretion. Similarly, experimental models have also given conflicting results and, at best, a modest cytoprotection. To definitively test this hypothesis experimentally, we used the fact that the functionally hpg mouse has complete gonadotrophin deficiency but can undergo the induction of full spermatogenesis by testosterone. Thus, if complete gonadotrophin deficiency were an advantage during cytotoxin exposure, then the hpg mouse should exhibit some degree of germinal protection against cytotoxin-induced damage. We therefore administered three different cytotoxins (200 mg/kg procarbazine, 9 mg/kg doxorubicin, 8 Gy of X irradiation) to produce a range of severity in testicular damage and mechanism of action to either phenotypically normal or hpg mice. Testis weight and homogenization-resistant spermatid numbers were measured to evaluate the

  18. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  19. Gonadal mosaicism as a rare cause of autosomal recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, S; Al-Sabban, E; Alkuraya, F S

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal recessive diseases are typically caused by the biparental inheritance of familial mutant alleles. Unusual mechanisms by which the recessiveness of a mutant allele is unmasked include uniparental isodisomy and the occurrence of a de novo chromosomal rearrangement that disrupts the other allele. Gonadal mosaicism is a condition in which a postfertilization mutation is confined to the gamete precursors and is not detected in somatic tissues. Gonadal mosaicism is known to give the impression of autosomal recessive inheritance when recurrence of an autosomal-dominant condition among offspring of phenotypically normal parents is observed. Here, we report an extremely rare event in which maternal gonadal mosaicism for a recessive mutation in COL4A4 caused the recurrence of Alport syndrome within a consanguineous family. Such rare occurrence should be taken into account when analyzing pedigrees both for clinical and research purposes.

  20. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  1. MIXED GONADAL DYSGENESIS IN A SEVEN MONTH OLD BABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ayu Krishna Levina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a very rare case with genital ambiguity as a clinical manifestation.Diagnosis of this condition is emerging due to proper gender assignment and  prompt treatment toachieve optimal physical and psychologic development. We reported a genital ambigous in a 7 month old baby, who was referred with enlargement of clitoris, an unpalpable testis, but with a highconcentration testosteron serum level, an uterus from genitography, and a mosaic karyotype 45,X/46,XY. The working diagnosis of this baby is mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Patients is being evaluated by a multidisciplinary team and planned having laparoscopy.  [MEDICINA 2014;45:52-57

  2. Stimulation of gonadal development by sexual interaction of pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerd, J H; Sukkel, M; Bongers, A B; van der Does, H M; Steynis, E; Richter, C J

    1991-02-01

    Stimulation and inhibition of gonadal development by intersexual contact was studied in pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The effect of a possible interaction was studied by evaluation after a 98-day experimental period of gonadal development in combinations of intact and anosmic males and females. In addition, separate groups of males and females, respectively, were exposed to holding water from these combinations. A tentative model of stimulation of gonadal development by intersexual contact in pubertal fish was developed. Males stimulate ovarian development of females by both olfactory and tactile cues. In addition, males seem to enhance gonadal development of other males through olfactory stimulation via holding water. In contrast, females tended to inhibit male gonadal development, especially through tactile cues. It seems that although males are hampered by female tactile stimuli in their gonadal development and ability to stimulate male gonadal development, their ability to stimulate female gonadal development is not affected.

  3. Escala de madurez gonadal del jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la escala de madurez gonadal macroscópica del jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920, validada con estudios microscópicos y en uso en Perú. La escala consta de seis estadios de maduración para hembras y machos, que van desde el estadio 0 (virginal al estadio V (recuperación en hembras, posexpulsante en machos. Para el estudio, se contó con 350 ejemplares provenientes del plan de seguimiento de la pesquería pelágica y de cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos; dichos ejemplares fueron colectados desde el 2006 al 2009. La escala cataloga a los individuos virginales en el denominado estadio 0, lo cual permite la separación práctica entre juveniles (estadio 0 y adultos (estadios I a V. Se discute las bondades de la escala validada para el jurel T. murphyi, la cual se compara con otras escalas de madurez propuestas para especies de la misma familia. El análisis de las características microscópicas de los ovarios confirman la tipificación de desove parcial ya descrita por otros autores.

  4. AMPK : a master energy regulator for gonadal functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBertoldo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From c.elegans to mammals (including humans, nutrition and energy metabolism strongly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity, or poor (diet restriction. One of these detectors is AMPK (5 'AMP-activated protein kinase, a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome.

  5. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

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  16. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149180,...SRX149182,SRX149179,SRX149178,SRX149181,SRX804052,SRX804051,SRX804053,SRX388185 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,...SRX804051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149180,SRX149178,SRX804053,SRX149182 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad.bed ...

  18. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E

    2015-09-01

    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and lineage tracing of two populations of somatic gonadal precursors in medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Aoki, Yumiko; Yokoi, Hayato; Ebe, Youko; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Tanaka, Minoru

    2006-07-15

    The gonad contains two major cell lineages, germline and somatic cells. Little is known, however, about the somatic gonadal cell lineage in vertebrates. Using fate mapping studies and ablation experiments in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), we determined that somatic gonadal precursors arise from the most posterior part of the sdf-1a expression domain in the lateral plate mesoderm at the early segmentation stage; this region has the properties of a gonadal field. Somatic gonadal precursors in this field, which continuously express sdf-1a, move anteriorly and medially to the prospective gonadal area by convergent movement. By the stage at which these somatic gonadal precursors have become located adjacent to the embryonic body, the precursors no longer replace the surrounding lateral plate mesoderm, becoming spatially organized into two distinct populations. We further show that, prior to reaching the prospective gonadal area, these populations can be distinguished by expression of either ftz-f1 or sox9b. These results clearly indicate that different populations of gonadal precursors are present before the formation of a single gonadal primordium, shedding new light on the developmental processes of somatic gonadal cell and subsequent sex differentiation.

  20. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C

    2012-10-01

    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  1. Appetite for reproduction: dietary restriction, aging and the mammalian gonad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L; Pletcher, Scott D; Matzuk, Martin M

    2008-01-01

    The major physiologic theory of aging, the disposable soma theory, links dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie or food restriction, to prolonged lifespan and makes specific predictions about the effects of aging and DR on reproduction. A recent study in BMC Biology profiling the effects of aging and DR on gonadal gene expression provides novel molecular evidence that has a significant impact on this theory of aging. PMID:18828876

  2. Regulation of meiosis in the foetal mouse gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C W; Robb, D I; Tuckett, F; Challoner, S

    1982-04-01

    In vitro culture of male and female gonads was found to have significant effects on gonadal structure and development. Culture resulted in a reduction of testicular cord diameter and a reduction in the number of Sertoli cells lining each cord in cross section. In the female, culture increased the percentage of pyknotic oocytes and fewer germ cells per unit of ovary volume reached diplotene. Mixed sex co-culture using different culture methods showed that day 14 p.c. testes inhibited meiosis in day 14 p.c. ovaries when the cultures were continued until the equivalent of day 21 p.c. Day 15 p.c. and mixed age co-cultures of mixed sex provided more equivocal data since meiosis was inhibited in some preparations but not in others. The possibility is suggested that prophase I may proceed irrevocably to diplotene after about day 15 p.c. and thus the inhibitory effects of foetal testes may be a function of female gonadal age. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that mixed sex co-culture may stimulate meiosis precociously in foetal testes.

  3. Identification of side population cells in chicken embryonic gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, Elodie; Raucci, Franca; Montillet, Guillaume; Pain, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    The side population (SP) phenotype, defined by the ability of a cell to efflux fluorescent dyes such as Hoechst, is common to several stem/progenitor cell types. In avian species, SP phenotype has been identified in pubertal and adult testes, but nothing is known about its expression during prenatal development of a male gonad. In this study, we characterized the Hoechst SP phenotype via the cytofluorimetric analysis of disaggregated testes on different days of chicken embryonic development. Male prenatal gonads contained a fraction of SP cells at each stage analyzed. At least two main SP fractions, named P3 and P4, were identified. The percentage of P3 fraction decreased as development proceeds, whereas P4 cell number was not affected by gonad growth. Functional inhibition of BCRP1 channel membrane using Verapamil and/or Ko143 showed that P3, but not P4 phenotype, was dependent on BCRP1 activity. Molecular analysis of both P3- and P4-sorted fractions revealed a differential RNA expression pattern, indicating that P3 cells mainly contained germinal stem cell markers, whereas P4 was preferentially composed of both Sertoli and Leydig cell progenitor markers. Finally, these findings provided evidence that the SP phenotype is a common feature of both germ and somatic cells detected in chicken developing testis.

  4. STUDIES OF ANNUAL GONADAL DEVELOPMENT AND GONADAL ULTRASTRUCTURE IN SPINY-CHEEK CRAYFISH (ORCONECTES LIMOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOZÁK P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the gonadal development in freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque by histological examination of ovaries and testes as well as monthly investigation of the gonadosomatic index over a period of one year. Male gonadosomatic index (IG ranged between 0.11 to 0.79% with a minimum in July (0.11% and maximum in September (0.79% while in females it ranged between 0.25 to 6.15% with a minimum in July (0.25% and maximum in April (6.15%. Between April and May, the histological dissection indicated presence of mature oocytes and oocytes undergoing resorption. Egg extrusion took place in mid April. During the summer months, the volume of oocytes gradually decreased. In winter and spring, the volume of oocytes began to increase during preparation for egg extrusion. The size of oocytes in the ovary increased from 0.2 mm at the beginning of the reproductive cycle to 1.8 mm immediately before egg extrusion. Average number of eggs in the ovary was 140.8 ± 51.63 (76-290. The ovary was of brown colour for the majority of the cycle, but white in June and July and orange in August and September. Mating started in October and continued through the winter. A difference was found in the proportions of testis and vas deferens in the male reproductive organ during the year. The male gonadosomatic index increased in September during preparation for mating (IG = 0.79%. During the mating season, the male spermatophores were predominantly filled with spermatozoa and sperm was also noted in the vas deferens. Two out of 15 males sampled during the winter were found to be intersex, in which atretic oogonia and oocytes were present at the periphery of testicular tissue and occupied less than 15% of testicular tissue. The evidence of intersex strongly suggested transitional stages of a gradual change of sex, which may be qualified as partial hermaphroditism.

  5. Mutations in SRY and WT1 genes required for gonadal development are not responsible for XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

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    E.B. Tagliarini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The WT1 transcription factor regulates SRY expression during the initial steps of the sex determination process in humans, activating a gene cascade leading to testis differentiation. In addition to causing Wilms' tumor, mutations in WT1 are often responsible for urogenital defects in men, while SRY mutations are mainly related to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis. In order to evaluate their role in abnormal testicular organogenesis, we screened for SRY and WT1 gene mutations in 10 children with XY partial gonadal dysgenesis, 2 of whom with a history of Wilms' tumor. The open reading frame and 360 bp of the 5' flanking sequence of the SRY gene, and the ten exons and intron boundaries of the WT1 gene were amplified by PCR of genomic DNA. Single-strand conformation polymorphism was initially used for WT1 mutation screening. Since shifts in fragment migration were only observed for intron/exon 4, the ten WT1 exons from all patients were sequenced manually. No mutations were detected in the SRY 5' untranslated region or within SRY open-reading frame sequences. WT1 sequencing revealed one missense mutation (D396N in the ninth exon of a patient who also had Wilms' tumor. In addition, two silent point mutations were found in the first exon including one described here for the first time. Some non-coding sequence variations were detected, representing one new (IVS4+85A>G and two already described (-7ATG T>G, IVS9-49 T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mutations in two major genes required for gonadal development, SRY and WT1, are not responsible for XY partial gonadal dysgenesis.

  6. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

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    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  7. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C

    2006-10-01

    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later.

  8. Oestrogen blocks the nuclear entry of SOX9 in the developing gonad of a marsupial mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Pask Andrew J; Calatayud Natalie E; Shaw Geoff; Wood William M; Renfree Marilyn B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hormones are critical for early gonadal development in nonmammalian vertebrates, and oestrogen is required for normal ovarian development. In contrast, mammals determine sex by the presence or absence of the SRY gene, and hormones are not thought to play a role in early gonadal development. Despite an XY sex-determining system in marsupial mammals, exposure to oestrogen can override SRY and induce ovarian development of XY gonads if administered early enough. Here we asses...

  9. [New aspects of diagnosing and treating pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XY and 46XX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Miedzianowski, J; Baron, J J

    1993-01-01

    Among 67 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis, karyotype 46XY was found in 46 and karyotype 46XX in 21 (26.3% of all intersexual subjects). Karyotype 46XY was either of pure type or mosaicism 45,X/46,XY (10.9%). Primary amenorrhea, underdevelopment of mammary glands and lack or poor development of pubic hair were the main complaints of the patients. In gonadal dysgenesis 46XY mammary glands were developed in 21.8% and pubic hair in 26% suggesting the presence within the gonads of the hormonally active tumor or the state after hormonal treatment. The patients with gonadal dysgenesis 46XX had lowered levels of estrogens and elevated levels of FSH and LH. Karyotype 46XY was not associated with evident changes in hormonal levels. Estrogens were both low and normal, and FSH was elevated (21.5 + 16.6 ug/ml) or normal (3.2-5.0 ng/ml). Total testosterone values were normal or slightly elevated. Such situation can be explained by the presence in some patients of tumors secreting either estrogens or androgens. Taeniform character of gonads was observed by ultrasonography whenever the presence of gonadal tumor was excluded. Histology of specimens taken from gonads or tumors demonstrated the presence of dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma type of malignancy in 53.1%, foci or proliferation of the Leydig cells in 31.3% and typical morphology of residual gonads without germinal cells only in 12.5%. The differentiation between pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX and primary ovarian insufficiency is required whenever no characteristic pattern emerges from clinical, hormonal, cytogenetic or ultrasonographic examination. Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX can be finally confirmed by the absence of gonocytes in the residual gonad. Besides of removal of gonads or tumors by surgery, the treatment of patients with 46XY karyotype consists in cyclic administration of estrogens and progestagens restoring menstruation and bringing development of secondary sex attributes.

  10. Intersex gonad differentiation in cultured Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepkowska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Gibala, Monika; Roszko, Marek Lukasz

    2014-02-01

    Among sturgeons, the occurrence of individuals with gonads containing both testis and ovary components is considered pathological, and such fish are described as intersex individuals or intersexes. Intersexes are observed in both wild and cultured populations of sturgeon, usually at low frequencies. In the present study, intersex Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons constituted 30% of the studied populations. Macroscopically, intersex gonads were recognizable from 500 days posthatching (dph). Initially, gonads with predominantly male characteristics (testis-ova) were observed, but in older fish gonads with predominantly female traits (ova-testis) were more frequent. Using microscopic analysis, intersex gonads were discernible by 130-200 dph. Observations of intersex germinal epithelium development and analysis of sex distribution in the study populations indicated that feminization was occurring. Histological analysis revealed that differentiation of the germinal epithelium in such gonads was accompanied by various morphological alterations (transformations) that were described using quantitative and localization criteria. The most common type of transformations, massive subepithelial transformations, was manifested by the presence of abundant female germinal tissue located under the gonad surface epithelium in the developing testis. These transformations were identified in the early development stage (100-200 dph). In this type of transformation, differentiation of female germinal tissue at the gonad surface and male tissue at the mesorchium/mesovarium resulted in complete formation of both male and female germinal epithelia within the same gonad.

  11. Dysgerminoma in a case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (swyer syndrome: a case report

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    He Anguang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal Müllerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Herein, we report a case of dysgerminoma diagnosed in a dysgenetic gonad of a 21-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.

  12. Dynamics of miRNA transcriptome during gonadal development of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presslauer, Christopher; Tilahun Bizuayehu, Teshome; Kopp, Martina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Babiak, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Studies in non-teleost vertebrates have found microRNAs (miRNAs) to be essential for proper gonadal development. However, comparatively little is known about their role during gonadal development in teleost fishes. So far in zebrafish, a model teleost, transcript profiling throughout gonadal development has not been established because of a tiny size of an organ in juvenile stages and its poor distinguishability from surrounding tissues. We performed small RNA sequencing on isolated gonads of See-Thru-Gonad line, from the undifferentiated state at 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf) to fully mature adults at 24 wpf. We identified 520 gonadal mature miRNAs; 111 of them had significant changes in abundance over time, while 50 miRNAs were either testis- or ovary-enriched significantly in at least one developmental stage. We characterized patterns of miRNA abundance over time including isomiR variants. We identified putative germline versus gonadal somatic miRNAs through differential small RNA sequencing of isolated gametes versus the whole gonads. This report is the most comprehensive analysis of the miRNA repertoire in zebrafish gonads during the sexual development to date and provides an important database from which functional studies can be performed. PMID:28262836

  13. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S. [Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  14. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

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    Masumi eNozaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates. Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates, the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTH mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  15. New type of canned cod gonads and liver pastes

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    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of rational way of processing the offal of the Gadidae family (liver and gonads for food purposes has been proved. The possibility of using the frozen gonads (milt and caviar and the liver of the cod in the human nutrition (especially for the people of elderly age has been researched. The frozen gonads with addition of fish liver are proven to be used for producing the canned foods with high quality level. The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product have been determined by the standardized methods. The quality level of canned foods has been obtained using the developed criteria of the objective evaluation of the quality. The specimens of the canned pastes produced from the frozen cod milt, caviar and liver using different compositions have been researched. Near-to-optimal composition of the new product has been defined. The quality level of canned food is 88.6 %. The commercial sterility of the canned food specimens prepared using the developed technology has been established. The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of canned food have been researched. It has been established that protein content in the canned food is 12.9 %, fat content – 13.5 %, water content – 71.2 %, sodium chloride content – 1.3 %, carbohydrates content – 0.5 %. The product is the uniform, finely ground, evenly mixed mass with the presence of the separate caviar grains. The color of the paste is light-beige. The canned food has the tender consistency, pleasant taste and aroma. The energy value of the product is 678 kJ (162 kcal. Using the frozen cod caviar, milt and liver for producing the developed assortment of canned foods will make it possible to solve the problem of the complex processing of fish, and also to manufacture the canned food of high quality on the shore enterprises from the frozen fish offal (caviar, milt and liver all the year round.

  16. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH, chronic liver disease (CLD, and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT. Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16% and 24 (28% patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%, followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%, subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3% and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50% followed by LT (3; 33%, CLD-1 (4; 20%, and AH (3; 14%. Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism.

  17. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  18. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

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    Rakesh Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner′s stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml. Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251. Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD. The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient′s caregivers.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-12-30

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  20. Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 116638 gonad-derived zebrafish expressed sequence tags (ESTs, 21% of which were isolated in our lab. Following in silico normalization, we constructed a gonad-derived microarray comprising 6370 unique, full-length cDNAs from differentiating and adult gonads. Labeled targets from adult gonad, brain, kidney and 'rest-of-body' from both sexes were hybridized onto the microarray. Our analyses revealed 1366, 881 and 656 differentially expressed transcripts (34.7% novel that showed highest expression in ovary, testis and both gonads respectively. Hierarchical clustering showed correlation of the two gonadal transcriptomes and their similarities to those of the brains. In addition, we have identified 276 genes showing sexually dimorphic expression both between the brains and between the gonads. By in situ hybridization, we showed that the gonadal transcripts with the strongest array signal intensities were germline-expressed. We found that five members of the GTP-binding septin gene family, from which only one member (septin 4 has previously been implicated in reproduction in mice, were all strongly expressed in the gonads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated a gonad-derived zebrafish cDNA microarray and demonstrated its usefulness in identifying genes with sexually dimorphic co-expression in both the gonads and the brains. We have also provided the first evidence of large-scale differential gene expression between female and male brains of a teleost. Our microarray would be useful for studying gonad development, differentiation and function not only in zebrafish but also in related teleosts via cross-species hybridizations. Since several genes have been shown to play similar

  1. Gonadal differentiation in reptiles exhibiting environmental sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Parrott, Benjamin B; Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Brandon C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis

    2014-01-01

    As temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and homozygote or heterozygote genetic sex determination (GSD) exist in multiple reptilian taxa, they represent sex determination systems that have emerged de novo. Current investigations have revealed that the genetic mechanisms used by various reptilian species are similar to those used by other vertebrates. However, the recent completion or near completion of various reptilian genome projects suggests that new studies examining related species with and without TSD could begin to provide additional insight into the evolution of TSD and GSD in vertebrate ancestors. Major questions still remain concerning germ cell migration and specification, the differentiation of gonadal accessory cells, such as the Sertoli cells and granulosa cells of the developing testis and ovary, respectively, and the mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated during TSD events. Further, reptilian sentinels and their mechanisms of gonadogenesis will likely remain important indicator species for environmental health. Thus, ongoing and new investigations need to tie molecular information to gonadal morphogenesis and function in reptiles. Such data will not only provide important information for an understanding of the evolution of these phenomena in vertebrates, but could also provide an important understanding of the health of the environment around us.

  2. PATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GONADS IN NINE PATIENTS WITH TRUE HERMAPHRODITISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽娜; 刘丹华; 田秦杰

    1998-01-01

    The gonadal histopathology, and its correlation with the clinical features has been investigated in 9 true hermaphroditism patients, aged 5-21 yr. Seven of 9 patients had been raised as females, of which the chromosomal karyotype was 46XX in 5 cases, 46XX/46XY and 46XX/47XXY in 2 cases. Two of 9 patients were raised as males, the chromosomal karyotypes being 46XX and 46XX/46XY. All 9 patients had testieular tissue excised, and biopsies of the conserved ovaxian tissue were performed. Ovotestis was the most common form of the abnormal gonads; two of 9 patients had bilateral ovotestes, seven had unilsteral ovotestes (5 in right side, 2 in left side). In seven patients with a unilateral ovotestis, 6 had a contralateral ovary and one had a contralateral testis. Microscopically, the ovarian tissue of 11 ovotestes, including 6 biopsies from contealateral ovaris, were normal, with many primordal follicles and a few growing follicles.In two of the patients, aged over 15 years, evidence of ovulation was observed. In comparison, the testicular tissue of the ovotestis and the one left inguinal testis was histologically abnormal, with immature seminiferous tubbers, most of which filled with Sertoli cells only, Three of 9 patients married after surgical treatment. Two of these subsequently conceived and delivered of normal infants by cesarean section.

  3. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marijne Heeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  4. [XY gonadal dysgenesis with female phenotype (author's transpl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, J V; Martínez, F B

    1975-01-01

    In this paper, we are dealing with the study of a case of multiple somatic malformations, with external female genitals and 46 XY caryotype. The anatomical and histological study of the genital organs, allows us to verify the existence of internal genital organs; consisting essentially in tubes, bicornous uterus, a gonadal ligament in a normotopical position, Wolffian remains and the absence of a vagina. The external female genitals are completely normal. When we interpreted these findings, we paid special attention to the relation existing between the abnormal presence of the Wolffian remains, male genotype, and typical female genital structures. Taking account of the latest scientific advances concerning genital development, we considered the possibility of the existence of secretions of a "masculinizing" substance from the gonad, before its morphological differentiation, which was interrupted by an etiological undetermined noxa. When this evolution was arrested, together with the secretions of the masculinizing substance, the genital development continued normally for a female. The terminal teratogenic period for this malformation is situated from the 5th to the 6th week of gestation (human embryos from 11 to 14 mm., Streeter Horizon XVII).

  5. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem

    1971-01-01

    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different condition

  6. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  8. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem

    1971-01-01

    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different

  9. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  10. Gonad morphology and histology of an endemic tooth-carp, Aphanius sophiae (Heckel, 1847 from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Aminaghaie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first details on morphological and histological characteristics of gonads and gonadal development stages of an endemic tooth-carp, Aphanius sophiae (Heckel, 1847 from a spring-stream system (south of Iran. The sampling was done from March 2012 to March 2013 using dip net, and a total of 226 individuals were collected. The gonads of specimens were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution after checking their morphology and measuring their weights, lengths and widths. Based on the size, shape and weight of the gonads, degree of occupation of the body cavity, presence or absence of ripe oocytes or milt, diameter of the oocytes in the ovary, and histological observations, five stages of sexual maturation in females and males were determined by macroscopic and microscopic criteria. The results of the gonadal stages indicated that A. sophiae spawns at the beginning of spring.

  11. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund;

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  12. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

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    Rasmussen Lene J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. Results In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a and high in females (fig alpha and cyp19a1a was segregated in two groups with more than 10 times difference in expression levels. All of the investigated genes showed peaks in expression levels during the time of sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Expression of all genes was investigated on cDNA from the same fish allowing comparison of the high and low expressers of genes that are expected to be highest expressed in either males or females. There were 78% high or low expressers of all three "male" genes (ar, sox9a and dmrt1 in the investigated period and 81% were high or low expressers of both "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a. When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. Conclusion In zebrafish, the first significant peak in gene expression during the investigated period (2–40 dph was dmrt1 at 10 dph which indicates involvement of this gene

  13. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2005-02-01

    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  14. Ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoto, N; Corman, V; Legros, J J

    2011-02-01

    Cardiovascular and endocrine complications in male or sexually-ambiguous patients carrying a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are rarely discussed in the medical literature. However, young female patients with a diagnosis of Turner's disease usually benefit from regular cardiologic and endocrine follow-up, in accordance with current international guidelines. We report the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with an ambiguous phenotype known to harbor a mixed gonadic 45,X/46,XY type dysgenesis. The patient was admitted to the cardiology ward for investigation and management of cardiac failure secondary to both a biscupid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm. This case report, and the few others, which have been previously reported in the literature, emphasizes the importance of cardiologic and endocrine follow-up in male carriers of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.

  15. Gonadal and adrenal androgen secretion in hirsute females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molta, L; Schwartz, U

    1986-05-01

    The pathophysiology of glandular androgen hypersecretion must be regarded as a continuous process without sharp borderlines from normal to non-tumorous conditions, such as polycystic ovaries and hyperthecosis, to neoplastic disease. Hirsutism and related symptoms are most often caused by excess androgens of ovarian and/or adrenal origin, i.e. testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate. As demonstrated by selective catheterization of glandular effluents, combined hypersecretion occurs more frequently then either purely gonadal or adrenal overproduction. No correlation can be found between the type, frequency and extent of hormonal changes and the clinical, laparoscopic, angiographic, or histological findings. Dynamic function tests do not reliably discriminate between the various aetiological subgroups due to extremely variable and even non-specific individual responsiveness. Selective catheterization is presently the most sensitive method for the preoperative identification and localization of androgen-secreting neoplasms.

  16. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. A questionnaire study about gonadal shield use of urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our aim is to reflect routines, awareness,and consciousness level of urologists about usage of gonadalshield (GS in Turkey.Materials and methods: Because of this objective aquestionnaire which includes 15 questions was prepared.The questionnaire was delivered to urologists in a TurkishUrology congress. Data derived from 271 urologists byface to face interview were evaluated.Results: Participant were urologists (n=271, consistedof professors (n=33, associate professors (n= 36, assistantprofessors (n= 36, specialists (n=94, and residents(n=81. According to the data obtained from the questionnaires,22% of the participants acquired their first informationabout GS as a medical student, 44% during theirresidency training, and 14% of them had no informationabout GS at all. Besides 64% of them did not read anymedical article about this subject until that time, and 54%them practically hadn’t seen any GS during their urologypractice. In 82% of the hospitals where participants wereworking hadn’t had any GS, and 18% of the urologistshad indicated that GS was available in their hospitals, andthey used them once in a while. Urologists responded favorably(20% or unfavorably (80 % to the question of ‘Doyou find yourself or your colleagues adequately sensitive,and mindful about GS use?Conclusions: Sensitivity and awareness about use ofgonadal shields among Turkish urologists are not at adesired level and for this reason, it is not used widely.The urologists should be informed in urological academicplatforms about gonad protecting devices.Key words: Gonad shield, questionnaire survey, radiation,urologist

  4. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: III. Pituitary regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, M J; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1983-12-01

    Pituitary regulation of gonadal function was investigated in 39 consecutive men with treated and untreated coeliac disease and in an intestinal disease control group of 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and general nutritional status. Basal serum FSH concentration was increased in 10 of the coeliacs (26%) compared to only two of 19 men with Crohn's disease (11%). This abnormality was observed with equal frequency in both treated and untreated coeliacs, and was not associated with oligospermia. Serum LH concentration was increased in eight of 15 untreated coeliacs (53%) with sub-total villous atrophy, an abnormality which unlike the elevation of serum FSH, appears to return towards normal after gluten withdrawal. Serum LH was high in coeliacs despite marked elevation of the free testosterone index. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH to LHRH were found in 89% and 45% respectively, of coeliacs with sub-total villous atrophy. However, exaggerated responses of LH alone were found more frequently in coeliacs than in men with Crohn's disease (P less than 0.02) and unlike the exaggerated FSH responses, LH responses were closely related to jejunal morphology. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH in coeliacs were commonly found when basal gonadotrophin concentrations were normal. The occurrence of exaggerated gonadotrophin responses could not be related to plasma concentration of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol or the free testosterone index. Serum prolactin was modestly raised in 25% of untreated and partially treated coeliacs and in the same proportion of men with Crohn's disease. Elevated serum prolactin concentrations never exceeded 809 mU/l and were not associated with impotence or infertility. This study provides further evidence that in men with coeliac disease there is a derangement of pituitary regulation of gonadal function. This would seem to be part of a wider disturbance of central regulatory mechanisms of endocrine function in coeliac

  5. Acondicionamiento de reproductores y caracterización gonadal de Tawera gayi (Hupé, 1854 (Bivalva: Veneridae bajo condiciones controladas de cultivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Trigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe el acondicionamiento de reproductores bajo sistema controlado del bivalvo Tawera gayi (Hupé, 1854, en el cual se caracterizó el estado de madurez gonadal en base a la presencia de células germinales masculinas y femeninas, estableciéndose su identificación mediante histología a través de microscopia óptica. Como metodología para el acondicionamiento se empleó una bandeja de 15,31 L de volumen útil donde fueron mantenidos 100 ejemplares de T. gayi. El sistema se mantuvo con agua de mar a 29-30 ppm con recambio de agua cada 3 días a temperatura promedio de 16 -18 °C. Con alimentación continua de una mezcla de microalgas de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros muelleri. Los resultados obtenidos, ponen en manifiesto que T. gayi es una especie dioica, sin dimorfismo sexual. Presenta fecundación externa, con un ciclo reproductivo continuo, asincrónico y sin reposo gonadal. Durante las primeras semanas de aclimatación los machos presentaron 100 % de madurez máxima, mientras que las hembras demostraron un 71 % de madurez avanzada y 29% de madurez máxima. Una vez acondicionadas y con alimento continuo, se logró 100% de evacuación parcial en hembras y 50% de evacuación parcial y total en machos, obteniendo desove en cautiverio.

  6. Sex Chromosome Mosaicism in the Gonads of DSD Patients: A Karyotype/Phenotype Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa K; Abd El-Ghany, Hoda M; Mekkawy, Mona K; Makhlouf, Manal M; Mazen, Inas M; El Dessouky, Nabil; Mahmoud, Wael; Abd El Kader, Shereen A

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome mosaicism results in a large clinical spectrum of disorders of sexual development (DSD). The percentage of 45,X cells in the developing gonad plays a major role in sex determination. However, few reports on the gonadal mosaic status have been published, and the phenotype is usually correlated with peripheral lymphocyte karyotypes, which makes the phenotype prediction imprecise. This study was conducted on 7 Egyptian DSD patients to demonstrate the effect of sex chromosome constitution of both blood lymphocytes and gonadal tissues on the phenotypic manifestations. Conventional cytogenetic and FISH analyses of blood lymphocytes were conducted, and laparoscopy with gonadal biopsy was performed for histopathologic examination and FISH analysis. Gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 3 patients who had a non-mosaic chromosome pattern in blood lymphocytes. Two patients showed the same type of sex chromosome mosaicism in both the blood and gonadal tissues but with different distributions. Two other patients revealed a non-mosaic pattern in both tissues. The present study elucidates the importance of examining sex chromosome mosaicism in gonadal tissues of DSD patients and highlights the critical role of 45,X mosaicism which can lead to serious effects during early gonadal organogenesis.

  7. Gonadal status following bone marrow transplantation with low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosh niat Nikoo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gonadal dysfunction is one of the short and long-term side effects following bone marrow transplantation (BMT. We assessed hypophyseal-gonadal axis after BMT by low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen (120 mg/kg. Methods: In this cohort study, we evaluated gonadal function in 48 patients (25 pubert males and 23 pubert females. Data were obtained by history, physical examination, LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol (E2, progesterone, testosterone and semen analysis before BMT and in 6 and 12 months of post-BMT. Results: Gonadal axis in 16 male subjects (64% was normal before BMT and remained normal in 6 subjects (37% 12 months post BMT. In another 10 patients (63%, hypogonadism was started in 6 months post BMT. Spermatogenesis failure (31%, low level of testosterone (25% and spermatogenesis failure plus low level of testosterone in 12.5% were found. Gonadal axis in 20 female subjects (87% was normal before BMT, but remained normal only in 10% of subject until the end of the study. Other patients (90% had primary hypogonadism in 6 months of post BMT. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of gonadal dysfunction following BMT in both adult sexes (especially in female patients. Therefore, regular gonadal assessment is recommended following BMT.

  8. Gene expression profiling reveals new potential players of gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo.

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    Gwenn-Aël Carré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors

  9. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R

    2006-09-01

    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was irradiated (Pirradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  10. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Bernheim, A. [CNRS, Villejif (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  11. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.;

    1996-01-01

    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...... and in control eels. Otherwise no correlation was found between growth rate and gonadal sex. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  12. Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cecchetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors. The gonadal sites (ovary and testis account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST; dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80% and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal

  13. Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Matuszczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls. This altered serum profile of AMH in boys with varicoceles may indicate an early abnormality in the regulation of the seminiferous epithelial function. Serum AMH is known to be valuable in assessing gonadal function. As compared to testing involving the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, the measurement of AMH is more sensitive and equally specific

  14. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  15. Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe recent unraveling of structures of genes for the gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors has provided reproductive endocrinologists with new tools to study normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rare inacti

  16. Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe recent unraveling of structures of genes for the gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors has provided reproductive endocrinologists with new tools to study normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rare

  17. Studies on the Functional Relationship between Thyroid, Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOHEI, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of thiuoracil in adult male and female rats, and the effects...

  18. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  19. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity.

  20. Luteinizing hormone promotes gonadal tumorigenesis in inhibin-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Agno, Julio E.; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The inhibins are secreted α:β heterodimers of the TGF-β superfamily that are mainly synthesized in Sertoli cells and granulosa cells, and are critical regulators of testicular and ovarian development and function. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the inhibin α subunit gene (Inha-/-) develop sex cord-stromal tumors in a gonadotropin-dependent manner. Here, we determine the contribution of LH to gonadal tumorigenesis by generating mice deficient in both inhibins and LH. Inha-/-Lhb-/- mice have increased survival and delayed tumor progression, and these observations correlate with lower serum FSH and estradiol levels compared to Inha-/- controls. Double mutant testicular tumors demonstrate decreased expression of cyclin D2, while double mutant ovarian tumors have elevated expression of p15INK4b and trend toward higher levels of p27Kip1. We conclude that LH is not required for tumor formation in the absence of inhibins but promotes tumor progression, likely through alterations in serum hormone levels and cell cycle regulators. PMID:18657590

  1. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  2. P450 aromatase expression in the temperature-sensitive sexual differentiation of salamander (Hynobius retardatus) gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Natsuko; Tamori, Yoichiro; Wakahara, Masami

    2005-01-01

    Sex differentiation of gonads in amphibians is believed to be controlled genetically, but altered epigenetically or environmentally. When larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus were reared at defined temperatures from hatching to metamorphic stages, a high temperature (28 degrees C) induced exclusively female gonads (ovaries), whereas intermediate (20 and 23 degrees C) or lower (16 degrees C) temperatures produced a 1:1 sex ratio of the morphological gonads. The thermosensitive period was determined to be restricted from 15 to 30 days after hatching, just before or when sexual differentiation occurred. Hynobius P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNA was isolated from adult gonads and the partial nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences were determined, showing a high level of identity with various vertebrate species. The P450arom gene was expressed predominantly in the adult ovary and brain, weakly in testis, but not in other somatic organs. A typical sexual dimorphism in P450arom expression was detected in normally developing larvae by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR; strong expression in the female gonads but very weak in male gonads. The dimorphism was detected much earlier than the morphological sexual differentiation of the gonads. When larvae were reared at the female-producing temperature (28 degrees C), strong expression was detected in all the temperature-treated larvae, suggesting that P450arom was up-regulated, even in genetic males. Our results confirm the importance of the P450arom regulation in the sexual differentiation of gonads and demonstrate that an up-regulation of P450arom is involved in the process of temperature-sensitive sex reversal in this species.

  3. Are sex steroids essential for gonadal differentiation of the ornate frog, Microhyla ornata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, P V; Gramapurohit, N P

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about sensitivities and responses of amphibian larvae to sex steroids and the chemicals alike is the first step towards understanding and assessing the effect of diverse chemicals that interfere with gonadal development and other endocrine functions. Herein, we used Microhyla ornata to determine the role of sex steroids on its gonad differentiation and sex ratio. Our results show that the exposure to increasing concentrations of estradiol-17β throughout larval development did not affect gonad differentiation resulting in 1:1 sex ratio at metamorphosis. But, females emerging from estradiol-17β treatment had larger ovaries with larger sized follicles. Further, testes of some males contained lumens, the number of which was dose dependent. Similarly, exposure to testosterone propionate had negligible effects on gonad differentiation. However, the mean diameter of the largest follicles was smaller in treated ovaries. Treatment of tadpoles with tamoxifen had no effect on gonad differentiation and ovary development while testicular development was accelerated at the highest concentration. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with cyproterone acetate had little effect on gonad differentiation as well as development, hence the sex ratios at the end of metamorphosis. Further, in tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of formestane, gonad differentiation was normal resulting in 1:1 sex ratio. Thus, in M. ornata, both estradiol and testosterone are essential for the development of ovaries and testes respectively but, they are not critical to gonadal differentiation. Hence, the effects of sex steroids and other endocrine disrupting chemicals could be species-specific; different species may have differential sensitivities to such chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la maduración gonadal y acumulación de grasa de anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 en cautiverio Effect of feeding ration on gonad maturation and fat accumulation in Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la tasa de maduración gonadal, el desempeño de las gónadas maduras y la redistribución de la energía consumida en gónada, músculo o grasa corporal en ejemplares de anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens en condiciones de cautiverio Estos resultados ayudan a comprender los procesos reproductivos ocurridos en el medio natural ante alteraciones de factores ambientales tales como los eventos El Niño y La Niña, de gran implicancia en el ecosistema y las pesquerías del Pacífico oriental. El tiempo trascurrido desde el estadio inmaduro hasta vitelogénico fue de 45 días bajo condiciones alimenticias energéticamente óptimas y temperatura alrededor de 16,5°C (46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Las hembras alimentadas con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 alcanzaron la máxima vitelogénesis en 30 días y, aunque el alimento fue excesivo, no incrementaron su masa muscular pero si presentaron mayor acumulación de grasa corporal y presencia de ovocitos más grandes, lo cual indica un incremento en el almacenamiento energético en la hembra y su progenie. Los ovocitos vitelogénicos de los peces alimentados con 46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 presentaron atresia más rápido que los ovocitos vitelogénicos de peces alimentados con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Aunque la cantidad de alimento fue adecuada, las hembras no desovaron durante el experimento. En machos, la disponibilidad de alimento también aceleró la maduración gonadal pero la expulsión de espermatozoides parece haber estado condicionada por la presencia de hembras con ovocitos en máximo estado de vitelogénesis.We analyzed the effect that feeding rations have on gonad maturation, mature gonad performance, and the redistribution of the energy taken up by the gonads, muscle, and body fat in captive specimens of Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. These results help us understand the reproductive processes occurring in the natural environment given changes

  5. [Evaluation of gonadotropic and gonadal secretions in primary abnormalities of the gonads and male pseudohermaphrodism before and after the age of puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, J C; Garnier, P E; Chaussain, J L; Roger, M; Scholler, R; Toublanc, J E; Canlorbe, P

    1976-04-01

    Blood levels of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) have been evaluated in 72 children and adolescents with primary gonadal defects (45 agonadal patients, 7 with asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis, 9 with Klinefelter syndrome, 4 with partial testicular dysgenesis and 7 with partial ovarian dysgenesis) and in 17 cases of male pseudohermaphrodism. A LH-RH test has been performed in most cases, and a testicular stimulation test with chorionic gonadotropin in patients with testicular tissue. Agonadal subjects had increased blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins: very high in infants and young children, much less from 7 to 11 years, a high spurt being observed at 12 years. This diphasic pattern relates to the varying sensitivity of hypothalamic receptors and suggests that adrenal steroids may restrain gonadotropic secretion at 7-8 years. As a diagnostic tool, the increase of gonadotropins may be missing in the 7-11 years group. In the 1-12 years patients with partially defective gonads, blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins and blood steroids are usually normal, but testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin may be already blunted. From 13 years the gonadotropic secretion is usually increased, even when testosterone secretion and reserve are within normal range. Most male pseudohermaphrodites showed normal gonadotropic and testicular secretions. But four patients had highly increased responses to LH-RH, suggesting a defect of testicular secretion or of receptors, and demonstrating some heterogeneity in the male pseudohermaphrodism group.

  6. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  7. Seasonal Variation of the Glycogen Enzyme Activity in Diploid and Triploid Pacific Oyster Gonad During Sexual Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The glycogen content and the activities of two key enzymes in glycogen metabolism, glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthetase, in the gonad of diploid and triploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were compared during maturation. The glycogen content in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 85.7%), but the glycogen content in the gonad of triploids did not vary significantly. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 55.5%), while GP activity of triploids did not vary significantly during maturation. Activity of glycogen synthetase (GS) in the gonad of diploids increased slightly with gametogenesis, reaching a peak in June. Activity of GS declined sharply from June to July, which might be due to gonad spawning. GS activity of triploid oysters in spawning time (July and August) was significantly higher than that

  8. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Utility of Gonad Shielding in Pediatrics Undergoing Pelvic X-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gonad shielding has been recommended during pelvic x-rays since the 1950s. The popular method of gonad shielding is placement a lead shield in the midline of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and utility of gonad shielding in pediatrics undergoing pelvic x-rays.Materials and MethodsFollowing study approval, we retrospectively retrieved data from the digital image library of ten radiology depertments of Khuzestan provience-Iran to identify pediatric patients who underwent pelvic x-ray (anteriorposterior [AP] view. All the images were reviewed for the probable evidence of gonad shield. If there was evidence of shielding, the accuracy positioning of the shield was also investigated by a single assistant radiologist.ResultsIn all 1745 pelvic x-rays (942 girls and 803 boys were identified of which the shield was present in 51 (5.41% radiographs of girls and 132 (16.43% radiographs of boys. When a shield was present; the shields has adequate positioning only in 8 (15.68% radiographs in girls and 59 radiographs in boys. Inaccurate placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than the boys. Due to the shield has concealed the anatomical criteria of the pelvis, retakes of the examination was required in 11 (21.56% radiographs of girls and 14 (10.6% radiographs of boys.ConclusionThe current methods of gonad shielding in girls pelvic x-ray was not effective nor is justifiable. We  no longer advocate of gonad shielding during girls pelvic x-ray. However in boys it is controversial and depends on the skill and effort of radiographers.

  9. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis: a syndrome of broad clinical, cytogenetic and histopathologic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nava, F; Gonzalez, S; Soto, S; Pineda, L; Morales-Machin, A

    1999-01-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is an abnormality of sexual differentiation (ASD), which encompasses an heterogeneous group of different gonadal and phenotypic abnormalities. This study describes the main clinical features found in 16 patients with MGD, relating the clinical presentation with cytogenetic evaluation and histopathological findings. For purpose of this study, MGD was considered in those patients who fulfilled the following diagnostic criteria: 1) müllerian and/or wolfflan derivatives; 2) any of the following gonadal characteristics: a) bilateral intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue; b) intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue with contralateral streak gonad. Patients were selected from an ASD study which was carried out in Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia (UGM-LUZ), Maracaibo, Venezuela, from 1980 to 1997. The following information was extracted from the medical history at UGM-LUZ: age, gender which patient was reared, clinical presentation, cytogenetic evaluation, laparoscopic findings and gonadal biopsy. Sixteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria and ranged in age from 1.2 to 39.4 years with an average of 12.65 years. Only 5 patients were reared as males. Twelve patients consulted for genital ambiguity. Chromosomal evaluation was as following: 8 patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: 5 had a 46,XY normal male karyotype and the remaining patients: 46,XX; 46,XX/46,XY and 45,X/46,Xi(Xq) karyotypes, respectively. All patients showed müllerian derivatives and occasionally wolffian derivatives. Gonadal tumors were present in 2 patients. Molecular studies of genes that govern gonadal development are necessary for a better understanding of the wide heterogeneity present in MGD.

  10. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  11. Gonadoblastoma and selected other aspects of gonadal pathology in young patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Some patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs), previously known as intersex disorders, have abnormal gonadal development and an increased risk of germ cell tumors. Because of their relative rarity, however, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the morphological findings in the gonads of DSD patients and their clinical significance. This review concentrates on some of the most common DSDs where gonadal specimens may come to the attention of pathologists. It highlights the findings in gonadal dysgenesis, a DSD with a spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features but with the shared attributes of having both Y chromosomal material (even if in very limited amounts) in the gonad and also having mutations or deletions in genes necessary for normal gonadal development, mostly in those upstream of the SOX9 gene. This situation results in testicular tissue lacking normal Sertoli cells, which are now considered an essential element for the normal maturation of the primordial germ cells that migrate to the gonad from the embryonic yolk sac. Germ cells with delayed maturation mimic neoplastic germ cells, but there are both morphological and immunohistochemical differences. If the gonad having germ cells with delayed maturation also harbors the TSPY gene on the GBY locus of the Y chromosome, the cells may undergo neoplastic transformation and result in the distinctive gonadoblastoma, whose pathologic features are explored at length herein, including its potential for variant morphologies, such as a "dissecting" pattern. Another important DSD, the androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), is discussed at length, including the varied appearances of the testis and its distinctive lesions-hamartomas and Sertoli cell adenomas. The potential for germ cell neoplasia in the partial AIS is also discussed and contrasted with that of the complete AIS. A third major topic is ovotesticular DSD (true hermaphroditism). The clinical features and morphology of this condition

  12. Novel Heterozygous Genetic Variants in Patients with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Jain, Vandana; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD) constitutes a rare group of disorders characterized by the presence of dysfunctional testes in genotypic males. The molecular etiology is not known in about 2 thirds of instances. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause in patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Based on clinical, cytogenetic, and biochemical screening, 10 patients with 46,XY GD were recruited. Direct sequencing of SRY, NR5A1, SOX9, DAX1, DHH, DMRT1 genes was carried out for molecular analysis. Among 10 patients, 5 were diagnosed with complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD), 3 with partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD), and 3 with testicular agenesis. Molecular analysis revealed 12 heterozygous genetic changes, 4 of which were novel. One (c.416T>A) was observed in evolutionary conserved region of DMRT1 gene in a patient with CGD and was found to be probably damaging on in silico analysis. Other 3 were identified in NR5A1 gene (c.990+22 C>A, c.1387+1403T>A and p.131P), but their association with gonadal dysgenesis is not evident from our study. These genetic changes were absent in parents and 50 healthy control samples, which were also studied. With targeted sequencing approach, a molecular diagnosis was made in only one patient with 46,XY GD. The application of new genomic technologies is required for the precise evaluation of these rare genetic defects.

  13. Studies on the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    In order to clarify the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of thiuoracil in adult male and female rats, and the effects of hypothyroidism on the adrenal and the gonadal axes were investigated in the present study. 1. The functional relationship between thyroid and adrenal hormones: Adrenal weights and corticosterone were lowered, whereas the secretion of ACTH, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) increased in hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of CRH and AVP from the hypothalamus. 2. The functional relationship between thyroid and gonadal hormones: The pituitary response to LHRH was lowered, whereas the testicular response to hCG was not changed in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism suppressed copulatory behavior in male rats. These results suggest that hypothyroidism probably causes dysfunction in gonadal axis at the hypothalamic-pituitary level in male rats. In adult female rats, hypothyroidism inhibited the follicular development accompanied estradiol secretion, whereas plasma concentrations of progesterone and prolactin (PRL) increased in hypothyroid female rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased the pituitary content of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) though it did not affect dopamine synthesis. These results suggest that hypothyroidism increases pituitary content of VIP and this increased level of VIP likely affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner. In female rats, inhibition of gonadal function in hypothyroid rats mediated by hyperprolactinemia in addition to hypersecretion of endogenous CRH.

  14. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  15. Arteterapia con personas con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pipkau, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto pretende hacer una aproximaci??n al mundo del Arte Terapia y los beneficios que esta disciplina puede aportar a las personas con discapacidad intelectual. La idea surge de la experiencia previa de la autora en este ??mbito y con este colectivo. A trav??s de la documentaci??n bibliogr??fica se busca ampliar el conocimiento en cuanto al concepto de arteterapia y sus antecedentes, con la finalidad de elaborar una propuesta pr??ctica que se basar?? en el dise??o de un taller de arte...

  16. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility.

  17. The large Maf factor Traffic Jam controls gonad morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle A; Alls, Jeffrey D; Avancini, Rita M; Koo, Karen; Godt, Dorothea

    2003-11-01

    Interactions between somatic and germline cells are critical for the normal development of egg and sperm. Here we show that the gene traffic jam (tj) produces a soma-specific factor that controls gonad morphogenesis and is required for female and male fertility. tj encodes the only large Maf factor in Drosophila melanogaster, an orthologue of the atypical basic Leu zipper transcription factors c-Maf and MafB/Kreisler in vertebrates. Expression of tj occurs in somatic gonadal cells that are in direct contact with germline cells throughout development. In tj mutant gonads, somatic cells fail to inter-mingle and properly envelop germline cells, causing an early block in germ cell differentiation. In addition, tj mutant somatic cells show an increase in the level of expression for several adhesion molecules. We propose that tj is a critical modulator of the adhesive properties of somatic cells, facilitating germline-soma interactions that are essential for germ cell differentiation.

  18. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok; Yi, Kyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal.

  19. Natural background radiation and estimation of gonadal dose rate of population of Chittagong region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofa, M.N.; Ahmed, J.U. (Chittagong Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics); Ahmed, R.; Ishaque, A.M. (Nuclear Medicine Center, Chittagong (Bangladesh)); Ahmed, K. (Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dacca (Bangladesh))

    1981-07-01

    A survey was made on the background radiation to estimate the gonadal dose rate in the district of Chittagong from the year 1978 to 80. This was done with the help of a calibrated Nuclear Chicago transistorized survey meter. The measurements were made in different types of dwellings and occupational buildings constructed with wood, straw/bamboo, tin/bamboo, tin/brick and single and multistoried buildings of brick and concrete. For measurement of outdoor radiation the investigating areas taken were the roads, fields and the Karnafuly river. The variation in the population dose rate as well as gonadal dose rate were observed in different types of dwellings and occupational buildings including outdoors. The average population dose rate including cosmic ray intensity was found to be 172.41+-8.61 mrad/year. Thus, the annual gonadal dose rate due to gamma radiation was found to be 137.92+-6.89 mrad/year.

  20. Radiation dose reduction to the male gonads during MDCT: the effectiveness of a lead shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Christian; Mahnken, Andreas H; Klotz, Ernst; Das, Marco; Stargardt, Achim; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Schmidt, Thorsten; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2005-01-01

    Our study was designed to quantify the effect of a standard gonad shield on the testicular radiation exposure due to scatter during routine abdominopelvic MDCT. Routine abdominopelvic MDCT was performed in 34 patients with gonadal lead shielding and 32 patients without this shielding; the testes were not exposed to the direct beam during the examination. We estimated the testicular dose administered with thermoluminescent dosimetry, taking into account each patient's body weight and body mass index (BMI). With a 1-mm lead shield, the mean testicular dose was reduced from 2.40 to 0.32 mSv, a reduction of 87%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p Shielding the male gonads reduces the testicular radiation dose during abdominopelvic MDCT significantly and can be recommended for routine use.

  1. Proteomic dataset of Paracentrotus lividus gonads of different sexes and at different maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Ghisaura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the proteomic dataset of gonads from wild Paracentrotus lividus related to the research article entitled “Proteomic changes occurring along gonad maturation in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus” [1]. Gonads of three individuals per sex in the recovery, pre-mature, mature, and spent stages were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach based on filter-aided sample preparation followed by tandem mass spectrometry, protein identification carried out using Sequest-HT as the search engine within the Proteome Discoverer informatics platform, and label-free differential analysis. The dataset has been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD004200.

  2. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Graem, N

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 135 human gonadal tissue specimens of various developmental age, ranging from 6 weeks of fetal development to 38 yr of postnatal age. The series included specimens from normal testes and ovaries...... and from individuals either with pathological conditions affecting gonadal development or with idiopathic infertility manifested as azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. AMH expression was found only in Sertoli and granulosa cells. A 6-week-old fetal testis at the indifferent gonad stage did not yet...... express AMH. The protein was first visible at 8.5 weeks of development, when sex cords have not yet been formed. Afterward, a majority of testicular specimens, including those from pathological conditions, strongly expressed AMH through fetal development and childhood until puberty. Markedly prolonged...

  3. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  4. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  5. Isolation and characterization of sexual dimorphism genes expressed in chicken embryonic gonads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Feng; Xiuli Peng; Shijun Li; Yanzhang Gong

    2009-01-01

    In chicken, the bipotential embryonic gonad differen-tiates into either a pair of testes or an ovary, but few genes that underlying the gonadal sex differentiation have been identified and the sex-determination gene is still unknown. To identify more genes involved in chicken sex differentiation, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization to isolate differentially expressed genes between sexes from chicken gonads during a period of E3.5-E6. A total of 152 cDNA clones corresponding to 88 genes (41 from F-M library and 47 from M-F library) were screened using dot-blot analysis. These genes are located mainly on the macro-chromosomes (1-5) with five in the sex chromosomes (one in W and four in Z), encoding four dominating molecular categories belonging to enzyme, DNA associ-ation, RNA association, and structural protein.Comparing the obtained cDNA sequences with those in chicken EST database, it showed that cDNAs of 32genes from F-M library and 16 from M-F library have homologs in two reported embryonic gonad cDNA libraries. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of eight genes involved in epigenetic and transcription regu-lation showed significantly different expression between sexes of CDK2API, SMARCEI, SAPIS, SUDS3, and PQBPI appeared at the early stage in gonad develop-ment (E4). Based on the functional comparison of sexual differentially expressed genes, the roles of some putatively important genes including ATP5AIW,CDK2AP1, mitochondrial transcripts, etc. have been analyzed. In conclusion, characterization of isolated genes would provide valuable clues to identify potential candidates involved in genetic mechanisms of chicken sex differentiation and gonad development.

  6. METHOD FOR OBSERVATION OF DEEMBEDDED SECTIONS OF FISH GONAD BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a method for examining the intracellular structure of fish gonads using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The specimen preparation procedure is similar to that for transmission electron microscopy wherein samples cut into semi-thin sections are fixed and embedded in plastic. The embedment matrix was removed by solvents. Risen-free specimens could be observed by SEM. The morphology of matured sperms in the gonad was very clear, and the oocyte internal structures appeared in three-dimensional images. Spheroidal nucleoli and yolk vesicles and several bundles of filaments adhered on the nucleoli could be viewed by SEM for the first time.

  7. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aziken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  8. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  9. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis:A plus for assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziken M; Osaikhuwuomwan J; Osemwenkha A; Iribhogbe O; Orhue A

    2015-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  10. What does determine gonad weight in the wild kissing bug Mepraia spinolai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carezza Botto-Mahan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Female fecundity increases with body size in a variety of insects, but it is unknown if this generalization applies for kissing bugs. In this study, we evaluate whether gonad weight in the bloodsucking insect Mepraia spinolai correlates with body size, or determined by nutrition or developmental time. We found that the investment on reproductive tissue correlates positively and significantly with body size and with the amount of ingested blood by female insects along their lifespan. Total molting time did not significantly affect gonad weight. We suggest that under optimal feeding conditions M. spinolai females could express their maximum reproductive potential.

  11. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestro...

  12. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  14. The Drosophila actin regulator ENABLED regulates cell shape and orientation during gonad morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sano

    Full Text Available Organs develop distinctive morphologies to fulfill their unique functions. We used Drosophila embryonic gonads as a model to study how two different cell lineages, primordial germ cells (PGCs and somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, combine to form one organ. We developed a membrane GFP marker to image SGP behaviors live. These studies show that a combination of SGP cell shape changes and inward movement of anterior and posterior SGPs leads to the compaction of the spherical gonad. This process is disrupted in mutants of the actin regulator, enabled (ena. We show that Ena coordinates these cell shape changes and the inward movement of the SGPs, and Ena affects the intracellular localization of DE-cadherin (DE-cad. Mathematical simulation based on these observations suggests that changes in DE-cad localization can generate the forces needed to compact an elongated structure into a sphere. We propose that Ena regulates force balance in the SGPs by sequestering DE-cad, leading to the morphogenetic movement required for gonad compaction.

  15. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  16. Histological Description of Gonadal Development of Females and Males of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda: Portunidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; Ramírez-Santiago, Cecilia; Pérez, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species.

  17. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  18. Correlation between endoscopic sex determination and gonad histology in pond sliders, Trachemys scripta (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perpiñán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coelioscopy has been proven to be a valuable technique to determine the sex of juvenile chelonians. However, there is a disagreement regarding the proper way to identify testes and ovaries, which is a direct consequence of the lack of studies correlating the results of endoscopic examination with the histology of the gonad. In this blinded study we assessed two methods of sex determination in juvenile pond sliders (Trachemys scripta using endoscopy: via coelioscopy, with visualization of the gonads, and via cloacoscopy, with visualization of phallus/clitoris; we then compared the results of these procedures with the histology of the gonad. The results of gonad histology correlated 100% with the results from coelioscopic examination, but only 57.77% of the results obtained by cloacoscopy were accurate. Using cloacoscopy, 83.33% of males and 38.46% of females were misdiagnosed. Sex determination of juvenile pond sliders was considered accurate when coelioscopy was used, but inaccurate when cloacoscopy with identification of phallus/clitoris was attempted.

  19. Assessing gonadal hormone contributions to affective psychopathologies across humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P

    2014-08-01

    Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety.

  20. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBellastella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.

  1. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion.

  2. Gonadal impact of target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) in male patients: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Eric; Zairi, Anas; Nohra, Joe; Kamar, Nassim; Plante, Pierre; Rostaing, Lionel

    2007-04-01

    The immunosuppressive agents target of rapamycin inhibitors (TOR-I) (sirolimus, and everolimus) have been widely used in kidney transplantation for >10 years. Up to 40% of men receiving a kidney transplant are younger than 50, and fertility as well as erectile function are major concerns. In this review, we provide a synopsis of past studies focusing on gonadal function in men treated with TOR-I, mainly sirolimus, to establish what impact they have on male gonads, and which pathophysiological pathways are involved. A PubMed search for the years 1990-2006 selected articles that focused on the gonadal impact of TOR-I. Primary outcome measures were testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Secondary outcome measures were sexual function, fertility status and sperm parameters. Treatment with TOR-I results in a decrease in testosterone level, and an opposite increase in LH. Moreover, spermatogenesis seems to be disrupted by TOR-I and FSH levels are increased. Sirolimus and everolimus inhibit the activity of mammalian targets of rapamycin, a serine/threonine kinase involved in numerous cell-growth processes. Molecular mechanisms of action of TOR-I on the testis involve inhibition of a stem cell factor/c-kit-dependant process in spermatogonia. Preliminary results appear to show that TOR-I treatment has deleterious actions on the testis and impairs gonadal function after renal transplantation, but the impact of these effects are unknown.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in a fetus with asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkilionis, A J; Rodney, P; Sergovich, F R; Armstrong, R

    1987-09-01

    An 18 week abortus had been prenatally diagnosed as a 45,X/46,XY mosaic. The fetus was a phenotypic male with glandular hypospadias, a horseshoe kidney and asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis. This case represents a rare instance of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with an abnormal phenotype.

  4. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  5. Expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in frog embryo and developing gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Furusawa, S; Matsuda, H; Takase, M; Nakamura, M

    2001-07-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), originally identified as an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates expression of genes encoding cytochrome P-450 steroid hydroxylases, is an essential transcriptional factor for adrenal and gonadal development in mammals. Since sex steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in the sex determination of frogs, it is of interest to know how SF-1 gene expression is regulated during the sexual development of this organism. A previous study isolated the cDNA of the frog Rana rugosa SF-1 (rrSF-1) and found sexual differences in its gene expression in adult frogs; positive in testis and negative in ovary (Kawano et al., 1998). This study examined rrSF-1 gene expression in frog embryos and developing and mature gonads by immunohistochemical staining using anti-rrSF-1 protein antibody for protein localization and by in situ hybridization analysis for mRNA transcription. The results obtained in this study indicated that cells expressing SF-1 that originate in the mesoderm and endoderm probably migrate into the developing gonad via the dorsal mesentery, genital ridge, and mesorchium or mesovarium. Thus, SF-1 may play an important role in gonadal development in amphibians.

  6. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  7. TRA-1/GLI controls development of somatic gonadal precursors in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Laura D; Schvarzstein, Mara; Morphy, Kristin M; Blelloch, Robert; Spence, Andrew M; Kimble, Judith

    2004-09-01

    TRA-1/GLI is best known as a master regulator of sex determination in the nematode C. elegans, but its fly and vertebrate homologs (e.g. Ci, GLI) regulate embryonic patterning and cell proliferation. In this paper, we show that TRA-1/GLI controls development of the two somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) in both XX and XO animals, in addition to its role in sex determination. Normally, SGPs reside at the poles of the gonadal primordium and divide according to intrinsic gonadal axes. In tra-1-null mutants, however, SGPs assume non-polar positions and the polarity of one SGP is reversed. Consistent with its SGP function, TRA-1 protein is present in SGPs during embryogenesis and early larval development. Previous studies have shown that the ehn-3 gene also affects SGP positions, and we report here that tra-1 and ehn-3 interact genetically. Whereas SGPs in tra-1 and ehn-3 single mutants are largely normal and generate many descendants, those in tra-1; ehn-3 double mutants do not mature or divide. Furthermore, tra-1 is a dominant enhancer of the ehn-3 gonadal defect, which includes the enhancement of a weak sexual transformation in the gonad. We cloned ehn-3, and found that it encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein. A rescuing EHN-3::GFP reporter is predominantly nuclear and expressed specifically in SGPs. The EHN-3 protein is therefore likely to regulate gene expression. We propose that TRA-1/GLI and EHN-3 have overlapping roles in regulation of multiple steps of SGP development. We speculate that regulation of SGP development may be an evolutionarily ancient role of TRA-1/GLI in nematode development.

  8. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR, and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1 were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis tissues (p < 0.05. The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species.

  9. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  10. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  11. VSELs may obviate cryobanking of gonadal tissue in cancer patients for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Anand, Sandhya; Parte, Seema

    2015-11-17

    Infertility is an undesirable side effect and gonadal tissue banking is advocated in young cancer patients who are unable to preserve embryos or gametes prior to oncotherapy to achieve biological parenthood later on. Banking gonadal tissue is challenging and protocols to mature gametes in vitro are not yet clinically established. Transplanting ovarian cortical tissue at hetero-or orthotopic sites in women and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in both men and women has resulted in spontaneous recovery of fertility, pregnancy and live births. Various studies in humans and mice suggest that genetic origin of offspring after BMT is similar to transplanted patient and not the donor. Thus the source of oocytes/sperm which result in spontaneous pregnancies still remains contentious. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in adult human testis and ovary, in azoospermic testicular biopsies from survivors of childhood cancer and also in women with premature ovarian failure and menopause. VSELs survive chemotherapy because of their quiescent nature and can be detected in chemoablated mice gonads at protein and mRNA level and also by flow cytometry. Surviving VSELs spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures and sperm when inhibitory factors are overcome in vitro. Transplantation of mesenchymal cells (isolated from different sources) has led to regeneration of chemoablated mouse gonads and also live births. Spermatogenesis is also restored from endogenous stem cells on inter-tubular transplantation of Sertoli cells in chemoablated mouse testis. Endogenous VSELs (which survive oncotherapy) can possibly regenerate non-functional gonads in cancer survivors when exposed to a healthy niche in vitro or in vivo (by way of transplanting mesenchymal cells which secrete trophic factors required for endogenous VSELs to differentiate into gametes). Presence of VSELs can also explain spontaneous pregnancies after BMT and cortical tissue transplantation

  12. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  13. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Yusuf E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. Methods The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. Results The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Conclusion Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  14. DANAZOL SUPPRESION OF GONADAL ESTRADIOL 17β SECRETION : REPORT OF TWO SIBLING CASES WITH A COMPLETE FORM OF TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION ON GONADAL ULTRASTRUCTURE AND ENDOCRINE STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kohji, YOSHIDA; Takafumi, UTSUNOMIYA; Toru, KADOTA; Seishi, YAMAGUCHI; Department of Reproductive Physiology aud Endocrinology. Medical Institute of Broregulatioee. Kyushu University; Department of Obstetrics aud Qynecology. Oita National Hospital

    1984-01-01

    It has been established that the pathogenesis of a complete form of testicular feminization syndrome (TFM) is due to end organ unresponsiveness to androgens. In the present study, two sibling cases with TFM have been reported with special reference to the effect of danazol (a derivative of 17α-ethynyltestosterone) on gonadal estradiol 17β (E_2) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Both patients showed hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism with good response to LH RH. In one case, peripheral blood E_2 le...

  15. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vinokurov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  16. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vinokurov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  17. Educar con significado o con sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín García García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día, tres tendencias influyen directamente en la conformación de la escuela. En primer lugar, el afán de encontrar la esencia de todo encumbró a la razón e hizo de la racionalidad el único valor a defender en las aulas. En segundo lugar, el sistema capitalista hizo lo mismo con aquello que tiene valor de uso y valor de cambio, es decir, con la mercancía, validando solo lo que puede tener una utilidad económica conocida o posible. Esto convirtió a la educación en un proceso para certificar y ganar dinero, desdibujando así su intención de formar personas. Finalmente, la visión masculina y eurocéntrica con su locura por quererlo dominar todo, y de pensar que el hombre era el dueño del planeta e inclusive la vida y el destino de los otros hombres, mutiló culturas y eliminó a la naturaleza de los currículums en los centros educativos.

  18. con turbinas de disco con paletas planas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García-Cortés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las turbinas de disco con paletas planas son los impelentes de flujo radial más ampliamente utilizados en la industria por constituir el impelente que forma parte de la configuración geométrica estándar para obtener este patrón de flujo en los tanques agitados. El estudio detallado de la hidrodinámica en este sistema de agitación es fundamental para continuar obteniendo conocimientos básicos imprescindibles para la síntesis y la modelación matemática de diferentes procesos complejos que se llevan a cabo en los tanques agitados, por ejemplo, la cristalización esférica. El propósito de este artículo es hacer una revisión de la información publicada sobre la hidrodinámica y la modelación matemática de la dinámica de fluidos en los tanques agitados con turbinas de disco con paletas planas y señalar los avances logrados en cada uno de los aspectos abordados y aquellos en los cuales es necesario seguir investigando.

  19. Trastorno en la biogénesis de los peroxisomas en un neonato con dimorfismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes Y.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la historia clínica de un recién nacido, femenino, segundo hijo, dismórfico, conlesiones en sistema nervioso central, hígado y riñones. La paciente falleció a los 20 días de vida,la autopsia mostró ictericia en todos los órganos, ascitis, dilatación y tapones de bilis en loscanalículos biliares (disgenesia biliar y múltiples quistes en los riñones.

  20. Variaciones en el contenido de energía en músculos de Salminus brasiliensis en diferentes estados de desenvolvimiento gonadal en el área de influencia del reservatório de Manso, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Espínola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Para que las medidas de conservación y manejo sean efectivas es necesario el entendimiento del origen y destino de la energía por las cuales compiten los organismos en los diferentes ambientes. Con la hipótesis de que existen diferencias en la energía contenida en los músculos durante el desenvolvimiento gonadal de Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, fueron realizadas colectas entre octubre de 2002 a septiembre de 2003, en el reservatório del río Manso. Después de la obtención de los datos biométricos, de cada individuo se tomaron muestras de la musculatura, las cuales fueron secadas a 60ºC y el contenido calórico (cal/g de peso seco determinado en una bomba calorimétrica. Los valores del factor de condición y de la Relación Gónada Somática (RGS fueron comparados con los contenidos calóricos. No fueron identificadas diferencias significativas entre los valores calóricos de machos y hembras de S. brasiliensis. Sin embargo, se pudo constatar diferencias calóricas significativas en los diferentes estados de maduración gonadal tanto en machos como en hembras. Se observaron tendencias diferentes entre los sexos cuando las gónadas de los individuos se encontraban en maduración: para las hembras, la energía aumentó, mientras que para los machos ésta se mantuvo, indicando una mayor variación energética relacionada mas con la maduración gonadal que con el proceso de migración. En ambos sexos, el estado maduro mostró mayor contenido energético en relación con los demás estados. Los valores del factor de condición, para las hembras, fueron mayores que para los machos, siendo que los mayores valores fueron constatados para hembras maduras y para machos esgotados. La RGS fue más elevado para las hembras, que para los machos en los estados maduración y maduro. Se concluye que debido a las variaciones intraespecíficas asociadas a la maduración gonadal, es importante que se tenga información sobre todos los estados del

  1. Danazol suppression of gonadal estradiol-17 beta secretion--report of two sibling cases with a complete form of testicular feminization on gonadal ultrastructure and endocrine status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Utsunomiya, T; Kadota, T; Yamaguchi, S

    1984-01-01

    It has been established that the pathogenesis of a complete form of testicular feminization syndrome (TFM) is due to end-organ unresponsiveness to androgens. In the present study, two sibling cases with TFM have been reported with special reference to the effect of danazol (a derivative of 17 alpha-ethynyltestosterone) on gonadal estradiol-17 beta (E2) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Both patients showed hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism with good response to LH-RH. In one case, peripheral blood E2 levels seemed to fall independently of gonadotropins during danazol administration in vivo. Administrations of danazol to the culture media also inhibited E2 secretion from the cultured monolayered cells of the testes. These results suggest a direct inhibitory effect of danazol on gonadal E2 secretion. However, the feedback mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary units to E2 were preserved in both cases. Spermatogeneses were almost undetectable as in immature embryonal testes when using either light or electron microscopies, though spermatogonia were differentiated from Sertoli cells by these techniques. Finally, plasma T and E2 levels in both patients were considerably lower after gonadectomy.

  2. Gene SRY and absence of testicular tissue in a woman 47XYY with gonadal dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Rojas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current concepts about sex determination and differentiation in males and females. We also present a 13 year old girl, who consulted for short stature and weight gain. She was a Tanner I for breast and pubic hair. There were no signs of androgen excess. Lab showed a high FSH and LH with normal growth hormone. Laparoscopy revealed streak gonads without testicular tissue. Karyotype was 47XYY, with the SRY gene present. Functional studies of the gene to detect mutations were not performed. Patient responded to a combination of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone with normal menses and breast development. This patient is an example of the importance of performing genetic studies in the evaluation of gonadal dysgenesis cases. It is possible that a de novo mutation of the gene, rather than a paternal meiotic nondysjunction was present in our patient.

  3. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  4. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  5. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  6. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bousfiha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound and pelvic MRI. Laparoscopy was undertaken and revealed concomitant ovarian dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. There were no other morphological malformations. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of the association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome is still mysterious. The treatment is based essentially on hormone substitution therapy. The fertility prognosis is unfortunately compromised.

  7. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharibabu Manne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3 of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  8. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousfiha, N.; Errarhay, S.; Saadi, H.; Ouldim, K.; Bouchikhi, C.; Banani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound and pelvic MRI. Laparoscopy was undertaken and revealed concomitant ovarian dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. There were no other morphological malformations. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of the association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome is still mysterious. The treatment is based essentially on hormone substitution therapy. The fertility prognosis is unfortunately compromised. PMID:21253547

  9. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sriharibabu; Veeraabhinav, C H; Jetti, Mounica; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Donthu, Kiranmai; Badireddy, Mutyalarayudu

    2016-01-01

    46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  10. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The localization of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is dealed with in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. It was found by NADPH-diaphorase staining that (1) NOS activity was present in the nuclear membranes of germinal vesicles during the entire period of oocyte development; (2) NOS was localized in both the nuclear membranes and the perinuclear region of cytoplasm in the vitellogenetic oocytes; (3) NOS was relocated in the cortical layer in the mature egg; (4) NOS activity was present in spermatocytes, but not in the spermatogonia in the middle of October; (5) NOS was detected in both spermatozoa and spermatids as well as spermatocytes during the breeding season. This is the first report on the distribution pattern of NOS in the developing gonads in protochordates. These results suggest a role for NOS in the functioning of the nuclear membranes and yolk synthesis during oogenesis and in cell division and differentiation during spermatogenesis.

  11. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination.

  12. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  13. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  14. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within or... the size of the patient and the examination techniques and equipment employed. Some examples of...

  15. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  16. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  17. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal.

  18. [Ligandin localization in the gonadal cells of rats at various stages of ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, G A; Chipysheva, T A

    1979-01-01

    Ligandin, a protein binding some carcinogens, steroids and other substances in the rat liver, has been found by means of indirect immunofluorescence in the gonad cells of different types: embryonic and mature Leidig cells in testes, ovarian thecal cells at the maturation stages (theca interna, atretic follicles and interstitial cells) and luteal cells of corpus luteum at pregnancy. Ligandin is found, thus, in cells which belong to various lines of cell differentiation. The functional role of ligandin is discussed.

  19. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bousfiha, N.; S Errarhay; Saadi, H; Ouldim, K.; Bouchikhi, C; Banani, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound ...

  20. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Amir Ashkan Mahjoor; Siyamak Fallahi; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Maryam Abedini; Mohammad Ali Poor Danesh; Zahra Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor ...

  1. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  2. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kowalczykiewicz

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  3. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in sympto...

  4. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Tancioni; Riccardo Caprioli; Ayad Hantoosh Dawood Al-Khafaji; Laura Mancini; Clara Boglione; Eleonora Ciccotti; Stefano Cataudella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine a...

  5. The ecological and physiological bases of variation in the phenology of gonad growth in an urban and desert songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Lane, Samuel; Meddle, Simone L; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Birds often adjust to urban areas by advancing the timing (phenology) of vernal gonad growth. However, the ecological and physiological bases of this adjustment are unclear. We tested whether the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology of male Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, is due to greater food availability in urban areas of Phoenix, Arizona USA or, alternatively, a habitat-related difference in the phenology of key food types. To better understand the physiological mechanism underlying variation in gonad growth phenology, we compared the activity of the reproductive system at all levels of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We found no habitat-associated difference in food availability (ground arthropod biomass), but, in contrast to the seasonal growth of leaves on desert trees, the leaf foliage of urban trees was already developed at the beginning of our study. Multiple estimates of energetic status did not significantly differ between the non-urban and urban towhees during three years that differed in the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth and winter precipitation levels. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that greater food abundance in urban areas of Phoenix drives the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology in Abert's towhees. By contrast, they suggest that differences in the predictability and magnitude of change in food availability between urban and desert areas of Phoenix contribute to the observed habitat-related disparity in gonad growth. Endocrine responsiveness of the gonads may contribute to this phenomenon as desert - but not urban - towhees had a marked plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge.

  6. Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Hormone and Semen Analysis in Narcotic Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is associated with numerous complications including hormonal disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenic disorders. We have compared the hormone concentration of pituitary-gonadal axis and the semen analysis in opioid-dependent and non-opioid-dependent men.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, serum concentration of pituitary- gonadal axis hormones and semen analysis in 48 opioid-dependent men as eligible to participate in the study were compared with those in 12 non-dependent men.Results: Free testosterone concentration in all test groups was significantly less than that in control group. Furthermore, the concentration of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS in all test groups except those addicted to heroin was less than in those in control group. Concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, SHBG, progesterone and estradiol, normal and abnormal sperm count in test groups were significantly different from control group. However, in all test groups, sperm motility rate was less than control group. No significant relationship was found between the concentration of sex hormones and the status of sperms motility. Conclusion: Chronic use of opioids will affect testosterone hormone and sperm, and it will cause hypogonadism and impairment of sperm motility.

  7. DOMESTIKASI DAN EVALUASI TINGKAT KEMATANGAN GONAD IKAN TILAN MERAH (Mastacembelus erytrotaenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarto Sudarto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tilan merah merupakan salah satu jenis ikan hias yang sampai saat ini belum dibudidayakan. Potensi sebagai ikan hias dan ikan konsumsi sangat bagus. Untuk itu, dilakukan pembudidayaan di luar habitatnya dengan memelihara calon induk sebanyak 150 ekor di dalam wadah bak beton masing-masing 75 ekor untuk melakukan adaptasi terhadap pakan buatan dan pakan alami berupa cacing tanah selama 2 bulan. Setelah itu dilakukan pengamatan di dalam bak fiberglass ukuran 60 cm x 70 cm x 80 cm (volume air 250 L dengan sistem resirkulasi tertutup. Setiap bak diisi 15 ekor ikan dan dibagi ke dalam 3 perlakuan dengan 3 ulangan, tiap perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Perlakuan pertama diberi pakan buatan 100%, perlakuan kedua diberikan pakan alami (cacing tanah 100%, dan perlakuan ketiga diberikan 50% pakan buatan dan 50% pakan alami. Sampling pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap bulan selama 6 bulan. Kualitas air dilakukan setiap minggu meliputi O2, alkalinitas, pH, CO2, nitrat, nitrit, amonia, konduktivitas. Pada akhir penelitian dilakukan pembedahan untuk melihat perkembangan gonad. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa ikan dengan bobot kurang dari 250 g mempunyai variasi perkembangan gonad dengan TKG III hingga V, sedangkan bobot di atas 250 g sudah dijumpai gonad pada TKG VI.

  8. Thyroid hormone and reproduction: regulation of estrogen receptors in goldfish gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik R; Allan, Euan R O; Pang, Flora Y; Habibi, Hamid R

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates. However, little information is available on the mechanisms by which this happens. As a first step in determining these mechanisms, we test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor subtypes (ERalpha, ERbeta-1, and ERbeta-2) are regulated by the thyroid hormone, (T(3)), in the gonads of goldfish. All three subtypes were down-regulated by T(3) in the testis or ovary. We also found evidence that T(3) decreased pituitary gonadotropin expression and decreased transcript for gonadal aromatase. Collectively, it appears that T(3) acts to diminish estrogen signaling by (1) decreasing pituitary LH expression and thus steroidogenesis, (2) down-regulating gonadal aromatase expression and thus decreasing estrogen synthesis from androgens, and (3) decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the ER subtypes. Goldfish are seasonal breeders, spawning once a year, and thus have two distinct periods of growth: somatic and reproductive. Circulating thyroid hormone levels have been found to increase just after spawning. Therefore, we propose that this may be an endocrine mechanism that goldfish use to switch their energy expenditure from reproductive to growth efforts in the goldfish. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Profil Gonad Kodok Lembu Betina yang Diberi Human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan Ekstrak Hipofisis Kodok Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite Adnyane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulllfrog (Rana catesbeiana are naturally reach sexual maturity at the age of 3 years aftermetamorphosis. This research aims to study the gonad growth of female bullfrog. given human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG and hipofise extract of local frog in order to accelerate the maturity. There were 40female bullfrog used in this study and divided into four treatment groups and one control. The treatmentswere injections of 150 IU hCG, 200 IU hCG, 8 hipofise, 16 extract of hipofise and controls. The injectionswere conducted once a month for four months. Every month after the first injection, two of bullfrogs fromeach group were measured their body and gonad weight, in addition, the stage of ovary was also observedeither in macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed that hCG treatment group gave betterresults compared with the treatment of hipofise extract of local frog. The injection of 200 IU hCG gave thebest result of gonad maturity index (IKG 4.9%, compared with other treatment groups. Giving a dose of200 IU hCG and 16 hipofise exctract of local frog can be used to accelerate the maturity of female bullfrog

  10. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, Anutosh; Goswami, Usha

    2006-05-01

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts of non-smoked cigar tobacco. The level of DNA damage and the number of deformed nuclei reach a maximum at day 12 of exposure to both extracts but decrease thereafter. This phenomenon is attributed to the organism's capacity to maintain the integrity of its genetic material upon exposure to potential genotoxicants present in the tobacco extracts. A dose response in DNA damage and deformed nuclei was also detected in isolated gonad cells upon in vitro exposure to hydrogen peroxide a known DNA strand breaking agent. The results of this study indicate that the DNA in male gonad cells of the marine mussel is damaged upon exposure to genotoxicants, and suggests the suitability of the organism for future investigations into the effect of such agents on its reproductive capacities.

  11. Paediatric pelvic imaging: improvement in gonad shield placement by multidisciplinary audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, M.; Waugh, R.; McCallum, H.; Montgomery, R.J.; Aszkenasy, O.M. [South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    In 1996, there were local reports of poor gonad protection for paediatric pelvic radiographs. To investigate the nature of the problem and make necessary improvements. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit of 218 paediatric pelvic radiographs was undertaken in 1997. Each radiograph was assessed for the presence of a gonad shield, appropriateness of the device and its position. A multidisciplinary team was formed with representation from radiology, radiography, orthopaedics and medical physics to investigate ways of improving technique and reducing patient dose. These included radiographer training and the introduction of digital fluoroscopy as an alternative imaging technique in follow-up patients. There were further rounds of data collection in 1998 and 1999. In round 1, a gonad shield was present in 77.9 % of boys' films and 76 % of girls' films where one should have been, increasing to 85.2 % and 85.4 % respectively by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). Only 31.6 % of boys' devices and 21.9 % of girls' devices were correctly positioned in round 1, increasing to 78.3 % and 94.3 %, respectively, by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). After round 1, no inappropriate devices were used. Audit was an effective tool in gaining the resources needed to improve technique and reduce radiation exposure in children. The multidisciplinary approach was vital in the success of this project. (orig.)

  12. Endocannabinoids are involved in male vertebrate reproduction: regulatory mechanisms at central and gonadal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eBovolin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are natural lipids regulating a large array of physiological functions and behaviors in vertebrates. The endocannabinoid system is highly conserved in evolution and comprises several specific receptors (type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (e.g. anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and a number of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. In the last few years, endocannabinoids have been described as critical signals in the control of male and female reproduction at multiple levels: centrally, by targeting hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing-Hormone secreting neurons and pituitary, and locally, with direct effects on the gonads. These functions are supported by the extensive localization of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals, as well as bonyfish and amphibians. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that endocannabinoids centrally regulate gonadal functions by modulating the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-gonadotropin-steroid network through direct and indirect mechanisms. Several proofs of local endocannabinoid regulation have been found in the testis and male genital tracts, since endocannabinoids control Sertoli and Leydig cells activity, germ cell progression, as well as the acquisition of sperm functions. A comparative approach usually is a key step in the study of physiological events leading to the building of a general model. Thus, in this review we summarize the action of endocannabinoids at different levels of the male reproductive axis, with special emphasis, where appropriate, on data from non-mammalian vertebrates.

  13. Gonadal dysfunction in patients treated for metastatic germ-cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, S P; Bosl, G J; Bajorunas, D

    1986-10-01

    The effects of chemotherapy on endocrine function were assessed in 22 previously treated patients with germ-cell tumors and compared with the endocrine function of six previously untreated patients. Baseline and stimulated serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, and thyroxine (T4) were obtained. Baseline LH levels were elevated in both groups of patients, whereas basal FSH levels were significantly elevated only in treated patients (P less than .001). Following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), levels of LH (P = .051) and FSH (P = .003) were greater in treated patients than in untreated control patients. No abnormalities of thyroid function or prolactin responsiveness were observed. Patients younger than 25 years of age at the time of treatment had lower serum levels of LH and FSH following chemotherapy than patients older than 25. Evidence for partial recovery of gonadal function was present with patients treated more than 18 months before study having lower levels of LH and FSH than those patients studied less than 18 months after treatment. These data demonstrate that frequent gonadal dysfunction exists in untreated patients with germ-cell tumors and that chemotherapy induces additional injury to both Leydig cells and the germinal epithelium. Further studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to define the pattern of gonadal recovery and to assess the potential sequelae of endogenous gonadotropin hypersecretion.

  14. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tancioni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  15. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  16. Mercury concentrations in gonad, liver, and muscle of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M A H; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B; Plumlee, M; Wong, C; Gundersen, D T

    2006-04-01

    This study determined the partitioning of total mercury in liver, gonad, and cheek muscle of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmonatus) in the lower Columbia River. The relationship between tissue mercury concentrations and various physiologic parameters was assessed. White sturgeon were captured in commercial fisheries in the estuary and Bonneville, The Dalles, and John Day Reservoirs. Condition factor (CF), relative weight (Wr), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were determined for each fish (n = 57). Gonadal tissue was examined histologically to determine sex and stage of maturity. Liver (n = 49), gonad (n = 49), and cheek muscle (n = 57) were analyzed for total mercury using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tissue protein concentrations were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma was analyzed for testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and 17ss-estradiol (E2) using radioimmunoassay. Mean tissue mercury concentrations were higher in muscle compared with liver and gonad at all sampling locations, except Bonneville Reservoir where mean liver mercury content was the highest tissue concentration observed in the study. Significant negative correlations between plasma androgens (T and KT) and muscle mercury content and plasma E2 and liver mercury content were found. A significant positive linear relationship between white sturgeon age and liver mercury concentrations was evident. Significant negative correlations between CF and relative weight and gonad and liver mercury content were found. In addition, immature male sturgeon with increased gonad mercury content had decreased GSIs. These results suggest that mercury, in the form of methylmercury, may have an effect on the reproductive potential of white sturgeon.

  17. Microcystin-LR retards gonadal maturation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Guo, Honghui; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Gu, Zemao; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have documented that microcystins (MCs) have potential toxic effects on growth and reproduction in fish. However, no systematic data exist on whether MCs cause gonadal development retardation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors (GH/IGFs) system. To this end, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30µg/L microcystin-LR (MC-LR) for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Life-cycle exposure to MC-LR caused delayed ovarian maturation and sperm development along with ultrapathological lesions in the brain and liver. Moreover, the retarded gonadal development was accompanied by an inhibition of the GH/IGFs system, which was characterized by significant decreases in the transcriptional levels of brain gh (males only), hepatic igf2a and igf2b as well as gonadal igf1 (males only), igf3 and igf2r. These findings for the first time point to the influence of MC-LR on fish gonadal development via the GH/IGFs system. Also, sex-differential impairments suggested that gonadal development of males is more vulnerable than that of female to MC-LR. Our results provide evidence that MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations is able to induce impairments on fish gonadal development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  19. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  20. Efectos del tratamiento con agonistas dopaminérgicos sobre las lesiones endometriósicas

    OpenAIRE

    Tamarit Bordes, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    La prolactina (PRL) es una hormona hipofisaria que desempeña un papel fundamental en diversas funciones reproductivas, fundamentalmente en la lactancia. En situaciones patológicas que están relacionadas con la presencia de adenomas hipofisarios o ingesta de fármacos psicotropos, los niveles de PRL están elevados y afectan a la función gonadal, pues inhiben la secreción de hormonas hipofisarias como la LH o FSH, ocasionando amenorrea (9%), galactorrea (25%) o ambas (70%) (1).La hiperprolacti...

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profile of kisspeptin1 and kisspeptin1 receptor at brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of golden mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton, 1822) during gonadal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Neetu; Singh, Atul Kumar; Sahoo, Monalisa; Mallik, Sumanta Kumar; Thakuria, Dimpal

    2017-03-01

    Complete cDNA sequences of kiss1 (gmkiss1) and its receptor kiss1r (gmkiss1r) were cloned and characterized from brain tissue of adult golden mahseer (Tor putitora). Thereafter, quantification of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of male and female golden mahseer was carried out using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assay during an annual reproductive cycle, at different gonadal development stages. The gmkiss1 cDNA was 508bp, with 330bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a precursor protein of 109 amino acids, whereas gmkiss1r cDNA was 1383bp with an ORF of 1004bp, which encodes a 334 amino acid protein residue. The qRT-PCR study shows that gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r are expressed in brain, pituitary and gonads of both the sexes of golden mahseer. An apparent sexual dimorphism in transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r in brain and gonads was evident during the reproductive cycle. Overall, in brain, testis and ovary, the gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression level was comparatively higher during the initial stages of gonadal development, than that of spermiation or ovulation stage. In pituitary of both the sexes, throughout the gonadal development, consistently low transcript level of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r was observed. The gmkiss1 mRNA expression level in brain and ovary of female golden mahseer was several folds higher than the brain and testis of male fish. In conclusion, we confirm the presence of kiss1 and its receptor in golden mahseer, and results of our study strongly suggested the involvement of kisspeptin1 system in gonadal development and annual reproductive cycle of this species.

  2. Effect of the gonadal integrity and the gender on responses of bone crestal levels in dogs with two dental prosthetic abutment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Valenzuela Vásquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce perros mestizos adultos (5 intactos y 9 esterilizados, compuestos por siete machos y siete hembras fueron utilizadas para evaluar el efecto de dos tipos de aditamentos protésicos de implantes dentales sobre el nivel de la cresta ósea alveolar. Los implantes dentales fueron colocados quirúrgicamente en zonas de cuartos premolares inferiores y restaurados con aditamentos protésicos convencionales (CONV y de cambio de plataforma (PFS. Ambos aditamentos protésicos fueron evaluados en cada perro. El estudio duró 180 días, en los que se realizó la restauración al día 60 post-quirúrgicamente colocados los implantes, la evaluación del nivel de la cresta ósea alveolar se realizó en los días 0, 30, 60 y 90 después de la restauración (corona cementada a través de medición indirecta utilizando un sensor radiográfico digital. Los datos experimentales se analizaron mediante un diseño completamente al azar, la unidad experimental fue el perro (efecto aleatorio, el tratamiento era el tipo de pilar protésico (efectos fijos, y el nivel de la cresta ósea de cada lado del implante (mesial y distal fue la observación. Además, factores como la condición gonadal (intactos y castrados y el género (masculino y femenino se incluyeron en el análisis estadístico para evaluar su papel en la magnitud de los cambios (interacciones en los niveles de cresta ósea alveolar. El promedio de pérdida de hueso crestal fue 0.400 ± 0.186 mm. En general, los perros con CONV tuvieron una mayor pérdida de la cresta ósea que los perros con PFS. En los perros intactos que recibieron PFS se observó una menor pérdida ósea, pero en perros castrados, el tipo de aditamento no tuvo efecto (P = 0,98 en el nivel de pérdida de la cresta ósea; por lo tanto, se detectó una interacción (P 0.77 entre el género y el tipo de aditamento, de manera similar, analizado como único factor de variación, el género no tuvo efecto (P = 0,26 en las respuestas del

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-08-31

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  4. The direct response of the gonads to cues of stress in a temperate songbird species is season-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette L. McGuire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH system in the hypothalamus is often considered the final point in integration of environmental cues as they pertain to the reproductive axis. However, cues such as stress and food availability are detectable in the plasma (as glucocorticoid and metabolic fuel fluctuations. Vertebrate gonads express glucocorticoid receptor, therefore we hypothesized that the gonads can detect and respond directly to cues of stress. We provide evidence here that, in addition to regulation by the brain, the gonads of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris respond directly to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels by modulating sex steroid secretion. Using a 4-h gonad culture, we show that physiologically-relevant concentrations of corticosterone and metabolic stress (via use of the glucose utilization inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor ethyl 2-mercaptoacetate (2DG/MA can directly decrease testosterone and estradiol secretion from luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH-stimulated testes and ovaries. This effect is regulated seasonally. Prior to the breeding season, testes and ovaries respond to corticosterone and 2DG/MA by significantly decreasing gonadal steroid release. Within the breeding season, the testes do not respond to these cues of stress, while the ovaries respond only to corticosterone. This seasonal difference in response may be due in part to the influence of these cues of stress on gonadal neuropeptide expression: corticosterone upregulates GnIH expression in the testes while metabolic stress upregulates GnIH in the ovaries. Thus the gonads can directly respond to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels during a time of critical importance to the onset of breeding.

  5. Influence of temporal relationships between serotonergic and dopaminergic precursors on the regulation of gonadal development in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini; Yadav, Suneeta

    2013-09-01

    This article is focused on the effect of specific phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations on the gonadal responses of different avian species. These species include (i) summer breeding birds - Red headed bunting (exhibiting post-reproductive absolute photorefractoriness) and Indian Weaver bird (which lacks absolute photorefractoriness), (ii) autumn breeding - Spotted munia and Lal munia (photoperiodic responses of which are distinctly different from that of any long day birds described thus far) and (iii) domesticated Japanese quail (which under natural day length breeds in summer, exhibits relative photorefractoriness, but breeds continuously if maintained in long photoperiod). Previous experiments have shown that daily administration of serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and dopamine precursor L-dihydroxyphenylalanine given 8h apart during progressive phase of gonadal cycle can lead to a significant decrease in gonadal activity. However, if given at an interval of 12h it leads to an increase in gonadal activity and the effect of other intervals (0-, 4-, 16- and 20-h) were not different from control. Similar effects were observed during regressive phase of the gonadal cycle of above species except in those which display absolute photorefractory phase in their breeding cycle. This shows that, gonad of such species not only develop post-reproductive photorefractoriness but also becomes insensitive to the stimulatory effects of 5-HTP and L-DOPA when given at the interval of 12h. It is suggested that, temporal phase relation of circadian serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations is the basis of seasonality in birds and may alter the activity of neuroendocrine-gonadal axis not only under natural day length but also under experimental/different photoperiodic conditions. These results are in agreement with the internal coincidence model of photoperiodic time measurement and indicate that birds can detect specific phase relationship between the

  6. en pacientes con obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcia María Alvarado Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de una intervención psicológica en pacientes con obesidad. Se utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con un grupo de estudio y un grupo control. Después de la intervención, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la reducción de peso entre los grupos. Asimismo, hubo un incremento significativo en la autoestima del grupo estudiado.

  7. Soledad con espectador

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto se plantea como una investigación de las posibilidades del dibujo como una herramienta para relatar una historia propia que se empapa de realidad y de ficción con el deseo de confundir al espectador y suscitarle preguntas. Para ello me he servido de mi propia imagen como personaje central. Éste se presenta duplicado, multiplicado, repetido e interactúa consigo mismo en un espacio imaginario con intención de simular aquello que se revela en el interior de la psique. Mi trabajo se...

  8. Funcionando con la computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Eduardo; Astiz, Mercedes; Medina, Perla; Montero, Y.; Oliver, María; Rocerau, M. Cristina; VALDEZ, Guillermo; Vecino, María; Vilanova, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la descripción y resultados de la segunda etapa de una experiencia planteada con el objetivo de indagar la manera en que los alumnos determinan e interpretan funciones que explican situaciones problemáticas valiéndose de una nueva forma de trabajo en el aula: la utilización de la computadora como herramienta y un programa asistente matemático. La primera etapa consistió en el desarrollo de un taller optativo con alumnos de entre 14 y 15 años de edad del Colegio Dr....

  9. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  10. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  11. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-03

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  12. Extra-gonadal steroids modulate non-breeding territorial aggression in weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalabert, Cecilia; Quintana, Laura; Pessina, Paula; Silva, Ana

    2015-06-01

    The neuroendocrine control of intraspecific aggression is a matter of current debate. Although aggression in a reproductive context has been associated with high levels of circulating androgens in a broad range of species, it has also been shown to occur during the non-breeding season when gonads are regressed and plasma steroid hormone levels are low. In mammals and birds the aromatization of androgens into estrogens plays a key role in the regulation of aggression in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons. This is the first study in a teleost fish to explore the role of steroids in the modulation of non-breeding aggression. Gymnotus omarorum is a highly aggressive teleost fish that exhibits aggression all year-round. We analyzed male-male non-breeding agonistic behavior, compared circulating 11-Ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels between dominants and isolated males, assessed the regulatory role of aromatization of androgens into estrogens, and evaluated the gonads as a source of these sex steroids. We found that high levels of aggression occurred in the non-breeding season despite low plasma 11-KT levels, and that there was no difference in 11-KT levels between dominant and isolated males. We demonstrated that acute aromatase inhibition decreased aggression, distorted contest dynamics, and affected expected outcome. We also found that castrated individuals displayed aggressive behavior indistinguishable from non-castrated males. Our results show, for the first time in teleost fish, that territorial aggression of G. omarorum during the non-breeding season depends on a non-gonadal estrogenic pathway.

  13. Effects of Methamphetamine on Pituitary Gonadal Axis and Spermatogenesis in Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Heidari-Rarani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of methamphetamine has been significantly increased among youth in the last decade. Methamphetamine stimulates the central nervous system and affects on the body tissues and neurotransmitters like dopamine. In this study, the effect of methamphetamine as a medicine of amphetamine group is investigated on the pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mature rats with 150±10 g weight are divided into in 4 groups including 10 rats in each group. Methamphetamine powder was weighted and it was solved in the normal saline to prepare a standard solution. Three experimental groups were injected in dosage 1, 3, 5 mg/kg using insulin syringe for 14 days, every day. Then, FSH, LH and testosterone concentrations were measured from the blood samples. The testis tissue was removed and after sectioning and staining by Hematoxylin-Eosin, was inspected by optical microscope for any changes. The average values of hormones and number of seminiferous cells were analyzed in SPSS-18 software using Duncan-test. Results: Experimental results showed that by increasing the concentration of methamphetamine, the serum level of LH and testosterone increase. While the FSH concentration decrease by increasing the level of methamphetamine. Also, investigation on the testis tissue showed that spermatogenesis has decreased on it in comparison to control group. This is because of methamphetamine effect on the gonads. Conclusion: The hormonal results and microscopic observations, it can conclude that using methamphetamine may cause destructive effects on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis and as a result, it may decrease fertility.

  14. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: consistent effects across vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B; Anderson, Lloyd L; Beasley, Val R; de Solla, Shane R; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S; Luque, Enrique H; McCoy, Krista A; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Trudeau, Vance L; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2011-10-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called "Hill criteria" (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause-effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis - demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals - represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the "Hill criteria".

  15. Noonan syndrome: the hypothalamo-adrenal and hypothalamo-gonadal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelnar, Christopher J H

    2009-12-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis has not been studied systematically in Noonan syndrome (NS), despite potential concerns about other aspects of hypothalamo-pituitary function. While adrenarche may be delayed in children with constitutional growth of puberty and in isolated GH deficiency, this does not generally seem to be the case in hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism due to Turner syndrome (TS) and this is (anecdotally) the usual hormonal profile in NS children and adults. Precocious or 'exaggerated' adrenarche can be associated with intrauterine growth retardation and is a forerunner of syndrome X. Although NS neonates often have 'normal' birth weights, in some it can be artificially inflated by subcutaneous edema (as in TS, where intrauterine growth retardation is characteristic). Overall, however, a controlling role for adrenarche (whether precocious or delayed) in gonadarche in NS seems unlikely. Neither normally descended testes nor normal (even if delayed) pubertal development implies normal fertility in NS men. Interactions between fetal, neonatal, childhood and pubertal testis development and gonadal axis maturation are complex. There is probably a spectrum of abnormalities in NS, but most commonly primary gonadal failure and hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism - characteristic NS molecular genetic abnormalities - may be important for normal germ cell proliferation, development and migration. The identification of different gene defects facilitates understanding of NS phenotypic diversity and provides opportunities for prospective studies on gonadal and adrenal axes in better defined populations less subject to ascertainment bias. At a clinical level, more longitudinal data are still needed with regard to the natural history of pubertal timing, its tempo of progression and the pattern of pubertal growth.

  16. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  17. Functional cross-talk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, V

    2002-06-01

    Under normal conditions, the adrenal glucocorticoids, the endproduct of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, provide a frontline of defence against threats to homeostasis (i.e. stress). On the other hand, chronic HPA drive and glucocorticoid hypersecretion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of systemic, neurodegenerative and affective disorders. The HPA axis is subject to gonadal influence, indicated by sex differences in basal and stress HPA function and neuropathologies associated with HPA dysfunction. Functional cross-talk between the gonadal and adrenal axes is due in large part to the interactive effects of sex steroids and glucocorticoids, explaining perhaps why several disease states linked to stress are sex-dependent. Realizing the interactive nature by which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and HPA systems operate, however, has made it difficult to model how these hormones act in the brain. Manipulation of one endocrine system is not without effects on the other. Simultaneous manipulation and assessment of both endocrine systems can overcome this problem. This dual approach in the male rat reveals that testosterone can act and interact on different aspects of basal and stress HPA function. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release is regulated by testosterone-dependent effects on arginine vasopressin synthesis, and corticosterone-dependent effects on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) synthesis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In contrast, testosterone and corticosterone interact on stress-induced ACTH release and drive to the PVN motor neurones. Candidate structures mediating this interaction include several testosterone-sensitive afferents to the HPA axis, including the medial preoptic area, central and medial amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis. All of these relay homeostatic information and integrate reproductive and social behaviour. Because these modalities are affected

  18. Live imaging of Drosophila gonad formation reveals roles for Six4 in regulating germline and somatic cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Andrew P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement of cells, either as amoeboid individuals or in organised groups, is a key feature of organ formation. Both modes of migration occur during Drosophila embryonic gonad development, which therefore provides a paradigm for understanding the contribution of these processes to organ morphogenesis. Gonads of Drosophila are formed from three distinct cell types: primordial germ cells (PGCs, somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, and in males, male-specific somatic gonadal precursors (msSGPs. These originate in distinct locations and migrate to associate in two intermingled clusters which then compact to form the spherical primitive gonads. PGC movements are well studied, but much less is known of the migratory events and other interactions undergone by their somatic partners. These appear to move in organised groups like, for example, lateral line cells in zebra fish or Drosophila ovarian border cells. Results We have used time-lapse fluorescence imaging to characterise gonadal cell behaviour in wild type and mutant embryos. We show that the homeodomain transcription factor Six4 is required for the migration of the PGCs and the msSGPs towards the SGPs. We have identified a likely cause of this in the case of PGCs as we have found that Six4 is required for expression of Hmgcr which codes for HMGCoA reductase and is necessary for attraction of PGCs by SGPs. Six4 affects msSGP migration by a different pathway as these move normally in Hmgcr mutant embryos. Additionally, embryos lacking fully functional Six4 show a novel phenotype in which the SGPs, which originate in distinct clusters, fail to coalesce to form unified gonads. Conclusion Our work establishes the Drosophila gonad as a model system for the analysis of coordinated cell migrations and morphogenesis using live imaging and demonstrates that Six4 is a key regulator of somatic cell function during gonadogenesis. Our data suggest that the initial association of SGP clusters

  19. Diabetes and gonadal disorders%糖尿病与性腺疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 窦京涛

    2011-01-01

    糖尿病与性腺内分泌功能密切相关.一方面糖代谢异常会影响下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴功能,导致患者性激素紊乱进而导致性腺功能减退;另一方面性激素分泌异常与糖尿病发病风险相关,常见的性腺功能减退性疾病,如高促性腺激素型性腺功能减退--Klinefelter综合征、Turner综合征等,低促性腺激素型性腺功能减退--Kallmann综合征、Prader-Willi综合征等患者糖代谢异常的患病率显著增高.性腺疾病和糖尿病之间相互影响的机制尚不十分确切,可能与胰岛素抵杭、肥胖、染色体基因异常、性激素异常有关.临床上针对性腺疾病合并血糖异常的治疗要个体化.%Diabetes is closely related with the gonadal endocrine functions. On one hand, the abnormal glucose metabolism may affect functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which in turn leads to sex hormone disorders and subsequently hypogonadism in both male and female patients;on the other, abnormal secretion of sex hormones is associated with the risk of diabetes. The common hypogonadism diseases,such as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (Klinefelter syndrom,Tuner syndrome) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Kallmann syndrom, Prader-Willi syndrome), can significantly increase the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. The exact mechanism that underlies interaction between gonadal diseases and diabetes remains unclear, yet it may be associated with insulin resistance, obesity, abnornl chromosome and abnormal secretion of sex hormone. Clinically, individualized treatment with considerations to both gonadal diseases and abnormal glucose should be advisable.

  20. Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Coady, Katherine K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jones, Paul D; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gross, Timothy; Du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the

  1. MEHP/DEHP: gonadal toxicity and effects on rodent accessory sex organs.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J A; Curto, K A; Thomas, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The phthalate acid esters (PAEs), and, in particular, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its monoester, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), can adversely affect rodent testes but only at high doses. Rat gonadal zinc levels can be decreased by the injection of DEHP, but not MEHP. The rat prostate gland seems to be particularly sensitive to PAE-induced zinc depletion. PAE-induced changes in male reproductive organs were more evident in the rat than in the mouse. Some of the effects of MEHP can ...

  2. Penoscrotal hypospadias and coarctation of the aorta with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, D; Sossai, R; Winklehner, H L; Binkert, F; Artan, S; Schärli, A F

    2000-01-01

    A 45,X/46,Xidic(Y)(q11.2) mosaicism was found in a 4-year-old boy. The clinical appearance was characterized by bilateral cryptorchidism, penoscrotal hypospadias, short penis, and coarctation of the aorta. The latter is the only abnormality also seen in Turner syndrome. A biopsy of the gonads revealed normal prepubertal testicular tissue. A chromosome analysis in all boys with penoscrotal, scrotal, or perineal hypospadias and a thorough examination of the heart in children with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are recommended.

  3. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  4. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  5. Characterization of a transgenic mouse model that hypersecretes hCG and develops gonadal tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Betina

    2010-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se estudiaron distintos aspectos de la regulación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-gonadal (HHG) en un modelo de ratones transgénicos que produce niveles elevados de la hormona gonadotrofina coriónica humana (hCG) y desarrolla tumores gonadales (ratones hCGDE+). Se partió de la hipótesis que los elevados niveles de esteroides sexuales inducidos por la hipersecreción de hCG desde edades tempranas del desarrollo, actuarían sobre el eje HHG alterando la síntesis y secreción de ...

  6. Possible interaction of the adrenal-gonadal systems on brain catecholamines of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leret, M L; Tranque, P; González, I; Calvo, J C

    1987-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory showed that gonadectomy (GDX) alters biogenic amines concentrations in diencephalon during the first 40 days. While the GDX females maintain the differences at day 60, the differences are eliminated in males at that time. In the present work, we have studied in three cerebral regions the adrenal involvement in the mechanism responsible for this normalization of catecholamine concentration in long-term castrated adult male rats. A hypersecretion of adrenal steroids seems to compensate for the lack of gonadal effect when the orchidectomized rats reach adulthood only for diencephalic dopamine.

  7. Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yin; Lee, Li-Wei; Hong, Wei-Ning; Lo, Szecheng J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms. The brood size, egg-laying rate, and gonad development of transgenic worms were analyzed using microscopy. Levels of mRNA related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, enpl-1, hsp-4, pdi-3 and xbp-1, were determined using reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCRs) in three lines of transgenic worms and dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated wild-type worms. RESULTS Severe defects in egg-laying, decreases in brood size, and gonad retardation were observed in transgenic worms expressing SHBsAg whereas moderate defects were observed in transgenic worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg. RT-PCR analysis revealed that enpl-1, hsp-4 and pdi-3 transcripts were significantly elevated in worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg and in wild-type worms pretreated with DTT. By contrast, only pdi-3 was increased in worms expressing SHBsAg. To further determine which tissue expressing SHBsAg could induce gonad retardation, we substituted the fib-1 promoter with three tissue-specific promoters (myo-2 for the pharynx, est-1 for the intestines and mec-7 for the neurons) and generated corresponding transgenic animals. Moderate defective phenotypes were observed in worms expressing SHBsAg in the pharynx and intestines but not in worms expressing SHBsAg in the neurons, suggesting that the secreted SHBsAg may trigger a cross-talk signal between the digestive track and the gonad resulting in defective phenotypes. CONCLUSION Ectopic expression of three forms of HBsAg that causes recognizable phenotypes in

  8. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  9. First gonadal maturation of Pinirampus pirinampu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available Information regarding the reproductive cycle of commercially exploited fish species is extremely important for their appropriate management. The reproductive size of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 was determined for a population studied in the Pantanal wetlands of western Brazil. Samples were taken in September, October, and December 1997, and in February and March 1998. Gonadal stages were macroscopically determined and a monthly gonadossomatic index (GSI was used to determine the breeding period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was determined by classifying male and female adults and immature fish into length classes. The data on the adult individuals were plotted on graphs and the median values estimated to find the length at which 50% of the individuals reached maturity (L50. L100 was also determined. Males and females in the gonadal maturation process were recorded from October on, and the highest frequency was found to occur in February. Individuals with empty gonads occurred from February onwards. The GSI showed that gonadal development began in September and reached its peak in February. The L50 was 574 mm for females and 536 mm for males, while the L100 was 590 mm for females and 580 mm for males.

  10. [Behavior of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis in a patient with asymmetric mixed gonadal dysgenesis (chromosome pattern 45,XO/46,XY) before and after gonad excision after with arginine, GRH and TRH stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, K; Kunkel, S; Büttner, H H; Pelz, L; Meissner, J

    1982-07-01

    In a 12 years old patient with asymmetric mixed gonadal dysgenesis (karyotype 45, XO/46,XY) a stimulation test with arginine, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH) and thyreotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was performed before and after exstirpation of the gonads as well as after application of sex steroids. FSH, LH, PRL, HGH, TSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results show an intact hypothalamo-pituitary axis which reacts with a normal negative feedback with respect to the secretion of gonadotropins after application of sex steroids.

  11. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous...... system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by ß-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC...... migration, but after establishment of connections between the enteric and sympathetic nervous systems. PGCs follow sympathetic nerve fibers towards the gonads. PGCs failing to exit the nerve branches at the gonadal site, may continue along the sympathetic trunk ending up in other organs where they may form...

  12. Protein Profiling of Gonads of Males and Sex Reversed Males in Nemacheilus angorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Cheraghzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a proteomics approach has been taken to analyze differential protein expression between mature male and sex reversed male of Nemacheilus angorae In regard to the fruitful studies of sex reversal in mammalian species and the fact that some major sex determination molecules are conserved among vertebrates, Nemacheilus angorae (Angorae loach seems to be a good model system in studying molecules involved in sex differentiation.N. angorae is a teleports fish exhibiting a spontaneous sex reversal (male to female pattern. The gonads of adult individuals were dissected and used for histological investigation and protein analysis. Proteins were next analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the distinguished spots have been compared in two experimental samples. Among them, 23 differentially expressed proteins spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Two spots in sex reversed testis with high score showed significant similarity to Vasa (assembling of the pole plasm and the pronuclear region of the oocyte and Proline 4-hydroxylase proteins. Vasa are involved in germ cell development both in invertebrates and vertebrates. This data could be considered as starting base for subsequent studies to identify proteins involved in sex reversal and differentiation at different stages of gonadal maturation in fish.

  13. Effects of photoperiod on somatic growth and gonadal development in male nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diana Navarro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotation and translation of the Earth subject the living organisms to cyclic changes of environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of photoperiod on growth and gonadal development in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In a completely randomized design experiment, juvenile males were distributed into nine tanks (10 fish per tank and maintained for 60 days under three different light treatments with three repetitions each. The treatments were: T1 - 0 h photoperiod (tanks covered with lids and black plastic; T2 - 12 hours photoperiod (tanks uncovered during photoperiod to provide natural light; and T3 - 24 hours photoperiod (tanks covered with lids equipped with lamps. No significant differences were found between treatments for body length, gonad weight or gonadosomatic index, but body weight was higher in fish subjected to T3 compared with other treatments. Furthermore, significant increases in tubular lumen and germinal epithelium were observed in fish exposed to T1 and T3, respectively. Thus, the manipulation of photoperiod in Nile tilapia culture systems can improve production and consequently increase the economic return on investment.

  14. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

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    Vahid Karami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deterioration of image quality due to beam hardening artifacts, a 1-cm foam as spacer was located between the shield and patients pelvis. Moreover, we added a lead piece at the cranial position of the bismuth garment to absorb the scatter radiations to the radiosensitive organs. In girls, 49 radiographs with shield and 46 radiographs without shield was taken. The radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs. Image quality assessments were performed using the European guidelines. For boys, the lead testicular shields was developed using 2 cm bismuth garment, added to the sides. The prevalence and efficacy of testicular shields was assessed in clinical practice fromFebruary 2016 to June 2016. Results: Without increasing the dose to the breast, thyroid and the lens of the eyes, the use of bismuth shield has reduced the entrance skin dose(ESD of the pelvis and radiation dose to the ovaries by 62.2% and 61.7%, respectively (P

  15. Threatened fertility and gonadal function after a polytraumatic, life-threatening injury

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    Ward Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma literature regarding management of genitalia trauma affecting future fertility and gonadal function in the face of coexisting life-threatening injuries is underdeveloped. We present a unique case that necessitated integrative management of a 24-year-old male who became entangled within the blades of a manure spreader and presented with life-threatening trauma in addition to severe genital trauma, including penile degloving, bilateral testicular avulsion and bilateral spermatic cord laceration. During the initial stabilization and surgical management, urology and plastic surgery were consulted to assess the urogenital injuries. Together, the surgical team orchestrated potentially life-saving interventions while successfully performing both a testicular sperm extraction and a testicular revascularization. Viable sperm was collected on the day of surgery and initial follow-up showed preserved sexual function and adequate perfusion to the testicle. This report presents a case and provides a review discussing the management of traumatic genital injuries and the importance of early involvement of surgical specialties in genitalia trauma to optimize future fertility and gonadal function. The literature search was performed in August 2008 using Medline for articles only in English, including any of the following terms: polytrauma, trauma, penis, testicle, degloving, avulsion, spermatic cord, laceration, fertility, reproduction or revascularization.

  16. Gonadal mosaicism in ARID1B gene causes intellectual disability and dysmorphic features in three siblings.

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    Ben-Salem, Salma; Sobreira, Nara; Akawi, Nadia A; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; John, Anne; Pramathan, Thachillath; Valle, David; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding the AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) has recently been shown to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with intellectual disability (ID). The phenotypic spectrums associated with variants in this gene vary widely ranging for mild to severe non-specific ID to Coffin-Siris syndrome. In this study, we evaluated three children from a consanguineous Emirati family affected with ID and dysmorphic features. Genomic DNA from all affected siblings was analyzed using CGH array and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Based on a recessive mode of inheritance, homozygous or compound heterozygous variants shared among all three affected children could not be identified. However, further analysis revealed a heterozygous variant (c.4318C>T; p.Q1440*) in the three affected children in an autosomal dominant ID causing gene, ARID1B. This variant was absent in peripheral blood samples obtained from both parents and unaffected siblings. Therefore, we propose that the most likely explanation for this situation is that one of the parents is a gonadal mosaic for the variant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gonadal mosaicism inheritance of an ARID1B variant leading to familial ID recurrence.

  17. Gonadal hormones differently modulate cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice.

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    Romana-Souza, Bruna; Assis de Brito, Thatiana L; Pereira, Gabriela R; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2014-02-01

    Gonadal hormones influence physiological responses to stress and cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gonadal hormones on cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice. Male and female mice were gonadectomized, and after 25 days, they were spun daily at 115 rpm for 15 min every hour until euthanasia. Twenty-eight days after the gonadectomy, an excisional lesion was created. The animals were killed 7 or 14 days after wounding, and the lesions were collected. Myofibroblast density, macrophage number, catecholamine level, collagen deposition, and blood vessel number were evaluated. In the intact and gonadectomized groups, stress increased the plasma catecholamine levels in both genders. In intact groups, stress impaired wound contraction and re-epithelialization and increased the macrophage number in males but not in females. In addition, stress compromised myofibroblastic differentiation and blood vessel formation and decreased collagen deposition in males but not in females. In contrast to intact mice, wound healing in ovariectomized female mice was affected by stress, while wound healing in castrated male mice was not. In conclusion, gender differences contribute to the cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice. In addition, androgens contribute to the stress-induced impairment of the healing of cutaneous wounds but estrogens inhibit it.

  18. Transgenerational epigenetic imprinting of the male germline by endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination.

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    Chang, Hung-Shu; Anway, Matthew D; Rekow, Stephen S; Skinner, Michael K

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin at the time of gonadal sex determination was previously found to promote transgenerational disease states. The actions of vinclozolin appear to be due to epigenetic alterations in the male germline that are transmitted to subsequent generations. Analysis of the transgenerational epigenetic effects on the male germline (i.e. sperm) identified 25 candidate DNA sequences with altered methylation patterns in the vinclozolin generation sperm. These sequences were identified and mapped to specific genes and noncoding DNA regions. Bisulfite sequencing was used to confirm the altered methylation pattern of 15 of the candidate DNA sequences. Alterations in the epigenetic pattern (i.e. methylation) of these genes/DNA sequences were found in the F2 and F3 generation germline. Therefore, the reprogramming of the male germline involves the induction of new imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences that acquire an apparent permanent DNA methylation pattern that is passed at least through the paternal allele. The expression pattern of several of the genes during embryonic development were found to be altered in the vinclozolin F1 and F2 generation testis. A number of the imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences identified are associated with epigenetic linked diseases. In summary, an endocrine disruptor exposure during embryonic gonadal sex determination was found to promote an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e. induction of imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences) programming of the male germline, and this is associated with the development of transgenerational disease states.

  19. A Case of Swyer Syndrome Associated with Advanced Gonadal Dysgerminoma Involving Long Survival

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    Salete Da Silva Rios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Swyer syndrome is caused by abnormal sex differentiation during the embryonic period, resulting in incomplete intrauterine masculinization and undifferentiated gonads. The current case report describes a patient with Swyer syndrome associated with stage 3 gonadal dysgerminoma who has survived for 23 years. At age 18, this patient sought assistance for primary amenorrhea from the Gynecological Services Department of the University of Brasília Hospital. A physical examination revealed that the patient was at Tanner stage 4 with respect to axillary hair, breasts, and pubic hair; she presented with a eutrophic vagina and a small cervix. She was treated with a combination of estrogens and progestogens to induce cycling. Approximately 4 years later, a complex tumor was found and resected; a histopathological analysis revealed that this tumor was a right adnexal dysgerminoma with peritoneal affection. The patient was also subjected to chemotherapy. Her follow-up has continued to the present time, with no signs of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, this report describes an extremely rare case in which Swyer syndrome was associated with ovarian dysgerminoma; relative to similar patients, the described patient has survived for an unusually prolonged time.

  20. Endoscopic sex determination and gonadal manipulation in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi).

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    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Bakal, Robert S; Hickson, Brian H; Rawlings, Clarence A; Wilson, Heather G; Radlinsky, MaryAnn; Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Dover, Samuel R

    2004-12-01

    Seventeen Gulf of Mexico sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) underwent endoscopic sex determination, gonadal biopsy, and various reproductive surgeries as part of a conservation development plan. The fish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) buffered with sodium bicarbonate and maintained on a recirculating water anesthesia circuit. A 6-mm Ternamian EndoTip Cannula, placed through the ventral midline, midway between pectoral and pelvic fins, permitted the introduction of a 5-mm telescope. Swim bladder aspiration and CO2 insufflation of the coelomic cavity provided excellent observation. Second and third cannulae were placed under direct visual control, lateral and cranial or caudal to the telescope cannula. Sex determination was successfully performed in all fish; however, five of 17 sturgeons (29%) required endoscopic gonadal biopsy to confirm sex. Bilateral ovariectomy or orchidectomy was successfully performed in three males and four females. Unilateral ovariectomy and bilateral ligation of the müllerian ducts using an extracorporeal suturing technique was accomplished in an additional three females. No apparent morbidity was associated with the anesthesia or endoscopic surgery in any fish. The ability to safely perform minimally invasive reproductive surgery in fish may have important management and conservation benefits.

  1. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Perna viridis to triazophos.

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    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Jia, Xiaoping; Cai, Wengui

    2017-09-19

    Triazophos, as a lipophilic organophosphate pesticide, displays higher bioaccumulation in the gonads of shellfish. To study the reproductive toxicity of triazophos, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Perna viridis exposed to triazophos. Metabolites were differently altered by triazophos in ovaries of mussel at different concentrations and time intervals, while basically similar metabolic response patterns were observed in male mussels at the two tested concentrations after exposure for 24 and 48h. The significant changes of metabolites in ovaries of mussel exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples triazophos only affected the energy metabolism. Moreover, glycine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, ethanol, aspartate, etc. exhibited consistent variation tendency in both male and female individuals. While the changes of homarine, betaine, taurine, hypotaurine, malonate, β-alanine, succinate, and choline showed obviously gender-specific responses. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses in gonad of P. viridis to triazophos exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sry and SoxE genes: How they participate in mammalian sex determination and gonadal development?

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    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, sex determination defines the differentiation of the bipotential genital ridge into either testes or ovaries. Sry, the mammalian Y-chromosomal testis-determining gene, is a master regulator of male sex determination. It acts to switch the undifferentiated genital ridge towards testis development, triggering the adoption of a male fate. Sry initiates a cascade of gene networks through the direct regulation of Sox9 expression and promotes supporting cell differentiation, Leydig cell specification, vasculature formation and testis cord development. In the absence of Sry, alternative genetic cascades, including female sex-determining genes RSPO1, Wnt4/β-catenin and Foxl2, are involved in the formation of female genitalia and the maintenance of female ovarian development. The mutual antagonisms between male and female sex-determining pathways are crucial in not just the initiation but also the maintenance of the somatic sex of the gonad throughout the organism's lifetime. Any imbalances in above sex-determining genes can cause disorders of sex development in humans and mice. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the expression profiles, biochemical properties and developmental functions of Sry and SoxE genes in embryonic testis development and adult gonadal development. We also briefly summarize the dedicate balances between male and female sex-determining genes in mammalian sex development, with particular highlights on the molecular actions of Sry and Sox9 transcription factors.

  3. Morphometics and gonadal development of the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus in New Zealand.

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    Frederic H Martini

    Full Text Available Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus, like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation.

  4. Circulating gonadal and adrenal steroids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: possible markers of susceptibility and outcome.

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    Gargiulo-Monachelli, G M; Sivori, M; Meyer, M; Sica, R E P; De Nicola, A F; Gonzalez-Deniselle, M C

    2014-06-01

    Although changes of circulating steroids have been reported in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a full comparison of the adrenal and gonadal steroid profile between control subjects and ALS patients is lacking. Considering that respiratory failure is the most frequent cause of death in ALS, we looked into whether a relationship emerged between circulating steroids and respiratory parameters. Serum levels of adrenal and gonadal steroids were measured in 52 age- and gender-matched subjects (28 ALS and 24 controls) using radioimmunoassay techniques. We also evaluated respiratory parameters in ALS patients, including forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). We found increased levels of testosterone in female ALS patients compared to healthy female subjects. Furthermore, control subjects showed a significant decline of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and a borderline decline of progesterone with increasing age. Instead, testosterone did not decline with increasing age in ALS patients. We also found that the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/cortisol ratio was positively associated with FVC, MIP, and MEP. Moreover, ALS patients showing higher testosterone levels and lower progesterone/free testosterone ratio presented a more rapid worsening of the monthly FVC. In conclusion, first our study revealed a differential steroid profile with age and gender in ALS patients relative to controls. Second, we demonstrated an association between some steroids and their ratios with respiratory function and disease progression. Thus, we hypothesize that the endogenous steroid profile could be a marker of susceptibility and prognosis in ALS patients.

  5. Sex-specific DoublesexM expression in subsets of Drosophila somatic gonad cells

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    Oliver Brian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, a pre-mRNA splicing hierarchy controls sexual identity and ultimately leads to sex-specific Doublesex (DSX transcription factor isoforms. The male-specific DSXM represses genes involved in female development and activates genes involved in male development. Spatial and temporal control of dsx during embryogenesis is not well documented. Results Here we show that DSXM is specifically expressed in subsets of male somatic gonad cells during embryogenesis. Following testis formation, germ cells remain in contact with DSXM-expressing cells, including hub cells and premeiotic somatic cyst cells that surround germ cells during spermatogenesis in larval and adult testes. Conclusion We show that dsx is transcriptionally regulated in addition to being regulated at the pre-mRNA splicing level by the sex determination hierarchy. The dsx locus is spatially controlled by somatic gonad identity. The continuous expression of DSXM in cells contacting the germline suggests an ongoing short-range influence of the somatic sex determination pathway on germ cell development.

  6. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

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    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  7. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

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    Pujolar, Jose Martin; Locatello, Lisa; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers). Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  8. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

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    Jose Martin Pujolar

    Full Text Available In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers. Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  9. Gonadal Hormones and Voluntary Exercise Interact to Improve Discrimination Ability in a Set-Shift Task

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    Eddy, Meghan C.; Rifken, Katharine M.; Toufexis, Donna J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to improve multiple facets of health, including cognitive function. Rodent studies have suggested that exercise has robust effects on the hippocampus, and on tasks that require the hippocampus. However, studies of the effects of exercise in humans often focus on the benefits to cognitive processes that engage areas outside of the hippocampus, such as executive function. Additionally, when exercise’s cognitive benefits are examined, consideration of both males and females, and gonadal hormones, is rarely made. Here we looked at the interaction of gonadal hormones and exercise in terms of the ability of male and female rats to learn to discriminate rewarded from unrewarded arms in a T-maze based on either brightness (white vs. black) or texture (rough vs. smooth), and then to set-shift (a measure of executive function), where this required discrimination based on the opposite dimension. Gonadectomized or intact males and females had access to running wheels for two weeks before being tested. Intact males and females given access to unlocked running wheels performed better at the initial discrimination (Set 1) compared to intact males and females with locked running wheels, but not at the set-shift (Set 2). No advantage of exercise was observed in gonadectomized rats. PMID:23978149

  10. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

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    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in symptom expression in pre- and post-menopausal women as well as changes during pregnancy, hormonal treatment, or after ovariectomy. Gonadal hormones, in particular estrogens, can significantly modulate various clinical manifestations of IBS, including alterations in GI motility and visceral hypersensitivity. Additionally, sex differences in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system are considered to be contributing factors in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders. The modulatory effects of estrogens on visceral pain may result from interactions with numerous neurotransmitters at different levels of the brain-gut axis, with a pivotal role of estrogens' interactions with the serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling systems. Estrogens can also modulate neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress via the brain-gut axis. Sex differences in the biological actions, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy of serotonergic medications clearly suggest sex differences in pain pathways that have to be taken into consideration in therapeutic interventions.

  11. Long-term preservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads.

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    Fukumori, Hisayoshi; Lee, Jung; Fujii, Tsuguru; Kajiura, Zenta; Banno, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads was investigated. First, we evaluated the freeze tolerance of ovary and testis in the eri silkworm, which showed high tolerance. Mating between frozen ovary-transplanted females and frozen testis-transplanted males produced 163.0 eggs, yielding 105.7 larvae per moth. In a second experiment, we tested the use of the eri silkworm as a host insect for gonad transplantation from ailanthus silkworm donors. A high success ratio for laid and hatched eggs was demonstrated for ovary transplantation (97.8 and 51.3 eggs per moth, respectively). For testis transplantation, however, the average number of hatched larvae was low (12.0). Mating between host eri females and males in which both frozen ovary and testis of the ailanthus silkworm had been transplanted produced 6.4 fertilized eggs per host moth. Our success in using cross subspecies cryopreservation between these wild silkworms could lead to the alternative use of hosts between species in other insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-cadherin Expression in Testicular Germ Cell and Gonadal Stromal Tumors

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    Daniel J. Heidenberg, Joel H. Barton, Denise Young, Michael Grinkemeyer, Isabell A. Sesterhenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural-cadherin is a member of the cadherin gene family encoding the N-cadherin protein that mediates cell adhesion. N-cadherin is a marker of Sertoli cells and is also expressed in germ cells of varying stages of maturation. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of this protein by immunohistochemistry in 105 germ cell tumors of both single and mixed histological types and 12 gonadal stromal tumors. Twenty-four germ cell tumors consisted of one cell type and the remaining were mixed. Of the 23 seminomas in either pure or mixed tumors, 74% were positive. Two spermatocytic seminomas were positive. Of the 83 cases with yolk sac tumor, 99% were positive for N-cadherin. The teratomas were positive in 73% in neuroectodermal and / or glandular components. In contrast, 87% of embryonal carcinomas did not express N-cadherin. Only 17% of the syncytiotrophoblastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression is very helpful in the identification of yolk sac tumors. In addition to glypican-3 and Sal-like protein 4, N-cadherin can be beneficial for the diagnosis and classification of this subtype of testicular germ cell tumor. Nine of the 12 gonadal stromal tumors were positive to a variable extent.

  13. Adrenal and gonadal steroids and pituitary response to LHRH in girls. II. Precocious puberty.

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    Pintor, C; Genazzani, A R; Ibba, P; Pecciarini-Snickars, L; Corda, R

    1978-04-01

    Three baby girls between 22 and 30 months of age, presenting with isosexual idiopathic precocious puberty apparently not due to any organic cause, were studied. Basal levels of plasma steroids of adrenal and gonadal origin, circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol, and pituitary response to 25 microgram of LHRH were evaluated. All cases were characterized by high levels of plasma gonadotropins and by a marked response to exogenous LHRH. Normal cortisol circadia rhythm was found in all cases, one of which characterized by slightly raised plasma values. The other adrenal steroids were all higher than those expected for the chronological age, corresponding to those of 5-6 years old girls. On the other hand, steroids of both adrenal and ovarian (A, T) or mainly ovarian origin (E2) and DHT were all found to be higher than those normally reported in girls at stage 2 of sexual development. These data indicate a hypersecretion of gonadotropins in idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty, with a marked gonadal steroidogenetic response. The secretion of adrenal androgens does not appear to have an important role in the etiology of this condition.

  14. What have gonadotrophin overexpressing transgenic mice taught us about gonadal function?

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    Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2005-09-01

    The two gonadotrophins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone, are pivotal regulators of the development and maintenance of normal fertility by maintaining testicular and ovarian endocrine function and gametogenesis. Too low gonadotrophin secretion, i.e. hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, is a common cause of infertility. But there are also physiological and pathophysiological conditions where gonadotrophin secretion and/or action are either transiently or chronically elevated, such as pregnancy, pituitary tumours, polycystic ovarian syndrome, activating gonadotrophin receptor mutations, perimenopause and menopause. These situations can be either the primary or secondary cause of infertility and gonadal pathologies in both sexes. Also the role of gonadotrophins as tumour promoters is possible. Recently, the possibility to combine information from genetically modified mice and human phenotypes in connection with mutations of gonadotrophin or gonadotrophin receptor genes has elucidated many less well known mechanisms involved in dysregulation of gonadotrophin function. Among the genetically modified mouse models, transgenic mice with gonadotrophin hypersecretion have been developed during the last few years. In this review, we describe the key findings on transgenic mouse models overexpressing gonadotrophins and present their possible implications in related human pathologies. In addition, we provide examples of genetic mouse models with secondary effects on gonadotrophin production and, consequently, on gonadal function.

  15. Ventromedial hypothalamic mediation of photoperiodic gonadal responses in male Syrian hamsters.

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    Bae, H H; Mangels, R A; Cho, B S; Dark, J; Yellon, S M; Zucker, I

    1999-10-01

    Short day lengths induce testicular regression in seasonally breeding Syrian hamsters. To test whether the ventromedial hypothalamus is necessary to maintain reproductive quiescence once testicular regression has been achieved, photoregressed male hamsters were subjected to lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHx), pinealectomy (Pinx), or sham operation (Sham). VMHx hamsters underwent accelerated gonadal recrudescence compared to Pinx and Sham hamsters. Recovery of prolactin concentrations (PRL) to values characteristic of long-day hamsters was hastened in the VMHx animals compared to Sham hamsters. Concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased prematurely in both the VMHx and Pinx animals, beginning a few weeks after surgery. By the time the gonads had undergone recrudescence and the hamsters were refractory to melatonin, PRL and FSH concentrations had returned to baseline long-day values in all groups; there was no evidence of hypersecretion of either hormone in any of the animals with lesions. Melatonin concentrations of VMHx hamsters did not differ from those of sham-operated animals, but because only a single determination was made, it remains possible that VMH damage altered the duration of nightly melatonin secretion. An intact VMH appears to be essential for the continued maintenance of reproductive suppression induced by exposure to short day lengths; these and earlier findings suggest that the VMH-dorsomedial hypothalamic complex mediates regression of the reproductive apparatus during decreasing day lengths of late summer and early autumn and also is necessary to sustain regression during the winter months.

  16. Influence of thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on adrenal and gonadal functions in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Imai, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-04-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on adrenals and gonads in adult female rats was investigated throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 4-Methyl-2-Thiouracil (Thiouracil) in the drinking water. The weight of ovaries and adrenals, and the plasma levels of corticosterone decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats throughout the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma LH on the day of diestrus and proestrus, whereas the plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone increased as compared with euthyroid rats. The weight of uteri and plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased during the day of diestrus and proestrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. To further clarify the dysfunction of hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal axis in hypothyroid rats, animals were stressed by immobilization for 3 hr. In hypothyroid rats, a marked increase in plasma levels of ACTH in response to immobilization stress was observed compared to euthyroid control, whereas increases in plasma concentrations of corticosterone were much smaller in hypothyroid than euthyroid rats. These results clearly indicate that hypothyroidism causes both gonadal and adrenal disturbances in adult female rats. The increased concentrations of plasma progesterone may be due to hypersecretion of prolactin during the day of proestrus and estrus, which in turn result in disruption of the estrous cycle.

  17. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  18. Trabajando fractales con Winlogo

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Sonia; Arenas, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    Después de una breve introducción en la cual se establecerán algunos conceptos teóricos básicos de la geometría fractal, se realizarán talleres en los cuales, con ayuda de las herramientas que trabaja el software WinLogo, se construirán diversos fractales, analizando sus principales características (autosimilitud, dimensión, etc.)

  19. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  20. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  1. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  2. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%).

  3. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  5. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  6. Effect of diets supplemented with different sources of astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value.

  7. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  8. Differential activity of stanniocalcin in male and female fresh water teleost Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede during gonadal maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in the activity of hormone stanniocalcin (STC between male and female fishes of Mastacembelus armatus during their gonadal cycle. A large variation in nuclear diameter of cells of corpuscles of Stannius (CS were recorded in relation to testicular cycle as well as ovarian cycle which indicates that the cellular activity varied with different phases of reproductive cycle in both male and female fish. Similar changes in nuclear diameter of CS cells were also observed after 17alpha-methyltestosterone administration in males and 17 β-estradiol administrations in females. A positive correlation was observed between plasma STC levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI and the sex steroids in both sexes, suggesting that STC has a role in the processes involved in gonadal development. In addition females showed remarkable changes in plasma calcium level during gonadal cycle while no such change for males were observed. In females the plasma calcium level estimated during different phases of reproductive cycle indicates positive correlation between plasma level of calcium and gonad growth. Thus hyperactivity of CS cells was noted in both male and female fishes during gonadal cycle along with the differences in the activity of STC as well. In female it may act as hypocalcemic factor and bring the level of calcium to normal which increases during preparatory and pre spawning phases to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis. However data of male fishes indicated that plasma STC concentration varied widely during gonadal cycle but showed no consistent relationship to plasma calcium level.

  9. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  10. Lectura con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  11. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn...

  12. Gonadal and Adrenal Abnormalities in Drug Users: Cause or Consequence of Drug Use Behavior and Poor Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd T. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opiates and cocaine both have effects on adrenal and gonadal function. Opiates suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis, whereas cocaine leads to HPA activation. Opiates also cause gonadal dysfunction in both men and women. During withdrawal from opiates and cocaine, the HPA axis is activated which may reinforce relapse behavior. This review describes these hormonal effects and explores the potential consequences, including the effects on mood cognition and cardiovascular risk. Modification of the drug-induced hormonal dysfunction may represent a treatment strategy for drug rehabilitation.

  13. vasa is expressed in somatic cells of the embryonic gonad in a sex-specific manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Renault

    2012-08-01

    Vasa is a DEAD box helicase expressed in the Drosophila germline at all stages of development. vasa homologs are found widely in animals and vasa has become the gene of choice in identifying germ cells. I now show that Drosophila vasa expression is not restricted to the germline but is also expressed in a somatic lineage, the embryonic somatic gonadal precursor cells. This expression is sexually dimorphic, being maintained specifically in males, and is regulated post-transcriptionally. Although somatic Vasa expression is not required for gonad coalescence, these data support the notion that Vasa is not solely a germline factor.

  14. GONAD: A Novel CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Method that Does Not Require Ex Vivo Handling of Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Takahashi, Gou; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic technologies used for creating a desired genomic change in animals involve three critical steps: isolation of fertilized eggs, microinjection of transgenic DNA into them and their subsequent transfer to recipient females. These ex vivo steps have been widely used for over 3 decades and they were also readily adapted for the latest genome editing technologies such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. We recently developed a method called GONAD (Genome editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery) that does not require all the three critical steps of transgenesis and therefore relieves the bottlenecks of widely used animal transgenic technologies. Here we provide protocols for the GONAD system.

  15. Gonadogenesis in Pristionchus pacificus and organ evolution: development, adult morphology and cell-cell interactions in the hermaphrodite gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Riebesell, Metta; Sommer, Ralf J

    2005-01-01

    The nematode gonad is an exemplary system for the study of organogenesis and fundamental problems in developmental and cellular biology. Nematode gonads vary dramatically across species (Chitwood, B.G., Chitwood, M.B., 1950. Introduction to Nematology." University Park Press, Baltimore; Felix, M.A., Sternberg, P.W., 1996. Symmetry breakage in the development of one-armed gonads in nematodes. Development 122, 2129-2142). As such, comparative developmental biology of gonadogenesis offers the potential to investigate changes in developmental and cellular processes that result in novel organ morphologies and thus may give insights into how these changes can affect animal bauplane. Pristionchus pacificus is a free-living nematode that diverged from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans around 200-300 million years ago. The morphology and development of P. pacificus is highly homologous to that of C. elegans. However, many differences in morphology and the underlying molecular signaling networks are easy to identify, making P. pacificus ideal for a comparative approach. Here, we report a detailed description of the P. pacificus hermaphrodite gonad using electron and fluorescent microscopy that will provide a basis for both phenotypic studies of genetic mutations and in vivo molecular studies of cloned genes involved in P. pacificus gonad development. We report that the morphology of the P. pacificus gonad is distinct from that of C. elegans. Among these differences are germ line patterning differences, heterochronic differences, novel gonadal arm-migrations, novel cellular composition of some somatic tissues (e.g., the number of cells that comprise the sheath and different spermathecal regions are different), the absence of a somatic tissue (e.g., the spermathecal valve cells), a novel architecture for the sheath, and changes in the cellular and sub-cellular morphology of the individual sheath cells. Additionally, we report a set of cell ablations in P. pacificus

  16. Activation of natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with gonadal adipose tissues browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Neinast

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Upregulation of Nppb, Npr1, Npr2, and β3-adrenergic receptors in gonadal adipose tissue following RYGB was associated with increased markers of browning. This browning of gonadal adipose tissue may underpin the positive effect of RYGB on metabolic parameters and may in part be mediated through upregulation of natriuretic peptides.

  17. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  18. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Retinoic Acid signalling and the control of meiotic entry in the human fetal gonad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Childs

    Full Text Available The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA. Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8-9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may

  20. Sexual difference in gonadal development of embryonic chickens after treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent and lipophilic environmental endocrine disrupters that can be biomagnified in human and animals including birds and thus to affect reproductive functions.Poultry meat and eggs contain a great deal of fat and possibly concentrate higher PCBs and other environmental contaminants such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT).In order to identify the adverse effects of PCBs and possible sexual difference on chicken gonadal development, Aroclor 1254 was injected into fertilized Hyline chicken eggs before incubation. Four groups of eggs received yolk injection of either peanut oil as control, 1, 10 or 100 μg/egg of Aroclor 1254 as treatment group, respectively. After hatching the gonads were removed for histological examination. Testicular structure was apparently changed and exhibited dramatic decrease in area of the transverse sections (1 μg/egg, P< 0.01; 10 and 100 μg/egg, P<0.001), diameter (10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.05) and relative area of the testicular tubules (10 μg/egg, P<0.05; 100 μg/egg, P<0.01). Most testicular tubules of the highest dose group degenerated and even disappeared. The differentiation of germ cells was retarded in all groups treated with Aroclor 1254. Some germ cells were irregular in shape, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatism nucleus (pyknosis) in 1 and 10 μg/egg groups and almost all germ cells in 100 μg/egg group. In contrast,the area of the left ovarian transverse sections increased dramatically (10 and 100 lμg/egg, P <0.001), the ovarian cortex manifested a significant increment in thickness (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) and a higher number of oocytes was observed (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) in the female chickens treated with Aroclor 1254 compared with the control group. A few oocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nucleus were also observed in ovarian cortex after PCBs exposure. These results showed that PCBs interfered

  1. Atender con ansiedad

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    Alberto Acosta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tener una personalidad ansiosa o estar ansioso en una determinada situación hace que atendamos de modo diferente a lo que acontece. Investigaciones recientes están descubriendo las relaciones específicas de la ansiedad-rasgo y de la ansiedad-estado con diferentes procesos atencionales. La intervención terapéutica para aliviar los trastornos de ansiedad, tan frecuentes en nuestra época, se va a beneficiar de este conocimiento.

  2. Arquitectura con discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Schaposnik, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    En particular a la Carrera Arquitectura le compete un doble rol social: uno general, "educar" desde la Universidad y otro, específico, el que le es propio: dar respuesta a las necesidades planteadas por la sociedad haciéndole su lugar: construyéndolo junto con ella. Aparece la figura del "alumno de arquitectura"' nuestro destinatario específico. El alumno de arquitectura, también deberá tomar conciencia, entender, que el "espacio" que él deberá dominar a través d...

  3. Creo con mis dedos

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Aniceto, Monta??a

    2015-01-01

    Las artes pl??sticas son muy importantes para los ni??os/as sobre todo para Educaci??n Infantil ya que promueven la creatividad mediante diferentes recursos y t??cnicas lo que favorece su motivaci??n en las competencias desde la edad temprana hasta la adolescencia. Es la primera forma que tiene el ni??o/a de expresarse en el mundo (a trav??s de los garabatos), de comunicarse, compartir sus emociones con los dem??s, creando su propio lenguaje que evolucionar?? hacia el lenguaje oral y escri...

  4. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

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    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  5. con problemas de aprendizaje

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    Claudia Jaquelina González Trujillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de niños con diversos problemas de aprendizaje fue atendido bajo un programa de intervención de integración y adaptación social. Mejoras importantes se obtienen en competencias académicas bajo el presente programa de intervención y delimitan áreas de oportunidad para la mejora en aspectos cognitivos como el del proceso de atención e integración social. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten bajo un programa de apoyo psicopedagógico para la educación especial.

  6. Mayonesa con quitosano

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffrey, María Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El quitosano es un polímero natural que se obtiene a partir de la quitina, la cual forma parte de la estructura de soporte de numerosos organismos vivos, tales como artrópodos (crustáceos e insectos), moluscos y hongos. Presenta propiedades aplicables en los alimentos, como estabilizante, emulsificante, y quelante. No puede ser digerido por los seres humanos por lo cual está considerado como una fibra dietética con un contenido calórico cero. Objetivos: Evaluar...

  7. con la cosecha mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar los indicadores de eficiencia y calidad durante la cosecha mecanizada del café, constituyen un tema de gran actualidad a nivel internacional. La determinación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los frutos y del sistema frutopedúnculo, es una etapa indispensable durante las investigaciones relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este producto. En este trabajo se brindan los resultados sobre la determinación de un grupo de propiedades dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo de coffea arabica variedad Catuai en diferentes estadios de maduración, relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este cultivo.Así mismo se determina el momento flector requerido para la ruptura de la unión fruto pedúnculo. Durante la investigación se emplearon técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales, así como de extensometría eléctrica. Como resultado de la medición de las diferentes propiedades se apreciaron diferencias sustanciales en las características dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas de los frutos maduros y verdes, así como en el momento requerido para el desprendimiento de los frutos y en las formas en que se produce el desprendimiento.

  8. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

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    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  9. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

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    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  10. Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.

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    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933, de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. Éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó, con Geoffrey Kirk, Los filósofos presocráticos–, le indujo a ocuparse de la filosofía antigua; y otro maestro, William Guthrie –a quien debemos la gran Historia de la filosofía griega–, le inició, además, en la medicina griega.

  11. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730).

  12. A histo-morphological characteristics of gonads in Mudskipper, Periophthalmus waltoni Koumans, 1941 from Helleh estuary, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphological and histological studies of male and female gonads in mudskipper, Periophthalmus waltoni Koumans, 1941 from Helleh estuary (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran were performed to determine its gonadal development stages and histo-morphological characteristics. Sampling was done from April 2010 to March 2011 and a total of 81 individuals were collected by hand net. The gonads of specimens were removed, their sexes determined and then fixed in 10% formalin solution after checking their morphology and measuring their weights, lengths and widths. Six stages of gonadal development in females and four stages in males were determined based on macroscopic and microscopic observations and reproductive indices. In female, increasing of the ovary size is occurred because of the accumulation of yolk materials in oocytes, and in the last stages, little folding in ovary was observed. Formation of zona radiata and yolk granules in the third stage, and increasing thickness of this layer and yolk granules were observed from stage three to stage six. In male, gradual developments of the sperm cells were observed from stage one onward.

  13. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    by single and double immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: We found that GAGE was expressed in the primordial germ cells of the gonadal primordium, whereas MAGE-A1 and NY-ESO-1 were first detected in germ cells of both testis and ovary after sexual differentiation was initiated. The number of positive germ...

  14. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous...

  15. Silencing of Gonad-Inhibiting Hormone Transcripts in Litopenaeus vannamei Females by use of the RNA Interference Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Rubens G; Braga, André L; Lanes, Carlos F C; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Romano, Luis A; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Nery, Luis E M; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Wasielesky, Wilson; Marins, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    The method usually employed to stimulate gonadal maturation and spawning of captive shrimp involves unilateral eyestalk ablation, which results in the removal of the endocrine complex responsible for gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) synthesis and release. In the present study, RNAi technology was used to inhibit transcripts of GIH in Litopenaeus vannamei females. The effect of gene silencing on gonad development was assessed by analyzing the expression of GIH and vitellogenin, respectively, in the eyestalk and ovaries of L. vannamei females, following ablation or injection with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D (non-related dsRNA), or saline solution. Histological analyses were performed to determine the stage of gonadal development and to assess the diameter of oocytes throughout the experimental procedure. Only oocytes at pre-vitellogenesis and primary vitellogenesis stages were identified in females injected with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D, or saline solution. Oocytes at all developmental stages were observed in eyestalk-ablated females, with predominance of later stages, such as secondary vitellogenesis and mature oocytes. Despite achieving 64, 73, and 71% knockdown of eyestalk GIH mRNA levels by 15, 30, and 37 days post-injection (dpi), respectively, in dsRNA-GIH-injected females, the expected increase in ovary vitellogenin mRNA expression was only observed on the 37th dpi. This is the first report of the use of RNAi technology to develop an alternative method to eyestalk ablation in captive L. vannamei shrimps.

  16. The Potential Gonad of Diadema Setosum as a Healthy Food to Improve the Nutritional Status of Coastal’s Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waode Salma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of malnutrition in the household, especially for children who settled the coastal region are frequent. It required to use the potential of indigenous foods such as gonad of Diadema setosum, which has been known to contain macro and micro nutrient substances are highly qualified and the results of microbiological tests by culture, was not contaminated by Salmonella sp and E. coli so it was safe for consumption. The purpose of our study, assessing the effect of gonad of Diadema setosum extracts to weight gain in animal models of strain BALB/c mice were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The method of weight assessment was using a special tool scales OHAUS Triple Beam Balance. Induction of LPS 0.2 ml x 103ml / CFU intraperitoneally. The results showed that the intervention group body weight dose of 200 mg / kg group increased higher than the dose of 100 mg / kg opposite occurred the control group weight loss was significantly p <(0.001. It can be concluded, gonad Diadema setosum may play a role in the growth and development of children as it proves it can significantly improve weight BALB / c mice induced by LPS. It show that gonad of Diadema setosum have potential as a healthy food for the treatment of latest of ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTFs sourced from marine biological food.

  17. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

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    Alejandra García-Gasca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  18. Insulin and IGF1 receptors are essential for XX and XY gonadal differentiation and adrenal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Pitetti

    Full Text Available Mouse sex determination provides an attractive model to study how regulatory genetic networks and signaling pathways control cell specification and cell fate decisions. This study characterizes in detail the essential role played by the insulin receptor (INSR and the IGF type I receptor (IGF1R in adrenogenital development and primary sex determination. Constitutive ablation of insulin/IGF signaling pathway led to reduced proliferation rate of somatic progenitor cells in both XX and XY gonads prior to sex determination together with the downregulation of hundreds of genes associated with the adrenal, testicular, and ovarian genetic programs. These findings indicate that prior to sex determination somatic progenitors in Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads are not lineage primed and thus incapable of upregulating/repressing the male and female genetic programs required for cell fate restriction. In consequence, embryos lacking functional insulin/IGF signaling exhibit (i complete agenesis of the adrenal cortex, (ii embryonic XY gonadal sex reversal, with a delay of Sry upregulation and the subsequent failure of the testicular genetic program, and (iii a delay in ovarian differentiation so that Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads, irrespective of genetic sex, remained in an extended undifferentiated state, before the ovarian differentiation program ultimately is initiated at around E16.5.

  19. Insulin and IGF1 receptors are essential for XX and XY gonadal differentiation and adrenal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitetti, Jean-Luc; Calvel, Pierre; Romero, Yannick; Conne, Béatrice; Truong, Vy; Papaioannou, Marilena D; Schaad, Olivier; Docquier, Mylène; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Nef, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Mouse sex determination provides an attractive model to study how regulatory genetic networks and signaling pathways control cell specification and cell fate decisions. This study characterizes in detail the essential role played by the insulin receptor (INSR) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF1R) in adrenogenital development and primary sex determination. Constitutive ablation of insulin/IGF signaling pathway led to reduced proliferation rate of somatic progenitor cells in both XX and XY gonads prior to sex determination together with the downregulation of hundreds of genes associated with the adrenal, testicular, and ovarian genetic programs. These findings indicate that prior to sex determination somatic progenitors in Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads are not lineage primed and thus incapable of upregulating/repressing the male and female genetic programs required for cell fate restriction. In consequence, embryos lacking functional insulin/IGF signaling exhibit (i) complete agenesis of the adrenal cortex, (ii) embryonic XY gonadal sex reversal, with a delay of Sry upregulation and the subsequent failure of the testicular genetic program, and (iii) a delay in ovarian differentiation so that Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads, irrespective of genetic sex, remained in an extended undifferentiated state, before the ovarian differentiation program ultimately is initiated at around E16.5.

  20. CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.T.R. de Bruijn (Marella); M.C. Peeters (Marian); T. Luteijn; P. Visser (Pim); N.A. Speck; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region b

  1. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C;

    2011-01-01

    stimulators of GNRH neurons. Both central and peripheral acute injections of Kp have been reported to activate the gonadotropic axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if and how peripheral administration of Kp54 could restore gonadal function in photo-inhibited hamsters. Testicular activity...... of hamsters kept in SD was reactivated by two daily i.p. injections of Kp54 but not by chronic subcutaneous delivery of the same peptide via mini-pumps. Acute i.p. injection of Kp54-induced FOS (c-Fos) expression in a large number of GNRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs together with a strong increase...... in circulating testosterone. The activation of pituitary cells by Kp was inhibited by preadministration of the GNRH receptor antagonist acyline. Altogether, our results demonstrate that peripheral Kp54 activates the gonadotropic axis by stimulating GNRH release and indicate that an appropriate protocol of long...

  2. Release of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance from starfish radial nerves by lonomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    In starfish, the peptide hormone gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) secreted from nervous tissue stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) production by ovarian follicle cells. Recently, GSS was purified from radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and identified as a relaxin-like peptide. This study examines the mechanism of GSS secretion from radial nerves. When radial nerves isolated from A. pectinifera were incubated in artificial seawater containing ionomycin as a calcium ionophore, GSS release increased in a dose-dependent manner; 50% activity of GSS release was obtained with approximately 10 µM ionomycin. Another calcium ionophore, A23187, also stimulated GSS release from radial nerves. In contrast, membrane permeable cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP analogs failed to induce GSS release. These results suggest that GSS secretion is induced by intracellular Ca(2+) as a second messenger.

  3. The arsenic action during the Bufo arenarum gonad development (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengel, Dora

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Bufo arenarum ovulations have been kept in potassium bibasic arsenate from the fertilization until 26mm larva. The gonad in development, in the presence of the toxic, suffers significant alterations in its volume, shape and structure. It does not have the typical naillike morphology; on the other hand, it is presented as a spherical mass of reduced volume, that has, as demostrated by the histological analysis, very few oocytes or gonia submerged in a very scarce quantity of stroma. The hypothesis of this study was that it would be due to a succession of events whose cause would lie on the damage that the arsenic determine at the somatic layers level.

  4. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  5. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  6. Gonadal alterations in male eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) exposed to ethinylestradiol and trenbolone separately or in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M; Bjerregaard, Poul; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between 17β-trenbolone (TB) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in relevant environmental concentrations, male eelpout Zoarces viviparus were exposed in a flow-through seawater-system for 21 days to 5 ng l⁻¹ EE2, 5 ng l⁻¹ or 20 ng l⁻¹ TB or to combinations of both compounds. The effects on hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonadal histology were studied. No significant effects on HSI were observed in any treatment; in contrast, decreased GSI was observed in males exposed to EE2 alone or in combination with TB compared to controls (p0.05). This study shows that EE2 dramatically disrupts the spermatogenesis and low doses of 17β-trenbolone are unable to effectively counteract the morphological effects of EE2.

  7. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  8. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  9. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzio, Ana, E-mail: aluzio@utad.pt [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Matos, Manuela [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, BioISI– Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Santos, Dércia [Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A.; Monteiro, Sandra M. [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Apoptosis in females is avoided by anti-apoptotic pathways and in males is essential to the “juvenile ovary” failure. • BIRC5 is central to the regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis. • EE2 did not change sex ratios, but Fadrozole induced masculinization with a significant increase in male proportion. • The few females identified after exposure to Fadrozole may have avoided sex reversal by increasing anti-apoptotic proteins. • EE2 increased the pro-apoptotic genes/proteins in males, promoting gonad differentiation. - Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}, 4 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50 μg/L) from 2 h to 35 days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and −6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the “juvenile ovary” development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved

  10. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Viviana; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Burguillo, Ana; Frigato, Elena; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Piferrer, Francesc; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h) and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h). In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase) and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase) presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish. PMID:27322588

  11. Success and failure assessing gonad maturity in sequentially hermaphroditic fishes: comparisons between macroscopic and microscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibansky, N; Scharf, F S

    2015-10-01

    For two protogynous hermaphrodite fish species, the performance of visual gonad analysis techniques was evaluated to determine when the use of macroscopic methods was sufficient and when microscopic techniques were necessary. Simple macroscopic gonad analysis was found to be a powerful tool for distinguishing sex and whether or not females were spawning capable or ripe for black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 1443) and red porgy Pagrus pagrus (n = 980), often producing results that were in close agreement with more complex and expensive microscopic techniques. Estimates of key reproductive variables, such as size-dependent sex-change ogives, spawning season duration, spawning fraction and batch number, were also very similar or equal between methods. Apparent seasonal spawning activity was also predicted similarly by each method and the patterns were highly correlated with seasonal patterns in gonado-somatic indices. In contrast, distinguishing between immature females and those that were mature, but inactive, proved difficult when using macroscopic methods and, in these cases, predictions often differed from those produced microscopically. In turn, maturity ogives differed significantly between methods for C. striata (maturity ogives could not be generated for P. pagrus as nearly all fish encountered were mature). Agreement rates among male phases were also very low. Macroscopic methods were able to identify signs of sex transition in very advanced specimens, but early signs were only evident microscopically. While much more detail is visible microscopically, here several population-scale parameters important for fisheries management were estimated equally well with the unaided eye for C. striata and P. pagrus. For comprehensive, fishery-independent surveys and long-term research programmes in particular, determining when microscopic techniques are and are not necessary can greatly improve efficiency and reduce costs without compromising data quality.

  12. Effect of gonadal hormones on hypophagic property of opioid antagonist Naloxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargate Ashwini R, Kulkarni Dushant V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that hormonal fluctuations that occur over the estrous cycle in rats affect food intake. It is possible that estrogen affects food intake via Opioid system and other brain areas which are involved in regulation of food intake. Therefore it may affect the sensitivity of female rats to hypophagic effect of Opioid antagonist Naloxone. Testosterone in male rats also changes food intake. However, little is known about hoe these Gonadal hormones interact with Opioid receptors to modulate food intake. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out how Gonadal hormones affect hypophagic property of Naloxone. Methods: Basal food intake of 40 healthy adult females and 20 healthy adult male rats was recorded. Then they were injected intraperitoneally with Naloxone after fasting for 24 hrs. In female rats food intake was measured during different phases of the estrous cycle. All the rats were then subjected to gonadectomy. The food intake was measured after gonadectomy. The effect of Naloxone was also measured in deprivation paradigm after gonadectomy. Results: Female rats showed decreased food intake during proestrous and estrous phases. In female rats there was no hypophagia after Naloxone injection during these phases. Male rats showed hypophagia on Naloxone injection. Male rats showed increased food intake after gonadectomy. In female rats the increase in food intake was not significant when gonadectomy was done during metestrous and diestrous. However, Naloxone could induce hypophagia in all female rats after gonadectomy. Conclusion: Estrogen decreases food intake, it decreases sensitivity of female rats to hypophasic effects of Naloxone. Testosterone decreases food intake. Testosterone does not interfere with hypophagic effect of Naloxone.

  13. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del Valle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc, such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control. Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3 and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1, which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2, as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1. We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5, but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders.

  14. Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a high-prevalence disease, particularly in developed countries, and results in high costs both to the individual and to society through associated fragility fractures. There is an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and development of new anti-osteoporotic agents. Between 30 and 80% of osteoporotic fractures cannot be prevented despite current treatments achieving relative fracture risk reduction of up to 20%, 50%, and 70% for non-vertebral, hip and spine fractures, respectively. Traditionally, the decline in gonadal hormones has been studied as the sole hormonal determinant for the loss of bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, recent studies have identified receptors for numerous non-gonadal hormones such as PTH, angiotensin II, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the osteoblast lineage cells that directly regulate bone turnover. These hormones are also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly hypertension, type-II diabetes and obesity. By activating their respective receptors on osteoblastic lineage cells, these hormones appear to act through a common mechanism by down-regulating receptors for activation of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and up-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) with inverse responses for adiponectin. Receptors for amylin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and ghrelin and have also been identified on the osteoblast lineage cells although the roles of these receptors in bone turnover are controversial or poorly studied. Moreover, bone turnover may be independently regulated by modulation of osteoclast-osteoblast function and bone marrow adiposity. Leptin appears to be the only hormone that is a known regulator of both bone mineralisation and bone adiposity.

  15. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.

  16. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  17. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes.

  18. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-07-18

    Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study among female 5-year HL survivors treated before age 41. Hormone exposure and HL treatment data were collected through medical records and questionnaires for 174 BC case patients and 466 control patients. Radiation dose to breast tumor location was estimated based on RT charts, simulation films, and mammography reports. We observed a linear radiation dose-response curve with an adjusted excess odds ratio (EOR) of 6.1%/Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%-15.4%). Women with menopause <30 years (caused by high-dose procarbazine or pelvic RT) had a lower BC risk (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51) than did women with menopause ≥50 years. BC risk increased by 6.4% per additional year of post-RT intact ovarian function (P<.001). Among women with early menopause (<45 years), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use for ≥2 years did not increase BC risk (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.32-2.32), whereas this risk was nonsignificantly increased among women without early menopause (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 0.97-14.0; P for interaction: .06). Stratification by duration of post-RT intact ovarian function or HRT use did not statistically significantly modify the radiation dose-response curve. BC risk in female HL survivors increases linearly with radiation dose. HRT does not appear to increase BC risk for HL survivors with therapy-induced early menopause. There are no indications that endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect the radiation dose-response relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neither male gonadal androgens nor female reproductive costs drive development of sexual size dimorphism in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates.

  20. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Di Rosa

    Full Text Available Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase and ZT 15:39 h (at night, respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2 was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h. In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish.

  1. Triple X syndrome and puberty: focus on the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Lapi, Elisabetta; Losi, Stefania; Bencini, Erica; Masoni, Fabrizio; Dosa, Laura; Becciani, Sabrina; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. University pediatric hospital. Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9.1 y, range 6.9-11.6 years). None. We evaluated FSH, LH, and E2 levels and performed an autoimmunity screening as well as a pelvic ultrasonography and an LH-releasing hormone stimulation test. All triple X patients (with and without pubertal signs) showed a pubertal LH peak level that was significantly different from controls. Triple X patients showed increased basal and peak FSH and LH values compared with control subjects. However, the mean E2 level was significantly lower than control subjects. However, triple X patients showed reduced DHEAS levels and reduced inhibin levels compared with control subjects. Finally, triple X patients had a significantly reduced ovarian volume compared with control subjects, in both prepubertal and pubertal patients. Triple X patients showed premature activation of the GnRH pulse generator, even without puberty signs. Both basal and peak LH and FSH levels were higher than in control subjects, and E2 and inhibin levels and ovarian volume were reduced, which led to a reduced gonadal function. Other studies and a longitudinal evaluation is necessary to better understand the endocrinologic features of these subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta.

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    Susanne Pribbenow

    Full Text Available Enzyme immunoassays (EIA that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an "in-house" epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1 a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2 no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH injection and (3 significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas.

  3. Fighting and assessment in male cichlid fish: the effects of asymmetries in gonadal state and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neat; Huntingford; Beveridge

    1998-04-01

    In fights between animals over limited resources, the larger contestant often wins. Game theoretical models of animal fighting predict that relative body size is assessed during the fight and thus determines fight duration and intensity. In addition, if the contestants differ in the value they place on the disputed resource, this can also influence the outcome, duration and intensity of the fight. We studied territorial fighting in a cichlid fish, Tilapia zillii, in relation to relative body size and gonad weight. Relative gonad weight was a much stronger predictor of fight outcome than relative body size, even when body weight asymmetries were as large as 30%. This suggested that males with large gonads were fighting harder to defend their territory, perhaps because the value of a territory correlates with the gonadal state of the individual. A detailed analysis of mouth wrestling observed during fighting suggested that relative body size is assessed. However, contestants smaller than their opponent often continued to fight in spite of their size disadvantage. Weight disadvantaged winners appeared to fight more fiercely as suggested by a negative correlation between weight asymmetry and the proportion of bites inflicted by the winner. During escalated fighting, winners and losers differed consistently with regard to a behaviour termed mouth locking. Although neither biting nor persistence in mouth locking was related to gonad weight, we propose that the fish may have been assessing asymmetries unrelated to relative body size and possibly more related to levels of cost and the motivation to persist. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. Gonadal transcriptomic analysis of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): identification of sex-related genes and genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Luan, Peixian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Shuqun; Peng, Lina; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has been recognized as a vital freshwater aquaculture species in East and Southeast Asia. In addition to its commercial interest, it is also attracted much attention because of its value in studying sex-determination mechanisms. A comprehensive gonadal transcriptome analysis is believed to provide a resource for genome annotation, candidate gene identification, and molecular marker development. Herein, we performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish gonad transcriptome by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 82,123 contigs were obtained, ranging from 351 to 21,268 bp, and N50 of 2,329 bp. Unigenes of 21,869 in total were identified. Of these, 229 and 1,188 genes were found to be specifically expressed in XY gonad tissue for 1 yr and 2 yr old yellow catfish, respectively; correspondingly, 51 and 40 genes were identified in XX gonad tissue at those two stages. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were conducted and classified all contigs into different categories. A large number of unigenes involved in sex determination were identified, as well as microsatellites and SNP variants. The expression patterns of sex-related genes were then validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggesting the high reliability of RNA-Seq results. In this study, the transcriptome of yellow catfish gonad was first sequenced, assembled, and characterized; it provides a valuable genomic resource for better understanding of yellow catfish sex determination as well as development of molecular markers, thereby assisting in the production of monosex yellow catfish for aquaculture.

  5. Cyclic variations of gonad development of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata in the lentic and lotic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Al Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted to know the cyclic changes in gonadal maturation and to investigate the developmental stages of oocytes and testicular germ cells of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata. Fish were sampled monthly from lentic and lotic environments of three geographical locations of Bangladesh from December to November and the histological analysis of their gonad was done to evaluate the objectives. The highest mean GSI was 5.95 ± 0.20 for female in July and 0.14 ± 0.01 for male also in July showing that the gonadal development reached its peak during this month. The highest mean oocyte diameter was 1257.50 ± 24.17 μm observed in July implying that the oocyte reached maturity in this month. Histological study of ovary revealed the evidence of early yolk granule stage and late yolk granule stage from April to July. In case of male four stages of spermatogenesis were distinguished and spermatozoa were highly abundant in June and July. So the monthly pooled values of GSI and the analysis of gonadal histology indicated that the peak breeding season of C. striata occurred in July in the lentic and lotic environments. Samples collected from lentic and lotic habitats are suggestive of no difference in the development of the gonad. The results of the present study will be useful for selective breeding programme, conservation and sustainable fishery management of C. striata in its natural habitat.

  6. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  7. Entrevista con Juan Marichal.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Marichal nació en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, en 1922, en el seno de una familia ligada al partido republicano insular. Muy joven, en 1935, se trasladó a Madrid, ciudad en la que vive el estallido de la guerra civil. En 1937, pasa a Valencia y luego a Barcelona; tras su exilio en 1938, prosigue sus estudios secundarios en un liceo de París, concluyéndolos en Casablanca. En 1941 emigra a México, formándose en la UNAM: fue alumno de los exiliados José Gaos y Joaquín Xirau así como del mexicano Edmundo O 'Gorman. Luego, becado en Princeton desde 1946, lo fue de América Castro, donde preparó una tesis sobre Feijoo. Apoyado en las vastas perspectivas de sus maestros, fue orientándose hada nuestra historia intelectual, desde el siglo XV hasta hoy. Su carrera profesional se ha desarrollado en los Estados Unidos (coincidiendo con Amado Alonso y con Ferrater Mora: ha sido profesor de estudios hispánicos en la Universidad de Harvard, desde 1948 hasta 1988, año en que se jubiló voluntariamente como numerario (aunque había permanecido en el Bryn Mawr College, entre 1953 y 1957. A este trabajo se suman, con todo, sus conferencias en América Latina y en España. Ha colaborado en las revistas más importantes, en este campo, de México, Nueva York, Puerto Rico, La Habana, Buenos Aires o París así como de las españolas, desde los sesenta. Juan Marichal -hoy, miembro de la Junta Directiva de los Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, director del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y asociado al Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset-, reside en España desde otoño de 1989: se considera a sí mismo «voluntario en Madrid», como había dicho Alfonso Reyes en su estancia madrileña (1914-1924.

  8. Mirando con la cabeza

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, Capi

    2006-01-01

    Las matemáticas y la pintura trabajan con ideas. La palabra idea viene del griego ειδω, que significa ver, mirar u observar, y de ειδοζ, que significa figura, forma, aspecto o visión. Detrás de una montaña concreta está la idea de montaña, un dibujo abstracto, unas líneas que permiten reconocer la montaña detrás de las rocas, los pinos o la nieve. La diferencia entre este árbol y árbol, entre un círculo que dibujamos en la pizarra y círculo: la diferencia entre la cosa y la idea de la cosa. E...

  9. Musicalizarte con las Tics

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra, Patricia Mabel; Velázquez, Helvecia Mercedes del Rocío; Verón, José María

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo hace referencia a un relato de experiencia didáctica desarrollada en el Instituto Superior de Música “Prof. Carmelo H. de Biasi” de Corrientes- Argentina, donde el área de interés de Tecnología en Educación se dirige hacia “Aplicación de las TIC en Educación/ Experiencias concretas de utilización de TIC en Educación”. En el diagnóstico realizado en la institución, se pudo observar la escasa transversalidad e interrelación con las distintas áreas curriculares como ser: l...

  10. Entrevista con Georges Duby.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Duby, heredero de dos grandes historiadores como Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre, es uno de los más importantes medievalistas europeos. Fue, y sigue siendo, un motor de la importante reforma en la historia producida desde los sesenta. En sus primeros trabajos se acusa la recepción de las ideas económicas y geográficas de la mejor historiografía. Su riguroso estudio sobre la base material de la Edad Media, le permitirá luego irrumpir en la historia de las mentalidades, analizando, como decía Febvre, el utillaje mental (vocabulario, sintaxis, lugares comunes, cuadros lógicos, etc. del Medioevo. Así, el ejemplo de Mauss y LéviStrauss le anima a trabajar sobre el matrimonio, la sexualidad y ciertos sistemas del pensamiento: el primero, con su defensa de los hechos sociales totales, y el segundo, que buscaba las dimensiones simbólicas de lo social, le impulsan a trabajar sobre la ideología entendida no como mero reflejo de la situación material sino como «proyecto de acción sobre lo vivido». A su obra individual, atenta a los impulsos culturales más vivos, se suma su empuje decisivo en la realización de proyectos colectivos como la Historia de la vida privada o la Historia de las mujeres. Prácticamente, han sido traducidos todos sus libros al castellano, y han podido verse en España asimismo varios de sus programas televisivos (ha sido presidente de la SEPT, cadena de televisión cultural fundada en 1985. La amplitud de sus intereses intelectuales, transmitidos en su obra con un lenguaje a la vez muy claro y bellamente elaborado, se hace palpable también en este diálogo.

  11. Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids.

  12. Carotenoids in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: occurrence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the dominant carotenoid in gonad colour determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Rachael C; Kelly, Maeve S; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Young, Andrew J

    2007-12-01

    Regular sampling of wild Paracentrotus lividus was carried out over a 12-month period to examine seasonal effects on the pigment profile and content of the gonads, especially in comparison to gonad colour. The major pigments detected in the gut wall were breakdown products of fucoxanthin, namely fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin A. Lower levels of other dietary carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) together with some carotenoids not found in the diet, namely isozeaxanthin and echinenone ( approximately 20% total carotenoid) were also detected in the gut wall. The presence of echinenone in the gut wall demonstrates that this organ acts as a major site of carotenoid metabolism. Echinenone is the dominant carotenoid in the gonads, accounting for approx. 50-60% of the total pigment. Both all-trans and 9'-cis forms of echinenone were detected in both the gut wall and in the gonad, with levels of the 9'-cis form typically 10-fold greater than the all-trans form in the gonad. The detection of large levels of 9'-cis-echinenone in wild sea urchins is unexpected due to the absence of 9- or 9'-cis forms of carotenoids in the natural, algal, diet. Whilst echinenone clearly contributes towards gonad pigmentation, levels of this carotenoid, cannot be directly linked to a qualitative assessment of gonad colour in terms of market acceptability. Indeed, unacceptable gonad colouration can be seen with both very low and high levels of echinenone and total carotenoid. The presence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the major carotenoid contributing to the pigmentation/colour of the gonad is an important observation in terms of developing artificial diets for urchin cultivation.

  13. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

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    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  14. Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo

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    Juan José Ferrer Narvaez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran interés para la ingeniería colombiana el efecto del refuerzo externo de elementos estructurales con elementos metálicos. La Unidad de Estructuras ha venido realizando en el transcurso de esta década estudios en elementos en concreto con refuerzos externos a flexión con resultados satisfactorios. El proyecto ''Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo" sirve de base en el estudio del comportamiento de este tipo de elementos estructurales y la extrapolación de los resultados obtenidos en elementos de concreto reforzado a concreto preesforzado.

  15. Mechanism of Gonadal Precocity in Cultured Large Yellow Croaker,Pseudosciaena Crocea: A Study of Microstructure and Submicrostructure of Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell in Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yongqiang; Weng Youzhu; Zhou Jing; Xie Fangjing; Liu Jiafu

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure and submicrostructure of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell in the testis of gonadal precocity and immaturation in cultured large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, are studied using histology and electron microscopic technique. The results indicate that the fine structure of the two kinds of cells in different development stages presents an obvious difference. The smooth endoplasmic reticular and tubular mitochondria of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell are well developed in the testis of gonadal precocity, but poorly developed in the testis of immaturation. We suggest that the reason for gonadal precocity in the large yellow croaker may be related to the earlier development and maturation of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell.

  16. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en Milán en 1939, Giovanni Levi, el importante y original historiador italiano, es heredero de una tradición familiar de grandes defensores de la libertad tanto cultural como política. En su práctica investigadora late siempre, de hecho, la memoria de un momento tan crítico de la historia italiana como el final del fascismo. Por añadidura, sus antepasados son judíos del Piamonte. Esta experiencia vital y las luchas sociales de los sesenta han marcado su quehacer como historiador y como estudioso. Levi, reconocido en Italia y asimismo en Europa y América, fue profesor en la Universidad de Turín y luego en la de Viterbo; actualmente es catedrático de Historia económica en Venecia, ejerciendo como profesor visitante en Francia. Su trabajo, muy creativo, aborda aspectos de la historia de la familia, la demografía y la agricultura en los siglos XVII y XVIII, pero su crítica como intelectual comprometido con el dudoso presente desborda su estricto ámbito de estudio.

  17. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis with Turner`s phenotype and mosaic karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarim, O.; Lieber, E. [Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]|[Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A 14 8/12-year-old white female patient was evaluated for short stature and amenorrhea. The past and family history were unremarkable. The physical examination revealed a short girl (131.4 cm; height age: 9) with a weight of 39.5kg (weight age: 11-6/12). The blood pressure was in the normal range in all four extremities and the peripheral pulses were positive. She had stigmata of Turner`s syndrome including short neck and slight webbing, cubitus valgus, and shield chest. There was no heart murmur. The only pubertal sign was pubic hair of Tanner stage II. The chromosome study showed a mosaic pattern. A total of 67 cultured lymphocytes from peripheral blood were analyzed which revealed 13 cells with 45,XO; 14 with 46,XY,r(Y); 39 with 46,XY. The patient had a normal vagina and hypoplastic uterus by sonogram. The diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy and bilateral gonadectomy. The histologic examination of the gonads showed a testicle on the left and a streak ovary on right. The karyotype of the testicular tissue revealed 45,XO in 32 out of 40 and 46,XY in the remaining 8 cells. Pre-operative hormonal evaluation showed elevated gonadotropin levels of FSH 73.5 and LH 12.5 mIU/ml, low estradiol level of 5 pg/ml, normal testosterone level of 18 and DHEA-S of 181 mcg/dl, and normal thyroid function test with T4 of 6 mcg/dl and TSH of 4.2 mIU/ml. Her bone age was 12 years. The patient was also found to have subnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion by overnight GH study (1.55 ng/ml), clonidine stimulation test (7.3ng/ml), and insulin stimulation test (9.2 ng/ml). She responded well to human synthetic GH treatment with a growth velocity of 11.5 cm in two years. Replacement of sex hormones will be initiated after the completion of growth.

  18. Effects Of Treatment With Radioactive Iodine On Gonadal Functions In Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Fard Esfahani A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with radioactive iodine on the function of gonads in males and females with follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Consenting patients in the reproductive age were grouped according to the cumulative dose of received radioiodine and followed for at least 12 months. For all men, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured; some (53 cases were also studied by semen analysis. For women, tests for serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone were performed. Results: Overall, 246 patients (159 females, 87 males were studied. In 87.4% of men, there was an increase in serum FSH level after radioiodine therapy, in 20.7% of whom the level remained high during follow-up period. The average serum level of FSH after each course of treatment was significantly higher than the level before treatment (p<0.01, and there was a meaningful correlation with the cumulative dose of received iodine (p<0.001. Reduced number of sperms was shown in 35.8% of male patients, among whom 73.7% also showed reduced motility. In 36.8% of the patients with reduced sperm number (13.2% of the total, this finding was persistent during the follow-up period. Increased level of FSH was correlated with reduced sperm counts in all doses (pgonadal-hypophyseal hormones and treatment with radioactive iodine was found, and there were no signs and symptoms of sexual dysfunction. Infertility was not noticed in any patient and no case of abortion was found. Conclusion: It seems that cells in spermatogonia lineage (in contrast to Leydig cells are radiosensitive, with the sensitivity related to the cumulative dose of received radioactive iodine. But in the oogonia cell line, the radiosensitivity is

  19. Entrevista con Alberto Tenenti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran especialista en historia moderna, Alberto Tenenti nació en Viareggio, en 1924. Tras realizar estudios superiores en Italia, trabajó en el Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique varios años, asesorado por Lucien Febvre. Ha dirigido el Archivo del Estado de Brescia; y, más tarde, ha enseñado en París, desde una cátedra en la École Pratique des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (VI Sección, alIado de Braudel. Su Il senso della morte e l'amore della vita nel Rinascimento, de 1957, es una obra maestra sobre los orígenes de la sensibilidad moderna: sin olvidar el naciente vitalismo, estudia el desarrollo de dos motivos, el del ars moriendi, que tiene su evolución propia desde 1350 hasta su difusión impresa, y el de lo macabro, que refleja la crisis de conciencia del siglo XV y adquiere «unas dimensiones desconocidas y verdaderamente anormales». En este libro sobre un problema clave como la muerte, apela de modo notable a la iconografía: Tenenti ha recordado que la cultura tradicional, eclesiástica sobre todo, percibió un mayor peligro en la capacidad de reflexión autónoma y de crítica de los hombres de letras, que en las renovaciones radicales de los artistas. Numerosos trabajos de conjunto realizados por él han perseguido una historia global: Los fundamentos del mundo moderno; Florencia en la época de los Medicis; La formación del mundo moderno; El Renacimiento; el primero de ellos estaba firmado con un historiador de su misma generación, R. Romano, estudioso de las relaciones comerciales en la época moderna en Europa y en la América española. Tenenti ha publicado monografías (Venezia e i corsari, 1961, colecciones de artículos (Credence, ideologie, libertinismi tra medioevo ed eta moderna, 1978; Stato: un'idea, una logica. Dal comune italiano all'assolutismo francese, 1987 y editado a clásicos como Il libri della famiglia de L. B. Alberti, 1969. Es también especialista en temas económicos, como el del

  20. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  1. Violencia con el anciano

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    Rita Campillo Motilva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica es tan antigua como la humanidad misma y se reconocen la violencia infantil, contra la mujer y al anciano, fundamentalmente; siendo este último grupo una población en ascenso por las mayores expectativas de vida de los últimos años. Como resultado de ello, el número de casos de abuso en el anciano se incrementará y el impacto de este abuso sobre la salud debe ser considerado de forma adecuada. La gama de maltratos es variadísima e incluye el abuso físico, emocional, financiero, sexual, por negligencia, negación a brindarle ayuda y otras formas más. Los ancianos con deterioro cognitivo son los más vulnerables. El médico en la atención primaria de salud es un pilar importante en la prevención y educación de este problema.Domestic violence is as old as humanity itself. Child, women and elderly abuse are mainly recognized. The elderly group is increasing due to the higher life expectancy experimented during the last years. As a result, the number of battered elderly will grow and the impact of this abuse on health should be adequately considered. The range of abuse is very wide and it includes physical, emotional, financial and sexual abuse, negligence, rejection to give assistance and others. The elderly with cognitive deterioration are the most vulnerable. The physician at the primary health care level is an important milestone in the prevention and education of this problem.

  2. Entrevista con Bernard Vincent.

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    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en París (1941, Bernard Vincent es un historiador de renombre en Europa y América del Sur. Consiguió su agregación universitaria en 1966, y desde sus inicios se centró en la Historia Moderna, particularmente en grupos marginales de la España de los siglos XVI-XVII. Ha residido en nuestro país muchos años. Vincent fue miembro de la sección científica de la Casa de Velázquez inicialmente (1968-1971, algo más tarde director de estudios (1977-1978, y a continuación secretario general (1978-1982 de dicha institución. Asimismo ha encabezado el programa de cooperación francoespañol en ciencias sociales (1993-1996. Por otra parte, ha enseñado en la Universidad de París VII, en varias etapas de su vida; pero, sobre todo, ha pertenecido siempre a centros superiores de investigación: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (1976-1978, y a la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, en donde ha sido director de estudios desde 1988 –era doctor de Estado ya en 1986–, y luego responsable de la Sección de Historia, desde 1996 hasta hoy. Sus colaboraciones con las universidades y centros investigadores españoles han sido constantes hasta el presente. Por añadidura, ha sido miembro del Consejo Nacional de las Universidades en Francia, en lo relativo a la historia moderna y contemporánea (1987-1988, 1992-1995, y es desde hace años miembro de la madrileña Academia de la Historia.

  3. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  4. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  5. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  6. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  7. Long term follow-up of a child with ambiguous genitalia, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and unusual mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Vlady; De Luca, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a condition of abnormal and asymmetrical gonadal development. This disorder is typically associated with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; however, other karyotypes have been rarely reported. The phenotype characterizing MGD is highly variable, although in most cases ambiguous genitalia are found. In addition, many individuals with MGD exhibit stigmata of Turner's syndrome. We describe a patient with MGD, found to have a 45,X/47,XYY karyotype, with the majority of the cell lines being 47,XYY. To our knowledge, our report is the first to describe the long-term follow-up of a patient with ambiguous genitalia diagnosed at birth with 45,X/47,XYY mosaicism.

  8. Coexistence of a choriocarcinoma and a gonadoblastoma in the gonad of a 46,XY female: a single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu Bergeron, Mélanie; Soglio, Dorothée Bouron-Dal; Maietta, Antonio; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Blumenkrantz, Miriam; Brochu, Pierre; Lemieux, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Females with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis are at significant risk of developing germ cell tumors, mostly gonadoblastomas. We present here the case of 2 half-sisters, sharing the same father, diagnosed with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis. The 1st sister developed a gonadoblastoma and an invasive dysgerminoma, whereas the 2nd sister developed a gonadoblastoma and an invasive choriocarcinoma within the same gonad. No SRY mutation, chromosome abnormalities, or mosaicism were detected in blood. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiling of the choriocarcinoma revealed a complex hyperdiploid pattern with gains of 1 to 4 copies of material from several autosomes, as well as the loss of the Y chromosome and a homozygous SNP profile without copy number change for the X chromosome. Our results are in agreement with the recurrent chromosome gains and losses previously published in germ cell tumors, and the coexistence of both tumors within the same gonad suggests that choriocarcinomas may derive from gonadoblastomas.

  9. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Zou, Jianmin; Wang, Kehua; Su, Yijun; Zhu, Yunfen; Song, Chi; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Liu, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Onset of the rapid gonad growth is a milestone in sexual development that comprises many genes and regulatory factors. The observations in model organisms and mammals including humans have shown a potential link between miRNAs and development timing. To determine whether miRNAs play roles in this process in the chicken (Gallus gallus), the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the profiles of miRNA expression in the hypothalamus of hens from two different pubertal stages, before onset of the rapid gonad development (BO) and after onset of the rapid gonad development (AO). 374 conserved and 46 novel miRNAs were identified as hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. 144 conserved miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P 4.0, P rapid development of chicken gonads. Considering the characteristics of miRNA functional conservation, the results will contribute to the research on puberty onset in humans.

  10. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs.

  11. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  12. A time-course analysis of effects of the steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnows (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  13. Wolbachia gonadal density in female and male Drosophila vary with laboratory adaptation and respond differently to physiological and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Claudia C; Ballard, J William O

    2012-11-01

    In symbiotic associations such as those between Wolbachia and insects, the within-host symbiont density plays an important role in the maintenance of the infection in natural populations, as it relates to transmission fidelity and pathogenicity of the symbiont. Within-host density is speculated to be the result of complex interactions between the bacterial genotype, the host genotype and the environment, which may account for the substantial variation in Wolbachia titres among wild collected individuals compared to laboratory lines. Using quantitative PCR, we screened the Wolbachia gonadal density of individuals from 50 isofemale Drosophila simulans lines raised in standard conditions for at least two generations after collection from the wild. Although these newly collected lines displayed significant variation of ovarian Wolbachia titres, such variation was lost by F(19). Assaying these flies at different ages and under different environmental conditions indicated that symbiont titres in female gonads were not affected by the conditions tested. However, Wolbachia density in male gonads was consistently affected by these treatments in a line-specific way. We propose that the differences in Wolbachia densities among ovaries of F(4) flies are the consequence of large differences in the field-collected females caused by the variable environment, and carried over for at least four generations. In addition, we provide evidence of sex-specific dynamics of Wolbachia in gonads of females and males. In combination, our results support the view of sex-specific Wolbachia evolutionary interactions for males and females, which has been predicted by theory and observed experimentally.

  14. Expression of prostaglandin E₂ receptor subtypes in the canine lower urinary tract varies according to the gonadal status and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Khalid, M

    2010-11-01

    Locally-synthesised prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is pivotal for the function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). This study aimed at investigating the expression and distribution pattern of the four PGE₂ receptor (EP) subtypes in the LUT of intact and gonadectomised male and female dogs. Expression for EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and their mRNA (EP2, EP3, and EP4) was investigated. Twenty clinically healthy dogs were allotted into 4 groups based on their gonadal status and gender including 5 intact males, 5 anoestrous females, 4 castrated males, and 6 spayed females. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed variation in the expression of mRNA and protein for the EP subtypes among tissue layers (epithelium, sub-epithelial stroma, and muscle), regions (body and neck of the bladder as well as proximal and distal urethra) and between gonadal statuses and genders. The expression for the four EPs was intense in the luminal epithelium, intermediate to low in the muscle and the sub-epithelial stroma regardless of gonadal status or gender. Higher expression of all EPs and their mRNAs was observed in the proximal urethra compared to other regions in intact dogs. However, in gonadectomised dogs, the expression did not differ among different regions and was generally lower than in intact dogs particularly in the proximal urethra. Differences in the expression between genders were found and depended on EP subtypes. In conclusion, the results have shown that four subtypes of EP receptors and their mRNAs are present in the canine LUT and their expression was affected by the gonadal status and the gender. The results lead to suggest that an impaired LUT function post-neutering may partly be associated with differences in PGE₂ receptor expression between intact and gonadectomised dogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural changes and programmed cell death of trophocytes in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the fates of the trophocytes, the apoptosis and autophagy in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer have been described using transmission electron microscope, light and fluorescent microscopes. The results presented here are the first that are connected with the cell death of nurse cells in the gonad of tardigrades. However, here we complete the results presented by Węglarska (1987). The reproductive system of I. g. granulifer contains a single sack-like hermaphroditic gonad and a single gonoduct. The gonad is composed of three parts: a germarium filled with proliferating germ cells (oogonia); a vitellarium that has clusters of female germ cells (the region of oocytes development); and a male part filled with male germ cells in which the sperm cells develop. The trophocytes (nurse cells) show distinct alterations during all of the stages of oogenesis: previtello-, vitello- and choriogenesis. During previtellogenesis the female germ cells situated in the vitellarium are connected by cytoplasmic bridges, and form clusters of cells. No ultrastructural differences appear among the germ cells in a cluster during this stage of oogenesis. In early vitellogenesis, the cells in each cluster start to grow and numerous organelles gradually accumulate in their cytoplasm. However, at the beginning of the middle of vitellogenesis, one cell in each cluster starts to grow in order to differentiate into oocyte, while the remaining cells are trophocytes. Eventually, the cytoplasmic bridges between the oocyte and trophocytes disappear. Autophagosomes also appear in the cytoplasm of nurse cells together with many degenerating organelles. The cytoplasm starts to shrink, which causes the degeneration of the cytoplasmic bridges between trophocytes. Apoptosis begins when the cytoplasm of these cells is full of autophagosomes/autolysosomes and causes their death.

  16. Loss of DNase II function in the gonad is associated with a higher expression of antimicrobial genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Chen, Chang-Shi; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-08-15

    Three waves of apoptosis shape the development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the exact roles of the three DNase II genes (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), which are known to mediate degradation of apoptotic DNA, in the embryonic and larval phases of apoptosis have been characterized, the DNase II acting in the third wave of germ cell apoptosis remains undetermined. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo assays on various mutant nematodes to demonstrate that NUC-1 and CRN-7, but not CRN-6, function in germ cell apoptosis. In addition, in situ DNA-break detection and anti-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) staining illustrated the sequential and spatially regulated actions of NUC-1 and CRN-7, at the pachytene zone of the gonad and at the loop respectively. In line with the notion that UV-induced DNA fragment accumulation in the gonad activates innate immunity responses, we also found that loss of NUC-1 and CRN-7 lead to up-regulation of antimicrobial genes (abf-2, spp-1, nlp-29, cnc-2, and lys-7). Our observations suggest that an incomplete digestion of DNA fragments resulting from the absence of NUC-1 or CRN-7 in the gonad could induce the ERK signalling, consequently activating antimicrobial gene expression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that nuc-1 and crn-7 play a role in degrading apoptotic DNA in distinct sites of the gonad, and act as negative regulators of innate immunity in C. elegans.

  17. Correlation between endoscopic sex determination and gonad histology in pond sliders, Trachemys scripta (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Coelioscopy has been proven to be a valuable technique to determine the sex of juvenile chelonians. However, there is a disagreement regarding the proper way to identify testes and ovaries, which is a direct consequence of the lack of studies correlating the results of endoscopic examination with the histology of the gonad. In this blinded study we assessed two methods of sex determination in juvenile pond sliders (Trachemys scripta) using endoscopy: via coelioscopy, with visualization of the...

  18. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  19. Troponin I controls ovulatory contraction of non-striated actomyosin networks in the C. elegans somatic gonad

    OpenAIRE

    Obinata, Takashi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The myoepithelial sheath of the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad has non-striated actomyosin networks that provide contractile forces during ovulation, a process in which a mature oocyte is expelled from the ovary. Troponin T and troponin C are known regulators of contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. These are two of the three components of the troponin complex that is generally considered as a striated-muscle-specific regulator of actomyosin contraction. Here, we report identificatio...

  20. Gonad Histology and Spawning Pattern of the White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) from İskenderun Bay (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Mahmut Ali; CENGİZLER, İbrahim; ÖZAK, A. Argun

    2014-01-01

    The gonad histology and spawning pattern of the white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) were determined from fish sampled from commercial catches. Histological, microscopic and macroscopic techniques were used to examine the ovaries of E. aeneus. A six stage maturity scale based on morphology was proposed to classify ovarian development. The results showed that the white grouper has an asynchronous mode of ovarian development, and the histological study of oocyte development in the white grouper i...

  1. Comparative study of gonadal development of Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve and Ruditapes decussatus (L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Influence of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Delgado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were used to study the influence of temperature on the reproductive behaviour of two species of clam, Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum, during their adaptation to the temperature conditions of Galician coastal waters. In both species the rate of gonadal development was directly related to the increase in temperature. At 14°C the reproductive behaviour was similar, both species needing over 2 months to mature. At 18°C, the rate of gonadal development of R. philippinarum was greater than that of R. decussatus. Nevertheless, the results of this study confirm that both species have adapted perfectly to the temperature conditions of the Galician Rias, though certain differences between the reproductive behaviour of these species were detected. R. philippinarum accumulates oocytes prior to their partial or total emission, while in the case of R. decussatus gametes are liberated continuously. In the early phases of its development, the gonad of R. philippinarum is highly heterogeneous in nature, with up to 3 reproductive states being present at the same time, while in R. decussatus gonadal development is much more uniform. Another major difference concerns the phenomenon of reabsorption, common in R. philippinarum but very rare in R. decussatus. These characteristics may well result in a greater reproductive activity in R. philippinarum than in R. decussatus, and a longer reproduction period in the former. They may also represent a certain advantage for the adaptation of the foreign species (R. philippinarum over the native species (R. decussatus to the temperature conditions of the Galician Rias.

  2. Bone mineral density and turnover in patients with acromegaly in relation to sex, disease activity, and gonadal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek; Medraś, Marek; Zadrozna-Sliwka, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion. GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert anabolic activity in bones. Nevertheless, bone mineral density (BMD) loss is not uncommon in patients with acromegaly. It is assumed to be due to hypogonadism associated with the acromegaly. The aim of the study was to examine BMD at various skeletal sites and bone turnover and to assess the influence of impaired gonadal function and disease activity on BMD and turnover changes in acromegaly. A total of 62 patients were studied (40 women, 22 men). Among the women, 22 had active disease and 18 were cured; 16 women had normal gonadal function, and 24 were hypogonadal. Altogether, 12 men presented with active acromegaly, and 10 were cured; normal gonadal function was found in 10 men, and hypogonadism was diagnosed in 12 men. Controls were 30 healthy subjects. Densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm, and total body was carried out. Bone turnover was studied based on serum osteocalcin, C-terminal collagen type 1 crosslinks, and bone alkaline phosphatase concentration. A disadvantageous effect of acromegaly on bone density was associated with hypogonadism in the distal radius (in women), the proximal femur (in men), and the total body (both sexes). An anabolic effect of GH during active acromegaly was present in the proximal femur only in men. We confirmed increased bone turnover in the presence of acromegaly, and these changes were similar regarding the activity of the disease and the gonadal status.

  3. Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...

  4. Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...

  5. Maintenance of spermatogenesis requires TAF4b, a gonad-specific subunit of TFIID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falender, Allison E; Freiman, Richard N; Geles, Kenneth G; Lo, Kirk C; Hwang, KeumSil; Lamb, Dolores J; Morris, Patricia L; Tjian, Robert; Richards, JoAnne S

    2005-04-01

    The establishment and maintenance of spermatogenesis in mammals requires specialized networks of gene expression programs in the testis. The gonad-specific TAF4b component of TFIID (formerly TAF(II)105) is a transcriptional regulator enriched in the mouse testis. Herein we show that TAF4b is required for maintenance of spermatogenesis in the mouse. While young Taf4b-null males are initially fertile, Taf4b-null males become infertile by 3 mo of age and eventually exhibit seminiferous tubules devoid of germ cells. At birth, testes of Taf4b-null males appear histologically normal; however, at post-natal day 3 gonocyte proliferation is impaired and expression of spermatogonial stem cell markers c-Ret, Plzf, and Stra8 is reduced. Together, these data indicate that TAF4b is required for the precise expression of gene products essential for germ cell proliferation and suggest that TAF4b may be required for the regulation of spermatogonial stem cell specification and proliferation that is obligatory for normal spermatogenic maintenance in the adult.

  6. On gonadic maturation and reproductive strategy in deep-sea benthic octopus Graneledone macrotyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ángel; Sieiro, María Pilar; Roura, Álvaro; Portela, Julio M.; del Río, José Luís

    2013-09-01

    The new information reported in this paper is based on five maturing and mature females of the large-tuberculate octopus Graneledone macrotyla. These specimens were caught in bottom trawl surveys ATLANTIS 2009 (February 24 to April 1, 2009) and ATLANTIS 2010 (March 9 to April 5, 2010) carried out off the Argentinean Economic Exclusive Zone. Capture depth ranged from 475 to 921 m and sea bottom temperature between 2.8 and 3.1 °C. Development of the complex ovary, oviducts, and oviducal glands during gonadic maturation is described. The absence of spermathecae in the oviducal glands and the presence of fertilized eggs inside the ovary suggested that fertilization took place within the ovary. Histological techniques showed the presence of four types of oocytes. Maturing oocyte size-frequency distribution was polymodal. Fluorescence reaction showed that atresia occurred in both early and later oocyte maturation stages. Atresia affected 48-55 % of the initial number of oocytes. The maximum observed potential fecundity was estimated at 250-300 eggs. G. macrotyla showed a group-synchronous ovulation pattern, regulative atresia, and a batching spawning pattern with a few egg batches spawned intermittently over an extended period of spawning.

  7. Effects of Cypermethrin on Sexual Behaviour and Plasma Concentrations of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Solati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are commonly used as insecticides for both household and agriculturalapplications, and have recently been linked to endocrine disruption. Cypermethrin is a type Пpyrethroid which is used widely throughout the world. The present study was aimed to investigatethe effects of cypermethrin on the sexual behaviour and plasma level of pituitary-gonadal hormonesof adult male mice.Materials and Methods: Research methodology comprised injecting mice daily with cypermethrin(10, 15, 20 mg/kg i.p. or DMSO (0.2 ml for five weeks. Receptive female mice were used totest male sexual behaviors (sniffing, following, mounting, and coupling. Plasma concentrationsof testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH were measuredafter five weeks treatment using the ELISA method.Results: The results of the present study showed that cypermethrin-treated groups exhibited reducedsexual behavior when compared with the control group. Assay results demonstrate significantlyreduced serum testosterone levels (p<0.05 versus the control group, whereas FSH and LH valuesincreased significantly.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that cypermethrin reduces plasma testosterone concentrationsand thus is able to disrupt sexual behaviours.

  8. A new relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide identified in the starfish Asterias amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Daiya, Misaki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-10-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Asterina pectinifera was the first invertebrate gonadotropin to have its chemical structure identified. However, it is unclear whether gonadotropic hormones in other species starfish are relaxin-like peptides. Thus, this study tried to identify the molecular structure of gonadotropic hormone in Asterias amurensis. As a result, we identified A. amurensis gonadotropic hormone as the RGP (AamRGP). The DNA sequence encoding AamRGP consisted of 330 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 109 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26 aa), B-chain (20 aa), C-peptide (38 aa) and A-chain (25 aa). Comparing with A. pectinifera RGP (ApeRGP), the amino acid identity levels between AmaRGP and ApeRGP were 58% for the A-chain and 73% for the B-chain. Furthermore, chemical synthetic AamRGP induced gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. amurensis. In contrast, the ovary of A. pectinifera failed to respond to the AamRGP. This suggested that AamRGP is a new relaxin-like peptide.

  9. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically.

  10. Serum gonadotropins and gonadal steroids associated with ovulation and egg production in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbels, T; Owens, D W; Licht, P; Limpus, C; Reed, P C; Amoss, M S

    1992-07-01

    Changes in serum concentrations of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids during the periovulatory period were monitored in green, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead, Caretta caretta, sea turtles. Turtles were from natural populations that nest on a coral island on the Great Barrier Reef. After nesting, each turtle was transferred to a holding tank and held for a maximum of 8 days. A time series of blood samples was obtained from each of five sea turtles (three C. mydas and two C. caretta) starting immediately after nesting and then at approximately 12-hr intervals until the time of release. Prior to release back into the ocean, each turtle was examined by laparoscopy to verify that ovulation had occurred. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (PRO), and testosterone (T) in both species exhibited significant changes during this period. Surges of FSH, LH, and PRO were evident within approximately 20 to 50 hr after each turtle had nested. The significant change in FSH concentration during the periovulatory period is the first such report for a reptile. Coincident with maximal concentrations of FSH, LH, and PRO was a decline in T concentrations in both species. Estradiol-17 beta concentrations were near or below assay sensitivity in the C. mydas, whereas those in the C. caretta were detectable but exhibited no significant changes. The dynamic changes in FSH, LH, PRO, and T concentrations are consistent with the hypothesis that these hormones facilitate specific physiological events during ovulation and egg production.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI of myelination in the rat brain following treatment with gonadal hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Roberts, T. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Prayer, L. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Kucharczyk, J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Moseley, M. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Arieff, A. [Department of Medicine, Geriatrics Section, Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center and University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI to show maturation of white-matter structures in the developing rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the rate of this development. Starting from their second postnatal day, 16 rat-pups of either sex were repeatedly treated with subcutaneous implants containing 17-beta estradiol or delta-androstene 3,17 dione, respectively. Serial T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI was performed weekly for 8 weeks using a 4.7 T unit. Maturation of anterior optic pathways and hemisphere commissures was assessed. Diffusion-weighted images were processed to produce ``anisotropy index maps``, previously shown to be sensitive to white-matter maturation. Compared with untreated rat-pups, estrogen-treated animals showed accelerated, and testosterone-treated animals delayed maturation on anisotropy index maps and histological sections. In all animals, maturational changes appeared earlie on anisotropy index maps than on other MRI sequences or on myelin-sensitive stained sections. Diffusion-weighted imaging, and the construction of spatial maps sensitive to diffusion anisotropy, seem to be the most sensitive approach for the detection of maturational white-matter changes, and thus may hold potential for early diagnosis of temporary delay or permanent disturbances of white-matter development. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Lymphocytes and the Dap12 adaptor are key regulators of osteoclast activation associated with gonadal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Anginot

    Full Text Available Bone resorption by osteoclasts is necessary to maintain bone homeostasis. Osteoclast differentiation from hematopoietic progenitors and their activation depend on M-CSF and RANKL, but also requires co-stimulatory signals acting through receptors associated with DAP12 and FcRgamma adaptors. Dap12 mutant mice (KDelta75 are osteopetrotic due to inactive osteoclasts but, surprisingly, these mice are more sensitive than WT mice to bone loss following an ovariectomy. Because estrogen withdrawal is known to disturb bone mass, at least in part, through lymphocyte interaction, we looked at the role of mature lymphocytes on osteoclastogenesis and bone mass in the absence of functional DAP12. Lymphocytes were found to stimulate an early osteoclast differentiation response from Dap12-deficient progenitors in vitro. In vivo, Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes did not exhibit any bone phenotype, but lost their bone mass after ovariectomy like KDelta75 mice. KDelta75;Rag1-/- double mutant female mice exhibited a more severe osteopetrosis than Dap12-deficient animals but lost their bone mass after ovariectomy, like single mutants. These results suggest that both DAP12 and mature lymphocytes act synergistically to maintain bone mass under physiological conditions, while playing similar but not synergistic co-stimulatory roles in protecting bone loss after gonadal failure. Thus, our data support a role for lymphocytes during osteoclast differentiation and suggest that they may function as accessory cells when regular osteoclast function is compromised.

  13. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Johari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor solution was prepared in olive oil at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg doses, and 0.2 cc injections were done intraperitoneally every day for 2 weeks. The control group received no injection. The sham group received olive oil (as solvent of camphor and treatment groups of 1, 2, and 3 received doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. The treatment groups were sacrificed one day after the last injection, and their hearts were dissected and blood samples were obtained. The concentrations of the hormones were measured by the ELISA test, and the results were evaluated via the t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan.   Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of testosterone and progesterone (p value < 0.05 and a significant increase in the concentrations of LH and FSH (p value <0.05.   Conclusion: Camphor augmented oogenesis via effecting a rise in the concentrations of LH and FSH in our rats.

  14. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  15. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma, E-mail: dalma@stthomas.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); University of St. Thomas, 2115 Summit Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Wang Ronglin [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Villeneuve, Daniel L. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Bencic, David C.; Lazorchak, Jim [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research Division, 26W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Ankley, Gerald T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96 h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4 x 44 K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals.

  16. Atrazine Exposure and Reproductive Dysfunction through the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Wirbisky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are exogenous agents that alter endogenous hormone signaling pathways. These chemicals target the neuroendocrine system which is composed of organs throughout the body that work alongside the central nervous system to regulate biological processes. Of primary importance is the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is vital for maintaining proper reproductive function. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine is a pre-emergent herbicide used to prevent the growth of weeds on various crops. This herbicide is reported to widely contaminate potable water supplies everywhere it is applied. As such, the European Union banned the use of atrazine in 2004. Currently the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates atrazine at 3 parts per billion (ppb; μg/L in drinking water, while the World Health Organization recently changed their drinking water guideline to 100 ppb. Atrazine is implicated to be an EDC that alters reproductive dysfunction by targeting the HPG axis. However, questions remain as to the human health risks associated with atrazine exposure with studies reporting mixed results on the ability of atrazine to alter the HPG axis. In this review, the current findings for atrazine’s effects on the HPG axis are examined in mammalian, anuran, and fish models and in epidemiological studies.

  17. Haemoglobin polymorphism in Gadus morhua: Genotypic differences in maturing age and within-season gonad maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, J.; Giskeödegård, R.; Sundnes, G.

    1983-09-01

    276 specimens of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) were caught during spawning in a restricted area of the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, in April and May 1979. Genotypes at the polymorphic haemoglobin locus Hbl differed significantly with respect to mean age at maturation (in males) and mean gonadic development stage (in females). There was no indication of population mixing in the genotypic composition at Hbl or at any of the 4 polymorphic tissue enzyme loci investigated ( LDH-3, IDH-1, PGM, and PGI-1. The findings obtained were considered with regard to temperature-related differences in the functional properties of Hbl molecules, and genotypic differences in growth, age at maturation, and fishing mortality. At the present stage of investigation, the natural selection pattern seems directional and strong. However, the Hbl allele frequencies observed in cod from the examined areas reveal no detectable changes over a period of two decades (˜ 4 generations). The current pattern of commercial exploitation causes, through size selection, a modification of the rate of erosion of the inferior allele, but additional factors must be in force, which play a role in its current abundance in an evolutionary perspective. The observed Hbl genotypic differences in the exact within-season time for spawning might be one such factor. A potential sexual difference in genotypic fitness might be another, but this has yet to be confirmed. The apparent existence of considerable natural and artificial selection forces acting upon cod haemoglobin genotypes makes Hbl allele frequencies unreliable for use in population structure analyses.

  18. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  19. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis.

  20. The Petroselinum crispum L. hydroalcoholic extract effects on pituitary- gonad axis in adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bastampoor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility is one of the major issues in medical science which various chemical and herbal medicines have been used for its treatment from ancient times. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and with regard to the cause of infertility in men is a hormonal disorder, thus, the study aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts of parsley leaves performed on serum levels of pituitary - gonadal hormones. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on fifty adult male rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 10 specimens, including controls, and three sets of empirical receiving doses 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg ethanol extract of parsley leaves respectively. Prescriptions were done as gavage for 28 days. At the end of the test, the hearts of the animal and the serum hormones levels of testosterone, FSH and LH were measured. The Data were analyzed with t-test and Duncan and significant differences of data was considered at p = 0.05. Results: The findings revealed that the leaf extract of parsley caused a significant increase in FSH and LH and testosterone significantly increased at minimum and medium doses and decreased significantly in maximum dose. Conclusion: Parsley leaf , having antioxidant compounds, led to the increasing of FSH and LH hormones at three doses and increasing testosterone at minimum and medium doses and decreasing at maximum dose.

  1. Atrazine Exposure and Reproductive Dysfunction through the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are exogenous agents that alter endogenous hormone signaling pathways. These chemicals target the neuroendocrine system which is composed of organs throughout the body that work alongside the central nervous system to regulate biological processes. Of primary importance is the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is vital for maintaining proper reproductive function. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a pre-emergent herbicide used to prevent the growth of weeds on various crops. This herbicide is reported to widely contaminate potable water supplies everywhere it is applied. As such, the European Union banned the use of atrazine in 2004. Currently the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates atrazine at 3 parts per billion (ppb; μg/L) in drinking water, while the World Health Organization recently changed their drinking water guideline to 100 ppb. Atrazine is implicated to be an EDC that alters reproductive dysfunction by targeting the HPG axis. However, questions remain as to the human health risks associated with atrazine exposure with studies reporting mixed results on the ability of atrazine to alter the HPG axis. In this review, the current findings for atrazine’s effects on the HPG axis are examined in mammalian, anuran, and fish models and in epidemiological studies. PMID:28713818

  2. Proteomics analysis of Xenopus laevis gonad tissue following chronic exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Jiamei; Zhu, Haojun; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant in ground and surface water. Previous studies have shown that atrazine is an endocrine disruptor owing to its adverse effects on the male reproductive system in several vertebrates, but very few molecular mechanisms for these effects have been revealed. In the present study, Xenopus laevis were exposed to 100 ppb of atrazine for 120 d, and then the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique was used to detect global changes in protein profiles of the testes and ovaries. The results showed that 100 ppb of atrazine exposure adversely affected the growth of X. laevis and did not induce hermaphroditism but delayed or prevented the development of male seminiferous tubules. Proteomic analysis showed that atrazine altered expression of 143 and 121 proteins in the testes and ovaries, respectively, and most of them are involved in cellular and metabolic processes and biological regulation based on their biological processes. In addition, apoptosis, tight junctions, and metabolic pathways were significantly altered in the atrazine-treated gonads. Based on the above results, it is postulated that the reproductive toxicity of atrazine may be the result of disruption of tight junctions and metabolic signaling pathways and/or induction of apoptosis in germ cells. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Pivonello, Rosario; Di Somma, Carolina; Rossi, Riccardo; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Camera, Luigi; Klain, Michele; Salvatore, Marco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2006-05-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol (F) excess on bone mass and vertebral fractures have still not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to investigate factors influencing bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in different conditions of F excess, i.e. Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion. The groups had similar age. At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs. When comparing the groups with different etiology of F excess, the patients with ectopic ACTH secretion had higher F and lower BMD values than the other subgroups. Morning F (P = 0.03) and testosterone levels (P = 0.04) correlated with lumbar BMD. Vertebral fractures were found in 61 (76%) of the patients, were multiple in 52 (85%) of the cases, and clinically evident in 32 (52%). Only multiple fractures were more frequent in patients with ectopic ACTH hypersecretion (P gonadal status in women.

  4. Influence of gonadal hormones on the behavioral effects of intermittent hypoxia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Magalang, Ulysses J; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-03-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in cyclic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep in affected individuals. OSA occurs more frequently in postmenopausal than premenopausal women and the severity of OSA increases after menopause. Gonadal hormones can influence brain and behavior; testosterone and estrogens in particular can enhance spatial learning and memory. We hypothesized that estrogens may protect mice from IH-induced hippocampal morphological and behavioral changes. To test this hypothesis we exposed intact or gonadectomized male and female mice to room air or IH [15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2) nadir of 5%] for a total of 30 days. During the final 4 days of IH, mice were tested for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. After cessation of IH exposure mice were tested on the Barnes maze and passive avoidance tests to assess learning and memory. Ovariectomy paired with IH treatment, impaired spatial learning and memory compared to all other female groups. Intact male mice receiving IH treatment also had impaired learning and memory compared with intact or castrated male mice exposed to room air. Learning and memory changes were mirrored by changes in basilar dendritic length of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. These data suggest that estrogens provide protection against IH-induced deficits, whereas androgens partially exacerbate IH-induced deficits on learning and memory.

  5. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography finding of left gonadal vein thrombosis in a case of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravishankar, Uma; Natarajan, Savita; Vohra, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tumor thrombus from renal cell carcinoma is commonly reported in renal vein and inferior vena cava with a few reports of gonadal vein involvement. Here, we report a case of an elderly female who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan for initial staging of left renal cell carcinoma. Along with an FDG avid left renal mass lesion, scan also revealed FDG avid tumor thrombus in the entire length of the left gonadal vein.

  6. Ovarian structure protein 1: A sensitive molecular biomarker of gonadal intersex in female Japanese medaka after androgen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Hatef, Azadeh; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2015-09-01

    Intersex in gonochoristic fish can be induced after exposure to androgens and estrogens. The main objective of the present study was to identify biomarkers that would be predictive of intersex in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) after exposure to synthetic hormones. First a gene was identified, ovarian structure protein 1 (osp1), with strong female-specific expression during gonadal differentiation. The authors hypothesized that osp1 expression would decrease to male levels in females after the exposure of larvae (15-25 d postfertilization [dpf]) to 17β-trenbolone (TRB; 5 ng/L) and would increase to female levels in males exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 5 ng/L) and that gonadal intersex would be induced later in life (60 dpf). Tissue distribution and cellular localization of OSP1 was investigated using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that this exposure regime delays testicular maturation in males and development of ovarian intersex in females. Although decreased osp1 expression in females exposed to TRB correlated to changes in ovarian phenotype, up-regulation of osp1 was not observed in males exposed to EE2. In addition, OSP1 was only observed in ovaries and localized in the cytoplasm and follicular layer of immature and mature oocytes. The authors conclude that osp1 is a promising biomarker of androgen exposure and gonadal intersex in female medaka.

  7. Nucleotide sequence and expression of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Ikeda, Narumi; Abe, Michiko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-02-01

    Starfish gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to gonadotropins in vertebrates. Because GSS belongs to the relaxin-like peptide family, we propose renaming for starfish gonadotropic hormone as relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP). This study examined the primary structure and expression regulation of the RGP gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera. RGP consisted of 3896 base pairs (bp) divided over two exons, exon 1 of 208 bp and exon 2 of 2277 bp, and one intron of 1411 bp. Promoter sequences, CAAT and TATA boxes, were present in the 5'-upstream region of the coding DNA sequence of RGP. The transcript was 2485 bases (b) in length. The AAUAAA polyadenylation signal was found in 3'-untranslated region over 2kb away from the stop codon. This showed that only 14% of the RGP mRNA was translated into the peptide, because a size of the open-reading frame was 351 b. Furthermore, an analysis by using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers for RGP showed that mRNA of RGP was expressed at high levels in the radial nerves. Expression was also observed in the cardiac stomachs, although the level was low, and trace levels were detected in the gonads, pyloric caeca and tube feet. This result suggests that the RGP gene is transcribed mainly in the radial nerves of A. pectinifera.

  8. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients' infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs.

  9. Novel de novo heterozygous FGFR1 mutation in two siblings with Hartsfield syndrome: a case of gonadal mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Radhika; Kirmani, Salman; Wang, Xiangling; Ferber, Matthew J; Wieben, Eric D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica

    2014-09-01

    Hartsfield syndrome has been recently reported to be associated with mutations in FGFR1 however, to this date; no familial cases have been reported. In this report, we describe two siblings with Hartsfield syndrome and a novel de novo FGFR1 mutation suggesting gonadal mosaicism. The proband presented at our institution at age 6 years with a clinical diagnosis of Hartsfield syndrome and requesting further genetic evaluation. Previous studies included a normal karyotype, oligonucleotide array, and single gene testing for nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly (SHH, SIX3, ZIC2, TGIF). At the age of 6 years, exome sequencing was performed and a de novo novel missense variant was identified in FGFR1 (coding for fibroblast growth factor-1) on chromosome 8p12: c.1880G>C (p.R627T). Subsequently, a younger sibling was born with the same phenotype (holoprosencephaly, ectrodactyly of bilateral hands and feet and bilateral cleft lip and palate). Targeted sequencing of FGFR1 revealed the identical variant that was previously identified in the proband. To our knowledge this observation is the first documentation of familial recurrence of Hartsfield syndrome. As both parents were negative for the sequence variant in FGFR1 gene by testing peripheral blood samples, this suggests gonadal mosaicism. The frequency of gonadal mosaicism in Hartsfield syndrome is not known however given our case, this possibility should be taken in to consideration for recurrence risk estimation in children of clinically unaffected parents.

  10. Molecular identification and expression of the Foxl2 gene during gonadal sex differentiation in northern snakehead Channa argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Ji, Wei; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Yang, Rui-Bin; Chen, Kun-Ci

    2015-12-01

    Channa argus is one of the most commercially important fish species in China. Studies show that males of C. argus grow faster than females at the same age. In order to explore the sex differentiation mechanism of C. argus, we isolated the full length of the sex-related gene Foxl2 cDNA and analysed its expression patterns during gonadal sex differentiation. Alignment of known Foxl2 amino acid sequences from vertebrates confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Foxl2 is predominantly expressed in brain, pituitary, gill and ovary, with its highest level in ovary but low levels in testis and other tissues, reflecting a potential role for Foxl2 in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in C. argus. Our ontogenetic stage data showed that C. argus Foxl2 expression was significantly upregulated from 1 to 11 days posthatching (dph) and that the initiation of expression preceded the first anatomical ovarian differentiation (27 dph), suggesting that Foxl2 might play a potential role in early gonadal sex differentiation in C. argus. In addition, the Foxl2 protein was primarily located in granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes of mature C. argus, implying that Foxl2 may have a basic function in granulosa cell differentiation and the maintenance of oocytes.

  11. GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Gou; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-06-22

    Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as well as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice.

  12. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients’ infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the gonad and digestive gland of Mya arenaria (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnerot, F; Pellerin, J; Blaise, C; Mathieu, M

    2006-12-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) C(10)H(12)N(2)O plays a central role in several physiological processes in marine molluscs, especially in reproduction. 5-HT acts as a neurohormone to modulate spawning, parturition and meiosis by reinitiating prophase in arrested oocytes. Preliminary experiments using 10(-5)M 5-HT dissolved in aquarium water showed that 5-HT induced spawning movements in ripe clams and in both sexes of Mya arenaria while only a few males released sperm. The occurrence of serotoninergic fibers was demonstrated by PAP immunohistochemical reaction in the gonad of both sexes during gametogenesis. In an organism infected by the trematode parasite Prosorhynchus squamatus, we showed that serotoninergic innervation completely disappeared around the gonad's follicles. Although the gonad and digestive gland are intertwined, no serotoninergic innervations were found in the digestive gland. These findings suggest, for the first time to our knowledge in the soft shell clam, that serotonin might be involved in the regulation of gametogenesis.

  14. con el aborto provocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas de células diploides humanas (WI-38, MRC-5 tienen un origen éticamente objetable, dado que dichas células proceden de abortos provocados. Entre ellas destacan vacunas empleadas contra rubéola, sarampión, parotiditis, rabia, poliomielitis, viruela, hepatitis A, varicela y herpes zóster. Actualmente se encuentran en desarrollo otras vacunas cultivadas en células (293, PER.C6 transformadas mediante virus, procedentes de abortos. Entre ellas hay vacunas contra la gripe, virus respiratorio sincitial, parainfl uenza, HIV, virus del Nilo Occidental, virus Ébola, Marburg y Lassa, hepatitis B y C, glosopeda, encefalitis japonesa, dengue, tuberculosis, carbunco, peste, tétanos y paludismo. También con igual origen se trabaja en la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y otras proteínas, terapia génica y genómica. Existe la tecnología necesaria para producir todo lo descrito sin recurrir a abortos provocados. Debe indicarse en los prospectos de vacunas y otros productos el origen de las células empleadas. Debe facilitarse el acceso a las vacunas existentes no cultivadas en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la investigación de opciones en aquellos casos en los que no exista una vacuna no originada en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y de otras proteínas, así como la terapia génica y la genómica sin recurrir a células procedentes de abortos provocados. No sería consecuente rechazar productos obtenidos a partir de células troncales embrionarias y aceptar los originados en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Se debe evitar que la biotecnología basada en el aborto provocado invada todos los terrenos de la medicina.

  15. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume

  16. Perfil del trabajador con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    CAPGEMINI; FUNDACIÓN ADECCO

    2014-01-01

    Capgemini y la Fundación Adeco analizan y reflexionan sobre empleo de las personas con discapacidad. A pesar de los avances que se están registrando en este ámbito, la situación laboral de las personas con discapacidad aún está lejos de alcanzar las cotas deseadas de normalización: mientras que la tasa de actividad de las personas sin discapacidad se sitúa en el 76,3%, la de las que sí la tienen desciende bruscamente hasta el 36,5%. En otras palabras, un 63,4% de las personas con discapacidad...

  17. Seasonal modulation of immunity by melatonin and gonadal steroids in a short day breeder goat Capra hircus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somenath; Singh, Amaresh K; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Role of melatonin in regulation of immunity and reproduction has never been studied in detail in goats. The aim of the present study was to explore hormonal regulation of immunity in goats with special reference to melatonin. Plasma of male and female goats (n = 18 per sex per season) was processed for hormonal (estrogen, testostrone, and melatonin) and cytokine (interleukin [IL-2], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α) measurements during three seasons, i.e., summer, monsoon, and winter. To assess cell-mediated immune response, percent stimulation ratio of thymocytes was recorded during three seasons. To support and establish the modulation by hormones, Western blot analysis for expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2), androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor α and estimations of marker enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase for melatonin and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities for steroidogenesis were performed in thymus. All the hormones and cytokines were estimated by commercial kits. Biochemical, immunologic, and Western blot analyses were done by standardized protocols. We noted a significant increase in estrogen and testosterone levels (P < 0.05) in circulation during monsoon along with melatonin (P < 0.05) presenting a parallel relationship. Expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in thymus of both the sexes were significantly high (P < 0.01) during winter. Estrogen receptor α expression in female thymus was significantly high during monsoon (P < 0.05). However, androgen receptor showed almost static expression pattern in male thymus during three seasons. Further, both arylalkylamineN-acetyltransferase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activities were significantly high (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) during monsoon. These results suggest that there may be a functional parallelism between gonadal steroids and melatonin as melatonin is progonadotrophic in goats. Cell-mediated immune parameters (percent stimulation

  18. Estrogenic environmental contaminants alter the mRNA abundance profiles of genes involved in gonadal differentiation of the American bullfrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stephanie E; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C; Ramirez, Claire A; Malpas, Janae M; Propper, Catherine R

    2015-07-15

    Wildlife and human populations are exposed to anthropogenic mixtures of chemicals in the environment that may adversely influence normal reproductive function and development. We determined the effects of exposure to estrogenic chemicals and wastewater effluent (WWE) on developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, a species whose widespread distribution make it an ideal model for environmental monitoring of endocrine effects of chemical contaminants. Premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to treatment vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2; 10(-9)M) or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10(-9)M, 10(-8)M, and 10(-7)M). Additionally, gonadal differentiation was evaluated in bullfrog tadpoles from a WWE-containing site versus those from a reference location receiving no WWE. In both studies, phenotypic sex, steroidogenic factor-1 (nr5a1), and aromatase (cyp19a1) mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR were determined. Exposure to E2 or OP did not alter sex ratios. In controls, both nr5a1 and cyp19a1 transcript levels exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males demonstrating higher levels of nr5a1 and females greater abundance of cyp19a1. However, E2 exposure increased cyp19a1 mRNA abundance in testes and decreased levels in ovaries, eliminating the sexual dimorphism observed in controls. E2-exposed males exhibited increased nr5a1 transcript levels in the testes compared to controls, while females demonstrated no E2 effect. OP treatment had no effect on female cyp19a1 mRNA abundance, but exposure to 10(-7)M OP increased testicular transcript levels. Treatment with 10(-9) and 10(-8)M OP, but not 10(-7)M, resulted in decreased abundance of nr5a1 transcript in both ovaries and testes. Animals from the field had sexually dimorphic gonadal levels of cyp19a1, but both sexes from the WWE site exhibited elevated cyp19a1 transcript abundance compared to the reference location. Individual chemical compounds and anthropogenic wastewater effluent dispersed within

  19. Estrogenic environmental contaminants alter the mRNA abundance profiles of genes involved in gonadal differentiation of the American bullfrog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stephanie E.; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C.; Ramirez, Claire A.; Malpas, Janae M.; Propper, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife and human populations are exposed to anthropogenic mixtures of chemicals in the environment that may adversely influence normal reproductive function and development. We determined the effects of exposure to estrogenic chemicals and wastewater effluent (WWE) on developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, a species whose widespread distribution make it an ideal model for environmental monitoring for endocrine effects of chemical contaminants. Premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to treatment vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2; 10−9 M) or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10−9 M, 10−8 M, and 10−7 M). Additionally, gonadal differentiation was evaluated in bullfrog tadpoles from a WWE-containing site versus those from a reference location receiving no WWE. In both studies, phenotypic sex, steroidogenic factor-1 (nr5a1), and aromatase (cyp19a1) mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR were determined. Exposure to E2 or OP did not alter sex ratios. In controls, both nr5a1 and cyp19a1 transcript levels exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males demonstrating higher levels of nr5a1 and females greater abundance of cyp19a1. However, E2 exposure increased cyp19a1 mRNA abundance in testes and decreased levels in ovaries, eliminating the sexual dimorphism observed in controls. E2-exposed males exhibited increased nr5a1 transcript levels in the testes compared to controls, while females demonstrated no E2 effect. OP treatment had no effect on female cyp19a1 mRNA abundance, but exposure to 10−7 M OP increased testicular transcript levels. Treatment with 10−9 and 10−8 M OP, but not 10−7 M, resulted in decreased abundance of nr5a1 transcript in both ovaries and testes. Animals from the field had sexually dimorphic gonadal levels of cyp19a1, but both sexes from the WWE site exhibited elevated cyp19a1 transcript abundance compared to the reference location. Individual chemical compounds and anthropogenic wastewater effluent dispersed

  20. Varicela sobreinfectada con Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Bellot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 5 años de edad internado por presentar un cuadro clínico de más o menos cuatro días de evolución caracterizado por la presencia de fiebre, malestar general, anorexia y dolor abdominal leve complicándose con la aparición de erupciones en piel, cuero cabelludo, cara, tronco y mucosas de características maculo-papulosas eritematosas con un halo eritematoso. Las mismas de tamaños y formas variables, tensas, con contenido purulento, acompañado de fiebre de 38 C°. Al examen físico se evidencian: lesiones dérmicas sobreinfectadas con secreción purulenta en algunas regiones del cuerpo (rostro y tronco. El diagnóstico de ingreso fue varicela sobreinfectada por estafilococo.

  1. A patadas con los botes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, José

    1994-01-01

    Presentamos a continuación una actividad desarrollada con alumnos de 4° de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, en la materia optativa: taller de resolución de problemas. Auna el enfrentamiento a una actividad real. cotidiana, con la utilización de procedimientos y conceptos fundamentales en la formación básica en matemáticas.

  2. Histología gonadal y criterios fenotípicos de maduración en las tortugas marinas Chelonia mydas y Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La madurez gonadal se suele evaluar a través del análisis macroscópico de las gónadas. En las tortugas marinas, las etapas de maduración están asociadas con el tamaño del cuerpo, dependiendo de la población estudiada. Los pescadores clasifican las tortugas que miden más de 65.0cm como maduras sexualmente. Si tienen los caracteres sexuales secundarios se registran como machos en edad reproductora. Nosotros comparáramos el tamaño del cuerpo con las características gonadales macroscópicas y microscópicas de dos tortugas de Cuba. Se obtuvieron dieciocho individuos de C. mydas y veinte de E. imbricata en la pesquería legal del Archipiélago Jardines del Rey (Cuba, entre octubre de 2005 y 2006. En los machos, el estado reproductivo (máxima espermiogénesis se comprobó mediante el análisis histológico de los testículos. En las hembras, la madurez sexual fue identificada por la presencia de folículos vitelogénicos u ovarios corpora. La mayoría de los machos eran inmaduros (C. mydas: 79.0cm; E. imbricata: 73.1±4.9cm, n=3 y carecían de los caracteres sexuales secundarios. Algunos E. imbricata que no tenían un pene desarrollado se encontraban en fases espermatogénicas entre II y IV (p. ej. pubescentes. La mayoría de las hembras eran inmaduras (C. mydas: 79.6±7.7cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0±7.1cm, n=16; p. ej. prepubescente y pubescente. Las hembras prepubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos de cerca de 1.0mm en un estroma compacto y amarillento. Las hembras pubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos entre 2.0 y 3.0mm. El estroma fue más distendido e irrigado que en las tortugas pubescentes. El hallazgo de actividad espermatogénica en machos pubescentes indica la asincronía entre el desarrollo de testículos y pene en E. imbricata. El criterio fenotípico actual utilizado por los pescadores no es suficiente para determinar la madurez sexual de estas tortugas. La talla mínima tentativa

  3. Gonadal function in males with autoimmune Addison's disease and autoantibodies to steroidogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, M; Bonanni, G; Masiero, S; Faggian, D; Chen, S; Furmaniak, J; Rees Smith, B; Perniola, R; Radetti, G; Garelli, S; Chiarelli, S; Albergoni, M P; Plebani, M; Betterle, C

    2014-06-01

    Steroidogenic enzyme autoantibodies (SEAbs) are frequently present and are markers of autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) in females with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). The prevalence and significance of SEAbs in males with AAD have not yet been defined. We studied the prevalence of SEAbs in a large cohort of males with AAD and assessed the relationship between SEAbs positivity and testicular function. A total of 154 males with AAD (mean age 34 years) were studied. SEAbs included autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells (StCA), detected by immunofluorescence, and steroid 17α-hydroxylase (17α-OHAbs) and side chain cleavage enzyme (SCCAbs) measured by immunoprecipitation assays. Gonadal function was evaluated by measuring follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B (I-B). Twenty-six males, 10 SEAbs((+)) and 16 SEAbs((-)), were followed-up for a mean period of 7·6 years to assess the behaviour of SEAbs and testicular function. SEAbs were found in 24·7% of males with AAD, with the highest frequency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1). The levels of reproductive hormones in 30 SEAbs((+)) males were in the normal range according to age and were not significantly different compared to 55 SEAbs((-)) males (P > 0·05). During follow-up, both SEAbs((+)) and SEAbs((-)) patients maintained normal testicular function. SEAbs were found with high frequency in males with AAD; however, they were not associated with testicular failure. This study suggests that the diagnostic value of SEAbs in males with AAD differs compared to females, and this may be related to the immunoprivileged status of the testis. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

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    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  5. The Effect of 8-Methoxypsoralen on Pituitary-Gonad Axis and Ovarian Function in Mice

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    Esmail Fattahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP is a photoactive compound widely used in the treatment of proliferate disorders. The present study investigates the effects of 8-MOP on ovary function and pituitary-gonad axis in mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental analytical study, 45 female Balb/C mice were divided into three groups (n=15, control, sham (olive oil injection and experimental. The experimental group were received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of the LD50 dose of 60 mg/kg 8-MOP. At 30 days after injection, the animals were sacrificed while in the proestrus stage and examined for morphological and histological changes their ovaries. Blood samples were collected and estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the t test.Results: The mean levels of estrogen and progesterone in the experimental group significantly decreased (p<0.001. However, there was a significant increase in LH and FSH levels in this group compared to the control groups (p<0.001. The mean number and diameter of the corpus luteum (CL and the number of growing follicles in the experimental group significantly reduced compared to the control and sham groups (p<0.001. The mean granulosa thickness in the experimental group also significantly decreased compared to the control and sham groups (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our data indicated that 8-MOP can affect the levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone. Our findings further suggest that consecutive doses of 8-MOP may impair the female reproductive tract (or development.

  6. Gonadal function arrest in fillies after birth, as reflected by steroid serum concentrations

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    Guilherme de Paula Nogueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A maturação sexual envolve a supressão da atividade gonadal entre o nascimento e a puberdade, enquanto o desenvolvimento somático prossegue. A esteroidogênese na gônada fetal é muito importante para a manutenção da prenhez e para o parto das éguas. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar os níveis séricos de esteróides gonadais em potras após o nascimento. Cinco potras nascidas no Haras Equília, Avaré, São Paulo, foram estudadas. Procedeu-se à colheita de sangue diariamente pela manhã, durante a primeira semana de vida. Os níveis de progesterona foram medidos por meio de um kit comercial de radioimunoensaio (RIA, enquanto os níveis de estradiol o foram por um RIA sensibilizado não-comercial. Ao nascimento, tanto os níveis de progesterona quanto os de estradiol mostraram-se altos (13,46 ± 5,5 nmol/L e 7,95 ± 1,5 nmol/L, diminuindo a níveis não detectáveis no fim da primeira semana de vida. Uma correlação negativa foi detectada entre a idade das potras e a concentração de esteróides das gônadas. Os resultados mostram que a atividade secretora da gonada fetal persiste até o nascimento, diminuindo gradativamente durante a primeira semana de vida, demonstrada pela variação na concentração sérica de esteróides.

  7. Suppression of Stra8 Expression in the Mouse Gonad by WIN 18,4461

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Evanoff, Ryan; Snyder, Elizabeth; Kent, Travis; Mitchell, Debra; Small, Christopher; Amory, John K.; Griswold, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Bis-(dichloroacetyl)-diamines (BDADs) are compounds that inhibit spermatogenesis and function as male contraceptives in many species; however, their mechanism of action has yet to be fully investigated. It has been proposed that BDADs may function via inhibition of testicular retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We employed an organ culture technique and the expression of a marker for RA activity, Stra8 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8), to investigate if the BDAD WIN 18,446 inhibited the biosynthesis of RA from retinol (ROL) in neonatal and adult murine testis and in the embryonic murine gonad. After culturing either whole testes or germ cells isolated from mice at 2 days postpartum (dpp) with WIN 18,446 or with WIN 18,446 plus ROL, Stra8 expression was suppressed, demonstrating that WIN 18,446 inhibited the conversion of ROL to RA in both systems. We also utilized a transgenic mouse containing an RA-responsive LacZ reporter gene to demonstrate limited RA induction of LacZ expression in 2-dpp testes cultured with WIN 18,446 plus ROL. The expression of Stra8 was downregulated in adult mouse testis tubules cultured with WIN 18,446 when compared to tubules cultured with the vehicle control. WIN 18,446 also inhibited the conversion of ROL to RA in embryonic ovaries and testes cultured for 48 h. These murine results provide critical insights regarding how the BDADs can inhibit spermatogenesis by blocking the ability of vitamin A to drive germ cell development. In addition, these techniques will be useful for screening novel inhibitors of RA biosynthesis as potential male contraceptives. PMID:21209416

  8. Desenvolvimento gonadal do jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, em viveiros de terra, na região sul do Brasil = Gonadal development of jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, in earthen ponds in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento gonadal de jundiá até a maturação sexual, quando cultivados em viveiros de terra, visando subsidiar o desenvolvimento de tecnologia de cultivo para esta espécie na região sul do Brasil. Alevinos de jundiá (peso médio 8 ± 3,73 g foram estocados em três viveiros, na densidade de 0,6indivíduos m-2. Catorze indivíduos foram amostrados mensalmente, de setembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os estádios de maturação gonadal foram caracterizados macroscopicamente, e fragmentos de ovários e testículos de alguns exemplares foram fixados em formalina 4% para análise histológica. Foram analisados 118 exemplares: 60 machos e 58 fêmeas. Os machos apresentaram atividade reprodutiva precoce, quandocomparados às fêmeas. Testículos e ovários apresentaram morfologia similar a de outras espécies de Siluriformes. De acordo com a análise microscópica, as gônadas foram classificadas em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento: imaturo, em maturação inicial, em maturação final e maduro. A relação gonadossomática variou de 0,29 a 9,16 para os machose de 0,11 a 13,03 para as fêmeas. Indivíduos maduros foram observados nos meses de verão (dezembro/2001 e janeiro/2002, outono (abril e maio/2002 e primavera (setembro e outubro/2002, acompanhando o aumento de temperatura.The study characterized the gonadal development of jundiá from approximately 8 g until gonadal maturation, to provide further knowledge for farming jundiá in Southern Brazil. Jundiá fingerlings(average weight 8.00 ± 3.73 g were stocked in three ponds at 0.6 fish m-2. Fourteen fish were sampled each month from September 2001 to October 2002. Gonadal maturation stages were characterized macroscopically, and samples of ovaries and testicles were fixedin 4-%-buffered formalin for histological examination. One hundred and eighteen fish were analyzed: 60 males e 58 females. Jundiá males matured earlier than females. Testicles and

  9. The basement membrane and the sex establishment in the juvenile hermaphroditism during gonadal differentiation of the Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2015-12-01

    Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. con mala calidad de vida

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    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  11. Encuentro con el tiempo: Adagio con variaciones de Alfredo Aracil

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    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinando analíticamente la obra sinfónica Adagio con variaciones de Aracil, estudiaremos los principales componentes para concluir con una evaluación de los mismos. A través de la cronología de la obra de Aracil175, observamos la importancia que adquiere en su trayectoria la memoria; su pensamiento va siempre unido a ésta. Uno de sus recursos principales es la cita; es Adagio con variaciones donde claramente observaremos la memoria lejana e inmediata al tiempo: Wagner es el punto de referencia al pasado, Wolf impulsa hacia el presente, y, Aracil advierte el devenir en cada una de sus variaciones.

  12. Los nenes con los zombies, las nenas con los vampiros

    OpenAIRE

    López Corral, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo nos circunscribiremos, dentro de este género literario, a las sagas de reciente salida editorial y, con mayor precisión, a las sagas de novelas románticas para adolescentes tales como Crepúsculo (Stephenie Meyer, 2005), Hush Hush (Becca Fitzpatrick, 2009), Cazadores de Sombras (Cassandra Clare, 2007), Fallen (Lauren Kate, 2010), y otras similares, dejando de lado sagas con otro tipo de particularidades como los citados libros de Harry Potter o los pertenecientes a la trilogía...

  13. Los nenes con los zombies, las nenas con los vampiros

    OpenAIRE

    López Corral, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo nos circunscribiremos, dentro de este género literario, a las sagas de reciente salida editorial y, con mayor precisión, a las sagas de novelas románticas para adolescentes tales como Crepúsculo (Stephenie Meyer, 2005), Hush Hush (Becca Fitzpatrick, 2009), Cazadores de Sombras (Cassandra Clare, 2007), Fallen (Lauren Kate, 2010), y otras similares, dejando de lado sagas con otro tipo de particularidades como los citados libros de Harry Potter o los pertenecientes a la trilogía...

  14. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads: manipulation of meiosis signalling by retinoic acid treatment disrupts testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J E; Perlman, S; Lundvall, L; Mitchell, R T; Juul, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2015-10-01

    What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal phenotype in fetal testis cultures. One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated outcomes included tissue integrity and morphology, cell proliferation and survival and the expression of markers of meiosis and sex differentiation. Tissue from 24 first trimester human fetuses was included in this study, all from elective terminations at gestational week (GW) 7-12. Gonads were cultured for 2 weeks with and without addition of 1 µM RA. Samples were subsequently formalin-fixed and investigated by immunohistochemistry and cell counting. Proteins investigated and quantified included; octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), transcription factor AP-2 gamma (AP2γ) (embryonic germ cell markers), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (immature Sertoli cell markers), COUP transcription factor 2 (COUP-TFII) (marker of interstitial cells), forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) (granulosa cell marker), H2A histone family, member X (γH2AX) (meiosis marker), doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) (meiosis regulator), cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved Caspase 3 (apoptosis markers) and Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67) (proliferation marker). Also, proliferation was determined using a 5'-bromo-2

  15. Effects of p,p'-DDE exposure on gonadal development and gene expression in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhaobin; HU Jianying

    2008-01-01

    Although 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE),the major and most persistent metabolite of dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT),was continually detected in wild fishes that showed abnormal gonad development such as intersex,little is known about the impact of p,p'-DDE exposure on gonad development in fishes.To survey the effects of p,p'-DDE on gonadal development and gene expressions,male juvenile (20-d post hatch) Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was exposed to 1,5,20,and 100 μg/L p,p'-DDE for two months.Increased hepatosomatic index (HSI) and decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) were found in the p,p'-DDE-treated groups.Intersex was found in 100 μg/L p,p'-DDE exposure group,as well as 100 ng/L 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2)group.By quantitative real-time RT-PCR,it was found that gene expressions of vitellogenins (VTG-1,VTG-2),choriogenins (CHG-H,CHG-L),and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in the liver of the fish were significantly up-regulated by p,p'-DDE exposure.VTC-1 and VTG-2 were recommended as the preferred biomarker for assessing anti-androgenic p,p'-DDE because they were the highest up-regulated among the genes and showed good dose-response relationship.The up-regulated ER-α suggested that a potential synergetic effect would occur when p,p'-DDE coexists with other ER-α-binding endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

  16. [Gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae) from Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Emir; Ruiz, Ariel; Espinosa, Georgina; Lee, Idania

    2010-03-01

    Gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. In sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. Fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. If they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. We compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two Cuban turtles. Eighteen individuals of C. mydas and twenty of E. imbricata was obtained from the legal fishery stock of Jardines del Rey Archipelago (Cuba), from October 2005 and 2006. In males, breeding condition (maximum spermiogenesis) was checked by histological analysis of the testes. In females, sexual maturity was identified by the presence of vitellogenic follicles or ovarian corpora. Most males were immature (C. mydas: 79.0 cm; E. imbricata: 73.1+/-4.9 cm, n=3) and lacked secondary sex characters. Some E. imbricata without a developed penis were in spermatogenic stages II to IV (i.e. pubescent). Most females were immature (C. mydas: 79.6+/-7.7 cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0+/-7.1 cm, n=16; i.e.prepubescent and pubescent. The prepubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles near 1.0 mm in a compact and yellowish stroma. The pubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles between 2.0 and 3.0 mm. The stroma was more loosened and irrigated than in prepubescent turtles. The finding of spermatogenic activity in pubescent males indicates asynchrony between testicular and penial development in E. imbricata. The current phenotypical approach used by fishermen is not enough to determine sexual maturation in these turtles. The minimal size tentatively should be changed to: C. mydas: above 93.0 cm and E. imbricata above 79.0 cm.

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems.

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    Matteo A Avella

    Full Text Available Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP, higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group. We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application.

  18. Discovery and evaluation of candidate sex-determining genes and xenobiotics in the gonads of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew C; Jackson, James R; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Modern pyrosequencing has the potential to uncover many interesting aspects of genome evolution, even in lineages where genomic resources are scarce. In particular, 454 pyrosequencing of nonmodel species has been used to characterize expressed sequence tags, xenobiotics, gene ontologies, and relative levels of gene expression. Herein, we use pyrosequencing to study the evolution of genes expressed in the gonads of a polyploid fish, the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Using 454 pyrosequencing of transcribed genes, we produced more than 125 MB of sequence data from 473,577 high-quality sequencing reads. Sequences that passed stringent quality control thresholds were assembled into 12,791 male contigs and 32,629 female contigs. Average depth of coverage was 4.2 x for the male assembly and 5.5x for the female assembly. Analytical rarefaction indicates that our assemblies include most of the genes expressed in lake sturgeon gonads. Over 86,700 sequencing reads were assigned gene ontologies, many to general housekeeping genes like protein, RNA, and ion binding genes. We searched specifically for sex determining genes and documented significant sex differences in the expression of two genes involved in animal sex determination, DMRT1 and TRA-1. DMRT1 is the master sex determining gene in birds and in medaka (Oryzias latipes) whereas TRA-1 helps direct sexual differentiation in nematodes. We also searched the lake sturgeon assembly for evidence of xenobiotic organisms that may exist as endosymbionts. Our results suggest that exogenous parasites (trematodes) and pathogens (protozoans) apparently have infected lake sturgeon gonads, and the trematodes have horizontally transferred some genes to the lake sturgeon genome.

  19. Feminization and altered gonadal gene expression profile by ethinylestradiol exposure to pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, a South American teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María R; Fernandino, Juan I; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2012-05-01

    In pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis), ovarian differentiation has been associated with gonadal aromatase expression. It is also known that exposure of pejerrey larvae to estradiol (E(2)) produces all female populations. During the last few years, the presence of ethinylestradiol (EE(2)), a synthetic E(2) analogue, has been reported in water reservoirs of different parts of the world. In the present study, the effects of EE(2) were assessed on sex ratio bias and gene expression levels of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (hsd11b2), estrogens (erα, erβ1), and androgen receptors (arα, arβ). Pejerrey larvae were fed with commercial food containing EE(2) (0.1 and 1 µg/g) and E(2 ) (50 µg/g) as a positive control for six weeks after hatching. The gonadal histological analysis showed that 42 to 46% of the fish had clearly differentiated ovaries in both the EE(2) - and E(2) -treated groups, compared with 27% in the control group. Moreover, in the EE(2) - (1 µg/g) and E(2) -treated groups, no fish presented signs of testicular development compared with controls. In addition, expression of cyp19a1a and hsd11b2 was significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, by EE(2) and E(2) . The authors' results suggested that the feminization process driven by EE(2) depends on the positive balance of cyp19a1a in relation to hsd11b2. Thus, these genes can be used as early indicators of exposure to xenoestrogens in this species.

  20. Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia (Linnaeus 1758

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    Ruchi Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT on specific growth rate (SGR% day−1, condition factor (k, gonado-somatic-index (GSI, histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 μg/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day−1 (0.9±0.04 as compared to control (1.23±0.026. The GSI value was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to 1.77±0.253 from control where it was 2.56±0.25. Serum protein level increased from 9.33±2.90 mg/ml (control to 11.67±1.45 mg/ml after MLT treatment while there was depressed serum triglycerides (86.16±1.078 mg/dl and cholesterol (126.66±0.88 mg/dl as compared to control values where these were 123.0±1.23 mg/dl and 132.0±1.65 mg/dl respectively. Histological structure of ovary showed small eggs of early perinucleolus stage after MLT treatment while testicular structure of control and MLT treated fish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day−1, GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes.

  1. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  2. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  3. Entrevista con Hans Robert Jauss.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El importante teórico y crítico literario alemán nació en 1921. Tras el largo paréntesis de la segunda guerra mundial, Jauss realizará sus estudios superiores, a partir de 1948, en Heidelberg, licenciándose en filología románica. Se doctora pronto con una tesis, publicada en 1955, sobre el tiempo y el recuerdo en la obra capital de Marcel Proust, En busca del tiempo perdido, y se habilita en 1957 con un trabajo sobre la epopeya animal en la Edad Media. A continuación, escribe un conjunto de estudios sobre la alegoría, y codirige con el gran especialista Erich Kohler una monumental historia de la literatura medieval, campo al que ha dedicado otros artículos, a la par que proseguía sus investigaciones iniciales.

  4. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

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    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  5. Development and biological function of the female gonads and genitalia in IGF-I deficiency -- Laron syndrome as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) or primary GH insensitivity is a unique human model to study the effects of congenital IGF-I deficiency. Within our cohort of 63 patients with LS, 15 female patients were regularly followed since birth or infancy, throughout puberty. We observed that they were short at birth, with small genitalia and gonads -- during puberty, developed delayed puberty but eventually reached between 16 and 19 1/2 years full sexual development. Reproduction is unaffected at a young adult age. It is concluded that IGF-I in concert with the sex hormones has a modulatory but not essential function on female sexual development and maturation.

  6. Ontogenia do trato digestório e desenvolvimento gonadal de Betta splendens: aspectos morfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Regiane Cristina da [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    O Betta splendens destaca-se como uma das espécies ornamentais mais cultivadas no mundo. Dentre os fatores que determinam o sucesso de criação, estão aqueles relacionados às alterações morfológicas do trato digestório e o desenvolvimento normal das gônadas. Este estudo objetivou acompanhar e registrar o desenvolvimento do trato digestório e gonadal do B. splendens por meio de técnicas de histologia e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). As larvas foram obtidas a partir de reprodução ...

  7. Morpho-histological characteristics of gonads and reproductive index in an endemic fish species, Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel, 1847 (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae from Kor River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Mirghiyasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first details on morphological and histological characteristics of gonads, gonadal development stages and reproductive index of the Persian loach, Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel, 1847, an Iranian endemic species. Sampling was done from April 2010 to April 2011 using electrofishing device and a total of 196 individuals were collected. The gonads of specimens were removed, their sexes determined and then were fixed in 10% formalin solution after checking their morphology and measuring their weights, lengths and widths. Based on the size, shape and weight of the gonads, degree of occupation of the body cavity, presence or absence of ripe oocytes or milt, diameter of the oocytes in the ovary, and histological observations, five stages of sexual maturation in females and four stages in males were determined by macroscopic and microscopic criteria. The results of the gonadal stages showed that the O. persa spawns in the middle of spring and these stages were correlated to the gonado-somatic index (GSI.

  8. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

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    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  9. Protective Effects of Lycopene and Ellagic Acid on Gonadal Tissue, Maternal Newborn Rats Induced by Cadmiumchloride

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    K Hoshmand Motlagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Cadmium is a toxin which reduces the ability of the reproduction in humans .Different antioxidants damaging effects of toxins are eliminated .The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of lycopene and Ellagic acid induced by cadmium chloride on the gonadal tissue of newborn rats during pregnancy. Methods: In the present experimental study, 30 adult female Wistar rats (180-200 gr were prepared and maintained in standard conditions. The female rats were used for mating with the male. After observation of vaginal plaque, pregnant rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats. Group I (normal: They were given normal saline in 13 days during pregnancy. Group II (Control: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and normal saline was given to them in 13 days of during pregnancy. Group III: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg/orally in 13 days were injected during pregnancy. Group IV: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and copene acid (20 mg/kg/orally was injected in 13 days of during pregnancy. Group V: Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg / kg/ IP was injected and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg/orally and lycopene acid (20 mg/kg/orally were injected in 13 days during pregnancy. After postpartum, Neonatal rats were anesthetized with ether. Animals were dissected, then the testes and Ovaries were removed and transferred to 10% formalin solution. After tissue processing, tissue sections were prepared and H&E stained. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and ANOVA test. Results: Average number of Sertoli cells ,spermatogonia ,Leydig, and the number of seminiferous tube in control group were compared to other groups that were treated with lycopene - ellagic acid and ellagic acid had been reduced-proves to be significant(P <0.05. Average diameter of seminiferous tube in control group compared to other groups that are treated with lycopene - ellagic acid and ellagic acid had

  10. Effect of Selegiline on Pituitary- Gonad Axis and Spermatogenesis in Adult Male Rats

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    M. Mokhtari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Selegiline is an inhibitor of B-Mono amino oxidase (MAO-B. In view of its usages in treatment of nervous illnesses such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and depression the side effects of selegiline on the endocrine axises are very important. In this research the effect of selegiline on pituitary- gonad axis and spermatogenesis in adult male rats were studied. For experimental and control groups 32 adult male rats from wistar race were divided into 4 groups of 8. The experimental groups (B,C,D were given oral doses of 5,10,15 (mg/kg.B.W selegiline for the period of 30 days and the control group (A received saline. The blood samples were taken 8 hour after receiving last dose at 30th day and the concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone was measured by RIA. In adition at the 30th day the testes were separated and histological changes was studied among experimental and control groups. The results were evaluated by using ANOVA and Duncan test. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that receiving different dosages of selegiline showed a significant increase in concentration of LH hormone in comparison with control group, but concentration of FSH did not show significant difference compared to the control group. In addition concentration of testosterone in response to different dosages in relative to the control group showed a significant decrease.According to the results we suggest that through LH increase, selegiline causes a decrease in concentration of testosterone via down-regulation receptors on leydig cells. Furthermore selegiline causes increase in dopamine concentration in striatum area as an inhibitor of MAO-B and intern causes decrease in concentration of prolactin. The decrease in prolactin secretion reduce the effect of LH hormone on leydig cell. In addition histological studies showed a significant effects caused by selegiline such as decreased number of spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules, leydig cells and reduced

  11. Bioaktivitas Gel Aloe vera pada Gonad Tikus Putih Jantan (Rattus norvegicus

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    I Ketut Suardita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to determine Bioactivity of Aloe vera gel on gonad of male white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This research used complately random design, with three treatments namely T0, received placebo as a control; T1, received gel of Aloe vera 300 mg/kg body weight orally; and T2, received gel of Aloe vera 400 mg/kg body weight orally. Aloe vera gel was administrated every day for 21 days. All the treatments repeated three times, and each experimental unit used one white rat. Data found was analyzed using one way of Anova, and the Least Significant Differences (LSD Test was applied for further analysis. Results showed that Aloe vera gel administration with a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight had effected significantly on the number of spermatogonia cells, live-daed rasio of spermatozoa, and the percentage of sperm abnormality. The result of the research indicates that Aloe vera gel is potentially cytotoxic to testes cells, and so, it’has a high possibilities as an alternative herbal contraceptive agent for animals /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  12. Desensitization of brain opiate receptor mechanisms by gonadal steroid treatments that stimulate luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, L A; Derendorf, H; Simpkins, J W

    1988-06-01

    We studied the effects of two ovarian steroid treatments that induce proestrous-like surges in LH secretion on responsiveness to morphine sulfate (MS), as measured by induced hypothermic, antinociceptive, behavioral, and LH secretory changes. Ovariectomized rats received no steroids (OVX), 7.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate 2 days before the experiment (EB), or EB and then 5 mg progesterone 48 h later (EBP). MS administration coincided with the steroid-induced LH hypersecretion that occurs in the EB and EBP rats at 1530-1630 h. Serum LH concentrations were determined 30 min after administration of MS. In OVX and EB rats, MS caused a dose-dependent decrease in serum LH, but even 20 mg/kg MS did not alter serum LH during the EBP-induced LH surge. Brain-mediated morphine-induced analgesia was evaluated in the three steroid treatment groups from measurement of latency to pawlick on a hot plate. EB and EBP rats were less responsive than OVX rats to MS-induced antinociception. EB and EBP rats were also less responsive than OVX animals to the spinal cord-mediated analgesia due to MS, as calculated by tail-flick latency. MS-induced hypothermia revealed a responsiveness order of OVX greater than EB greater than EBP. Whereas MS caused a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity in OVX and EB rats, EBP rats showed marked hyperactivity at low MS doses and were less responsive to the suppression of locomotor activity at higher doses. These marked steroid-induced changes in MS responsiveness could not be explained by altered pharmacokinetic disposition of morphine. These data indicate that treatment with EBP, which stimulates a preovulatory-like LH surge, decreases the ability of MS to induce hypothermic, antinociceptive, and behavioral responses and abolishes its capacity to suppress LH release. These effects of gonadal steroids were not observed before the LH surge, which suggests that this surge is linked to the decline in MS sensitivity. Further, the diminished response

  13. Huevos enriquecidos con omega 3

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de usos de ingredientes no tradicionales; harina de algas, Macrocystis pyrifera, y la inclusión en raciones para aves de postura destinado a aumentar la concentración de omega 3 del huevo. Objetivo: Evaluar en la alimentación de la gallina la inclusión de harina de alga marina Macrocystis pyrifera con el fin de aumentar el valor de omega 3 en el huevo, y el grado de aceptación de un producto elaborado con el mismo en estudiante...

  14. ARLAB: Laboratorio con Realidad Aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calderón, Rosalino; Santillana Arbesú, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    ResumenARLAB es una innovación que incorporar tecnología de realidad aumentada a los experimentos clásicos decontrol y automatización industrial, permitiendo integrar y que interactúen varias tecnologías desarrollándoseexperimentos mixtos, parte real y parte virtual en 3D, que se visualiza con un dispositivo inteligente, como lo esun celular o tableta electrónica; con el fin de generar una visión del conocimiento más profunda y clara.

  15. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154 > PBDE-153. Concentrations in tissues and in sediments increased moving

  16. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

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    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  17. Desenvolvimento gonadal de fêmeas de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, submetidas a restrição alimentar Gonadal development of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, females submitted to feed restriction

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    Antonio Cleber da Silva Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de ciclos de restrição alimentar e realimentação (2/3 dias, aplicados durante seis meses antes da desova, no desenvolvimento gonadal de matrinxã. Na ocasião da desova, fêmeas alimentadas diariamente e submetidas ao regime alimentar experimental, selecionadas para a indução hormonal, foram sacrificadas para retirada das gônadas e do fígado, com os quais se calculou o IGS (índice gonadossomático e o IHS (índice hepatossomático, sendo os ovários processados para análise histológica. Não houve alteração no peso relativo dos ovários e fígado, e o desenvolvimento gonadal não foi afetado pelo esquema alimentar. Os valores de IGS foram de 5,09±4,98% e 9,79±4,17% e os de IHS foram de 0,84±0,07% e 0,91±0,11%, para as fêmeas controle e experimentais, respectivamente, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Os ovários de peixes dos dois grupos apresentaram as mesmas características do estádio maduro, com predominância de ovócitos na fase final de maturação, repletos de vitelo. O estudo indica que a restrição alimentar não afetou a preparação das fêmeas para a reprodução e que ciclos adequados de restrição e realimentação poderão ser aplicados na criação do matrinxã, assegurando menores custos de produção.The present study evaluated the effect of cycles of feed restriction and refeeding (2/3 days during 6 months before the spawning on the gonadal development of matrinxã. At the spawning time, females selected to hormonal induction were killed for gonad and liver removal and GSI (gonadosomatic index and HSI (hepatosomatic index were calculated. Ovaries were processed for histological analysis. The feeding regime did not alter GSI and HSI and the gonadal development. The values of GSI were 5.09±4.98% and 9.79±4.17%, and of HSI were 0.84±0.07% and 0.91±0.11%, in control and experimental females, respectively, without significant difference between groups

  18. Un momento con el maestro

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete Garaycochea, Luis; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Quiero comenzar, manifestando mis experiencias de comunicación teniendo como fundamento teórico a Carl ROGERS, "El camino del Ser", obra que me sirvió de inspiración e identificación con su pensamiento en el proceso del desarrollo como ser humano.

  19. A vueltas con Samuel Beckett

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    José María Fernández Cardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de la obra de Lourdes Carriedo, Mª Luisa Guerrero, Carmen Méndez y Fabio Vericat(eds.: A vueltas con Beckett. Aproximaciones críticas en su centenario (Madrid, Ediciones de La Discreta,col. «Bártulos», 2009, 362 páginas, ISBN: 978-84-96322-29-5.

  20. Long-term Disease Free and Successful Pregnancy in a Woman with Gonadal Dysgenesis and Malignant Germ Cell Tumor

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    Azamsadat Mousavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of long-term disease free and successful pregnancy after fertility sparing staging surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy in a 46,Xy gonadal dysgenetic with malignant germ cell tumor.Materials and methods: A case report from a university hospital about a 19-year-old female with 46,XY karyotype ( Swyer syndrome. The patient underwent bilateral gonadectomy and staging with uterus preservation. Six course adjuvant chemotherapy with VBP (Vinblastin, Bleomycin, Cisplatin was given. The case got pregnant through IVF- embryo donation. Disease free period and successful pregnancy is reported.Results: After treatment the patient is free of the disease after 11 years follow-up. She underwent in vitro fertilization treatment with oocyte donation and gave birth to a healthy ch.Conclusion: Improved multimodality treatment, allowance for consideration of fertility options for some women with gynecologic cancers. Since major concern in women with XY gonadal dysgenesis is ovarian malignancy, even with stage II dysgerminoma hysterectomy may not be required in some cases considering the opportunity for childbearing with the use of embryo transfer.