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Sample records for computers reference guide

  1. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  2. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  3. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  4. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. It is targeted specifically to run on large-scale parallel computing platforms but also runs well on a variety of architectures including single processor workstations. It also aims to support a variety of devices and models specific to Sandia needs. This document is intended to complement the Xyce Users Guide. It contains comprehensive, detailed information about a number of topics pertinent to the usage of Xyce. Included in this document is a netlist reference for the input-file commands and elements supported within Xyce; a command line reference, which describes the available command line arguments for Xyce; and quick-references for users of other circuit codes, such as Orcad's PSpice and Sandia's ChileSPICE.

  5. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  6. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  7. User guide programmer's reference. NUDOS: A computer programme for assessing the consequences of airborne releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupa, J.

    1996-10-01

    NUDOS is a computer program that can be used to evaluate the consequences of airborne releases of radioactive materials. The consequences evaluated are individual dose and associated radiological risk, collective dose and the contamination of land. The code is capable of dealing with both routine and accidental releases. For accidental releases both deterministic and probabilistic calculations can be performed and the impact and effectiveness of emergency actions can be evaluated. (orig.)

  8. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  9. Reference Dose Rates for Fluoroscopy Guided Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleijns, J.; Broerse, J.J.; Hummel, W.A.; Schalij, M.J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Teeuwisse, W.; Zoetelief, J.

    1998-01-01

    The wide diversity of fluoroscopy guided interventions which have become available in recent years has improved patient care. They are being performed in increasing numbers, particularly at departments of cardiology and radiology. Some procedures are very complex and require extended fluoroscopy times, i.e. longer than 30 min, and radiation exposure of patient and medical staff is in some cases rather high. The occurrence of radiation-induced skin injuries on patients has shown that radiation protection for fluoroscopy guided interventions should not only be focused on stochastic effects, i.e. tumour induction and hereditary risks, but also on potential deterministic effects. Reference dose levels are introduced by the Council of the European Communities as an instrument to achieve optimisation of radiation protection in radiology. Reference levels in conventional diagnostic radiology are usually expressed as entrance skin dose or dose-area product. It is not possible to define a standard procedure for complex interventions due to the large inter-patient variations with regard to the complexity of specific interventional procedures. Consequently, it is not realistic to establish a reference skin dose or dose-area product for complex fluoroscopy guided interventions. As an alternative, reference values for fluoroscopy guided interventions can be expressed as the entrance dose rates on a homogeneous phantom and on the image intensifier. A protocol has been developed and applied during a nationwide survey of fluoroscopic dose rate during catheter ablations. From this survey reference entrance dose rates of respectively 30 mGy.min -1 on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with a thickness of 21 cm, and of 0.8 μGy.s -1 on the image intensifier have been derived. (author)

  10. Guide documentaire pour en savoir plus sur l'informatique (A Documentary Guide to Further Knowledge of Computer Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard-Bayle, Guy

    1985-01-01

    Presents a listing of textbooks, computer program guides, articles, opinion papers, histories, reference works, databases, reviews, bibliographies, organizations, and other information sources concerning computer applications. (MSE)

  11. Introduction to Computing Course Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…

  12. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  13. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  14. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction...... to the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings of each technique, enabling the reader to not only implement a given method, but also to understand the ideas behind it, its limitations and its advantages. Topics and features: Presents an overview of the underlying mathematical theory, covering vector spaces......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  15. Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

  16. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  17. Computer-guided implant placement: 3D planning software, fixed intraoral reference points, and CAD/CAM technology. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmaseb, A.; de Clerck, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explain the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed mini-implants and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology to restore a completely edentulous patient. Mini-implants were used

  18. Library of Michigan: Financial Management Reference Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    Developed to provide library directors, staff, and board members with information for performing accounting and financial management functions, this guide answers frequently asked questions, describes common practices and processes, provides examples and suggested formats for selected financial reports, and identifies issues that may require…

  19. Xyce parallel electronic simulator reference guide, version 6.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Verley, Jason C.; Baur, David Gregory

    2014-03-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide [1] .

  20. Xyce™ Parallel Electronic Simulator: Reference Guide, Version 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Rankin, Eric Lamont [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Schiek, Richard Louis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Santarelli, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Fixel, Deborah A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical and Microsystems Modeling; Coffey, Todd S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Mathematics and Applications; Pawlowski, Roger P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Mathematics and Applications

    2009-11-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users’ Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users’ Guide.

  1. Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator : reference guide, version 4.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  2. Xyce™ Parallel Electronic Simulator Reference Guide Version 6.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aadithya, Karthik Venkatraman [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schiek, Richard L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verley, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce . This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide.

  3. Xyce parallel electronic simulator reference guide, version 6.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Verley, Jason C.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Warrender, Christina E.; Baur, David Gregory.

    2013-08-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide [1] .

  4. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  5. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  6. LADTAP II: technical reference and user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Whelan, G.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission computer program LADTAP II, which performs environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into surface waters. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals, population groups, and biota from ingestion (aquatic foods, water, and terrestrial irrigated foods) and external exposure (shoreline, swimming, and boating) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program.

  7. GASPAR II: Technical reference and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Bander, T.J.; Soldat, J.K.

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the computer program GASPAR II used by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into the atmosphere. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals and population groups from inhalation, ingestion (terrestrial foods), and external-exposure (ground and plume) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program. 20 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs

  8. LADTAP II: technical reference and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Whelan, G.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission computer program LADTAP II, which performs environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into surface waters. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals, population groups, and biota from ingestion (aquatic foods, water, and terrestrial irrigated foods) and external exposure (shoreline, swimming, and boating) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program

  9. Xyce™ Parallel Electronic Simulator Reference Guide, Version 6.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Aadithya, Karthik V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Schiek, Richard L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation; Verley, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Models and Simulation

    2016-06-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users’ Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users’ Guide. The information herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright © 2002-2016 Sandia Corporation. All rights reserved.

  10. Guide to computing at ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peavler, J. (ed.)

    1979-06-01

    This publication gives details about hardware, software, procedures, and services of the Central Computing Facility, as well as information about how to become an authorized user. Languages, compilers' libraries, and applications packages available are described. 17 tables. (RWR)

  11. U.S. Navy Aeromedical Reference and Waiver Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    Passion flower) – Piper methysticum (Kava-Kava) – Psilocybe semilanceata (magic mushrooms) – Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot) – Rauwolfia... serpentina (Indian Snakeroot) – Scilla maritima (White Squill) – Scopolia carniolica (Scopolia)* U.S. Navy Aeromedical Reference and Waiver Guide...be sedatives: – Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) – Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot) – Atropa belladonna (Deadly Nightshade)* – Chelidonium

  12. Automatic generation of computable implementation guides from clinical information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, Diego; Maldonado, José Alberto; Moner, David; Robles, Montserrat

    2015-06-01

    Clinical information models are increasingly used to describe the contents of Electronic Health Records. Implementation guides are a common specification mechanism used to define such models. They contain, among other reference materials, all the constraints and rules that clinical information must obey. However, these implementation guides typically are oriented to human-readability, and thus cannot be processed by computers. As a consequence, they must be reinterpreted and transformed manually into an executable language such as Schematron or Object Constraint Language (OCL). This task can be difficult and error prone due to the big gap between both representations. The challenge is to develop a methodology for the specification of implementation guides in such a way that humans can read and understand easily and at the same time can be processed by computers. In this paper, we propose and describe a novel methodology that uses archetypes as basis for generation of implementation guides. We use archetypes to generate formal rules expressed in Natural Rule Language (NRL) and other reference materials usually included in implementation guides such as sample XML instances. We also generate Schematron rules from NRL rules to be used for the validation of data instances. We have implemented these methods in LinkEHR, an archetype editing platform, and exemplify our approach by generating NRL rules and implementation guides from EN ISO 13606, openEHR, and HL7 CDA archetypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microgravity computing codes. User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Codes used in microgravity experiments to compute fluid parameters and to obtain data graphically are introduced. The computer programs are stored on two diskettes, compatible with the floppy disk drives of the Apple 2. Two versions of both disks are available (DOS-2 and DOS-3). The codes are written in BASIC and are structured as interactive programs. Interaction takes place through the keyboard of any Apple 2-48K standard system with single floppy disk drive. The programs are protected against wrong commands given by the operator. The programs are described step by step in the same order as the instructions displayed on the monitor. Most of these instructions are shown, with samples of computation and of graphics.

  14. The ActionScript 30 Quick Reference Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stiller, David; deHaan, Jen; Richardson, Darren

    2008-01-01

    "No matter what your background, the pages that follow will provide you with some excellent knowledge, insight, and even a little bit of wisdom in the realm of Flash and ActionScript. Happy learning!"-- Branden Hall, from the ForewordWritten by Flash insiders with extensive knowledge of the technology, this guide is designed specifically to help Flash designers and developers make the leap from ActionScript 2.0 to the new object-oriented ActionScript 3.0 quickly and painlessly. Formatted so you can find any topic easily, ActionScript 3.0 Quick Reference Guide explains:Object-oriented programmi

  15. Users' guide to the positron camera DDP516 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracher, B.H.

    1979-08-01

    This publication is a guide to the operation, use and software for a DDP516 computer system provided by the Data Handling Group primarily for the development of a Positron Camera. The various sections of the publication fall roughly into three parts. (1) Sections forming the Operators Guide cover the basic operation of the machine, system utilities and back-up procedures. Copies of these sections are kept in a 'Nyrex' folder with the computer. (2) Sections referring to the software written particularly for Positron Camera Data Collection describe the system in outline and lead to details of file formats and program source files. (3) The remainder of the guide, describes General-Purpose Software. Much of this has been written over some years by various members of the Data Handling Group, and is available for use in other applications besides the positron camera. (UK)

  16. Miro V3.0: user guide and reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnat, Ph.; Treimany, C.; Morice, O.; Ribeyre, X.

    1998-06-01

    This paper contains the user's guide and reference manual of Miro software. This software is used for simulating propagation and amplification of laser beams in laser devices as Megajoules or NIF. The physical effects taken into account ar essentially: saturated amplification, absorption, Kerr effect, birefringence and aberrations. The models of propagation are either geometrical optics of parallel beams, or Fresnel diffraction. A graphic user interface as been included to allow interactive management of optical devices and results. A Unix environment with X-Window and Motif is required to run Miro. The user's guide gives a short insight of the software. The reference manual details the physical models and the way they are implanted in Miro. (author)

  17. Advanced distributed simulation technology: Digital Voice Gateway Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhook, Dan; Stadler, Ed

    1994-01-01

    The Digital Voice Gateway (referred to as the 'DVG' in this document) transmits and receives four full duplex encoded speech channels over the Ethernet. The information in this document applies only to DVG's running firmware of the version listed on the title page. This document, previously named Digital Voice Gateway Reference Guide, BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation, Cambridge, MA 02138, was revised for revision 2.00. This new revision changes the network protocol used by the DVG, to comply with the SINCGARS radio simulation (For SIMNET 6.6.1). Because of the extensive changes to revision 2.00 a separate document was created rather than supplying change pages.

  18. TORCH Computational Reference Kernels - A Testbed for Computer Science Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Alex; Williams, Samuel Webb; Madduri, Kamesh; Ibrahim, Khaled; Bailey, David H.; Demmel, James W.; Strohmaier, Erich

    2010-12-02

    For decades, computer scientists have sought guidance on how to evolve architectures, languages, and programming models in order to improve application performance, efficiency, and productivity. Unfortunately, without overarching advice about future directions in these areas, individual guidance is inferred from the existing software/hardware ecosystem, and each discipline often conducts their research independently assuming all other technologies remain fixed. In today's rapidly evolving world of on-chip parallelism, isolated and iterative improvements to performance may miss superior solutions in the same way gradient descent optimization techniques may get stuck in local minima. To combat this, we present TORCH: A Testbed for Optimization ResearCH. These computational reference kernels define the core problems of interest in scientific computing without mandating a specific language, algorithm, programming model, or implementation. To compliment the kernel (problem) definitions, we provide a set of algorithmically-expressed verification tests that can be used to verify a hardware/software co-designed solution produces an acceptable answer. Finally, to provide some illumination as to how researchers have implemented solutions to these problems in the past, we provide a set of reference implementations in C and MATLAB.

  19. First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolan, Richard; Baker, Marie; Branson, Jake; Hammerstein, Josh; Rush, Kris; Waits, Cal; Schweinsberg, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics expands on the technical material presented in SEI handbook CMU/SEI-2005-HB-001, First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics [Nolan 05...

  20. Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator Reference Guide Version 6.7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aadithya, Karthik Venkatraman [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schiek, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verley, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce . This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . The information herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright c 2002-2017 Sandia Corporation. All rights reserved. Trademarks Xyce TM Electronic Simulator and Xyce TM are trademarks of Sandia Corporation. Orcad, Orcad Capture, PSpice and Probe are registered trademarks of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Microsoft, Windows and Windows 7 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Medici, DaVinci and Taurus are registered trademarks of Synopsys Corporation. Amtec and TecPlot are trademarks of Amtec Engineering, Inc. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Contacts World Wide Web http://xyce.sandia.gov https://info.sandia.gov/xyce (Sandia only) Email xyce@sandia.gov (outside Sandia) xyce-sandia@sandia.gov (Sandia only) Bug Reports (Sandia only) http://joseki-vm.sandia.gov/bugzilla http://morannon.sandia.gov/bugzilla

  1. Computer-guided laser for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of over 40 neurosurgical laser operations, including CO2, Nd-YAG and simultaneous CO2/Nd-YAG laser procedures, a computer-guided system for spatial control of the laser beam has been developed. The pilot laser has several modes: it can direct the neurosurgeon along the central axis of the surgical microscope to stereotactically determined point-like targets or outline selected layers of underlying volume targets onto superficial surfaces such as scalp and cortex and onto the tissue at the appropriate depth. The active treatment laser can be guided by preoperative CT/MRI or intraoperative ultrasound image data for layer-by-layer resection of tumor. The laser system can be connected to the surgical field by rigid stereotactic means or by neuronavigator. In the present system, a special brain surgery adapter coordinates the imaging system and laser to the surgical field. Thus, the laser system can be used for image-guided surgical orientation, for demarcation of lesions and for actual layer-by-layer removal of tumor.

  2. RCRA corrective action ampersand CERCLA remedial action reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This reference guide provides a side-by-side comparison of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA Remedial Action, focusing on the statutory and regulatory requirements under each program, criterial and other factors that govern a site's progress, and the ways in which authorities or requirements under each program overlap and/or differ. Topics include the following: Intent of regulation; administration; types of sites and/or facilities; definition of site and/or facility; constituents of concern; exclusions; provisions for short-term remedies; triggers for initial site investigation; short term response actions; site investigations; remedial investigations; remedial alternatives; clean up criterial; final remedy; implementing remedy; on-site waste management; completion of remedial process

  3. Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator Reference Guide Version 6.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schiek, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verley, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baur, David Gregory [Raytheon, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce . This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . Trademarks The information herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright c 2002-2015 Sandia Corporation. All rights reserved. Xyce TM Electronic Simulator and Xyce TM are trademarks of Sandia Corporation. Portions of the Xyce TM code are: Copyright c 2002, The Regents of the University of California. Produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Written by Alan Hindmarsh, Allan Taylor, Radu Serban. UCRL-CODE-2002-59 All rights reserved. Orcad, Orcad Capture, PSpice and Probe are registered trademarks of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Microsoft, Windows and Windows 7 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Medici, DaVinci and Taurus are registered trademarks of Synopsys Corporation. Amtec and TecPlot are trademarks of Amtec Engineering, Inc. Xyce 's expression library is based on that inside Spice 3F5 developed by the EECS Department at the University of California. The EKV3 MOSFET model was developed by the EKV Team of the Electronics Laboratory-TUC of the Technical University of Crete. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Contacts Bug Reports (Sandia only) http://joseki.sandia.gov/bugzilla http://charleston.sandia.gov/bugzilla World Wide Web http://xyce.sandia.gov http://charleston.sandia.gov/xyce (Sandia only) Email xyce@sandia.gov (outside Sandia) xyce-sandia@sandia.gov (Sandia only)

  4. Subject Reference Lists Produced by Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-chih Chen

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available A system developed to produce fourteen subject reference lists by IBM 360/75 is described in detail. The computerized system has many advantages over conventional manual procedures. The feedback from students and other users is discussed, and some analysis of cost is included.

  5. The Guide to Better Hospital Computer Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenfest, Sheldon I.

    1981-01-01

    A soon-to-be-published major study of hospital computer use entitled “The Guide to Better Hospital Computer Decisions” was conducted by my firm over the past 2½ years. The study required over twenty (20) man years of effort at a cost of over $300,000, and the six (6) volume final report provides more than 1,000 pages of data about how hospitals are and will be using computerized medical and business information systems. It describes the current status and future expectations for computer use in major application areas, such as, but not limited to, finance, admitting, pharmacy, laboratory, data collection and hospital or medical information systems. It also includes profiles of over 100 companies and other types of organizations providing data processing products and services to hospitals. In this paper, we discuss the need for the study, the specific objectives of the study, the methodology and approach taken to complete the study and a few major conclusions.

  6. Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator Reference Guide Version 6.6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aadithya, Karthik Venkatraman [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mei, Ting [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russo, Thomas V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schiek, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thornquist, Heidi K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verley, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce . This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide [1] . The information herein is subject to change without notice. Copyright c 2002-2016 Sandia Corporation. All rights reserved. Acknowledgements The BSIM Group at the University of California, Berkeley developed the BSIM3, BSIM4, BSIM6, BSIM-CMG and BSIM-SOI models. The BSIM3 is Copyright c 1999, Regents of the University of California. The BSIM4 is Copyright c 2006, Regents of the University of California. The BSIM6 is Copyright c 2015, Regents of the University of California. The BSIM-CMG is Copyright c 2012 and 2016, Regents of the University of California. The BSIM-SOI is Copyright c 1990, Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. The Mextram model has been developed by NXP Semiconductors until 2007, Delft University of Technology from 2007 to 2014, and Auburn University since April 2015. Copyrights c of Mextram are with Delft University of Technology, NXP Semiconductors and Auburn University. The MIT VS Model Research Group developed the MIT Virtual Source (MVS) model. Copyright c 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The EKV3 MOSFET model was developed by the EKV Team of the Electronics Laboratory-TUC of the Technical University of Crete. Trademarks Xyce TM Electronic Simulator and Xyce TM are trademarks of Sandia Corporation. Orcad, Orcad Capture, PSpice and Probe are registered trademarks of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. Microsoft, Windows and Windows 7 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Medici, DaVinci and Taurus are registered trademarks of Synopsys Corporation. Amtec and Tec

  7. Sensitivity of Computed Tomography‑guided Transthoracic Biopsies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The indications for open biopsies for intrathoracic lesions have become almost negligible. This development was made possible by less invasive maneuvers such as computed tomography‑guided (CT‑guided) biopsy, thoracoscopy or video‑assisted thoracoscopy, and bronchoscopy. CT‑guided percutaneous ...

  8. Reference depth for geostrophic computation - A new method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Various methods are available for the determination of reference depth for geostrophic computation. A new method based on the vertical profiles of mean and variance of the differences of mean specific volume anomaly (delta x 10) for different layers...

  9. Computational Humour : Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational Jokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinholt, Hans Wim; Nijholt, Anton; Masulli, Francesco; Mitra, Sushmita; Pasi, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer implementation that utilizes cross-reference ambiguity in utterances for simple conversational jokes. The approach is based on the SSTH. Using a simple script representation, it is shown that cross-reference ambiguities always satisfy the SSTH requirement for script

  10. Introduction to Computing: Lab Manual. Faculty Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Joseph W.

    This lab manual is designed to accompany a college course introducing students to computing. The exercises are designed to be completed by the average student in a supervised 2-hour block of time at a computer lab over 15 weeks. The intent of each lab session is to introduce a topic and have the student feel comfortable with the use of the machine…

  11. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  12. Sensitivity of Computed Tomography‑guided Transthoracic Biopsies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Introduction: The indications for open biopsies for intrathoracic lesions have become almost negligible. This development was made possible by less invasive maneuvers such as computed tomography‑guided (CT‑guided) biopsy, thoracoscopy or video‑assisted thoracoscopy, and bronchoscopy.

  13. A reference guide to quality assurance for diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The College of Radiographers, through its Professional and Technical Committee, set up a small Working Party to compile a list of references which would help radiographers to become experts at Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Imaging departments. The list is not comprehensive, but includes references which the Working Party have experience of and have found useful. The references provided should aid in the objectives of:- 1. determining acceptable standards of new equipment; 2. making comparisons during use with accepted base line performance; 3. establishing loss of cost effectiveness and the need for replacement. (author)

  14. Computer methods in physics 250 problems with guided solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Rubin H

    2018-01-01

    Our future scientists and professionals must be conversant in computational techniques. In order to facilitate integration of computer methods into existing physics courses, this textbook offers a large number of worked examples and problems with fully guided solutions in Python as well as other languages (Mathematica, Java, C, Fortran, and Maple). It’s also intended as a self-study guide for learning how to use computer methods in physics. The authors include an introductory chapter on numerical tools and indication of computational and physics difficulty level for each problem.

  15. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  16. Xyce parallel electronic simulator reference guide, Version 6.0.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Verley, Jason C.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Warrender, Christina E.; Baur, David Gregory.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide [1] . The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide [1] .

  17. Crop Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 24, Numbers 5 and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, John Kevin

    This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on crop science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part contains nine lessons on the following topics: (1) economic importance of crops; (2) crop uses (products and byproducts); (3) plant and seed identification; (4) certified seed and variety…

  18. Plant Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 24, Numbers 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, John Kevin

    This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on plant science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part consists of eight lessons and cover the following topics: (1) importance of plants; (2) classification of plants; (3) plant growth factors; (4) weeds, diseases, insects; (5) germination; (6)…

  19. Shakespeare: A Student's Guide to Basic Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claener, Anne, Comp.

    Basic and standard reference materials dealing with William Shakespeare are listed in this bibliography. Annotated entries are grouped under the following headings: concordances, dictionaries, encyclopedias and handbooks, and bibliographies. The section on bibliographies is further divided into lists of editions of Shakespeare's work, general…

  20. Reference Etiquette: A Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckwright, Gail Z.; Pollastro, Mike; Hoskisson, Tam

    1998-01-01

    Presents suggestions for smooth and satisfying transactions between reference librarians and patrons, as well as for better collegial relationships. Highlights include: being prepared to help patrons; staying visible; serving "who's next"; working together and allowing for personal styles; making referrals; and using diplomacy while correcting…

  1. Programming Unconventional Computers: Dynamics, Development, Self-Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Stepney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical computing has well-established formalisms for specifying, refining, composing, proving, and otherwise reasoning about computations. These formalisms have matured over the past 70 years or so. Unconventional Computing includes the use of novel kinds of substrates–from black holes and quantum effects, through to chemicals, biomolecules, even slime moulds–to perform computations that do not conform to the classical model. Although many of these unconventional substrates can be coerced into performing classical computation, this is not how they “naturally” compute. Our ability to exploit unconventional computing is partly hampered by a lack of corresponding programming formalisms: we need models for building, composing, and reasoning about programs that execute in these substrates. What might, say, a slime mould programming language look like? Here I outline some of the issues and properties of these unconventional substrates that need to be addressed to find “natural” approaches to programming them. Important concepts include embodied real values, processes and dynamical systems, generative systems and their meta-dynamics, and embodied self-reference.

  2. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  3. Security for small computer systems a practical guide for users

    CERN Document Server

    Saddington, Tricia

    1988-01-01

    Security for Small Computer Systems: A Practical Guide for Users is a guidebook for security concerns for small computers. The book provides security advice for the end-users of small computers in different aspects of computing security. Chapter 1 discusses the security and threats, and Chapter 2 covers the physical aspect of computer security. The text also talks about the protection of data, and then deals with the defenses against fraud. Survival planning and risk assessment are also encompassed. The last chapter tackles security management from an organizational perspective. The bo

  4. Atomistic computer simulations a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brazdova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Many books explain the theory of atomistic computer simulations; this book teaches you how to run them This introductory ""how to"" title enables readers to understand, plan, run, and analyze their own independent atomistic simulations, and decide which method to use and which questions to ask in their research project. It is written in a clear and precise language, focusing on a thorough understanding of the concepts behind the equations and how these are used in the simulations. As a result, readers will learn how to design the computational model and which parameters o

  5. OTTER 3.0 reference manual and guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, is free, and is portable to many different kinds of computer.

  6. Ethanol Fuels Reference Guide: A Decision-Makers Guide to Ethanol Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  7. Miro V3.0: user guide and reference manual; Miro V3.0: guide utilisateur et manuel de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnat, Ph; Treimany, C; Morice, O; Ribeyre, X

    1998-06-01

    This paper contains the user`s guide and reference manual of Miro software. This software is used for simulating propagation and amplification of laser beams in laser devices as Megajoules or NIF. The physical effects taken into account ar essentially: saturated amplification, absorption, Kerr effect, birefringence and aberrations. The models of propagation are either geometrical optics of parallel beams, or Fresnel diffraction. A graphic user interface as been included to allow interactive management of optical devices and results. A Unix environment with X-Window and Motif is required to run Miro. The user`s guide gives a short insight of the software. The reference manual details the physical models and the way they are implanted in Miro. (author) 33 refs.

  8. Computation and brain processes, with special reference to neuroendocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Roberto; Spaletta, Giulia; Casa, Claudia Della; Ravera, Simone; Sandri, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form

  9. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  10. Auditing cloud computing a security and privacy guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halpert, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The auditor's guide to ensuring correct security and privacy practices in a cloud computing environment Many organizations are reporting or projecting a significant cost savings through the use of cloud computing-utilizing shared computing resources to provide ubiquitous access for organizations and end users. Just as many organizations, however, are expressing concern with security and privacy issues for their organization's data in the "cloud." Auditing Cloud Computing provides necessary guidance to build a proper audit to ensure operational integrity and customer data protection, among othe

  11. Computing programme SPEGTAR and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmakov, D.; Bosevski, T.

    1974-01-01

    Computer code SPEGTAR is one dimensional multigroup code for calculating neutron transport in multi zone cylindrical geometry. Neutron flux distribution is calculated by solving integral transport equation by the method of first collision probability previously developed for both one-group and multi group cases. According to spatial multigroup distribution of neutron flux, integral values of nuclear constants are determined by numerical integration for all material zones and all energy groups. These results are used for determining the parameters of homogenized reactor cell and condensation of energy groups suitable for reactor overall calculation

  12. Computer forensics an essential guide for accountants, lawyers, and managers

    CERN Document Server

    Sheetz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Would your company be prepared in the event of: * Computer-driven espionage * A devastating virus attack * A hacker's unauthorized access * A breach of data security? As the sophistication of computer technology has grown, so has the rate of computer-related criminal activity. Subsequently, American corporations now lose billions of dollars a year to hacking, identity theft, and other computer attacks. More than ever, businesses and professionals responsible for the critical data of countless customers and employees need to anticipate and safeguard against computer intruders and attacks. The first book to successfully speak to the nontechnical professional in the fields of business and law on the topic of computer crime, Computer Forensics: An Essential Guide for Accountants, Lawyers, and Managers provides valuable advice on the hidden difficulties that can blindside companies and result in damaging costs. Written by industry expert Michael Sheetz, this important book provides readers with an honest look at t...

  13. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  14. Computer guided pre-operative planning and dental implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Grošelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implants in dentistry are, besides fixed, removable and maxillofacial prosthodontics, one of the reliable possibility to make functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the edentulism. Surgical and prosthodontic implant complications are often an inattentive consequence of wrong diagnosis, planning, and placement. In this article we present a technique using a highly advanced software program along with a rapid prototyping technology named stereolithography. A planning software for implant placement needs basically the high quality computed tomographic scan of one or both jaws for making accurate preoperative diagnostics and 3D preoperative plan. Later individual drill guide is designed and generated based on both the CT images and the preoperative planning. The patient specific drill guide transfers the virtual planning to the patient’s mouth at time of surgery.Conclusions: The advantages of computer guided implantology are the better prepared surgery with visualisation of critical anatomic structures, assessment of available bone and data about bone quality, increased confidence for the surgeon, deceased operative time, less frequent use of bone grafts, higher quality of collaboration between specialists and prosthetic lab and better communication with patients. Radiographic examination of the operation field for computer guided planning for implant placement is due to high costs justified as the most important information source on the areas to be implanted.

  15. Equine Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 27, Number 4 [and] Volume 27, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffert, Kenneth L.; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 10 lessons to enhance an Agricultural Science I course for grade 9. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction, psychology and handling, conformation and selection, genetics and reproduction, herd health, hoof care, nutrition, equipment and facilities, handling horses,…

  16. Water Quality in Small Community Distribution Systems. A Reference Guide for Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed this reference guide to assist the operators and managers of small- and medium-sized public water systems. This compilation provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of the water distribution system network on dist...

  17. Reference Guide for Teaching Selected Duty Areas from Business, Marketing and Management Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John H.

    This reference guide was designed to assist business, marketing, and management educators in locating textbook/instructional materials for use in teaching duty areas and task lists for grades 11-14. Duty areas and task lists are matched with selected textbook/instructional publications for the secretarial, general office clerk, and information…

  18. A new stereotactic apparatus guided by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The accurate information provided by computer tomography about existence, shape, and localization of intracranial neoplasms in an early phase and in inaccessible regions have improved the diagnostics greatly, so that these lie far ahead of the therapeutic possibilities for brain tumors. To reduce this wide margin we have developed a new targeting device which makes a stereotactic approach to central lesions under sight-control by computed tomography within the computed tomography-scanner possible. With the help of this simple device we are now able to perform stereotactic procedures for tumor biopsy guided by computed tomography, needling and drainage of abscesses and cysts, and finally for the implantation of radioactive material for the interstitial radiotherapy of inoperable cysts and tumors. (orig.) [de

  19. TRENDS: A flight test relational database user's guide and reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Cross, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is designed to be a user's guide and reference manual for users intending to access rotocraft test data via TRENDS, the relational database system which was developed as a tool for the aeronautical engineer with no programming background. This report has been written to assist novice and experienced TRENDS users. TRENDS is a complete system for retrieving, searching, and analyzing both numerical and narrative data, and for displaying time history and statistical data in graphical and numerical formats. This manual provides a 'guided tour' and a 'user's guide' for the new and intermediate-skilled users. Examples for the use of each menu item within TRENDS is provided in the Menu Reference section of the manual, including full coverage for TIMEHIST, one of the key tools. This manual is written around the XV-15 Tilt Rotor database, but does include an appendix on the UH-60 Blackhawk database. This user's guide and reference manual establishes a referrable source for the research community and augments NASA TM-101025, TRENDS: The Aeronautical Post-Test, Database Management System, Jan. 1990, written by the same authors.

  20. Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities. Reference Manual (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that nuclear or other radioactive material could be used for malicious purposes cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material and to respond effectively to nuclear security events. States have agreed to strengthen existing instruments and have established new international legal instruments to enhance nuclear security worldwide. Nuclear security is fundamental in the management of nuclear technologies and in applications where nuclear or other radioactive material is used or transported. Through its Nuclear Security Programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in such material; national response plans; and contingency measures. With its Nuclear Security Series, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. The IAEA Nuclear Security Series comprises Nuclear Security Fundamentals, which include objectives and essential elements of a State's nuclear security regime; Recommendations; Implementing Guides; and Technical Guidance. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of such material; and to be prepared to respond to a nuclear security event. This publication is in the Technical Guidance

  1. Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities. Reference Manual (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that nuclear or other radioactive material could be used for malicious purposes cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material and to respond effectively to nuclear security events. States have agreed to strengthen existing instruments and have established new international legal instruments to enhance nuclear security worldwide. Nuclear security is fundamental in the management of nuclear technologies and in applications where nuclear or other radioactive material is used or transported. Through its Nuclear Security Programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in such material; national response plans; and contingency measures. With its Nuclear Security Series, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. The IAEA Nuclear Security Series comprises Nuclear Security Fundamentals, which include objectives and essential elements of a State's nuclear security regime; Recommendations; Implementing Guides; and Technical Guidance. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of such material; and to be prepared to respond to a nuclear security event. This publication is in the Technical Guidance

  2. Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities. Reference Manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that nuclear or other radioactive material could be used for malicious purposes cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material and to respond effectively to nuclear security events. States have agreed to strengthen existing instruments and have established new international legal instruments to enhance nuclear security worldwide. Nuclear security is fundamental in the management of nuclear technologies and in applications where nuclear or other radioactive material is used or transported. Through its Nuclear Security Programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in such material; national response plans; and contingency measures. With its Nuclear Security Series, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. The IAEA Nuclear Security Series comprises Nuclear Security Fundamentals, which include objectives and essential elements of a State's nuclear security regime; Recommendations; Implementing Guides; and Technical Guidance. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of such material; and to be prepared to respond to a nuclear security event. This publication is in the Technical Guidance

  3. Guide to cloud computing for business and technology managers from distributed computing to cloudware applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Guide to Cloud Computing for Business and Technology Managers: From Distributed Computing to Cloudware Applications unravels the mystery of cloud computing and explains how it can transform the operating contexts of business enterprises. It provides a clear understanding of what cloud computing really means, what it can do, and when it is practical to use. Addressing the primary management and operation concerns of cloudware, including performance, measurement, monitoring, and security, this pragmatic book:Introduces the enterprise applications integration (EAI) solutions that were a first ste

  4. Asthma and Respiratory Foundation NZ child and adolescent asthma guidelines: a quick reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Innes; McNamara, David; Davies, Cheryl; Demetriou, Teresa; Fleming, Theresa; Harwood, Matire; Hetaraka-Stevens, Lorraine; Ingham, Tristram; Kristiansen, John; Reid, Jim; Rickard, Debbie; Ryan, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the New Zealand Child and adolescent asthma guidelines: a quick reference guide is to provide simple, practical, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment and management of asthma in children and adolescents in New Zealand, with the aim of improving outcomes and reducing inequities. The intended users are health professionals responsible for delivering asthma care in the community and hospital emergency department settings, and those responsible for the training of such health professionals.

  5. Computer Aided Reference Services in the Academic Library: Experiences in Organizing and Operating an Online Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…

  6. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-scan guided biopsy of pleural-based lung lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rahul; McLean, Anna W; Smith, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsies have long been the standard technique to obtain tissue from the thoracic cavity and is traditionally performed by interventional radiologists. Ultrasound (US) guided biopsy of pleural-based lesions, performed by pulmonologists is gaining popularity and has the advantage of multi-planar imaging, real-time technique, and the absence of radiation exposure to patients. In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy, the time to diagnosis after the initial consult placement, and the complications rates between the two different modalities. A retrospective study of electronic medical records was done of patients who underwent CT-guided biopsies and US-guided biopsies for pleural-based lesions between 2005 and 2014 and the data collected were analyzed for comparing the two groups. A total of 158 patients underwent 162 procedures during the study period. 86 patients underwent 89 procedures in the US group, and 72 patients underwent 73 procedures in the CT group. The overall yield in the US group was 82/89 (92.1%) versus 67/73 (91.8%) in the CT group (P = 1.0). Average days to the procedure was 7.2 versus 17.5 (P = 0.00001) in the US and CT group, respectively. Complication rate was higher in CT group 17/73 (23.3%) versus 1/89 (1.1%) in the US group (P guided biopsy is similar to that of CT-guided biopsy, with a lower complication rate and a significantly reduced time to the procedure.

  7. Development of a guidance guide for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent questions from users of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated in the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (LCI - IPEN), on how to properly apply the factors indicated in their calibration certificates, a guide was prepared guidance for dosimetry in computed tomography. The guide includes guidance prior knowledge of half value layer (HVL), as it is necessary to know the effective beam energy for application quality for correction factor (kq). The evaluation of HVL in TC scanners becomes a difficult task due to system geometry and therefore a survey was conducted of existing methodologies for the determination of HVL in clinical beams Computed Tomography, taking into account technical, practical and economic factors. In this work it was decided to test a Tandem System consists of absorbing covers made in the workshop of IPEN, based on preliminary studies due to low cost and good response. The Tandem system consists of five cylindrical absorbing layers of 1mm, 3mm, 5mm, 7mm and 10mm aluminum and 3 cylindrical absorbing covers 15mm, 25mm and acrylic 35mm (PMMA) coupled to the ionization chamber of commercial pencil type widely used in quality control tests in dosimetry in clinical beams Computed tomography. Through Tandem curves it was possible to assess HVL values and from the standard curve pencil-type ionization chamber, Kq find the appropriate beam. The elaborate Guide provides information on how to build the calibration curve on the basis of CSR, to find the Kq and information for construction Tandem curve, to find values close to CSR. (author)

  8. Computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy of lung lesions: an oncology center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Fonte, Alexandre Calabria da; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: marcosduarte@yahoo.com.b [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis; Andrade, Marcony Queiroz de [Hospital Alianca, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Gross, Jefferson Luiz [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chest Surgery

    2011-03-15

    Objective: The present study is aimed at describing the experience of an oncology center with computed tomography guided core-needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 97 computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions performed in the period between 1996 and 2004 in a Brazilian reference oncology center (Hospital do Cancer - A.C. Camargo). Information regarding material appropriateness and the specific diagnoses were collected and analyzed. Results: Among 97 lung biopsies, 94 (96.9%) supplied appropriate specimens for histological analyses, with 71 (73.2%) cases being diagnosed as malignant lesions and 23 (23.7%) diagnosed as benign lesions. Specimens were inappropriate for analysis in three cases. The frequency of specific diagnosis was 83 (85.6%) cases, with high rates for both malignant lesions with 63 (88.7%) cases and benign lesions with 20 (86.7%). As regards complications, a total of 12 cases were observed as follows: 7 (7.2%) cases of hematoma, 3 (3.1%) cases of pneumothorax and 2 (2.1%) cases of hemoptysis. Conclusion: Computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of lung lesions demonstrated high rates of material appropriateness and diagnostic specificity, and low rates of complications in the present study. (author)

  9. Rotary engine performance computer program (RCEMAP and RCEMAPPC): User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a user's guide for a computer code that simulates the performance of several rotary combustion engine configurations. It is intended to assist prospective users in getting started with RCEMAP and/or RCEMAPPC. RCEMAP (Rotary Combustion Engine performance MAP generating code) is the mainframe version, while RCEMAPPC is a simplified subset designed for the personal computer, or PC, environment. Both versions are based on an open, zero-dimensional combustion system model for the prediction of instantaneous pressures, temperature, chemical composition and other in-chamber thermodynamic properties. Both versions predict overall engine performance and thermal characteristics, including bmep, bsfc, exhaust gas temperature, average material temperatures, and turbocharger operating conditions. Required inputs include engine geometry, materials, constants for use in the combustion heat release model, and turbomachinery maps. Illustrative examples and sample input files for both versions are included.

  10. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  11. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlenbruch, Markus; Nelles, Michael; Thomas, Daniel; Willinek, Winfried; Gerstner, Andreas; Schild, Hans H.; Wilhelm, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a flat-detector C-arm-guided radiographic technique (cone-beam computed tomography [CBCT]) for percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) insertion. Eighteen patients (13 men and 5 women; mean age 62 years) in whom percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) had failed underwent CBCT-guided PRG insertion. PEG failure or unsuitability was caused by upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction in all cases. Indications for gastrostomy were esophageal and head and neck malignancies, respectively. Before the PRG procedure, initial C-arm CBCT scans were acquired. Three- and 2-dimensional soft-tissue reconstructions of the epigastrium region were generated on a dedicated workstation. Subsequently, gastropexy was performed with T-fasteners after CBCT-guided puncture of the stomach bubble, followed by insertion of an 14F balloon-retained catheter through a peel-away introducer. Puncture of the stomach bubble and PRG insertion was technically successful in all patients without alteration of the epigastric region. There was no malpositioning of the tube or other major periprocedural complications. In 2 patients, minor complications occurred during the first 30 days of follow-up (PRG malfunction: n = 1; slight infection: n = 1). Late complications, which were mainly tube disturbances, were observed in 2 patients. The mean follow-up time was 212 days. CBCT-guided PRG is a safe, well-tolerated, and successful method of gastrostomy insertion in patients in whom endoscopic gastrostomy is not feasible. CBCT provides detailed imaging of the soft tissue and surrounding structures of the epigastric region in one diagnostic tour and thus significantly improves the planning of PRG procedures.

  12. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  13. A hybrid reference-guided de novo assembly approach for generating Cyclospora mitochondrion genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, G R; Cinar, H N; Murphy, H R; Durigan, M; Almeria, M; Tall, B D; DaSilva, A J

    2018-01-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with large and complex foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Linking samples from cyclosporiasis patients during foodborne outbreaks with suspected contaminated food sources, using conventional epidemiological methods, has been a persistent challenge. To address this issue, development of new methods based on potential genomically-derived markers for strain-level identification has been a priority for the food safety research community. The absence of reference genomes to identify nucleotide and structural variants with a high degree of confidence has limited the application of using sequencing data for source tracking during outbreak investigations. In this work, we determined the quality of a high resolution, curated, public mitochondrial genome assembly to be used as a reference genome by applying bioinformatic analyses. Using this reference genome, three new mitochondrial genome assemblies were built starting with metagenomic reads generated by sequencing DNA extracted from oocysts present in stool samples from cyclosporiasis patients. Nucleotide variants were identified in the new and other publicly available genomes in comparison with the mitochondrial reference genome. A consolidated workflow, presented here, to generate new mitochondrion genomes using our reference-guided de novo assembly approach could be useful in facilitating the generation of other mitochondrion sequences, and in their application for subtyping C. cayetanensis strains during foodborne outbreak investigations.

  14. Guide Structures in CD-ROM Dictionaries, with Specific Reference to the EWED and the ELHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Louw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    macro- and microstructural information. In order to evaluate the methods which lexicographers employ to improve dictionary accessibility, the concept of guide structures was introduced by Hausmann and Wiegand (1989. Since the appearance of that article, various academics have written articles and read papers on guide structures in print dictionaries, but few studies have focussed on the tremendous potential of guide structures in electronic dictionaries. In this article it will be shown that electronic dictionaries add dimensions to the implementation of guide structures not possible in print versions. The role of two of the guide structures in the transfer of infonnation in CD-ROM dictionaries will be discussed. The access and mediostructures of the Microsoft Encarta World English Dictionary and the Elektroniese Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal will be analysed and critically evaluated to illustrate the advantages of electronic dictionaries over print dictionaries and the urgent need for metalexicographical discussion of this publication medium.

    Keywords: ACCESS STRUCTURE; ACTIVE CROSS-REFERENCES; CD-ROM DICTIONARY; DICTIONARY ACCESSIBILITY; ENCYCLOPAEDIC DICTIONARY; GUIDE STRUCTURES; INNER ACCESS STRUCTURE; INNER SEARCH PATH; INTERNET; MEDIOSTRUCTURE; MULTIMEDIA; OUTER ACCESS STRUCTURE; OUTER SEARCH PATH; PASSIVE CROSSREFERENCING; USER-FRIENDLINESS

    Opsomming: Gidsstrukture in CD-ROM-woordeboeke, met spesifieke verwysingna EWED en ELHA T. Die sukses van modeme woordeboeke hang grootliles af vandie toeganklikheid van hulle makro- en mikrostrukturele inligting. Hausmann en Wiegand (1989het die konsep van gidsstrukture ingevoer om die metodes te evalueer wat leksikograwe gebruikom woordeboektoeganklikheid Ie verbeter. Sedert hierdie artikel verskyn het, het verskeie akademic:i artikels gepubliseer en referate gelewer oor gidsstrukture in gedrukte woordeboeke, maarmin studies het gefokus op die geweldige potensiaal van

  15. User's and reference guide to the INEL RML/analytical radiochemistry sample tracking database version 1.00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femec, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report discusses the sample tracking database in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) and Analytical Radiochemistry. The database was designed in-house to meet the specific needs of the RML and Analytical Radiochemistry. The report consists of two parts, a user's guide and a reference guide. The user's guide presents some of the fundamentals needed by anyone who will be using the database via its user interface. The reference guide describes the design of both the database and the user interface. Briefly mentioned in the reference guide are the code-generating tools, CREATE-SCHEMA and BUILD-SCREEN, written to automatically generate code for the database and its user interface. The appendices contain the input files used by the these tools to create code for the sample tracking database. The output files generated by these tools are also included in the appendices

  16. A computer assisted toolholder to guide surgery in stereotactic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, C; Pluchino, F; Luzzara, M; Ongania, E; Casolino, D S

    1994-01-01

    A computer assisted toolholder, integrated with an anatomical graphic 3-D rendering programme, is presented. Stereotactic neuroanatomical images are acquired, and the same reference system is employed to represent the position of the toolholder on the monitor. The surgeon can check the orientation of different approach trajectories, moving the toolholder in a situation of virtual reality. Angular values expressed by high precision encoders on the five joints of the toolholder modify "on line" the representation of the configuration of the toolholder within the three dimensional representation of the patient's anatomy.

  17. Computed tomography - guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shin Yu; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Younes, Riad N.; Chojniak, Rubens

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the experience of a radiology department in the use of computed tomography-guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary nodules, by evaluating diagnostic yield and incidence of complications. This is a retrospective analysis of 52 consecutive patients who underwent lung lesion biopsy guided by computed tomography, performed between May 1997 and May 2000. Thirty-five patients were male and 17 were female, with ages ranging from 5 to 85 years (median, 62 years). The size of the lesions ranged from 1.8 to 15 cm (median, 5.4 cm). In a total of 52 biopsies of lung lesions, 51 biopsies (98.1%) supplied appropriate material for histopathological diagnosis, with 9 diagnosed (17.3%) as benign and 42 (80.8%) as malignant lesions. Specific diagnosis was obtained in 44 (84.6%) biopsies: 4 benign (9.1%) and 40 (90.9%) malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the cutting needle biopsies for determining presence of malignancy were 96.8%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Complications occurred in 9 cases (17.3%), including 6 cases (11.5%) of small pneumothorax, 1 (1.9%) of hemoptysis, 1 (1.9%) of pulmonary hematoma, and 1 (1.9%) of thoracic wall hematoma. All had spontaneous resolution. There were no complications requiring subsequent intervention. The high sensitivity and specificity of the method and the low rate of complications have established cutting needle biopsy as an efficient and safe tool for the diagnosis of lung lesions. In our hospital, cutting needle biopsy is considered a reliable procedure for the evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. (author)

  18. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes in children - setting local diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitta, Lavanya; Raghavan, Ashok; Sprigg, Alan; Morrell, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the radiation burden from fluoroscopy-guided insertions of nasojejunal tubes (NJTs) in children. There are no recommended or published standards of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) available. To establish reference dose area product (DAP) levels for the fluoroscopy-guided insertion of nasojejunal tubes as a basis for setting DRLs for children. In addition, we wanted to assess our local practice and determine the success and complication rates associated with this procedure. Children who had NJT insertion procedures were identified retrospectively from the fluoroscopy database. The age of the child at the time of the procedure, DAP, screening time, outcome of the procedure, and any complications were recorded for each procedure. As the radiation dose depends on the size of the child, the children were assigned to three different age groups. The sample size, mean, median and third-quartile DAPs were calculated for each group. The third-quartile values were used to establish the DRLs. Of 186 procedures performed, 172 were successful on the first attempt. These were performed in a total of 43 children with 60% having multiple insertions over time. The third-quartile DAPs were as follows for each age group: 0-12 months, 2.6 cGy cm 2 ; 1-7 years, 2.45 cGy cm 2 ; >8 years, 14.6 cGy cm 2 . High DAP readings were obtained in the 0-12 months (n = 4) and >8 years (n = 2) age groups. No immediate complications were recorded. Fluoroscopy-guided insertion of NJTs is a highly successful procedure in a selected population of children and is associated with a low complication rate. The radiation dose per procedure is relatively low. (orig.)

  19. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Zachary H.; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Chen, Joseph J.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below −400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  20. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P; Yankelevitz, David F; Chen, Joseph J; Siegel, Eliot L; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N

    2009-02-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  1. Reference interval computation: which method (not) to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Igor Y; Wilson, Andrew R; Delgado, Julio C

    2012-07-11

    When different methods are applied to reference interval (RI) calculation the results can sometimes be substantially different, especially for small reference groups. If there are no reliable RI data available, there is no way to confirm which method generates results closest to the true RI. We randomly drawn samples obtained from a public database for 33 markers. For each sample, RIs were calculated by bootstrapping, parametric, and Box-Cox transformed parametric methods. Results were compared to the values of the population RI. For approximately half of the 33 markers, results of all 3 methods were within 3% of the true reference value. For other markers, parametric results were either unavailable or deviated considerably from the true values. The transformed parametric method was more accurate than bootstrapping for sample size of 60, very close to bootstrapping for sample size 120, but in some cases unavailable. We recommend against using parametric calculations to determine RIs. The transformed parametric method utilizing Box-Cox transformation would be preferable way of RI calculation, if it satisfies normality test. If not, the bootstrapping is always available, and is almost as accurate and precise as the transformed parametric method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: A Valuable Alternative to Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurban, L.A.; Gomersall, L.; Weir, J.; Wade, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy nowadays is the most preferred method of guidance to perform percutaneous lung biopsy of pulmonary masses. Conventional fluoroscopy is an increasingly forgotten technique that still can be used to perform lung biopsies, with many advantages. Purpose: To compare the accuracy, safety, and effective dose (ED) of conventional fluoroscopy-guided needle lung biopsy (FNLB) with CT-guided needle lung biopsy procedures (CTNLB) reported in the literature. Material and Methods: 100 consecutive patients who underwent FNLB were reviewed retrospectively. Using the final histological diagnoses and the clinical and radiological course of the disease as references, the accuracy and sensitivity of FNLB were calculated. The complication rates of FNLB were assessed. Using computer software (XDOSE), the ED was calculated. The accuracy, complication rates, and the ED of FNLB were compared with CTNLB reported in the literature. Results: The overall accuracy rate and sensitivity of FNLB were both 87%, which are comparable to the range of accuracies reported in the literature for CTNLB (74-97%). The complication rates of FNLB were also comparable to the complication rates reported for CTNLB. The commonest complication was pneumothorax, at a rate of 25%. The ED of FNLB was small, significantly lower than reported in the literature for CT-guided procedures. The mean ED of FNLB was 0.029 mSv, which is approximately equivalent to one chest X-ray. Conclusion: Conventional fluoroscopy is an accurate, safe, and low-dose alternative modality to CT to obtain an image-guided histological diagnosis of pulmonary lesions

  3. Chemical Equilibrium, Unit 2: Le Chatelier's Principle. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A. Keith

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on Le Chatelier's principle includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, instructions for executing the computer program, and…

  4. Split-mouth comparison of the accuracy of computer-generated and conventional surgical guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Nathaniel E; Kennedy, Kelly; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have shown that implant placement is highly predictable with computer-generated surgical guides; however, the reliability of these guides has not been compared to that of conventional guides clinically. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of reproducing planned implant positions with computer-generated and conventional surgical guides using a split-mouth design. Ten patients received two implants each in symmetric locations. All implants were planned virtually using a software program and information from cone beam computed tomographic scans taken with scan appliances in place. Patients were randomly selected for computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)-guided implant placement on their right or left side. Conventional guides were used on the contralateral side. Patients underwent operative cone beam computed tomography postoperatively. Planned and actual implant positions were compared using three-dimensional analyses capable of measuring volume overlap as well as differences in angles and coronal and apical positions. Results were compared using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance and were further analyzed using a Bartlett test for unequal variance (α = .05). Implants placed with CAD/CAM guides were closer to the planned positions in all eight categories examined. However, statistically significant differences were shown only for coronal horizontal distances. It was also shown that CAD/CAM guides had less variability than conventional guides, which was statistically significant for apical distance. Implants placed using CAD/CAM surgical guides provided greater accuracy in a lateral direction than conventional guides. In addition, CAD/CAM guides were more consistent in their deviation from the planned locations than conventional guides.

  5. Comparison of the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and medical computed tomography: implications for clinical diagnostics with guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Marcus; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Orentlicher, Gary; Wahl, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and medical-grade CT in the context of evaluating the diagnostic value and accuracy of fiducial marker localization for reference marker-based guided surgery systems. Cadaver mandibles with attached radiopaque gutta-percha markers, as well as glass balls and composite cylinders of known dimensions, were measured manually with a highly accurate digital caliper. The objects were then scanned using a medical-grade CT scanner (Philips Brilliance 64) and five different CBCT scanners (Sirona Galileos, Morita 3D Accuitomo 80, Vatech PaX-Reve3D, 3M Imtech Iluma, and Planmeca ProMax 3D). The data were then imported into commercially available software, and measurements were made of the scanned markers and objects. CT and CBCT measurements were compared to each other and to the caliper measurements. The difference between the CBCT measurements and the caliper measurements was larger than the difference between the CT measurements and the caliper measurements. Measurements of the cadaver mandible and the geometric reference markers were highly accurate with CT. The average absolute errors of the human mandible measurements were 0.03 mm for CT and 0.23 mm for CBCT. The measurement errors of the geometric objects based on CT ranged between 0.00 and 0.12 mm, compared to an error range between 0.00 and 2.17 mm with the CBCT scanners. CT provided the most accurate images in this study, closely followed by one CBCT of the five tested. Although there were differences in the distance measurements of the hard tissue of the human mandible between CT and CBCT, these differences may not be of clinical significance for most diagnostic purposes. The fiducial marker localization error caused by some CBCT scanners may be a problem for guided surgery systems.

  6. FIRINPC and FIRACPC graphics post-processor support user's guide and programmer's reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, E.

    1992-03-01

    FIRIN is a computer program used by DOE fire protection engineers to simulate hypothetical fire accidents in compartments at DOE facilities. The FIRIN code is typically used in conjunction with a ventilation system code such as FIRAC, which models the impact of the fire compartment upon the rest of the system. The code described here, FIRINPC is a PC based implementation of the full mainframe code FIRIN. In addition, FIRINPC contains graphics support for monitoring the progress of the simulation during execution and for reviewing the complete results of the simulation upon completion of the run. This document describes how to install, test, and subsequently use the code FIRINPC, and addresses differences in usage between the PC version of the code and its mainframe predecessor. The PC version contains all of the modeling capabilities of the earlier version, with additional graphics support. This user's guide is a supplement to the original FIRIN report published by the NRC. FIRAC is a computer program used by DOE fire protection engineers to simulate the transient response of complete ventilation system to fire induced transients. FIRAC has the ability to use the FIRIN code as the driving function or source term for the ventilation system response. The current version of FIRAC does not contain interactive graphics capabilities. A third program, called POST, is made available for reviewing the results of a previous FIRIN or FIRAC simulation, without having to recompute the numerical simulation. POST uses the output data files created by FIRINPC and FIRACPC to avoid recomputation

  7. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Fujita, Matthew K; Andrew, Audra L; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fike, Jennifer A; Tomback, Diana F; Ruggiero, Robert P; Castoe, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (∼3.5-5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana). We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  8. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C.; Schield, Drew R.; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Fujita, Matthre K.; Andrew, Audra L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Tomback, Diana F.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (~3.5–5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana). We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  9. Feasibility and impact of a computer-guided consultation on guideline-based management of COPD in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Robert M; Thompson, Elizabeth B; Davies, Lisa; Trusdale, Ann; Hodgson, Chris; McKnight, Eddie; Davies, Andrew; Pearson, Mike G

    2012-12-01

    Applying guidelines is a universal challenge that is often not met. Intelligent software systems that facilitate real-time management during a clinical interaction may offer a solution. To determine if the use of a computer-guided consultation that facilitates the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidance and prompts clinical decision-making is feasible in primary care and to assess its impact on diagnosis and management in reviews of COPD patients. Practice nurses, one-third of whom had no specific respiratory training, undertook a computer-guided review in the usual consulting room setting using a laptop computer with the screen visible to them and to the patient. A total of 293 patients (mean (SD) age 69.7 (10.1) years, 163 (55.6%) male) with a diagnosis of COPD were randomly selected from GP databases in 16 practices and assessed. Of 236 patients who had spirometry, 45 (19%) did not have airflow obstruction and the guided clinical history changed the primary diagnosis from COPD in a further 24 patients. In the 191 patients with confirmed COPD, the consultations prompted management changes including 169 recommendations for altered prescribing of inhalers (addition or discontinuation, inhaler dose or device). In addition, 47% of the 55 current smokers were referred for smoking cessation support, 12 (6%) for oxygen assessment, and 47 (24%) for pulmonary rehabilitation. Computer-guided consultations are practicable in general practice. Primary care COPD databases were confirmed to contain a significant proportion of incorrectly assigned patients. They resulted in interventions and the rationalisation of prescribing in line with recommendations. Only in 22 (12%) of those fully assessed was no management change suggested. The introduction of a computer-guided consultation offers the prospect of comprehensive guideline quality management.

  10. MSTS Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator User's Guide and Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.

    1993-05-01

    This User's Guide and Reference provides information and instructions on the use of the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) code and the associated MSTS Graphical Input. The MSTS code is used to simulate water flow, air flow, heat transfer, and dilute species mass transport in variably saturated geologic media for one, two, or three dimensions using an integrated finite-difference numerical scheme. Any or all of these processes may be simulated in a fully coupled manner. MSTS is a two-phase, two-component code with secondary processes that include binary diffusion and vapor pressure lowering. The geologic media may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic, and unfractured or highly fractured. A problem geometry may be described by either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. MSTS is written in FORTRAN 77, following the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, and is machine-independent with the exception of some time and date calls required for quality control (provisions are made in the code for relatively easy adoption to a number of machines for these calls).

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Transactive Control of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-29

    This report seeks to characterize the opportunities and challenges that arise in developing a transactive control strategy for grid-EVSE integration in various use-case scenarios in a way that provides end-user, energy market, grid, and societal benefits. A detailed review provides information about EVSE integration market trends and stakeholder activities. This is followed by an exploration of value proposition for transactive control of EVSE at both the home scale and the building/campus scale. This report will serve as a reference guide for stakeholders in the grid-EVSE integration area, illustrate potential implementations, and identify a high-value research project for overcoming the barriers and unlocking the benefits of transactive controls of EVSE. While it is not intended to specify the technical details of the transactive control solution, the report contains a list of use cases describing potential applications of transactive control of EVSE, barriers to implementing these applications, and research and development (R&D) opportunities to overcome the barriers. The use cases of transactive control of EVSE are listed in Table ES1.

  12. MSTS. Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator User`s Guide and Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.

    1993-05-01

    This User`s Guide and Reference provides information and instructions on the use of the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) code and the associated MSTS Graphical Input. The MSTS code is used to simulate water flow, air flow, heat transfer, and dilute species mass transport in variably saturated geologic media for one, two, or three dimensions using an integrated finite-difference numerical scheme. Any or all of these processes may be simulated in a fully coupled manner. MSTS is a two-phase, two-component code with secondary processes that include binary diffusion and vapor pressure lowering. The geologic media may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic, and unfractured or highly fractured. A problem geometry may be described by either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. MSTS is written in FORTRAN 77, following the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, and is machine-independent with the exception of some time and date calls required for quality control (provisions are made in the code for relatively easy adoption to a number of machines for these calls).

  13. An Overview of the Most Important Reference Architectures for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the main characteristics of the most important reference archi-tectures designed for the cloud computing environment. Specifically, we have introduced the proposed architectures of the worldwide cloud computing companies like Cisco, IBM and VMware and we also had a look at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST reference architecture which is the starting point for all proposed architectures in the field. As one would expect, the provider dependent reference architectures are written is such a way to suit the services and products of the company, while NIST’s architecture is a more general model with more comprehensive architectural details that we highlighted in this article. In the end of the article we draw out some conclusions regarding the existing reference architectures for cloud computing.

  14. Documentation and user's guide for DOSTOMAN: a pathways computer model of radionuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the mathematical development and the computer implementation of the Savannah River Laboratory computer code used to simulate radonuclide movement in the environment. The user's guide provides all the necessary information for the prospective user to input the required data, execute the computer program, and display the results

  15. Entomology for Agricultural Science II Core Curriculum. Instructor Guide, Volume 23, Number 2, and Student Reference, Volume 23, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, Karen L.

    This unit is a basic introduction to entomology. The instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain seven lessons: (1) introduction to entomology; (2) insect collection; (3) insect identification; (4) methods of control; (5) chemical control measures; (6) safe use of insecticides; and (7) integrated pest management. Students…

  16. SEE Action Guide for States: Guidance on Establishing and Maintaining Technical Reference Manuals for Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this guide is to support the development, maintenance, and use of accurate and reliable Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs). TRMs provide information primarily used for estimating the energy and demand savings of end-use energy efficiency measures associated with utility customer-funded efficiency programs.

  17. Introduction to Animal Nutrition. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 7 [and] Volume 28, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain five lessons about animal science for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover these topics: the monogastric digestive system, the ruminant digestive system, the importance of meeting nutritional needs, how…

  18. Introduction to Animal Reproduction. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 5 [and] Volume 28, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain seven lessons about animal reproduction for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover the following topics: the male and female reproductive systems, puberty and the estrous cycle, conception and gestation,…

  19. Specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference genome-guided false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Sven H; Zickmann, Franziska; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation, comparison and evaluation of read mapping error rates is a crucial step in the processing of next-generation sequencing data, as further analysis steps and interpretation assume the correctness of the mapping results. Current approaches are either focused on sensitivity estimation and thereby disregard specificity or are based on read simulations. Although continuously improving, read simulations are still prone to introduce a bias into the mapping error quantitation and cannot capture all characteristics of an individual dataset. We introduce ARDEN (artificial reference driven estimation of false positives in next-generation sequencing data), a novel benchmark method that estimates error rates of read mappers based on real experimental reads, using an additionally generated artificial reference genome. It allows a dataset-specific computation of error rates and the construction of a receiver operating characteristic curve. Thereby, it can be used for optimization of parameters for read mappers, selection of read mappers for a specific problem or for filtering alignments based on quality estimation. The use of ARDEN is demonstrated in a general read mapper comparison, a parameter optimization for one read mapper and an application example in single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery with a significant reduction in the number of false positive identifications. The ARDEN source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arden/.

  20. Computer tomography guided lung biopsy using interactive breath-hold control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Krag-Andersen, Shella; Naqibullah, Matiullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interactive breath-hold control (IBC) may improve the accuracy and decrease the complication rate of computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsy, but this presumption has not been proven in a randomized study. Methods: Patients admitted for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomized...

  1. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  2. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous gastrostomy: initial experience at a cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Santos, Erich Frank Vater; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Chojniak, Rubens [A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (HUCAM/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Morais. Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2017-03-15

    Gastrostomy is indicated for patients with conditions that do not allow adequate oral nutrition. To reduce the morbidity and costs associated with the procedure, there is a trend toward the use of percutaneous gastrostomy, guided by endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or, most recently, computed tomography. The purpose of this paper was to review the computed tomography-guided gastrostomy procedure, as well as the indications for its use and the potential complications. (author)

  3. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous gastrostomy: initial experience at a cancer center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Santos, Erich Frank Vater; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Chojniak, Rubens; Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo

    2017-01-01

    Gastrostomy is indicated for patients with conditions that do not allow adequate oral nutrition. To reduce the morbidity and costs associated with the procedure, there is a trend toward the use of percutaneous gastrostomy, guided by endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or, most recently, computed tomography. The purpose of this paper was to review the computed tomography-guided gastrostomy procedure, as well as the indications for its use and the potential complications. (author)

  4. The NUSS safety guides in design and the use of computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1986-01-01

    After a brief summary of the NUSS programme, the two design guides are discussed which deal with instrumentation and control circuitry. The potential use of computers is covered differently in these guides because of the historical development and more importantly because of the difference in importance to safety of the I and C systems which are dealt with in these papers. The Agency would consider modifications to the existing guides only when sufficient consensus about the use of computers would warrant a revision of the documents. (author)

  5. Digital Workflow for Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Edentulous Patients: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Hyeon; An, Xueyin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a fully digital workflow used to perform computer-guided flapless implant placement in an edentulous patient without the use of conventional impressions, models, or a radiographic guide. Digital data for the workflow were acquired using an intraoral scanner and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The image fusion of the intraoral scan data and CBCT data was performed by matching resin markers placed in the patient's mouth. The definitive digital data were used to design a prosthetically driven implant position, surgical template, and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing fabricated fixed dental prosthesis. The authors believe this is the first published case describing such a technique in computer-guided flapless implant surgery for edentulous patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A guide for the selection of computer assisted mapping (CAM) and facilities informations systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslin, S.; Baxter, P.; Jarvis, L.

    1980-12-01

    Many distribution engineers are now aware that computer assisted mapping (CAM) and facilities informations systems are probably the most significant breakthrough to date in computer applications for distribution engineering. The Canadian Electrical Asociation (CEA) recognized this and requested engineers of B.C. Hydro make a study of the state of the art in Canadian utilities and the progress of CAM systems on an international basis. The purpose was to provide a guide to assist Canadian utility distribution engineers faced with the problem of studying the application of CAM systems as an alternative to present methods, consideration being given to the long-term and other benefits that were perhaps not apparent for those approaching this field for the first time. It soon became apparent that technology was developing at a high rate and competition in the market was very strong. Also a number of publications were produced by other sources which adequately covered the scope of this study. This report is thus a collection of references to reports, manuals, and other documents with a few considerations provided for those companies interested in exploring further the use of interactive graphics. 24 refs.

  7. Invasive Plants Field and Reference Guide: An Ecological Perspective of Plant Invaders of Forests and Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Cassandra Olson; Heather C. Smith; Heather C. Smith

    2005-01-01

    There are many field guides available about invasive plants and their identification. The purpose of this particular field guide is to give a scientific synthesis of what is known about the behavior of such species in managed, disturbed, and pristine forested systems in addition to key information for accurate identification.

  8. The role of computers in developing countries with reference to East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayo, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    The role of computers in economic and technological development is examined with particular reference to developing countries. It is stressed that these countries must exploit the potential of computers in their strive to catch-up in the development race. The shortage of qualified EDP personnel is singled out as one of the most critical factors in any unsatisfactory state of computer applications. A computerization policy based on the demands for information by the sophistication of the development process, and supported by a sufficient core of qualified local manpower, is recommended. The situation in East Africa is discussed and recommendations for training and production of telematics equipment are made. (author)

  9. An algorithm to compute a rule for division problems with multiple references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Sánchez, Francisca J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider an extension of the classic division problem with claims: Thedivision problem with multiple references. Hinojosa et al. (2012 provide a solution for this type of pro-blems. The aim of this work is to extend their results by proposing an algorithm that calculates allocationsbased on these results. All computational details are provided in the paper.

  10. Computing Relative Free Energies of Solvation using Single Reference Thermodynamic Integration Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Wallqvist, Anders

    2010-11-09

    This paper introduces an efficient single-topology variant of Thermodynamic Integration (TI) for computing relative transformation free energies in a series of molecules with respect to a single reference state. The presented TI variant that we refer to as Single-Reference TI (SR-TI) combines well-established molecular simulation methodologies into a practical computational tool. Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange (HREX), the SR-TI variant can deliver enhanced sampling in select degrees of freedom. The utility of the SR-TI variant is demonstrated in calculations of relative solvation free energies for a series of benzene derivatives with increasing complexity. Noteworthy, the SR-TI variant with the HREX option provides converged results in a challenging case of an amide molecule with a high (13-15 kcal/mol) barrier for internal cis/trans interconversion using simulation times of only 1 to 4 ns.

  11. Mirror neurons and imitation: a computationally guided review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Neurophysiology reveals the properties of individual mirror neurons in the macaque while brain imaging reveals the presence of 'mirror systems' (not individual neurons) in the human. Current conceptual models attribute high level functions such as action understanding, imitation, and language to mirror neurons. However, only the first of these three functions is well-developed in monkeys. We thus distinguish current opinions (conceptual models) on mirror neuron function from more detailed computational models. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current computational models in addressing the data and speculations on mirror neurons (macaque) and mirror systems (human). In particular, our mirror neuron system (MNS), mental state inference (MSI) and modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) models are analyzed in more detail. Conceptual models often overlook the computational requirements for posited functions, while too many computational models adopt the erroneous hypothesis that mirror neurons are interchangeable with imitation ability. Our meta-analysis underlines the gap between conceptual and computational models and points out the research effort required from both sides to reduce this gap.

  12. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of deep seated bone lesions in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Sakaida, M.; Yamada, M.; Akiyama, H.; Takai, Y.; Sakai, H.; Maruo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies were undertaken for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma in the pelvis (case 1) and myeloma (case 2) in the seventh lumber vertebra which were difficult to targeted by palpation, ultrasound or fluoroscopy. In both cases, enough tissue for pathological diagnosis were obtained without any complication. CT-guided biopsy was thought to be a safe, easy and effective technique for the evaluation of the deep seated bone lesion

  13. Implementing an inclusive staffing model for today's reference services a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Nims, Julia K; Stevens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Reference service remains a core function of modern libraries. However, how and where we provide assistance has evolved with changing technologies and the shifting habits and preferences of our users. One way libraries can provide the on-demand, in-person assistance while managing and developing new services and resources that will benefit current and future users is to reconsider how their reference points and services are staffed and adopt a staff-based reference model. In Implementing an Inclusive Staffing Model for Today's Reference Services, Nims, Storm, and Stevens describe step-by-step

  14. The Poor Man's Guide to Computer Networks and their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2003-01-01

    These notes for DTU course 02220, Concurrent Programming, give an introduction to computer networks, with focus on the modern Internet. Basic Internet protocols such as IP, TCP and UDP are presented, and two Internet application protocols, SMTP and HTTP, are described in some detail. Techniques...

  15. CEL-1 Lighting Computer Program - Programmer’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    COMPLETING FORM I REPORT NumeR .2 GOUT ACCESSION NO. 1. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CR 83.009� 4TITLE (Id Subt.II.) F HIf REOTAPIDCVRD CEL-1 Light...contribution due to the "bright spots" gene - rated in OVLY20 may be considered the "first bounce" effect. The ceiling contribution computed here in

  16. Checklist/Guide to Selecting a Small Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Wilma E.

    This 322-point checklist was designed to help executives make an intelligent choice when selecting a small computer for a business. For ease of use the questions have been divided into ten categories: Display Features, Keyboard Features, Printer Features, Controller Features, Software, Word Processing, Service, Training, Miscellaneous, and Costs.…

  17. Robust localisation of automated guided vehicles for computer-integrated manufacturing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As industry moves toward an era of complete automation and mass customisation, automated guided vehicles (AGVs are used as material handling systems. However, the current techniques that provide navigation, control, and manoeuvrability of automated guided vehicles threaten to create bottlenecks and inefficiencies in manufacturing environments that strive towards the optimisation of part production. This paper proposes a decentralised localisation technique for an automated guided vehicle without any non-holonomic constraints. Incorporation of these vehicles into the material handling system of a computer-integrated manufacturing environment would increase the characteristics of robustness, efficiency, flexibility, and advanced manoeuvrability.

  18. Environmental Guide Value (VGE) and specific reference values (QS) for uranium. Synthesis and elements for application to French fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of works performed to determine criteria of protection of continental aquatic ecosystems with respect to uranium. These works resulted in the determination of an environmental guide value (VGE) for the assessment of the ecological and chemical condition of waters. Other specific reference values have been determined to be used in risk assessment: average annual concentration, maximum admissible concentration. After a recall of the methodology adopted for the determination of VGE in the case of uranium, the report discusses the specific reference values in the case of uranium for different organisms, for predators, for the protection of human health against a risk of exposure by consumption of fished products or drinkable water. The determination of VGE and its application are reported, and its consistency with the criterion of radiation protection of the environment applied to water and sediments is discussed. The determination of specific reference values is then discussed

  19. Your Guide to Meebo Options: Virtual Reference Summer Meltdown and Fall Shakeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, William

    2012-01-01

    Competition in the virtual reference market got really hot this past summer. Recent developments in virtual reference offerings suggest the market is much more dynamic than most people would have imagined a short time ago. With Google's acquisition of Meebo and its subsequent decision to shut down the chat widget service, many libraries scrambled…

  20. Making sense of business reference a guide for librarians and research professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Celia

    2013-01-01

    A detailed bibliography functions as both a standing reference for desk use as well as a collection development aid for building a core business collection. Including numerous illustrative case studies, Making Sense of Business Reference takes the guesswork out of doing business.

  1. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide [and] Student Activity Book [and] Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    These three publications comprise a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the multifaceted hospitality services industry. The curriculum guide is the teacher component of the series. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS); sample course outlines;…

  2. ALA Fingertip Guide to National Health-Information Resources. 1995-1996 Reference Desk Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Beatrice

    In response to a growing need for personal health and fitness information, this guide provides the telephone numbers and addresses of organizations serving public information interests. Features include: alphabetical entries for 404 organizations from AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service, Air Ambulance America to Visiting Nurse Association of…

  3. Automated Circulation Systems in Libraries Serving the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Reference Guide for Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Judith; And Others

    Designed to facilitate communications in future automation projects between library and data processing personnel, especially those projects involving the use of automated systems in the service of disabled patrons, this guide identifies and describes a master set of major circulation system requirements and design considerations, and illustrates…

  4. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Liver Cancer Using Respiratory-Correlated Computed Tomography and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Wilbert, Juergen; Krieger, Thomas; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Mueller, Gerd; Sauer, Otto; Flentje, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel four-dimensional (4D) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) technique in stereotactic body RT for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: For 11 patients with 13 intrahepatic tumors, a respiratory-correlated 4D computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired at treatment planning. The target was defined using CT series reconstructed at end-inhalation and end-exhalation. The liver was delineated on these two CT series and served as a reference for image guidance. A cone-beam CT scan was acquired after patient positioning; the blurred diaphragm dome was interpreted as a probability density function showing the motion range of the liver. Manual contour matching of the liver structures from the planning 4D CT scan with the cone-beam CT scan was performed. Inter- and intrafractional uncertainties of target position and motion range were evaluated, and interobserver variability of the 4D-IGRT technique was tested. Results: The workflow of 4D-IGRT was successfully practiced in all patients. The absolute error in the liver position and error in relation to the bony anatomy was 8 ± 4 mm and 5 ± 2 mm (three-dimensional vector), respectively. Margins of 4-6 mm were calculated for compensation of the intrafractional drifts of the liver. The motion range of the diaphragm dome was reproducible within 5 mm for 11 of 13 lesions, and the interobserver variability of the 4D-IGRT technique was small (standard deviation, 1.5 mm). In 4 patients, the position of the intrahepatic lesion was directly verified using a mobile in-room CT scanner after application of intravenous contrast. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that 4D image guidance using liver contour matching between respiratory-correlated CT and cone-beam CT scans increased the accuracy compared with stereotactic positioning and compared with IGRT without consideration of breathing motion

  5. Computer-guided total synthesis of natural products: Recent examples and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della-Felice, Franco; Pilli, Ronaldo A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química; Sarotti, Ariel M., E-mail: pilli@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: sarotti@iquir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional de Rosario-CONICET (Argentina)

    2018-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts and coupling constants have been extensively employed in recent years mainly to facilitate structural elucidation of organic molecules. When the results of such calculations are used to determine the most likely structure of a natural product in advance, guiding the subsequent synthetic work, the term 'computer-guided synthesis' could be coined. This review article describes the most relevant examples from recent literature, highlighting the scope and limitations of this merged computational/experimental approach as well. (author)

  6. Computer-guided total synthesis of natural products: Recent examples and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della-Felice, Franco; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts and coupling constants have been extensively employed in recent years mainly to facilitate structural elucidation of organic molecules. When the results of such calculations are used to determine the most likely structure of a natural product in advance, guiding the subsequent synthetic work, the term 'computer-guided synthesis' could be coined. This review article describes the most relevant examples from recent literature, highlighting the scope and limitations of this merged computational/experimental approach as well. (author)

  7. Computed-tomography-guided anatomic standardization for quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kota [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Kaoru; Sone, Daichi; Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Youhei; Murata, Miho [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson's disease (PD) would lead to a deformation error when using a DaTscan-specific template without any structural information. To avoid this deformation error, we applied computed tomography (CT) data obtained using SPECT/CT equipment to anatomic standardization. We retrospectively analyzed DaTscan images of 130 patients with parkinsonian syndromes (PS), including 80 PD and 50 non-PD patients. First we segmented gray matter from CT images using statistical parametric mapping 12 (SPM12). These gray-matter images were then anatomically standardized using the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Next, DaTscan images were warped with the same parameters used in the CT anatomic standardization. The target striatal VOIs for decreased DAT in PD were generated from the SPM12 group comparison of 20 DaTscan images from each group. We applied these VOIs to DaTscan images of the remaining patients in both groups and calculated the specific binding ratios (SBRs) using nonspecific counts in a reference area. In terms of the differential diagnosis of PD and non-PD groups using SBR, we compared the present method with two other methods, DaTQUANT and DaTView, which have already been released as software programs for the quantitative assessment of DaTscan images. The SPM12 group comparison showed a significant DAT decrease in PD patients in the bilateral whole striatum. Of the three methods assessed, the present CT-guided method showed the greatest power for discriminating PD and non-PD groups, as it completely separated the two groups. CT-guided anatomic standardization using

  8. Wireless Cloud Computing on Guided Missile Destroyers: A Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cloud Computing Network (WCCN) onboard Guided Missile Destroyers (DDGs) utilizing tablet computers. It compares the life cycle costs of WCCNs utilizing tablet computers over a mixed network of thin clients and desktop computers. Currently, the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) program will install both thin clients and desktops on board new and old DDGs to implement the unclassified portion of its network. The main cost benefits of tablets will be realized through energy savings and an increase in productivity. The net present value of tablets is

  9. Reference Tools for Data Processing, Office Automation, and Data Communications: An Introductory Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupoli, Patricia Dymkar

    1981-01-01

    Provides an introduction to various reference sources which are useful in dealing with the areas of data processing, office automation, and communications technologies. A bibliography with vendor listings is included. (FM)

  10. Long-term pavement performance ancillary information management system (AIMS) reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This document provides information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program ancillary information. : Ancillary information includes data, images, reference materials, resource documents, and other information that : support and extend the...

  11. Y.O.O. Rock Columbia County: development of a volunteer reference guide for families, children, and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Benner, Eleanor; Weeks, Meghan

    2012-05-01

     Y.O.O. Rock Columbia County Youth Outreach Opportunities for Families Children, and Youth (Waibel-Duncan & Gillam, 2009) represents our nonurban county's first organized effort to systematically identify and promote awareness of volunteer and outreach opportunities for families, children, and youth. In addition to describing Y.O.O. Rock's development, this article summarizes feedback from parents, professionals, and paraprofessionals and outlines their recommendations for the second edition of the guide. Issue briefs from the Corporation for National & Community Service (2005, 2006, 2008) suggest the need for reference guides like Y.O.O. Rock insofar as they document limited volunteer and outreach opportunities for young children as well as the family's role in engaging children in service to others. This article will inform others who seek to increase families', children's, and youth's awareness of volunteer activities and outreach opportunities in their communities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Practical guide to gender diversity for computer science faculty

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Computer science faces a continuing crisis in the lack of females pursuing and succeeding in the field. Companies may suffer due to reduced product quality, students suffer because educators have failed to adjust to diverse populations, and future generations suffer due to a lack of role models and continued challenges in the environment. In this book, we draw on the latest research in sociology, psychology, and education to first identify why we should be striving for gender diversity (beyond social justice), refuting misconceptions about the differing potentials between females and males. We

  13. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2010-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms-those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR(TM). NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros(TM). The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference

  14. Comparison of computed tomography scout based reference point localization to conventional film and axial computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Templeton, Alistair; Turian, Julius; Kirk, Michael; Zusag, Thomas; Chu, James C H

    2011-01-01

    Identification of source positions after implantation is an important step in brachytherapy planning. Reconstruction is traditionally performed from films taken by conventional simulators, but these are gradually being replaced in the clinic by computed tomography (CT) simulators. The present study explored the use of a scout image-based reconstruction algorithm that replaces the use of traditional film, while exhibiting low sensitivity to metal-induced artifacts that can appear in 3D CT methods. In addition, the accuracy of an in-house graphical software implementation of scout-based reconstruction was compared with seed location reconstructions for 2 phantoms by conventional simulator and CT measurements. One phantom was constructed using a planar fixed grid of 1.5-mm diameter ball bearings (BBs) with 40-mm spacing. The second was a Fletcher-Suit applicator embedded in Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) with one 3.2-mm-diameter BB inserted into each of 6 surrounding holes. Conventional simulator, kilovoltage CT (kVCT), megavoltage CT, and scout-based methods were evaluated by their ability to calculate the distance between seeds (40 mm for the fixed grid, 30-120 mm in Fletcher-Suit). All methods were able to reconstruct the fixed grid distances with an average deviation of <1%. The worst single deviations (approximately 6%) were exhibited in the 2 volumetric CT methods. In the Fletcher-Suit phantom, the intermodality agreement was within approximately 3%, with the conventional sim measuring marginally larger distances, with kVCT the smallest. All of the established reconstruction methods exhibited similar abilities to detect the distances between BBs. The 3D CT-based methods, with lower axial resolution, showed more variation, particularly with the smaller BBs. With a software implementation, scout-based reconstruction is an appealing approach because it simplifies data acquisition over film-based reconstruction without requiring any specialized equipment

  15. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  16. Apollo for Adobe Flex Developers Pocket Guide A Developer's Reference for Apollo's Alpha Release

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Swartz, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Now you can build and deploy Flash-based Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) to the desktop using Adobe's Flex framework. Written by members of the Apollo product team, this is the official guide to the Alpha release of Adobe Apollo, the new cross platform desktop runtime from Adobe Labs. Numerous examples illustrate how Apollo works so you can start building RIAs for the desktop right away.

  17. Integrated Markov-neural reliability computation method: A case for multiple automated guided vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed; Saidi-Mehrabad, Mohammad; Balakrishnan, Jaydeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approaches to compute reliability of a system. While states of failure occurrences are significant elements for accurate reliability computation, Markovian based reliability assessment method is designed. Due to drawbacks shown by Markovian model for steady state reliability computations and neural network for initial training pattern, integration being called Markov-neural is developed and evaluated. To show efficiency of the proposed approach comparative analyses are performed. Also, for managerial implication purpose an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks is conducted. - Highlights: • Integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approach to compute reliability. • Markovian based reliability assessment method. • Managerial implication is shown in an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks

  18. Steerability Analysis of Tracked Vehicles: Theory and User’s Guide for Computer Program TVSTEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Baladi , Donald E. Barnes, Rebecca P. BergerC oStructures Laboratory NDEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ___ Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers . U P0 Box...Analysis of Tracked Vehicles: Theory and User’s Guide for Computer Program TVSTEER - 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Baladi , George Y., Barnes, Donald E...mathematical model was formulated by Drs. George Y. Baladi and Behzad Rohani. The logic and computer programming were accomplished by Dr. Baladi and

  19. Interactive Computer Lessons for Introductory Economics: Guided Inquiry-From Supply and Demand to Women in the Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John; Weil, Gordon

    1986-01-01

    The interactive feature of computers is used to incorporate a guided inquiry method of learning introductory economics, extending the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) method beyond drills. (Author/JDH)

  20. Development of customized positioning guides using computer-aided design and manufacturing technology for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a method for producing customized positioning guides for translating virtual plans to actual orthognathic surgery, and evaluation of the feasibility and validity of the devised method. Patients requiring two-jaw orthognathic surgery were enrolled and consented before operation. Two types of positioning guides were designed and fabricated using computer-aided design and manufacturing technology: One of the guides was used for the LeFort I osteotomy, and the other guide was used for positioning the maxillomandibular complex. The guides were fixed to the medial side of maxilla. For validation, the simulation images and postoperative cone beam computed tomography images were superimposed using surface registration to quantify the difference between the images. The data were presented in root-mean-square difference (RMSD) values. Both sets of guides were experienced to provide ideal fit and maximal contact to the maxillary surface to facilitate their accurate management in clinical applications. The validation results indicated that RMSD values between the images ranged from 0.18 to 0.33 mm in the maxilla and from 0.99 to 1.56 mm in the mandible. The patients were followed up for 6 months or more, and all of them were satisfied with the results. The proposed customized positioning guides are practical and reliable for translation of virtual plans to actual surgery. Furthermore, these guides improved the efficiency and outcome of surgery. This approach is uncomplicated in design, cost-effective in fabrication, and particularly convenient to use.

  1. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  2. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  3. Guide to Spoken-Word Recordings: Popular Literature. Reference Circular No. 95-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This reference circular contains selected sources for the purchase, rental, or loan of fiction and nonfiction spoken-word recordings. The sources in sections 1, 2, and 3 are commercial and, unless otherwise noted, offer abridged and unabridged titles on audio cassette. Sources in section 1 make available popular fiction; classics; poetry; drama;…

  4. Evaluating Remote Reference Service: A Practical Guide to Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Mon, Lorri; McClure, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies key methodological issues affecting quality of data in the evaluation of remote reference services. Despite a growing number of studies in this area, no comprehensive effort has been made to identify potential problems and suggest solutions. The strategies proposed in this paper offer practical ways in which libraries can…

  5. Users guide for NRC145-2 accident assessment computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.

    1982-08-01

    An accident assessment computer code has been developed for use at the Savannah River Plant. This computer code is based upon NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 which provides guidence for accident assessements for power reactors. The code contains many options so that the user may utilize the code for many different assessments. For example the code can be used for non-nuclear assessments such as Sulpher Dioxide which may be required by the EPA. A discription of the code is contained in DP-1646. This document is a compilation of step-by-step instructions on how to use the code on the SRP IBM 3308 computer. This document consists of a number of tables which contain copies of computer listings. Some of the computer listings are copies of input; other listings give examples of computer output

  6. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors: results and correlation with surgical specimen analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Grigio, Henrique Ramos; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Pinto, Paula Nicole Vieira; Tyng, Chiang J.; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Aguiar Junior, Samuel; Lopes, Ademar, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors in obtaining appropriate samples for histological analysis, and compare its diagnosis with the results of the surgical pathology as available. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed medical records, imaging and histological reports of 262 patients with soft-tissue tumors submitted to CT-guided core needle biopsy in an oncologic reference center between 2003 and 2009. Results: Appropriate samples were obtained in 215 (82.1%) out of the 262 patients. The most prevalent tumors were sarcomas (38.6%), metastatic carcinomas (28.8%), benign mesenchymal tumors (20.5%) and lymphomas (9.3%). Histological grading was feasible in 92.8% of sarcoma patients, with the majority of them (77.9%) being classified as high grade tumors. Out of the total sample, 116 patients (44.3%) underwent surgical excision and diagnosis confirmation. Core biopsy demonstrated 94.6% accuracy in the identification of sarcomas, with 96.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. A significant intermethod agreement about histological grading was observed between core biopsy and surgical resection (p < 0.001; kappa = 0.75). Conclusion: CT-guided core needle biopsy demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors as well as in the histological grading of sarcomas, allowing an appropriate therapeutic planning (author)

  7. Impact on Dose Coefficients Calculated with ICRP Adult Mesh-type Reference Computational Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Choi, Chan Soo; Lee, Han Jin; Han, Hae Gin; Han, Min Cheol; Shin, Bang Ho; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In 2016, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) formulated a new Task Group (TG) (i.e., TG 103) within Committee 2. The ultimate aim of the TG 103 is to develop the mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) that can address dosimetric limitations of the currently used voxel-type reference computational phantoms (VRCPs) due to their limited voxel resolutions. The objective of the present study is to investigate dosimetric impact of the adult MRCPs by comparing dose coefficients (DCs) calculated with the MRCPs for some external and internal exposure cases and the reference DCs in ICRP Publications 116 and 133 that were produced with the adult VRCPs. In the present study, the DCs calculated with the adult MRCPs for some exposure cases were compared with the values in ICRP Publications 116 and 133. This comparison shows that in general the MRCPs provide very similar DCs for uncharged particles, but for charged particles provide significantly different DCs due to the improvement of the MRCPs.

  8. Apps for Angiosperms: The Usability of Mobile Computers and Printed Field Guides for UK Wild Flower and Winter Tree Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated usability of mobile computers and field guide books with adult botanical novices, for the identification of wildflowers and deciduous trees in winter. Identification accuracy was significantly higher for wildflowers using a mobile computer app than field guide books but significantly lower for deciduous trees. User preference…

  9. Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Johnson, J.D.; Blond, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems

  10. A stylized computational model of the head for the reference Japanese male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Hoshi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Computational models of human anatomy, along with Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, have been used by Snyder et al. [MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, revised (The Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1978)], Cristy and Eckerman [ORNL/TM-8381/VI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1987)] and Zubal et al. [Med. Phys. 21, 299-302 (1994)] to estimate internal organ doses from internal and external radiation sources. These were created using physiological data from Caucasoid subjects but not from other races. There is a need for research to determine whether the obvious differences from the Caucasoid anatomy make these models unsuitable for estimating the absorbed dose in other races such as the Mongoloid. We used the cranial region of the adult Japanese male to represent the Mongoloid race. This region contains organs that are highly sensitive to radiation. The cranial region of a physical phantom produced by KYOTO KAGAKU Co., LTD. using numerical data from a Japanese Reference Man [Tanaka, Nippon Acta. Radiol. 48, 509-513 (1988)] was used to supply the data for the geometry of a stylized computational model. Our computational model was constructed with equations rather than voxel-based, in order to deal with as small a number of parameters as possible in the computer simulation experiment. The accuracy of our computational model was checked by comparing simulated experimental results obtained with MCNP4C with actual doses measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) inside the physical phantom from which our computational model was constructed. The TLDs, whose margin of error is less than ±10%, were arranged at six positions. Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The irradiated dose was 2 Gy in terms of air kerma. In the computer simulation experiments, we used our computational model and Cristy's computational model, whose component data are those of the tissue substitute materials and of the human body as published in ICRU Report 46. The

  11. Three-dimensional digitizer (neuronavigator): new equipment for computed tomography-guided stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Watanabe, T; Manaka, S; Mayanagi, Y; Takakura, K

    1987-06-01

    A new device was invented as an adjunct for computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotaxic or open neurosurgery. It is composed of a multijoint three-dimensional digitizer (sensor arm) and a microcomputer, which indicates the place of the sensor arm tip on preoperative CT images. Computed tomography scan is performed preoperatively with three markers placed on the nasion and ears. At surgery, after fixing the patient's head and the sensor arm, sampling of the standard points was done to translate the position of the tip of the sensor arm onto the CT images displayed on a computer screen. In this way positional data from conventional preoperative CT scan can be directly transferred into the surgical field. This system has the unique feature of introducing CT-guided stereotaxis into conventional open neurosurgery.

  12. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic masses using pneumodissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jeng Tyng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the technique of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic tumors with pneumodissection. Materials and Methods In the period from June 2011 to May 2012, seven computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsies of pancreatic tumors utilizing pneumodissection were performed in the authors' institution. All the procedures were performed with an automatic biopsy gun and coaxial system with Tru-core needles. The biopsy specimens were histologically assessed. Results In all the cases the pancreatic mass could not be directly approached by computed tomography without passing through major organs and structures. The injection of air allowed the displacement of adjacent structures and creation of a safe coaxial needle pathway toward the lesion. Biopsy was successfully performed in all the cases, yielding appropriate specimens for pathological analysis. Conclusion Pneumodissection is a safe, inexpensive and technically easy approach to perform percutaneous biopsy in selected cases where direct access to the pancreatic tumor is not feasible.

  13. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic masses using pneumodissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Arruda; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira; Martins, Eduardo Bruno Lobato; Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka Matushita; Chojniak, Rubens; Coimbra, Felipe Jose Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to describe the technique of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic tumors with pneumodissection. Materials and methods: in the period from June 2011 to May 2012, seven computed tomography guided percutaneous biopsies of pancreatic tumors utilizing pneumodissection were performed in the authors' institution. All the procedures were performed with an automatic biopsy gun and coaxial system with Tru-core needles. The biopsy specimens were histologically assessed. Results: in all the cases the pancreatic mass could not be directly approached by computed tomography without passing through major organs and structures. The injection of air allowed the displacement of adjacent structures and creation of a safe coaxial needle pathway toward the lesion. Biopsy was successfully performed in all the cases, yielding appropriate specimens for pathological analysis. Conclusion: Pneumodissection is a safe, inexpensive and technically easy approach to perform percutaneous biopsy in selected cases where direct access to the pancreatic tumor is not feasible. (author)

  14. [Guided and computer-assisted implant surgery and prosthetic: The continuous digital workflow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, D; Vaysse, J

    2016-02-01

    New continuous digital workflow protocols of guided and computer-assisted implant surgery improve accuracy of implant positioning. The design of the future prosthesis is based on the available prosthetic space, gingival height and occlusal relationship with the opposing and adjacent teeth. The implant position and length depend on volume, density and bone quality, gingival height, tooth-implant and implant-implant distances, implant parallelism, axis and type of the future prosthesis. The crown modeled on the software will therefore serve as a guide to the future implant axis and not the reverse. The guide is made by 3D printing. The software determines surgical protocol with the drilling sequences. The unitary or plural prosthesis, modeled on the software and built before surgery, is loaded directly after implant placing, if needed. These protocols allow for a full continuity of the digital workflow. The software provides the surgeon and the dental technician a total freedom for the prosthetic-surgery guide design and the position of the implants. The prosthetic project, occlusal and aesthetic, taking the bony and surgical constraints into account, is optimized. The implant surgery is simplified and becomes less "stressful" for the patient and the surgeon. Guided and computer-assisted surgery with continuous digital workflow is becoming the technique of choice to improve the accuracy and quality of implant rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining de novo and reference-guided assembly with scaffold_builder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.G.; Dutilh, B.E.; Matthews, T.D.; Elkins, K.; Schmieder, R.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Edwards, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing has become routine, however genome assembly still remains a challenge despite the computational advances in the last decade. In particular, the abundance of repeat elements in genomes makes it difficult to assemble them into a single complete sequence. Identical repeats shorter

  16. Abdominal ultrasound referred by the Emergency department – Can sonographer findings help guide timely patient management?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Michal; Bloesch, Justin; Lombardo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sonographer findings with radiologists' reports regarding the level of agreement, ability to answer the clinical question, and the use of hedging (descriptive words that do not commit to a definitive diagnosis) in abdominal ultrasound cases referred by the Emergency department. Other criteria compared included caveats of image quality and requests for further investigations. Methods: Abdominal ultrasound examinations referred by the Emergency department at a large regional tertiary hospital were retrospectively reviewed and sonographer findings compared with radiologists' reports. A consultant Intensivist scored all examinations into one of four categories according to the level of diagnostic agreement between the sonographer and associated radiologists. The same rater also identified where hedging terminology was used, whether the clinical question posed was answered and when further requests for investigations (including imaging) were made. The proportion of scores between sonographers and radiologists for each outcome variable were analysed using Fisher Exact tests. Results: Eighty-six cases were identified for this study. Of those, 73 (84.9%) were in complete agreement. In 12 cases (14.0%) a minor discrepancy was reported and only one case (1.1%) was scored as moderately discrepant between sonographers findings and radiologists' reports. There were no significant differences in the use of hedging, ability to answer the clinical question, requests for further investigations or interpretation of image quality. Conclusion: Sonographer findings for cases of abdominal ultrasound referred by the Emergency department have a high level of agreement with radiologists' reports and could form the basis for acute patient care when radiologists' reports are unavailable

  17. Planetary Mission Entry Vehicles Quick Reference Guide. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carol; Arcadi, Marla

    2006-01-01

    This is Version 3.0 of the planetary mission entry vehicle document. Three new missions, Re-entry F, Hayabusa, and ARD have been added to t he previously published edition (Version 2.1). In addition, the Huyge ns mission has been significantly updated and some Apollo data correc ted. Due to the changing nature of planetary vehicles during the desi gn, manufacture and mission phases, and to the variables involved in measurement and computation, please be aware that the data provided h erein cannot be guaranteed. Contact Carol Davies at cdavies@mail.arc. nasa.gov to correct or update the current data, or to suggest other missions.

  18. Accuracy of computer-guided implantation in a human cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatzkair, Gustavo; Cheng, Alice; Brodie, Stan; Raviv, Eli; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    To examine the accuracy of computer-guided implantation using a human cadaver model with reduced experimental variability. Twenty-eight (28) dental implants representing 12 clinical cases were placed in four cadaver heads using a static guided implantation template. All planning and surgeries were performed by one clinician. All radiographs and measurements were performed by two examiners. The distance of the implants from buccal and lingual bone and mesial implant or tooth was analyzed at the apical and coronal levels, and measurements were compared to the planned values. No significant differences were seen between planned and implanted measurements. Average deviation of an implant from its planning radiograph was 0.8 mm, which is within the range of variability expected from CT analysis. Guided implantation can be used safely with a margin of error of 1 mm. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  20. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Ang, W C; Bahruddin, N A; Bakar, K A; Muhammad, H; Sabarudin, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDI w (mGy), CTDI vol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDI vol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors. (paper)

  1. Calculation of normalised organ and effective doses to adult reference computational phantoms from contemporary computed tomography scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Jan T.M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX has been used to simulate photon transport and energy deposition in anthropomorphic phantoms due to the x-ray exposure from the Philips iCT 256 and Siemens Definition CT scanners, together with the previously studied General Electric 9800. The MCNPX code was compiled with the Intel FORTRAN compiler and run on a Linux PC cluster. A patch has been successfully applied to reduce computing times by about 4%. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published the Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference computational voxel phantoms as successors to the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) stylised hermaphrodite mathematical phantoms that form the basis for the widely-used ImPACT CT dosimetry tool. Comparisons of normalised organ and effective doses calculated for a range of scanner operating conditions have demonstrated significant differences in results (in excess of 30%) between the voxel and mathematical phantoms as a result of variations in anatomy. These analyses illustrate the significant influence of choice of phantom on normalised organ doses and the need for standardisation to facilitate comparisons of dose. Further such dose simulations are needed in order to update the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry spreadsheet for contemporary CT practice. (author)

  2. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of a guide tube in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Archambeau, F.; Chaize, C.

    2000-01-01

    Security in nuclear power plants demands severe limitations of the maximal drop time of rod cluster control assemblies. In February 1995, several assemblies of the Chinese plant in Daya Bay failed to comply with these requirements. Electricite De France undertook a research program to get a better insight of this problem since the plant has been built by French and also because the French new four-loops N4 reactor was equipped with the same guide tubes. This paper is limited to a numerical study of the influence of the pressure forces applied to control rods and due to flow circulation through the guide tubes. After a validation test case, a first calculation has been carried out on a simplified N4 guide tube. The sensitivity of the pressure forces to transverse flow and to modifications of the geometry has been determined. The program has been extended to guide tubes used in 1300-MW reactors and similar computations have been done. To make simulations more representative, a global computation of the flow in the whole upper internals plenum (UIP) will be achieved to provide accurate boundary conditions for local calculations with better resolution.

  3. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of a guide tube in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Archambeau, F.

    1997-01-01

    Security in nuclear power plants demands severe limitations of the maximal drop time of rod cluster control assemblies. In February 1995, several assemblies of the Chinese plant in DAYA BAY failed to comply with these requirements. Electricite de France undertook a research program to get a better insight of this problem since the plant has been built by French and also because the French new 4 loops N4 reactor was equipped with the same guide tubes. This paper is limited to a numerical study of the influence of the pressure forces applied to control rods and due to flow circulation through the guide tubes. After a validation test-case, a first calculation has been carried out on a simplified N4 guide tube. The sensitivity of the pressure forces to transverse flow and to modifications of the geometry has been determined. The program has been extended to guide tubes used in 1300 MW reactors and similar computations have been done. To make simulations more representative, a global computation of the flow in the whole upper internals plenum (UIP) will be achieved to provide accurate boundary conditions for local calculations with better resolution. (author)

  4. A computational fluid dynamics modeling study of guide walls for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    A partial-depth, impermeable guidance structure (or guide wall) for downstream fish passage is typically constructed as a series of panels attached to a floating boom and anchored across a water body (e.g. river channel, reservoir, or power canal). The downstream terminus of the wall is generally located nearby to a fish bypass structure. If guidance is successful, the fish will avoid entrainment in a dangerous intake structure (i.e. turbine intakes) while passing from the headpond to the tailwater of a hydroelectric facility through a safer passage route (i.e. the bypass). The goal of this study is to determine the combination of guide wall design parameters that will most likely increase the chance of surface-oriented fish being successfully guided to the bypass. To evaluate the flow field immediately upstream of a guide wall, a parameterized computational fluid dynamics model of an idealized power canal was constructed in © ANSYS Fluent v 14.5 (ANSYS Inc., 2012). The design parameters investigated were the angle and depth of the guide wall and the average approach velocity in the power canal. Results call attention to the importance of the downward to sweeping flow ratio and demonstrate how a change in guide wall depth and angle can affect this important hydraulic cue to out-migrating fish. The key findings indicate that a guide wall set at a small angle (15° is the minimum in this study) and deep enough such that sweeping flow dominant conditions prevail within the expected vertical distribution of fish approaching the structure will produce hydraulic conditions that are more likely to result in effective passage.

  5. Cranial radiotherapy guided by computed tomography with or without fields conformation in pediatric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Caussa, Lucas; Murina, Patricia; Zunino, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Many malignancies in children can be cured by radiotherapy, acute toxicity and the significant effect of delayed treatment are worrying for the patient, family and society. Therefore, the end of the pediatric radiotherapy is to maintain or improve the cure rate of cancer, diminishing the aftermath of treatment. The goal of this study is to measure differences in doses to the healthy tissue of the central nervous system with two radiotherapy techniques, both guided by computed tomography [es

  6. Reliability of computer designed surgical guides in six implant rehabilitations with two years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Mauro; Ausiello, Pietro; Martorelli, Massimo; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of computer-designed surgical guides in osseointegrated oral implant rehabilitation. Six implant rehabilitations, with a total of 17 implants, were completed with computer-designed surgical guides, performed with the master model developed by muco-compressive and muco-static impressions. In the first case, the surgical guide had exclusively mucosal support, in the second case exclusively dental support. For all six cases computer-aided surgical planning was performed by virtual analyses with 3D models obtained by dental scan DICOM data. The accuracy and stability of implant osseointegration over two years post surgery was then evaluated with clinical and radiographic examinations. Radiographic examination, performed with digital acquisitions (RVG - Radio Video graph) and parallel techniques, allowed two-dimensional feedback with a margin of linear error of 10%. Implant osseointegration was recorded for all the examined rehabilitations. During the clinical and radiographic post-surgical assessments, over the following two years, the peri-implant bone level was found to be stable and without appearance of any complications. The margin of error recorded between pre-operative positions assigned by virtual analysis and the post-surgical digital radiographic observations was as low as 0.2mm. Computer-guided implant surgery can be very effective in oral rehabilitations, providing an opportunity for the surgeon: (a) to avoid the necessity of muco-periosteal detachments and then (b) to perform minimally invasive interventions, whenever appropriate, with a flapless approach. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor: Volume 2, REALM user's reference guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    A User Manual for the Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor (REALM) expert system prototype is provided in this volume. REALM has been designed to provide expert assistance in the identification of a nuclear power plant emergency situation and the determination of its severity. REALM has been developed as an expert system which can provide sensor interpretation and situation assessment in a real-time processing environment. In its state of development at project completion, these capabilities are used in an off-line (i.e., stand-alone, desktop) fashion to provide emergency preparedness assistance in the areas of emergency classification training and emergency exercise scenario generation. REALM also serves a prototype and stepping-stone for the possible connection to the plant for on-line use. In order to distinguish the off-line system (now complete) from the on-line system (now moving from a research prototype to an installed system), the term ''REALM'' is used to indicate the on-line version, with users in the control room, technical support center, and the emergency operations facility, The off-line version is referred to as ''uREALM.''

  8. IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rusen, Ciprian Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on IC3 prep, with expert instruction and loads of tools IC3: Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 Study Guide is the ideal all-in-one resource for those preparing to take the exam for the internationally-recognized IT computing fundamentals credential. Designed to help candidates pinpoint weak areas while there's still time to brush up, this book provides one hundred percent coverage of the exam objectives for all three modules of the IC3-GS4 exam. Readers will find clear, concise information, hands-on examples, and self-paced exercises that demonstrate how to per

  9. Computational Modeling for Enhancing Soft Tissue Image Guided Surgery: An Application in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications.

  10. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  11. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  12. Software for computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Computer based systems are of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as their use in both new and older plants is rapidly increasing. They are used both in safety related applications, such as some functions of the process control and monitoring systems, as well as in safety critical applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features. The dependability of computer based systems important to safety is therefore of prime interest and should be ensured. With current technology, it is possible in principle to develop computer based instrumentation and control systems for systems important to safety that have the potential for improving the level of safety and reliability with sufficient dependability. However, their dependability can be predicted and demonstrated only if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is followed. Although a number of national and international standards dealing with quality assurance for computer based systems important to safety have been or are being prepared, internationally agreed criteria for demonstrating the safety of such systems are not generally available. It is recognized that there may be other ways of providing the necessary safety demonstration than those recommended here. The basic requirements for the design of safety systems for nuclear power plants are provided in the Requirements for Design issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series.The IAEA has issued a Technical Report to assist Member States in ensuring that computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants are safe and properly licensed. The report provides information on current software engineering practices and, together with relevant standards, forms a technical basis for this Safety Guide. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the collection of evidence and preparation of documentation to be used in the safety demonstration for the software for computer based

  13. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, P.; Aubert, B.

    2013-01-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Inst. (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values. (authors)

  14. Regional Diagnostic Reference Levels and Collective Effective Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) Scanners in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, R.S.; Dinakaran, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic examinations performed using computed tomography (CT) are on the increase, and the use of this modality needs to be monitored periodically. The aim of this study was to formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and assess collective effective doses from CT scanners in Tamil Nadu, India. In-site CT dose measurements were performed for 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) funded project for a period of two years. Regional DRLs were formulated at third quartile level for three CT protocols such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis and were found to be 557 mGy.cm, 521 mGy.cm and 294 mGy.cm, respectively. The collective effective dose in Tamil Nadu was found to be 14.93 man Sv per day. (author)

  15. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  16. Calculation of local skin doses with ICRP adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Haegin; Choi, Chansoo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Shin, Bangho; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult males and females in order to address the limitations of the current voxel-type reference phantoms described in ICRP Publication 110 due to their limited voxel resolutions and the nature of the voxel geometry. One of the substantial advantages of the MRCPs over the ICRP-110 reference phantoms is the inclusion of a 50-μm-thick radiosensitive skin basal-cell layer; however, a methodology for calculating the local skin dose (LSD), i.e., the maximum dose to the basal layer averaged over a 1-cm2 area, has yet to be developed. In the present study, a dedicated program for the LSD calculation with the MRCPs was developed based on the mean shift algorithm and the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The developed program was used to calculate local skin dose coefficients (LSDCs) for electrons and alpha particles, which were then compared with the values given in ICRP Publication 116 that were produced with a simple tissue-equivalent cube model. The results of the present study show that the LSDCs of the MRCPs are generally in good agreement with the ICRP-116 values for alpha particles, but for electrons, significant differences are found at energies higher than 0.15 MeV. The LSDCs of the MRCPs are greater than the ICRP-116 values by as much as 2.7 times at 10 MeV, which is due mainly to the different curvature between realistic MRCPs ( i.e., curved) and the simple cube model ( i.e., flat).

  17. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results: Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paraesthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion: CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. (author)

  18. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: macellomaciel@me.com [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results: Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paraesthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion: CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. (author)

  19. Computed tomographic fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takashi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Machida, Suguru; Tominaga, Keigo; Yokoi, Kohei; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) with an 18-gauge automatic biopsy gun for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Between March 1996 and January 1998, 50 patients in whom pulmonary lesions could not be diagnosed cytopathologically with fiberoptic bronchoscopy or were not clearly visualized with fluoroscopy underwent CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB. Final pathological diagnoses were 23 lung carcinomas, five pulmonary metastases and 22 benign lesions. Sufficient tissue for analysis was obtained from 48 of the 50 lesions (96%). The overall diagnostic yield of CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB was 90%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for malignancy were 89%, 100% and 94%, respectively. In 20 of the 22 cases (91%) of benign lesions, histological analysis yielded correct and specific diagnoses. Complications occurred in 22 of the 50 cases (44%). The most common complication was pneumothorax, which occurred in 21 of the 50 cases (42%). Chest tube insertion was required in 6 (12%). Although CT fluoroscopy could not decrease the complication rate, CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB with an automatic biopsy gun appears to be a promising technique for diagnosing pulmonary lesions, particularly benign lesions. (author)

  20. Classifier-guided sampling for discrete variable, discontinuous design space exploration: Convergence and computational performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shahan, David W. [HRL Labs., LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Seepersad, Carolyn Conner [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-04-22

    A classifier-guided sampling (CGS) method is introduced for solving engineering design optimization problems with discrete and/or continuous variables and continuous and/or discontinuous responses. The method merges concepts from metamodel-guided sampling and population-based optimization algorithms. The CGS method uses a Bayesian network classifier for predicting the performance of new designs based on a set of known observations or training points. Unlike most metamodeling techniques, however, the classifier assigns a categorical class label to a new design, rather than predicting the resulting response in continuous space, and thereby accommodates nondifferentiable and discontinuous functions of discrete or categorical variables. The CGS method uses these classifiers to guide a population-based sampling process towards combinations of discrete and/or continuous variable values with a high probability of yielding preferred performance. Accordingly, the CGS method is appropriate for discrete/discontinuous design problems that are ill-suited for conventional metamodeling techniques and too computationally expensive to be solved by population-based algorithms alone. In addition, the rates of convergence and computational properties of the CGS method are investigated when applied to a set of discrete variable optimization problems. Results show that the CGS method significantly improves the rate of convergence towards known global optima, on average, when compared to genetic algorithms.

  1. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  2. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  3. Three-dimensional computed tomography-guided monotherapeutic pararectal brachytherapy of prostate cancer with seminal vesicle invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutrouvelis, Panos; Lailas, Niko; Hendricks, Fred; Gil-Montero, Guillermo; Sehn, James; Katz, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To treat patients with prostate cancer and seminal vesicle invasion with monotherapeutic three dimensional computed tomography (3-DCT)-guided posterior pararectal brachytherapy. Methods and materials: Three hundred and sixty two patients with clinical stage T1 a,b or T2 a,b of prostate cancer were referred for 3-DCT-guided brachytherapy. Each underwent further staging with 3-D CT-guided pararectal biopsy of the seminal vesicles under local anesthesia during the pre-treatment CT-planning. Forty-three patients (12%) were upstaged to T3 cNoMo disease. In the set of 43 patients, Eight had Gleason's score≤6, 24 Gleason's score=7, and 11 patients ≥8. Initial PSA was 20 in 18 patients. Of the 43 patients, 37 patients were treated monotherapeutically with 3-D CT-guided brachytherapy. No patients received hormone therapy after the implant. The prescribed dosage to the seminal vesicles and prostate is 120 Gy with Pd-103 seeds and 144 Gy with 1-125 seeds. Results: The prescribed dosage was achieved in all 37 patient's throughout the seminal vesicles whose range of target radiation extended 5-10 mm outside the target in the adjacent fat as calculated with post-implant CT-dosimetry with Varian Brachy Vision or MMS software. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) outcome data were available in 34 patients treated with monotherapy and follow up ranged from 12-56 months (median, 24 months). Decreased PSA levels were stratified into six groups based on the presenting Gleason's score and initial PSA. In the first group (with Gleason's score≤6 and initial PSA 20 ng/ml), PSA decreased to less than 0.5 ng/ml in four out of eight patients (50%). All of the patients in the fourth group (with Gleason's score≥8 and initial PSA 20 ng/ml). There were no patients with Gleason's score of 1-6 and greater than 20 ng/ml initial PSA. Patients, irrespective of the Gleason's score and PSA, had an overall response of decreased PSA (less than 1 ng/ml) of 79%. Conclusion: 3-D CT-guided

  4. Uncommon primary tumors of the orbit diagnosed by computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem; Neves, Flavia Branco Cerqueira Serra [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Oftalmologia

    2014-11-15

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective alternative method for evaluating selected intra-orbital lesions where the preoperative diagnosis is important for the therapeutic planning. The authors describe two cases of patients with uncommon primary orbital tumors whose diagnosis was obtained by means of computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy, with emphasis on the technical aspects of the procedure. (author)

  5. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...

  6. Climate change reference guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    At the heart of climate change is the greenhouse effect, in which molecules of various gases trap heat in Earths atmosphere and keep it warm enough to support life. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an important part of Ea...

  7. Obesity and its association with diets and sedentary life style among school children in Seoul, Korea: Compliance with Dietary References Intakes for Koreans food guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Aewha

    2007-01-01

    This study compared obese children's food group intakes with the new Dietary References Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) food guides for 5th-6th grade school children. This study also determined the extent of sedentary life styles related with obesity in this area of children. This is a cross-sectional study of 799 school children. The dietitian sent a survey form describing the project and a questionnaire to the subject's family. The questionnaire included child demographics, family history of chronic diseases, the daily servings of five food groups, such as grains, meat and beans, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. The daily or weekly hours of physical activity, television viewing, and computer usage were also surveyed. Obesity index (%) of the subjects was calculated, and children with an obesity index (%) equal to or greater than 20 were classified as the obese. Among the 799 participants, 50.7% were female. The percentages of the normal and the obese were 691 (86.5%) and 108 (13.5%) respectively. Obese children reported eating less vegetables (psedentary lifestyle increased significantly the likelihood of obesity in children, which suggest that obesity intervention in this age group should focuse more on those variables.

  8. A Guide to Axial-Flow Turbine Off-Design Computer Program AXOD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2014-01-01

    A Users Guide for the axial flow turbine off-design computer program AXOD2 is composed in this paper. This Users Guide is supplementary to the original Users Manual of AXOD. Three notable contributions of AXOD2 to its predecessor AXOD, both in the context of the Guide or in the functionality of the code, are described and discussed in length. These are: 1) a rational representation of the mathematical principles applied, with concise descriptions of the formulas implemented in the actual coding. Their physical implications are addressed; 2) the creation and documentation of an Addendum Listing of input namelist-parameters unique to AXOD2, that differ from or are in addition to the original input-namelists given in the Manual of AXOD. Their usages are discussed; and 3) the institution of proper stoppages of the code execution, encoding termination messaging and error messages of the execution to AXOD2. These measures are to safe-guard the integrity of the code execution, such that a failure mode encountered during a case-study would not plunge the code execution into indefinite loop, or cause a blow-out of the program execution. Details on these are discussed and illustrated in this paper. Moreover, this computer program has since been reconstructed substantially. Standard FORTRAN Langue was instituted, and the code was formatted in Double Precision (REAL*8). As the result, the code is now suited for use in a local Desktop Computer Environment, is perfectly portable to any Operating System, and can be executed by any FORTRAN compiler equivalent to a FORTRAN 9095 compiler. AXOD2 will be available through NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Software Repository.

  9. MELCOR computer code manuals: Primer and user's guides, Version 1.8.3 September 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users' Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  10. Guide for licensing evaluations using CRAC2: A computer program for calculating reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.E.; Roussin, R.W.; Gilpin, H.

    1988-12-01

    A version of the CRAC2 computer code applicable for use in analyses of consequences and risks of reactor accidents in case work for environmental statements has been implemented for use on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Data General MV/8000 computer system. Input preparation is facilitated through the use of an interactive computer program which operates on an IBM personal computer. The resulting CRAC2 input deck is transmitted to the MV/8000 by using an error-free file transfer mechanism. To facilitate the use of CRAC2 at NRC, relevant background material on input requirements and model descriptions has been extracted from four reports - ''Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences,'' Version 2, NUREG/CR-2326 (SAND81-1994) and ''CRAC2 Model Descriptions,'' NUREG/CR-2552 (SAND82-0342), ''CRAC Calculations for Accident Sections of Environmental Statements, '' NUREG/CR-2901 (SAND82-1693), and ''Sensitivity and Uncertainty Studies of the CRAC2 Computer Code,'' NUREG/CR-4038 (ORNL-6114). When this background information is combined with instructions on the input processor, this report provides a self-contained guide for preparing CRAC2 input data with a specific orientation toward applications on the MV/8000. 8 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Book Review: Guide to computer forensics and investigations (3rd ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Jiang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nelson, B., Phillips, A., Enfinger, F., & Steuart, C. (2008. Guide to computer forensics and investigations (3rd ed.. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 693 pages, ISBN: 1-4180-6733-4 (paper.Reviewed by Keyu Jiang (kjiang@fhsu.edu and Ruifeng Xuan (r_xuan@scatcat.fhsu.edu, Department of Information Networking and Telecommunications, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601Nelson, Phillips, Enfinger, and Steuart’s book is about the science of computer forensics and its implications in crime investigations. This book is not intended to provide comprehensive training in computer forensics, but introduce the science the science of computer forensics and its implications in crime investigations.  It focused on establishing a solid foundation for those who are new to this field.  Nelson, Philips, Enfiger, and Steuart are experienced experts in different areas of computer forensics.  Different expertise makes this book could benefit many groups of people at different educational level and industrial background.(see PDF for full review

  12. Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacture-Derived Needle Guide for Injection of Botulinum Toxin into the Lateral Pterygoid Muscle in Patients with Oromandibular Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuya

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin administration into the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle of patients with jaw opening dystonia by using a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)-derived needle guide. A total of 17 patients with jaw opening dystonia were enrolled. After the patient's computed tomography (CT) scan was imported and fused with a scan of a plaster cast model of the maxilla, the optimal needle insertion site over the lateral pterygoid muscle was determined using the NobelClinician software. A total of 13 patients were injected both with and without the guide, and 4 patients underwent guided injection alone. The therapeutic effects of botulinum toxin injection and its associated complications were statistically compared between the guided and unguided procedures using paired t test. Botulinum toxin therapy was performed 42 and 32 times with and without the guides, respectively. The needle was easily inserted without any complications in all procedures. There was a significant difference (P < .001) between the mean comprehensive improvements observed with (66.3%) and without (54.4%) the guides. The findings suggest that the use of needle guides during the injection of botulinum toxin into the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle is very useful for aiding the accurate and safe administration of botulinum toxin therapy for jaw opening dystonia.

  13. Employee Relations. A Guide and Reference Book for Those Involved or Training to Be Involved in Employee Relations in the Hotel and Catering Industry. Seventh Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney; Hayter, Roy, Ed.

    This guide and reference book is designed to help those involved or training to be involved in employee relations in the hotel and catering industry. Chapter 1 attempts to define employee relations. Chapter 2 describes the institutions and parties involved in employee relations in the hotel and catering industry. The focus of chapter 3 is on…

  14. Automatic path proposal computation for CT-guided percutaneous liver biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helck, A; Schumann, C; Aumann, J; Thierfelder, K; Strobl, F F; Braunagel, M; Niethammer, M; Clevert, D A; Hoffmann, R T; Reiser, M; Sandner, T; Trumm, C

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate feasibility of automatic software-based path proposals for CT-guided percutaneous biopsies. Thirty-three patients (60 [Formula: see text] 12 years) referred for CT-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions were consecutively included. Pre-interventional CT and dedicated software (FraunhoferMeVis Pathfinder) were used for (semi)automatic segmentation of relevant structures. The software subsequently generated three path proposals in downward quality for CT-guided biopsy. Proposed needle paths were compared with consensus proposal of two experts (comparable, less suitable, not feasible). In case of comparable results, equivalent approach to software-based path proposal was used. Quality of segmentation process was evaluated (Likert scale, 1 [Formula: see text] best, 6 [Formula: see text] worst), and time for processing was registered. All biopsies were performed successfully without complications. In 91 % one of the three automatic path proposals was rated comparable to experts' proposal. None of the first proposals was rated not feasible, and 76 % were rated comparable to the experts' proposal. 7 % automatic path proposals were rated not feasible, all being second choice ([Formula: see text]) or third choice ([Formula: see text]). In 79 %, segmentation at least was good. Average total time for establishing automatic path proposal was 42 [Formula: see text] 9 s. Automatic software-based path proposal for CT-guided liver biopsies in the majority provides path proposals that are easy to establish and comparable to experts' insertion trajectories.

  15. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. (author)

  16. Establishment of computed tomography reference dose levels in Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Kyrozi, E.; Syrigou, T.; Mastorakou, I.; Kottou, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply European Commission (EC) Reference Dose Levels (RDL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center (OCSC). These are weighted CT Dose Index (CTDI w ) for a single slice and Dose-Length Product (DLP) for a complete examination. During the period 1998-1999, the total number of CT examinations, every type of CT examination, patient related data and technical parameters of the examinations were recorded. The most frequent examinations were chosen for investigation which were the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. CTDI measurements were performed and CTDI w and DLP were calculated. Third Quartile values of CTDI w were chosen to be 43mGy for head, 8mGy for chest, and 22mGy for abdomen and pelvis examinations. Third quartile values of DLP were chosen to be 740mGycm for head, 370mGycm for chest, 490mGycm for abdomen and 420mGycm for pelvis examination. Results confirm that OCSC follows successfully the proposed RDL for the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations in terms of radiation dose. (author)

  17. Organ doses for reference pediatric and adolescent patients undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an organ dose database for pediatric and adolescent reference individuals undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations by using Monte Carlo simulation. The data will permit rapid estimates of organ and effective doses for patients of different age, gender, examination type, and CT scanner model. Methods: The Monte Carlo simulation model of a Siemens Sensation 16 CT scanner previously published was employed as a base CT scanner model. A set of absorbed doses for 33 organs/tissues normalized to the product of 100 mAs and CTDI vol (mGy/100 mAs mGy) was established by coupling the CT scanner model with age-dependent reference pediatric hybrid phantoms. A series of single axial scans from the top of head to the feet of the phantoms was performed at a slice thickness of 10 mm, and at tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. Using the established CTDI vol - and 100 mAs-normalized dose matrix, organ doses for different pediatric phantoms undergoing head, chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) scans with the Siemens Sensation 16 scanner were estimated and analyzed. The results were then compared with the values obtained from three independent published methods: CT-Expo software, organ dose for abdominal CT scan derived empirically from patient abdominal circumference, and effective dose per dose-length product (DLP). Results: Organ and effective doses were calculated and normalized to 100 mAs and CTDI vol for different CT examinations. At the same technical setting, dose to the organs, which were entirely included in the CT beam coverage, were higher by from 40 to 80% for newborn phantoms compared to those of 15-year phantoms. An increase of tube potential from 80 to 120 kVp resulted in 2.5-2.9-fold greater brain dose for head scans. The results from this study were compared with three different published studies and/or techniques. First, organ doses were compared to those given by CT-Expo which revealed dose differences up to

  18. Computer aided virtual manufacturing using Creo parametric easy to learn step by step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kanife, Paul Obiora

    2016-01-01

    Providing a step-by-step guide for the implementation of virtual manufacturing using Creo Parametric software (formerly known as Pro-Engineer), this book creates an engaging and interactive learning experience for manufacturing engineering students. Featuring graphic illustrations of simulation processes and operations, and written in accessible English to promote user-friendliness, the book covers key topics in the field including: the engraving machining process, face milling, profile milling, surface milling, volume rough milling, expert machining, electric discharge machining (EDM), and area turning using the lathe machining process. Maximising reader insights into how to simulate material removal processes, and how to generate cutter location data and G-codes data, this valuable resource equips undergraduate, postgraduate, BTech and HND students in the fields of manufacturing engineering, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) with transferable skills and knowledge. This book is...

  19. From curve fitting to machine learning an illustrative guide to scientific data analysis and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2016-01-01

    This successful book provides in its second edition an interactive and illustrative guide from two-dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clustering and machine learning with neural networks or support vector machines. Along the way topics like mathematical optimization or evolutionary algorithms are touched. All concepts and ideas are outlined in a clear cut manner with graphically depicted plausibility arguments and a little elementary mathematics. The major topics are extensively outlined with exploratory examples and applications. The primary goal is to be as illustrative as possible without hiding problems and pitfalls but to address them. The character of an illustrative cookbook is complemented with specific sections that address more fundamental questions like the relation between machine learning and human intelligence. All topics are completely demonstrated with the computing platform Mathematica and the Computational Intelligence Packages (CIP), a high-level function library developed with M...

  20. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-03

    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  1. Computed tomography fluoroscopy-guided placement of iliosacral screws in patients with unstable posterior pelvic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Ken-Ichi; Doi, Takeshi; Munetomo, Kazuo; Miyasho, Koji; Hiraki, Takao; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of the computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided placement of iliosacral screws in patients with unstable posterior pelvic fractures. Six patients (four women and two men; mean age 55.8 years; range 35-77 years) with unstable posterior pelvic fractures underwent iliosacral screw placement under CT fluoroscopy guidance between November 2007 and August 2008. Unstable pelvic ring injury (AO types B and C) was the indication for this procedure. In all the six patients except one, CT fluoroscopy-guided placement had been technically successful. In one patient, a second screw had been inserted, with a tilt to the caudal site, and slightly advanced into the extrasacral body; afterward, it could be exchanged safely for a shorter screw. Five patients and one patient underwent placement of two screws and one screw, respectively. The mean duration of the procedure was 15.0 min (range 9-30 min) per screw; the duration was 12.3 min and 18.2 min for the first and second screws, respectively. No complications requiring treatment occurred during or after the procedure. The mean clinical and radiologic follow-up period was 14 months (range 6-21 months). All pelvic injuries had healed satisfactorily, without complication, and all patients are now doing well clinically and can walk. CT fluoroscopy-guided placement of iliosacral screws is a safe and effective treatment in patients with unstable posterior pelvic fractures. (orig.)

  2. Programmer's guide for the CC3 computer models of the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is assessing a concept for disposing of CANDU reactor fuel waste in a vault deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A computer program called the Systems Variability Analysis Code (SYVAC) was developed as an analytical tool for the postclosure (long-term) assessment of the concept, and for environmental assessments of other systems. SYVAC3, the third generation of the code, is an executive program that directs repeated simulation of the disposal system, which is described by the CC3 (Canadian Concept, generation 3) model. The CC3 model is comprised of the disposal vault submodel, the local geosphere submodel and the biosphere submodel. The CC3 Proarammer's Guide describes the programming philosophy and programming conventions not covered in the project standards. The guide includes a description of the overall logic for the CC3 vault, geosphere, and biosphere submodels. Each of the CC3 submodels is also isolated from the other two submbdels to create autonomous or 'stand-alone' submodels. The techniques used to isolate a CC3 submodel, and in particular to determine the submodells input and output data interface, are described. Structure charts are provided for the CC3 model and stand-alone submodels. This guide is meant as a companion document to the CC3 User's Manual. This guide does not describe how to use the CC3 software. The user should consult the CC3 User's Manual to determine how to configure, compile, link, and run the CC3 source code, as well as how to modify the data in the input files. It is intended that the CC3 code version CC305 be executed with SYVAC3 version SV309 and the Modelling Algorithm Library (ML3) version ML303, both developed for the assessment of the concept. SYVAC3-CC3-ML3 (also referred to as 'SC3') can be run on any platform containing an ANSI FORTRAN 77 compliant compiler. Recommended hardware environments are specified in the CC3 User's Manual. (author)

  3. Computer Simulation Surgery for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibular Osteotomy Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Shik Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fibular osteotomy guide based on a computer simulation was applied to a patient who had undergone mandibular segmental ostectomy due to oncological complications. This patient was a 68-year-old woman who presented to our department with a biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma on her left gingival area. This lesion had destroyed the cortical bony structure, and the patient showed attenuation of her soft tissue along the inferior alveolar nerve, indicating perineural spread of the tumor. Prior to surgery, a three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the facial and fibular bones was performed. We then created a virtual computer simulation of the mandibular segmental defect through which we segmented the fibular to reconstruct the proper angulation in the original mandible. Approximately 2-cm segments were created on the basis of this simulation and applied to the virtually simulated mandibular segmental defect. Thus, we obtained a virtual model of the ideal mandibular reconstruction for this patient with a fibular free flap. We could then use this computer simulation for the subsequent surgery and minimize the bony gaps between the multiple fibular bony segments.

  4. Needs assessment for next generation computer-aided mammography reference image databases and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Elter, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Breast cancer is globally a major threat for women's health. Screening and adequate follow-up can significantly reduce the mortality from breast cancer. Human second reading of screening mammograms can increase breast cancer detection rates, whereas this has not been proven for current computer-aided detection systems as "second reader". Critical factors include the detection accuracy of the systems and the screening experience and training of the radiologist with the system. When assessing the performance of systems and system components, the choice of evaluation methods is particularly critical. Core assets herein are reference image databases and statistical methods. We have analyzed characteristics and usage of the currently largest publicly available mammography database, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) from the University of South Florida, in literature indexed in Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, and SPIE, with respect to type of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) (detection, CADe, or diagnostics, CADx), selection of database subsets, choice of evaluation method, and quality of descriptions. 59 publications presenting 106 evaluation studies met our selection criteria. In 54 studies (50.9%), the selection of test items (cases, images, regions of interest) extracted from the DDSM was not reproducible. Only 2 CADx studies, not any CADe studies, used the entire DDSM. The number of test items varies from 100 to 6000. Different statistical evaluation methods are chosen. Most common are train/test (34.9% of the studies), leave-one-out (23.6%), and N-fold cross-validation (18.9%). Database-related terminology tends to be imprecise or ambiguous, especially regarding the term "case". Overall, both the use of the DDSM as data source for evaluation of mammography CAD systems, and the application of statistical evaluation methods were found highly diverse. Results reported from different studies are therefore hardly comparable. Drawbacks of the DDSM

  5. Users' guide for a personal-computer-based nuclear power plant fire data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Fire Data Base has been developed for use with an IBM XT (or with a compatible system). Nuclear power plant fire data is located in many diverse references, making it both costly and time-consuming to obtain. The purpose of this Fire Data Base is to collect and to make easily accessible nuclear power plant fire data. This users' guide discusses in depth the specific features and capabilities of the various options found in the data base. Capabilities include the ability to search several database fields simultaneously to meet user-defined conditions, display basic plant information, and determine the operating experience (in years) for several nuclear power plant locations. Step-by-step examples are included for each option to allow the user to learn how to access the data

  6. CMR reference values for left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction using computer-aided analysis : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L.T.F.; Salton, Carol J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.

    Purpose To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. Materials and Methods We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart

  7. Success rates for computed tomography-guided musculoskeletal biopsies performed using a low-dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, Kambiz; Levine, Benjamin D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the success rate of a low-dose (50 % mAs reduction) computed tomography (CT) biopsy technique. This protocol was adopted based on other successful reduced-CT radiation dose protocols in our department, which were implemented in conjunction with quality improvement projects. The technique included a scout view and initial localizing scan with standard dose. Additional scans obtained for further guidance or needle adjustment were acquired by reducing the tube current-time product (mAs) by 50 %. The radiology billing data were searched for CT-guided musculoskeletal procedures performed over a period of 8 months following the initial implementation of the protocol. These were reviewed for the type of procedure and compliance with the implemented protocol. The compliant CT-guided biopsy cases were then retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, tumor pathology, and lesion size. Pathology results were compared to the ultimate diagnoses and were categorized as diagnostic, accurate, or successful. Of 92 CT-guided procedures performed during this period, two were excluded as they were not biopsies (one joint injection and one drainage), 19 were excluded due to non-compliance (operators neglected to follow the protocol), and four were excluded due to lack of available follow-up in our electronic medical records. A total of 67 compliant biopsies were performed in 63 patients (two had two biopsies, and one had three biopsies). There were 32 males and 31 females with an average age of 50 (range, 15-84 years). Of the 67 biopsies, five were non-diagnostic and inaccurate and thus unsuccessful (7 %); five were diagnostic but inaccurate and thus unsuccessful (7 %); 57 were diagnostic and accurate thus successful (85 %). These results were comparable with results published in the radiology literature. The success rate of CT-guided biopsies using a low-dose protocol is comparable to published rates for conventional dose biopsies. The implemented low-dose protocol

  8. Success rates for computed tomography-guided musculoskeletal biopsies performed using a low-dose technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motamedi, Kambiz; Levine, Benjamin D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [UCLA Health System, Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the success rate of a low-dose (50 % mAs reduction) computed tomography (CT) biopsy technique. This protocol was adopted based on other successful reduced-CT radiation dose protocols in our department, which were implemented in conjunction with quality improvement projects. The technique included a scout view and initial localizing scan with standard dose. Additional scans obtained for further guidance or needle adjustment were acquired by reducing the tube current-time product (mAs) by 50 %. The radiology billing data were searched for CT-guided musculoskeletal procedures performed over a period of 8 months following the initial implementation of the protocol. These were reviewed for the type of procedure and compliance with the implemented protocol. The compliant CT-guided biopsy cases were then retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, tumor pathology, and lesion size. Pathology results were compared to the ultimate diagnoses and were categorized as diagnostic, accurate, or successful. Of 92 CT-guided procedures performed during this period, two were excluded as they were not biopsies (one joint injection and one drainage), 19 were excluded due to non-compliance (operators neglected to follow the protocol), and four were excluded due to lack of available follow-up in our electronic medical records. A total of 67 compliant biopsies were performed in 63 patients (two had two biopsies, and one had three biopsies). There were 32 males and 31 females with an average age of 50 (range, 15-84 years). Of the 67 biopsies, five were non-diagnostic and inaccurate and thus unsuccessful (7 %); five were diagnostic but inaccurate and thus unsuccessful (7 %); 57 were diagnostic and accurate thus successful (85 %). These results were comparable with results published in the radiology literature. The success rate of CT-guided biopsies using a low-dose protocol is comparable to published rates for conventional dose biopsies. The implemented low-dose protocol

  9. Next Generation Computer Resources: Reference Model for Project Support Environments (Version 2.0)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Next Generation Computer Resources (NGCR) program is to restructure the Navy's approach to acquisition of standard computing resources to take better advantage of commercial advances and investments...

  10. Influence of the Pixel Sizes of Reference Computed Tomography on Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction Using Conjugate-gradient Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kyohei; Sakimoto, Shota; Fujii, Susumu; Ida, Tomonobu; Moriyama, Shigeru

    The frame-of-reference using computed-tomography (CT) coordinate system on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction is one of the advanced characteristics of the xSPECT reconstruction system. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of the high-resolution frame-of-reference on the xSPECT reconstruction. 99m Tc line-source phantom and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) image quality phantom were scanned using the SPECT/CT system. xSPECT reconstructions were performed with the reference CT images in different sizes of the display field-of-view (DFOV) and pixel. The pixel sizes of the reconstructed xSPECT images were close to 2.4 mm, which is acquired as originally projection data, even if the reference CT resolution was varied. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line-source, absolute recovery coefficient, and background variability of image quality phantom were independent on the sizes of DFOV in the reference CT images. The results of this study revealed that the image quality of the reconstructed xSPECT images is not influenced by the resolution of frame-of-reference on SPECT reconstruction.

  11. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computed tomography guided needle biopsy: experience from 1,300 procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Isberner, Rony Klaus; Viana, Luciana Marinho; Yu, Liao Shin; Aita, Alessandro Amorim; Soares, Fernando Augusto [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia e Patologia

    2006-01-15

    Context and objective: computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy is widely accepted as effective and safe for diagnosis in many settings. Accuracy depends on target organ and needle type. Cutting needles present advantages over fine needles. This study presents experience from CT guided biopsies performed at an oncology center. Design and setting: retrospective study at Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, Sao Paulo.Methods: 1,300 consecutive CT guided biopsies performed between July 1994 and February 2000 were analyzed. Nodules or masses were suspected as primary malignancy in 845 cases (65%) or metastatic lesion in 455 (35%). 628 lesions were thoracic, 281 abdominal, 208 retroperitoneal, 134 musculoskeletal and 49 head/neck. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist or under his supervision: 765 (59%) with 22-gauge fine-needle/aspiration technique and 535 (41%) with automated 16 or 18-gauge cutting-needle biopsy. Results: adequate samples were obtained in 70-92% of fine-needle and 93-100% of cutting-needle biopsies. The specific diagnosis rates were 54-67% for fine-needle and 82-100% for cutting-needle biopsies, according to biopsy site. For any site, sample adequacy and specific diagnosis rate were always better for cutting-needle biopsy. Among 530 lung biopsies, there were 84 pneumothorax (16%) and two hemothorax (0.3%) cases, with thoracic drainage in 24 (4.9%). Among abdominal and retroperitoneal biopsies, there were two cases of major bleeding and one of peritonitis. Conclusion: both types of needle showed satisfactory results, but cutting-needle biopsy should be used when specific diagnosis is desired without greater incidence of complications. (author)

  13. Reference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate BoilingReference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this effort is to establish a strategy and process for generation of suitable computational mesh for computational fluid dynamics simulations of departure from nucleate boiling in a 5 by 5 fuel rod assembly held in place by PWR mixing vane spacer grids. This mesh generation process will support ongoing efforts to develop, demonstrate and validate advanced multi-phase computational fluid dynamics methods that enable more robust identification of dryout conditions and DNB occurrence.Building upon prior efforts and experience, multiple computational meshes were developed using the native mesh generation capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. These meshes were used to simulate two test cases from the Westinghouse 5 by 5 rod bundle facility. The sensitivity of predicted quantities of interest to the mesh resolution was then established using two evaluation methods, the Grid Convergence Index method and the Least Squares method. This evaluation suggests that the Least Squares method can reliably establish the uncertainty associated with local parameters such as vector velocity components at a point in the domain or surface averaged quantities such as outlet velocity magnitude. However, neither method is suitable for characterization of uncertainty in global extrema such as peak fuel surface temperature, primarily because such parameters are not necessarily associated with a fixed point in space. This shortcoming is significant because the current generation algorithm for identification of DNB event conditions relies on identification of such global extrema. Ongoing efforts to identify DNB based on local surface conditions will address this challenge

  14. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of primary and secondary iliopsoas abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantasdemir, M.; Kara, B.; Cebi, D.; Selcuk, N.D.; Numan, F.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of iliopsoas abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two iliopsoas abscesses in 21 patients (11 women, 10 men) aged between 18 and 66 years (mean 36 years) were treated with PCD. Abdominal CT demonstrated the iliopsoas abscesses, which were definitively determined by Gram staining and aspirate cultures. Twenty of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses were primary and two were secondary. All PCD procedures were performed under local anaesthesia using a single-step trocar technique (n=19) or Seldinger technique (n=3). RESULTS: PCD was an effective treatment in 21 out of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses. Recurrence was seen in three abscesses as minimal residual collections. Two of them resolved spontaneously with anti-tuberculous regimen. One required percutaneous needle aspiration. The procedure failed in a diabetic patient with a secondary abscess, who died due to sepsis. The length of time that catheters remained in place ranged from 21 to 75 days (mean 59.7 days). Complications included catheter dislocation in four abscesses, which required removal of dislocated catheters and indwelling new ones. CONCLUSION: CT-guided PCD is a safe and effective front-line treatment of iliopsoas abscesses. Surgery should be reserved for failure of PCD and presence of contraindications to PCD

  15. Computer tomography urography assisted real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, You-Qiang; Wu, Jie-Ying; Li, Teng-Cheng; Zheng, Hao-Feng; Liang, Guan-Can; Chen, Yan-Xiong; Hong, Xiao-Bin; Cai, Wei-Zhong; Zang, Zhi-Jun; Di, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of pre-designed route on computer tomography urography (CTU) in the ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus.From August 2013 to May 2016, a total of 100 patients diagnosed with complex renal calculus in our hospital were randomly divided into CTU group and control group (without CTU assistance). CTU was used to design a rational route for puncturing in CTU group. Ultrasound was used in both groups to establish a working trace in the operation areas. Patients' perioperative parameters and postoperative complications were recorded.All operations were successfully performed, without transferring to open surgery. Time of channel establishment in CTU group (6.5 ± 4.3 minutes) was shorter than the control group (10.0 ± 6.7 minutes) (P = .002). In addition, there was shorter operation time, lower rates of blood transfusion, secondary operation, and less establishing channels. The incidence of postoperative complications including residual stones, sepsis, severe hemorrhage, and perirenal hematoma was lower in CTU group than in control group.Pre-designing puncture route on CTU images would improve the puncturing accuracy, lessen establishing channels as well as improve the security in the ultrasound-guided PCNL for complex renal calculus, but at the cost of increased radiation exposure.

  16. Efficacy of computed tomography guided radiofrequency ablation forosteoid osteomas in 31 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Joong Mo; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Guen Young; Lee, Eu Gene; Oh, Joo Han; Cho, Hwan Seong; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To present the clinical outcome of computed tomography (CT) guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for osteoid osteoma. Thirty-one patients (M:F = 23:8, mean age: 20 years, range: 4-54 years) who underwent RFA for clinically suspected osteoid osteoma from May 2004 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. RFA was done in all cases under CT guidance by one of three radiologists in our department. Electronic medical records and images were retrospectively reviewed in all patients. Lesions were located in femur (n = 20), tibia (n = 5), fibula (n = 2), humerus (n = 3), talus (n = 2), and calcaneus (n = 1). On discharge, 27 of 33 cases showed complete remission of pain (82%). One major complication (compartment syndrome) and 2 minor complications (reactive synovitis, minimal skin burn at electrode insertion site) were observed. On the last follow-up (0-78 months, mean: 12.6 months) 27 of 33 cases were successfully treated (82%) and had no more complaints. 3 cases presented remaining pain (9%). In 3 cases relapse occurred (9%) and RFA was repeated in 1 case. The repeated treatment was successful. CT-guided RFA is an effective method for the treatment of osteoid osteoma.

  17. Diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging guided by computed tomography: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as hemoglobin, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer imaging. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at the wavelength of 650 nm and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements and width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an air-cooling EMCCD camera is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six angular projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 2 and 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we have described our future research plan on integration of a multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  18. Time series analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration using soft computing techniques for Ganjam District, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET0) influences water resources and it is considered as a vital process in aridic hydrologic frameworks. It is one of the most important measure in finding the drought condition. Therefore, time series forecasting of evapotranspiration is very important in order to help the decision makers and water system mangers build up proper systems to sustain and manage water resources. Time series considers that -history repeats itself, hence by analysing the past values, better choices, or forecasts, can be carried out for the future. Ten years of ET0 data was used as a part of this study to make sure a satisfactory forecast of monthly values. In this study, three models: (ARIMA) mathematical model, artificial neural network model, support vector machine model are presented. These three models are used for forecasting monthly reference crop evapotranspiration based on ten years of past historical records (1991-2001) of measured evaporation at Ganjam region, Odisha, India without considering the climate data. The developed models will allow water resource managers to predict up to 12 months, making these predictions very useful to optimize the resources needed for effective water resources management. In this study multistep-ahead prediction is performed which is more complex and troublesome than onestep ahead. Our investigation proposed that nonlinear relationships may exist among the monthly indices, so that the ARIMA model might not be able to effectively extract the full relationship hidden in the historical data. Support vector machines are potentially helpful time series forecasting strategies on account of their strong nonlinear mapping capability and resistance to complexity in forecasting data. SVMs have great learning capability in time series modelling compared to ANN. For instance, the SVMs execute the structural risk minimization principle, which allows in better generalization as compared to neural networks that use the empirical risk

  19. Establishment of institutional diagnostic reference level for computed tomography with automated dose-tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chong R; Chen, Priscilla X H; Kapur, Jeevesh; Ong, Michael K L; Quek, Swee T; Kapur, Subhash C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed. Distribution of CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (ED) were extracted from the data for single-phasic and multiphasic examinations. The institutional DRL for our CT units were established as mean (50th percentile) of CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy.cm) and ED (mSv) for single and multiphasic studies using the dose-tracking software. In single phasic examination, Head: (49.0 mGy), (978.0 mGy.cm), (2.4 mSv) respectively; Chest: (6.0 mGy), (254.0 mGy.cm), (4.9 mSv) respectively; CT A/P (10.0 mGy), (514.0 mGy.cm), (8.9 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P (10.0 mGy), (674.0 mGy.cm), (11.8 mSv) respectively. In multiphasic studies: Head (45.0 mGy), (1822.0 mGy.cm), (5.0 mSv) respectively; Chest (8.0 mGy), (577.0 mGy.cm), (10.0 mSv) respectively; CT A/P: (10.0 mGy), (1153.0 mGy.cm), (20.2 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P: (11.0 mGy), (1090.0 mGy.cm), (19.2 mSv) respectively. The reported metrics offer a variety of information that institutions can use for quality improvement activities. The variations in dose between scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of radiation dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  20. Computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions in fourteen cats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Mori, T.; Yamada, M.; Sakaida, M.; Yonemaru, K.; Murakami, M.; Sakai, H.; Maruo, K.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspirates (FNA) or core biopsies of lung lesions were performed in nine dogs and five cats. A clinical diagnosis was obtained in twelve of fourteen animals (85%), namely 80% FNA and 100% core biopsies. Eight animals had other mass (es) apart from the lung, and five were diagnosed to metastases. In only one case, the lung mass was histopathologically diagnosed as a malignant primary tumor. Iatrogenic complications through the lung biopsies were noted in four animals, and three showed mild pneumothorax on CT images and one was bleeding from the needle. However, between fifteen and thirty minutes after the biopsy, no animal indicated signs of pneumothorax or hemorrhage

  1. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-guided computer-assisted safer sex intervention, aiming at supporting people living with HIV in sexual risk reduction. We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop this counseling intervention in the framework of a European multicenter study. We conducted a needs assessment guided by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model, formulated change objectives and selected theory-based methods and practical strategies, i.e. interactive computer-assisted modules as supporting tools for provider-delivered counseling. Theoretical foundations were the IMB skills model, social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model, complemented by dual process models of affective decision making to account for the specifics of sexual behavior. The counseling approach for delivering three individual sessions was tailored to participants' needs and contexts, adopting elements of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We implemented and evaluated the intervention using a randomized controlled trial combined with a process evaluation. IM provided a useful framework for developing a coherent intervention for heterogeneous target groups, which was feasible and effective across the culturally diverse settings. This article responds to the need for transparent descriptions of the development and content of evidence-based behavior change interventions as potential pillars of effective combination prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Efficacy of Lower-Body Shielding in Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Sedlmair, Martin; Ritter, Christine; Banckwitz, Rosemarie; Flohr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided interventions pose relevant radiation exposure to the interventionalist. The goal of this study was to analyze the efficacy of lower-body shielding as a simple structural method for decreasing radiation dose to the interventionalist without limiting access to the patient. Material and Methods: All examinations were performed with a 128-slice dual source CT scanner (12 × 1.2-mm collimation; 120 kV; and 20, 40, 60, and 80 mAs) and an Alderson-Rando phantom. Scatter radiation was measured with an ionization chamber and a digital dosimeter at standardized positions and heights with and without a lower-body lead shield (0.5-mm lead equivalent; Kenex, Harlow, UK). Dose decreases were computed for the different points of measurement. Results: On average, lower-body shielding decreased scatter radiation by 38.2% within a 150-cm radius around the shielding. This decrease is most significant close to the gantry opening and at low heights of 50 and 100 cm above the floor with a maximum decrease of scatter radiation of 95.9% close to the scanner’s isocentre. With increasing distance to the gantry opening, the effect decreased. There is almost no dose decrease effect at ≥150 above the floor. Scatter radiation and its decrease were linearly correlated with the tube current-time product (r 2 = 0.99), whereas percent scatter radiation decrease was independent of the tube current-time product. Conclusion: Lower-body shielding is an effective way to decrease radiation exposure to the interventionalist and should routinely be used in CT fluoroscopy-guided interventions.

  3. Computed tomography-guided needle aspiration and biopsy of pulmonary lesions - A single-center experience in 1000 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulou, Loukia S.; Tsagouli, Paraskevi; Thanos, Loukas [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, General Hospital of Chest Diseases ' Sotiria' , Athens (Greece)], e-mail: ploukia@hotmail.com; Ziakas, Panayiotis D. [Program of Outcomes Research, Div. of Infectious Diseases, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown Univ., RI, and Div. of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, Rhode Island (United States); Politi, Dimitra [Dept. of Cythopathology, General Hospital of Chest Diseases ' Sotiria' Athens (Greece); Trigidou, Rodoula [Dept. of Pathology, General Hospital of Chest Diseases ' Sotiria' Athens (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and biopsies are well-established, minimally invasive diagnostic tools for pulmonary lesions. Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of 1000 consecutive lung CT-guided FNA and/or core needle biopsies (CNB), the main outcome measures being diagnostic yield, and complication rates. Material and Methods: Patients considered eligible were those referred to our department for lung lesions. The choice of FNA, CNB, or both was based upon the radiologist's judgment. Diagnostic yield was defined as the probability of having a definite result by cytology/histology. Results: The study included 733 male patients and 267 female patients, with a mean (SD) age of 66.4 (11.4) years. The mean (SD) lesion size was 3.7 (2.4) cm in maximal diameter. Six hundred and forty-one (64%) patients underwent an FNA procedure, 245 (25%) a CNB, and 114 (11%) had been subjected to both. The diagnostic yield was 960/994 (96.6%); this decreased significantly with the use of CNB only (odds ratio [OR] 0.32; 95% CI 0.12 - 0.88; P = 0.03), while it increased with lesion size (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03 - 1.79; P = 0.03 per cm increase). In 506 patients (52.7%), a malignant process was diagnosed by cytopathology/histology. The complication rate reached 97/1000 (9.7%); complications included: hemorrhage, 62 (6.2%); pneumothorax, 28 (2.8%); hemorrhage and pneumothorax, 5 (0.5%); and hemoptysis, 2 (0.2%). It was not significantly affected by the type of procedure or localization of the lesion. The overall risk for complications was three times higher for lesions <4 cm (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.96 - 5.42; P < 0.001). Conclusion: CT-guided lung biopsy has a high diagnostic yield using FNA, CNB, or both. The CNB procedure alone will not suffice. Complication rates were acceptable and correlated inversely with lesion size, not localization or type of procedure.

  4. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Image Guided Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Initial Clinical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Winnie; Cho, Young-Bin [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ansell, Steve [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand; Ménard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh [Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Macfeeters-Hamilton Centre for Neuro-oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kongkham, Paul; Bernstein, Mark [Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.chung.md@gmail.com [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The present study used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to measure the inter- and intrafraction uncertainties for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK). Methods and Materials: Using a novel CBCT system adapted to the GK radiosurgery treatment unit, CBCT images were acquired immediately before and after treatment for each treatment session within the context of a research ethics board–approved prospective clinical trial. Patients were immobilized in the Leksell coordinate frame (LCF) for both volumetric CBCT imaging and GK-SRS delivery. The relative displacement of the patient's skull to the stereotactic reference (interfraction motion) was measured for each CBCT scan. Differences between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were used to determine the intrafraction motion. Results: We analyzed 20 pre- and 17 post-treatment CBCT scans in 20 LCF patients treated with SRS. The mean translational pretreatment setup error ± standard deviation in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudal directions was −0.19 ± 0.32, 0.06 ± 0.27, and −0.23 ± 0.2 mm, with a maximum of −0.74, −0.53, and −0.68 mm, respectively. After an average time between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans of 82 minutes (range 27-170), the mean intrafraction error ± standard deviation for the LCF was −0.03 ± 0.05, −0.03 ± 0.18, and −0.03 ± 0.12 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudual direction, respectively. Conclusions: Using CBCT on a prototype image guided GK Perfexion unit, we were able to measure the inter- and intrafraction positional changes for GK-SRS using the invasive frame. In the era of image guided radiation therapy, the use of CBCT image guidance for both frame- and non–frame-based immobilization systems could serve as a useful quality assurance tool. Our preliminary measurements can guide the application of achievable thresholds for inter- and intrafraction

  5. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Image Guided Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Initial Clinical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Winnie; Cho, Young-Bin; Ansell, Steve; Laperriere, Normand; Ménard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Zadeh, Gelareh; Kongkham, Paul; Bernstein, Mark; Jaffray, David A.; Chung, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to measure the inter- and intrafraction uncertainties for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK). Methods and Materials: Using a novel CBCT system adapted to the GK radiosurgery treatment unit, CBCT images were acquired immediately before and after treatment for each treatment session within the context of a research ethics board–approved prospective clinical trial. Patients were immobilized in the Leksell coordinate frame (LCF) for both volumetric CBCT imaging and GK-SRS delivery. The relative displacement of the patient's skull to the stereotactic reference (interfraction motion) was measured for each CBCT scan. Differences between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were used to determine the intrafraction motion. Results: We analyzed 20 pre- and 17 post-treatment CBCT scans in 20 LCF patients treated with SRS. The mean translational pretreatment setup error ± standard deviation in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudal directions was −0.19 ± 0.32, 0.06 ± 0.27, and −0.23 ± 0.2 mm, with a maximum of −0.74, −0.53, and −0.68 mm, respectively. After an average time between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans of 82 minutes (range 27-170), the mean intrafraction error ± standard deviation for the LCF was −0.03 ± 0.05, −0.03 ± 0.18, and −0.03 ± 0.12 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudual direction, respectively. Conclusions: Using CBCT on a prototype image guided GK Perfexion unit, we were able to measure the inter- and intrafraction positional changes for GK-SRS using the invasive frame. In the era of image guided radiation therapy, the use of CBCT image guidance for both frame- and non–frame-based immobilization systems could serve as a useful quality assurance tool. Our preliminary measurements can guide the application of achievable thresholds for inter- and intrafraction

  6. First-in-Man Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Revascularization of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Using a Wearable Computer: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Debski, Artur; Borucki, Bartosz A; Szpak, Marcin; Staruch, Adam D; Kepka, Cezary; Witkowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of successful computed tomography-guided percutaneous revascularization of a chronically occluded right coronary artery using a wearable, hands-free computer with a head-mounted display worn by interventional cardiologists in the catheterization laboratory. The projection of 3-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions onto the screen of virtual reality glass allowed the operators to clearly visualize the distal coronary vessel, and verify the direction of the guide wire advancement relative to the course of the occluded vessel segment. This case provides proof of concept that wearable computers can improve operator comfort and procedure efficiency in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EnCE EnCase computer forensics : the official EnCase certified examiner : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bunting, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The official, Guidance Software-approved book on the newest EnCE exam! The EnCE exam tests that computer forensic analysts and examiners have thoroughly mastered computer investigation methodologies, as well as the use of Guidance Software's EnCase Forensic 7. The only official Guidance-endorsed study guide on the topic, this book prepares you for the exam with extensive coverage of all exam topics, real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, up-to-date legal information, and sample evidence files, flashcards, and more. Guides readers through preparation for the newest EnCase Certified Examiner

  8. Cone beam computed tomography guided treatment delivery and planning verification for magnetic resonance imaging only radiotherapy of the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens M.; Andreasen, Daniel; Mahmood, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    CT (CBCT) can be used for MRI-only image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and for verifying the correctness of the corresponding pCT. Material and methods. Six patients receiving palliative cranial RT were included in the study. Each patient had three-dimensional (3D) T1W MRI, a CBCT and a CT for reference...

  9. Otitis Media with Effusion in Young Children. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians, [and] Parent Guide, Consumer Version, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Otitis media with effusion and its related hearing loss have been associated with delayed language development, particularly if the disease is recurrent or of long duration, although available data are insufficient to establish a causal linkage. This guide presents recommendations based on extensive reviews of the relevant medical and…

  10. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Golmakani; Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Negar Asghari Pour

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mash...

  11. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  12. Guided Endodontic Access in Maxillary Molars Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing System: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Mendes, Sônia T de O; Barbosa, Camila de Freitas M; Santa-Rosa, Caroline C; Machado, Vinícius C

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a guided endodontic technique that facilitates access to root canals of molars presenting with pulp calcifications. A 61-year-old woman presented to our service with pain in the upper left molar region. The second and third left molars showed signs of apical periodontitis confirmed by the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans brought to us by the patient at the initial appointment. Conventional endodontic treatment was discontinued given the difficulty in locating the root canals. Intraoral scanning and the CBCT scans were used to plan the access to the calcified canals by means of implant planning software. Guides were fabricated through rapid prototyping and allowed for the correct orientation of a cylindrical drill used to provide access through the calcifications. Second to that, the root canals were prepared with reciprocating endodontic instruments and rested for 2 weeks with intracanal medication. Subsequently, canals were packed with gutta-percha cones using the hydraulic compression technique. Permanent restorations of the access cavities were performed. By comparing the tomographic images, the authors observed a drastic reduction of the periapical lesions as well as the absence of pain symptoms after 3 months. This condition was maintained at the 1-year follow-up. The guided endodontic technique in maxillary molars was shown to be a fast, safe, and predictable therapy and can be regarded as an excellent option for the location of calcified root canals, avoiding failures in complex cases. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computed Tomography Number Changes Observed During Computed Tomography–Guided Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mei; Yang, Cungeng; Chen, Xiaojian; Xu, Shouping; Moraru, Ion; Lang, Jinyi; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate CT number (CTN) changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) and organ at risk (OAR) according to daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography scans acquired using a CT-on-rails during daily CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for 15 patients with stage II to IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were analyzed. The GTV, parotid glands, spinal cord, and nonspecified tissue were generated on each selected daily CT. The changes in CTN distributions and the mean and mode values were collected. Pearson analysis was used to assess the correlation between the CTN change, organ volume reduction, and delivered radiation dose. Results: Volume and CTN changes for GTV and parotid glands can be observed during radiation therapy delivery for HNC. The mean (±SD) CTNs in GTV and ipsi- and contralateral parotid glands were reduced by 6 ± 10, 8 ± 7, and 11 ± 10 Hounsfield units, respectively, for all patients studied. The mean CTN changes in both spinal cord and nonspecified tissue were almost invisible (<2 Hounsfield units). For 2 patients studied, the absolute mean CTN changes in GTV and parotid glands were strongly correlated with the dose delivered (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). For the correlation between CTN reductions and delivered isodose bins for parotid glands, the Pearson coefficient varied from −0.98 (P<.001) in regions with low-dose bins to 0.96 (P<.001) in high-dose bins and were patient specific. Conclusions: The CTN can be reduced in tumor and parotid glands during the course of radiation therapy for HNC. There was a fair correlation between CTN reduction and radiation doses for a subset of patients, whereas the correlation between CTN reductions and volume reductions in GTV and parotid glands were weak. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism for the radiation-induced CTN changes

  14. Secondary Maxillary and Orbital Floor Reconstruction With a Free Scapular Flap Using Cutting and Fixation Guides Created by Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daiki; Numajiri, Toshiaki; Tsujiko, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroko; Yamochi, Ryo; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) guides are now widely used in maxillofacial reconstruction. However, there are few reports of CAD/CAM guides being used for scapular flaps. The authors performed the secondary maxillary and orbital floor reconstruction using a free latissimus dorsi muscle, cutaneous tissue, and scapular flap designed using CAD/CAM techniques in a 72-year-old man who had undergone partial maxillectomy four years previously. The patient had diplopia, the vertical dystopia of eye position, and a large oral-nasal-cutaneous fistula. After the operation, the authors confirmed that the deviation between the postoperative and preoperative planning three-dimensional images was less than 2 mm. Because scapular guides require 3 cutting surfaces, the shape of the scapular guide is more complex than that of a conventional fibular guide. In orbital floor reconstruction, the use of a CAM technique such as that used to manufacture the authors' fixation guide is as necessary for accurate, safe, and easy reconstruction as is preoperative CAD planning. The production of a fixation guide as well as a cutting guide is particularly useful because it is difficult to determine the angle for reconstructing the orbital floor by freehand techniques. In this case, the orbital floor was reconstructed based on a mirror image of the healthy side to avoid overcompression of the orbital tissue. Although the patient's vertical dystopia of eye position was improved, diplopia was not improved because, for greater safety, the authors did not plan overcorrection of the orbital volume.

  15. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  16. Test and control computer user's guide for a digital beam former test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert E.; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A Digital Beam Former Test System was developed to determine the effects of noise, interferers and distortions, and digital implementations of beam forming as applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 2 (TDRS 2) architectures. The investigation of digital beam forming with application to TDRS 2 architectures, as described in TDRS 2 advanced concept design studies, was conducted by the NASA/Lewis Research Center for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. A Test and Control Computer (TCC) was used as the main controlling element of the digital Beam Former Test System. The Test and Control Computer User's Guide for a Digital Beam Former Test System provides an organized description of the Digital Beam Former Test System commands. It is written for users who wish to conduct tests of the Digital Beam forming Test processor using the TCC. The document describes the function, use, and syntax of the TCC commands available to the user while summarizing and demonstrating the use of the commands wtihin DOS batch files.

  17. Prior image constrained scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen; Nett, Brian E; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-02-21

    X-ray scatter is a significant problem in cone-beam computed tomography when thicker objects and larger cone angles are used, as scattered radiation can lead to reduced contrast and CT number inaccuracy. Advances have been made in x-ray computed tomography (CT) by incorporating a high quality prior image into the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we extend this idea to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT image-guided radiation therapy. Specifically, this paper presents a new scatter correction algorithm which uses a prior image with low scatter artifacts to reduce shading artifacts in cone-beam CT images acquired under conditions of high scatter. The proposed correction algorithm begins with an empirical hypothesis that the target image can be written as a weighted summation of a series of basis images that are generated by raising the raw cone-beam projection data to different powers, and then, reconstructing using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. The weight for each basis image is calculated by minimizing the difference between the target image and the prior image. The performance of the scatter correction algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through phantom studies using a Varian 2100 EX System with an on-board imager. Results show that the proposed scatter correction algorithm using a prior image with low scatter artifacts can substantially mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in both full-fan and half-fan modes.

  18. Computer-guided facility for the study of single crystals at the gamma diffractometer GADI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, H.; Bleichert, H.; Gruhn, W.; Moeller, R.

    1984-10-01

    In the study of solid-state properties it is in many cases necessary to work with single crystals. The increased requirement in the industry and research as well as the desire for better characterization by means of γ-diffractometry made it necessary to improve and to modernize the existing instrument. The advantages of a computer-guided facility against the conventional, semiautomatic operation are manifold. Not only the process guidance, but also the data acquisition and evaluation are performed by the computer. By a remote control the operator is able to find quickly a reflex and to drive the crystal in every desired measuring position. The complete protocollation of all important measuring parameters, the convenient data storage, as well as the automatic evaluation are much useful for the user. Finally the measuring time can be increased to practically 24 hours per day. By this the versed characterization by means of γ-diffractometry is put on a completely new level. (orig.) [de

  19. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  20. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Zankl, M; Bolch, W E; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E; Hunt, J G; Pelliccioni, M; Schlattl, H; Menzel, H-G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors.

  1. Enhancing Next-Generation Sequencing-Guided Cancer Care Through Cognitive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirali M; Michelini, Vanessa V; Snell, Jeff M; Balu, Saianand; Hoyle, Alan P; Parker, Joel S; Hayward, Michele C; Eberhard, David A; Salazar, Ashley H; McNeillie, Patrick; Xu, Jia; Huettner, Claudia S; Koyama, Takahiko; Utro, Filippo; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Norel, Raquel; Bilal, Erhan; Royyuru, Ajay; Parida, Laxmi; Earp, H Shelton; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Hayes, D Neil; Harvey, Stephen J; Sharpless, Norman E; Kim, William Y

    2018-02-01

    Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to guide cancer therapy has created challenges in analyzing and reporting large volumes of genomic data to patients and caregivers. Specifically, providing current, accurate information on newly approved therapies and open clinical trials requires considerable manual curation performed mainly by human "molecular tumor boards" (MTBs). The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of cognitive computing as performed by Watson for Genomics (WfG) compared with a human MTB. One thousand eighteen patient cases that previously underwent targeted exon sequencing at the University of North Carolina (UNC) and subsequent analysis by the UNCseq informatics pipeline and the UNC MTB between November 7, 2011, and May 12, 2015, were analyzed with WfG, a cognitive computing technology for genomic analysis. Using a WfG-curated actionable gene list, we identified additional genomic events of potential significance (not discovered by traditional MTB curation) in 323 (32%) patients. The majority of these additional genomic events were considered actionable based upon their ability to qualify patients for biomarker-selected clinical trials. Indeed, the opening of a relevant clinical trial within 1 month prior to WfG analysis provided the rationale for identification of a new actionable event in nearly a quarter of the 323 patients. This automated analysis took potentially improve patient care by providing a rapid, comprehensive approach for data analysis and consideration of up-to-date availability of clinical trials. The results of this study demonstrate that the interpretation and actionability of somatic next-generation sequencing results are evolving too rapidly to rely solely on human curation. Molecular tumor boards empowered by cognitive computing can significantly improve patient care by providing a fast, cost-effective, and comprehensive approach for data analysis in the delivery of precision medicine. Patients and physicians who

  2. Year 2000 (Y2K) computer compliance guide; guidance for FDA personnel. Food and Drug Administration. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a new compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Year 2000 (Y2K) Computer Compliance" (section 160-800). This guidance document represents the agency's current thinking on the manufacturing and distribution of domestic and imported products regulated by FDA using computer systems that may not perform properly before, or during, the transition to the year 2000 (Y2K). The text of the CPG is included in this notice. This compliance guidance document is an update to the Compliance Policy Guides Manual (August 1996 edition). It is a new CPG, and it will be included in the next printing of the Compliance Policy Guides Manual. This CPG is intended for FDA personnel, and it is available electronically to the public.

  3. Internet resources for dentistry: computer, Internet, reference, and sites for enhancing personal productivity of the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, G F

    2000-08-15

    At the onset of the new millennium the Internet has become the new standard means of distributing information. In the last two to three years there has been an explosion of e-commerce with hundreds of new web sites being created every minute. For most corporate entities, a web site is as essential as the phone book listing used to be. Twenty years ago technologist directed how computer-based systems were utilized. Now it is the end users of personal computers that have gained expertise and drive the functionality of software applications. The computer, initially invented for mathematical functions, has transitioned from this role to an integrated communications device that provides the portal to the digital world. The Web needs to be used by healthcare professionals, not only for professional activities, but also for instant access to information and services "just when they need it." This will facilitate the longitudinal use of information as society continues to gain better information access skills. With the demand for current "just in time" information and the standards established by Internet protocols, reference sources of information may be maintained in dynamic fashion. News services have been available through the Internet for several years, but now reference materials such as online journals and digital textbooks have become available and have the potential to change the traditional publishing industry. The pace of change should make us consider Will Rogers' advice, "It isn't good enough to be moving in the right direction. If you are not moving fast enough, you can still get run over!" The intent of this article is to complement previous articles on Internet Resources published in this journal, by presenting information about web sites that present information on computer and Internet technologies, reference materials, news information, and information that lets us improve personal productivity. Neither the author, nor the Journal endorses any of the

  4. Creating an Electronic Reference and Information Database for Computer-aided ECM Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Pronichev, N. D.; Smirnov, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a review on electrochemical shaping. An algorithm has been developed to implement a computer shaping model applicable to pulse electrochemical machining. For that purpose, the characteristics of pulse current occurring in electrochemical machining of aviation materials have been studied. Based on integrating the experimental results and comprehensive electrochemical machining process data modeling, a subsystem for computer-aided design of electrochemical machining for gas turbine engine blades has been developed; the subsystem was implemented in the Teamcenter PLM system.

  5. PREDICTING ATTENUATION OF VIRUSES DURING PERCOLATION IN SOILS: 2. USER'S GUIDE TO THE VIRULO 1.0 COMPUTER MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the EPA document Predicting Attenuation of Viruses During Percolation in Soils 1. Probabilistic Model the conceptual, theoretical, and mathematical foundations for a predictive screening model were presented. In this current volume we present a User's Guide for the computer mo...

  6. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  7. Guided access cavity preparation using cone-beam computed tomography and optical surface scans - an ex vivo study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, J; Buchgreitz, M; Mortensen, D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ex vivo, the accuracy of a preparation procedure planned for teeth with pulp canal obliteration (PCO) using a guide rail concept based on a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan merged with an optical surface scan. METHODOLOGY: A total of 48 teeth were mounted in acrylic bloc...

  8. The using of megavoltage computed tomography in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Janla-or, Suwapim; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Supawongwattana, Bongkot; Chitapanarux, Imjai [Division of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Galalae, Razvan M. [Faculty of Medicine, Christian-Albrecht University (Campus Kiel), Kiel (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We present a case of cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. In radiation therapy part, the combination of the whole pelvic helical tomotherapy plus image-guided brachytherapy with megavoltage computed tomography of helical tomotherapy was performed. We propose this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting in some problematic situation as our institution.

  9. C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Alda; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther; Wallace, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

  10. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  11. The processing cost of reference-set computation: guess patterns in acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    1999-01-01

    An idea which got much attention in linguistic theory in the nineties is that the well-formedness of sentences is not always determined by absolute conditions, but it may be determined by a selection of the optimal competitor out of a relevant reference-set. A restricted version of this was assumed

  12. Computer Vision Evidence Supporting Craniometric Alignment of Rat Brain Atlases to Streamline Expert-Guided, First-Order Migration of Hypothalamic Spatial Datasets Related to Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad M.; Perez, Jose G.; Wells, Claire E.; Fuentes, Olac

    2018-01-01

    The rat has arguably the most widely studied brain among all animals, with numerous reference atlases for rat brain having been published since 1946. For example, many neuroscientists have used the atlases of Paxinos and Watson (PW, first published in 1982) or Swanson (S, first published in 1992) as guides to probe or map specific rat brain structures and their connections. Despite nearly three decades of contemporaneous publication, no independent attempt has been made to establish a basic framework that allows data mapped in PW to be placed in register with S, or vice versa. Such data migration would allow scientists to accurately contextualize neuroanatomical data mapped exclusively in only one atlas with data mapped in the other. Here, we provide a tool that allows levels from any of the seven published editions of atlases comprising three distinct PW reference spaces to be aligned to atlas levels from any of the four published editions representing S reference space. This alignment is based on registration of the anteroposterior stereotaxic coordinate (z) measured from the skull landmark, Bregma (β). Atlas level alignments performed along the z axis using one-dimensional Cleveland dot plots were in general agreement with alignments obtained independently using a custom-made computer vision application that utilized the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) operation to compare regions of interest in photomicrographs of Nissl-stained tissue sections from the PW and S reference spaces. We show that z-aligned point source data (unpublished hypothalamic microinjection sites) can be migrated from PW to S space to a first-order approximation in the mediolateral and dorsoventral dimensions using anisotropic scaling of the vector-formatted atlas templates, together with expert-guided relocation of obvious outliers in the migrated datasets. The migrated data can be contextualized with other datasets mapped in S space, including

  13. Computer Vision Evidence Supporting Craniometric Alignment of Rat Brain Atlases to Streamline Expert-Guided, First-Order Migration of Hypothalamic Spatial Datasets Related to Behavioral Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad M. Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rat has arguably the most widely studied brain among all animals, with numerous reference atlases for rat brain having been published since 1946. For example, many neuroscientists have used the atlases of Paxinos and Watson (PW, first published in 1982 or Swanson (S, first published in 1992 as guides to probe or map specific rat brain structures and their connections. Despite nearly three decades of contemporaneous publication, no independent attempt has been made to establish a basic framework that allows data mapped in PW to be placed in register with S, or vice versa. Such data migration would allow scientists to accurately contextualize neuroanatomical data mapped exclusively in only one atlas with data mapped in the other. Here, we provide a tool that allows levels from any of the seven published editions of atlases comprising three distinct PW reference spaces to be aligned to atlas levels from any of the four published editions representing S reference space. This alignment is based on registration of the anteroposterior stereotaxic coordinate (z measured from the skull landmark, Bregma (β. Atlas level alignments performed along the z axis using one-dimensional Cleveland dot plots were in general agreement with alignments obtained independently using a custom-made computer vision application that utilized the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC operation to compare regions of interest in photomicrographs of Nissl-stained tissue sections from the PW and S reference spaces. We show that z-aligned point source data (unpublished hypothalamic microinjection sites can be migrated from PW to S space to a first-order approximation in the mediolateral and dorsoventral dimensions using anisotropic scaling of the vector-formatted atlas templates, together with expert-guided relocation of obvious outliers in the migrated datasets. The migrated data can be contextualized with other datasets mapped in S

  14. Mobile computing with special reference to readability task under the impact of vibration, colour combination and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Zulquernain; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Haleem, Abid

    2008-12-01

    The last 20 years have seen a tremendous growth in the field of computing with special reference to mobile computing. Ergonomic issues pertaining to this theme remains unexplored. With special reference to readability in mobile computing, an experimental research was conducted to study the gender effect on human performance under the impact of vibration in a human computer interaction environment. Fourteen subjects (7 males and 7 females) participated in the study. Three independent variables, namely gender, level of vibration and screen text/background colour, were selected for the experimental investigation while the dependent variable was the number of characters read per minute. The data collected were analyzed statistically through an experimental design for repeated measures. Results indicated that gender as an organismic variable, the level of vibration and screen text/background colour revealed statistically significant differences. However, the second order interaction was found to be statistically non-significant. These findings are discussed in light of the previous studies undertaken on the topic.

  15. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Hunt, John G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Menzel, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors. This paper briefly reviews the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures that were published jointly by ICRP and ICRU. Both these publications appeared as a consequence of the ICRP 2007 Recommendations; to implement these recommendations, the ICRP has developed reference computational phantoms representing the adult male and female. These phantoms are used to calculate reference dose conversion coefficients for external and internal sources. Using the reference phantoms and methodology consistent with the 2007 Recommendations, dose conversion coefficients for both effective doses and organ-absorbed doses for various types of idealised external exposures have been calculated. These data sets supersede the existing ICRP/ICRU data sets and expand the particle types and energy ranges. For neutrons, the new effective dose conversion coefficients become smaller compared with those in ICRP74, for energies below hundreds of keV. This is mainly

  16. Computer use and ulnar neuropathy: results from a case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Frost, P.; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate associations between vocational computer use and 1) ulnar neuropathy, and 2) ulnar neuropathy- like symptoms as distinguished by electroneurography. We identified all patients aged 18-65 years, examined at the Department of Neurophysiology on suspicion of ulnar neuropathy, 2001...... was performed by conditional logistic regression.There were a negative association between daily hours of computer use and the two outcomes of interest. Participants who reported their elbow to be in contact with their working table for 2 hours or more during the workday had an elevated risk for ulnar...

  17. RADTRAN 4: User guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    RADTRAN 4 is used to evaluate radiological consequences of incident-free transportation, as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. This User Guide is Volume 3 in a series of four volume of the documentation of the RADTRAN 4 computer code for transportation risk analysis. The other three volumes are Volume 1, the Executive Summary; Volume 2, the Technical Manual; and Volume 4, the Programmer's Manual. The theoretical and calculational basis for the operations performed by RADTRAN 4 are discussed in Volume 2. Throughout this User Guide the reader will be referred to Volume 2 for detailed discussions of certain RADTRAN features. This User Guide supersedes the document ''RADTRAN III'' by Madsen et al. (1983). This RADTRAN 4 User Guide specifies and describes the required data, control inputs, input sequences, user options, program limitations, and other activities necessary for execution of the RADTRAN 4 computer code

  18. Surgical positioning of orthodontic mini-implants with guides fabricated on models replicated with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hun; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2007-04-01

    This article illustrates a new surgical guide system that uses cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to replicate dental models; surgical guides for the proper positioning of orthodontic mini-implants were fabricated on the replicas, and the guides were used for precise placement. The indications, efficacy, and possible complications of this method are discussed. Patients who were planning to have orthodontic mini-implant treatment were recruited for this study. A CBCT system (PSR 9000N, Asahi Roentgen, Kyoto, Japan) was used to acquire virtual slices of the posterior maxilla that were 0.1 to 0.15 mm thick. Color 3-dimensional rapid prototyping was used to differentiate teeth, alveolus, and maxillary sinus wall. A surgical guide for the mini-implant was fabricated on the replica model. Proper positioning for mini-implants on the posterior maxilla was determined by viewing the CBCT images. The surgical guide was placed on the clinical site, and it allowed precise pilot drilling and accurate placement of the mini-implant. CBCT imaging allows remarkably lower radiation doses and thinner acquisition slices compared with medical computed tomography. Virtually reproduced replica models enable precise planning for mini-implant positions in anatomically complex sites.

  19. Substantial dose reduction in modern multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT)-guided craniofacial and skull base surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, G.; Fasser, M.; Jaschke, W.; Bale, R.; Schullian, P.; Zangerl, A.; Puelacher, W.; Kral, F.; Riechelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of the radiation exposure involved in image-guided craniofacial and skull base surgery is an important goal. The purpose was to evaluate the influence of low-dose protocols in modern multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) on target registration errors (TREs). Materials and Methods: An anthropomorphic skull phantom with target markers at the craniofacial bone and the anterior skull base was scanned in Sensation Open (40-slice), LightSpeed VCT (64-slice) and Definition Flash (128-slice). Identical baseline protocols (BP) at 120 kV/100 mAs were compared to the following low-dose protocols (LD) in care dose/dose modulation: (LD-I) 100 kV/35ref. mAs, (LD-II) 80 kV/40 - 41ref. mAs, and (LD-III) 80 kV/15 - 17ref. mAs. CTDIvol and DLP were obtained. TREs using an optical navigation system were calculated for all scanners and protocols. Results were statistically analyzed in SPSS and compared for significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Results: CTDIvol for the Sensation Open/LightSpeed VCT/Definition Flash showed: (BP) 22.24 /32.48 /14.32 mGy; (LD-I) 4.61 /3.52 /1,62 mGy; (LD-II) 3.15 /2.01 /0.87 mGy; and (LD-III) na/0.76 /0.76 mGy. Differences between the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) reference CTDIvol of 9 mGy and the lowest CTDIvol were approximately 3-fold for Sensation Open, and 12-fold for the LightSpeed VCT and Definition Flash. A total of 33 registrations and 297 TRE measurements were performed. In all MSCT scanners, the TREs did not significantly differ between the low-dose and the baseline protocols. Conclusion: Low-dose protocols in modern MSCT provided substantial dose reductions without significant influence on TRE and should be strongly considered in image-guided surgery. (orig.)

  20. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joshua; Zhang, Tiezhi; Lu, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source–dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10–15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source–dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented. (paper)

  1. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  2. Essential Means for Urban Computing : Specification of Web-Based Computing Platforms for Urban Planning, a Hitchhiker’s Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Martinez-Ortiz, Carlos; Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K.

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the specifications of web-based computing platforms for urban data analytics and computational urban planning practice. There are currently a variety of tools and platforms that can be used in urban computing practices, including scientific computing languages,

  3. Creating vascular models by postprocessing computed tomography angiography images: a guide for anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govsa, Figen; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Sirinturk, Suzan; Eraslan, Cenk; Alagoz, Ahmet Kemal

    2017-08-01

    A new application of teaching anatomy includes the use of computed tomography angiography (CTA) images to create clinically relevant three-dimensional (3D) printed models. The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and the application of 3D printed models as a tool for using under and post-graduate medical education. Images of aortic arch pattern received by CTA were converted into 3D images using the Google SketchUp free software and were saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model mode polylactic acid material was printed. A two-vessel left aortic arch was identified consisting of the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery. The life-like 3D models were rotated 360° in all axes in hand. The early adopters in education and clinical practices have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D printed anatomical models for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between the anatomical structures. Printed vascular models are used to assist in preoperative planning, develop intraoperative guidance tools, and to teach patients surgical trainees in surgical practice.

  4. [Fluoroscopy dose reduction of computed tomography guided chest interventional radiology using real-time iterative reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Mihara, Yoshiyuki; Ino, Kenji; Sato, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose reduction to patients and radiologists in computed tomography (CT) guided examinations for the thoracic region using CT fluoroscopy. Image quality evaluation of the real-time filtered back-projection (RT-FBP) images and the real-time adaptive iterative dose reduction (RT-AIDR) images was carried out on noise and artifacts that were considered to affect the CT fluoroscopy. The image standard deviation was improved in the fluoroscopy setting with less than 30 mA on 120 kV. With regard to the evaluation of artifact visibility and the amount generated by the needle attached to the chest phantom, there was no significant difference between the RT-FBP images with 120 kV, 20 mA and the RT-AIDR images with low-dose conditions (greater than 80 kV, 30 mA and less than 120 kV, 20 mA). The results suggest that it is possible to reduce the radiation dose by approximately 34% at the maximum using RT-AIDR while maintaining image quality equivalent to the RT-FBP images with 120 V, 20 mA.

  5. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided ethanol injection in aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.; Savastano, S.; Tommaselli, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility, safety and effectiveness of percutaneous computed tomography-guided ethanol injection (PEI-CT) was investigated in a patient affected by aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). A 42-year-old male patient with typical features of hyperaldosteronism presented a solitary left adrenal adenoma measuring 2 cm, with a normal contralateral gland, evidenced by both CT scan and adrenal [ 75 Se-19]-nor-cholesterol scintigraphy. After normalization of potassium plasma levels, 4 ml of sterile 95% ethanol with 0.5 ml of 80% iothalamate sodium was injected. The procedure was completed in about 30 min. No severe pain or local complication was noted. Five hour after PEI, a fourfold and a twofold increase in aldosterone and cortisol plasma levels were observed, respectively. After 11 days on a normal sodium and potassium diet, normal potassium plasma levels and reduced aldosterone plasma levels were present, with reappearance of an aldosterone postural response. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone plasma levels normalized 1 month later, with reappearance also of a plasma renin activity postural response and maintenance of normal potassium plasma levels on a high sodium and normal potassium diet. The patient has remained hypertensive, although lower antihypertensive drug dosages have been employed. After 17 months, normal biochemical, hormonal and morphological findings were present. The authors suggested PEI-CT as a further alternative approach to surgery in the management of carefully selected patients with APA. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Essential Means for Urban Computing: Specification of Web-Based Computing Platforms for Urban Planning, a Hitchhiker’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouz Nourian; Carlos Martinez-Ortiz; Ken Arroyo Ohori

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the specifications of web-based computing platforms for urban data analytics and computational urban planning practice. There are currently a variety of tools and platforms that can be used in urban computing practices, including scientific computing languages, interactive web languages, data sharing platforms and still many desktop computing environments, e.g., GIS software applications. We have reviewed a list of technologies considering their potential ...

  7. Development, Use and Maintenance of the Design Basis Threat. Implementing Guide (French Edition); Elaboration, utilisation et actualisation de la menace de reference. Guide d'application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    This publication provides guidance on how to develop, use and maintain a design basis threat (DBT). It is intended for decision makers from organizations with roles and responsibilities for the development, use and maintenance of the DBT. This implementing guide describes a DBT; identifies and recommends the roles and responsibilities of organizations that should be involved in the development, use and maintenance of a DBT; describes how to conduct a national threat assessment as a precursor to a DBT; explains how a DBT can be developed; explains how a DBT is incorporated into a State's nuclear security regime; and explains the conditions for a review of the DBT, and how the review and update are conducted.

  8. Flora and Field Guide References Supporting All U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wetland Regional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Guide. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Jones, A. 1992. Aster and Brachyactis (Asteraceae) in Oklahoma. Sida Bot. Miscellany No. 8. Fort...author. Jones, A. 1992. Aster and Brachyactis (Asteraceae) in Oklahoma. Sida Bot. Miscellany No. 8. Fort Worth, TX: Research Institute of Texas...Agricultural Experiment Station. Jones, A. 1992. Aster and Brachyactis (Asteraceae) in Oklahoma. Sida Bot. Miscellany No. 8. Fort Worth, TX: Research

  9. Preliminary Results of Emergency Computed Tomography-Guided Ventricular Drain Placement-Precision for the Most Difficult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Andreas; Wagner, Franca; Söll, Nicole; Hakim, Arsany; Beck, Jürgen; Raabe, Andreas; Z'Graggen, Werner J

    2018-04-05

    External ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter placement is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. The study's objective was to compare a computed tomography (CT) bolt scan-guided approach for the placement of EVDs with conventional landmark-based insertion. In this retrospective case-control study, we analyzed patients undergoing bolt-kit EVD catheter placement, either CT-guided or landmark-based, between 2013 and 2016. The CT bolt scan-guided approach was based on a dose-reduced CT scan after bolt fixation with immediate image reconstruction along the axis of the bolt to evaluate the putative insertion axis. If needed, angulation of the bolt was corrected and the procedure repeated before the catheter was inserted. Primary endpoint was the accuracy of insertion. Secondary endpoints were the overall number of attempts, duration of intervention, complication rates, and cumulative radiation dose. In total, 34 patients were included in the final analysis. In the group undergoing CT-guided placement, the average ventricle width was significantly smaller (P = 0.04) and average midline shift significantly more pronounced (P = 0.01). CT-guided placement resulted in correct positioning of the catheter in the ipsilateral frontal horn in all 100% of the cases compared with landmark-guided insertion (63%; P = 0.01). Application of the CT-guided approach increased the number of total CT scans (3.6 ± 1.9) and the overall radiation dose (3.34 ± 1.61 mSv) compared with the freehand insertion group (1.84 ± 2.0 mSv and 1.55 ± 1.66 mSv). No differences were found for the other secondary outcome parameters. CT-guided bolt-kit EVD catheter placement is feasible and accurate in the most difficult cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer-aided design and computer-aided modeling (CAD/CAM) generated surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants: Which indications in orthognathic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolozzi, P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present report was to describe our indications, results and complications of computer-aided design and computer-aided modeling CAD/CAM surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants in orthognathic surgery. We analyzed the clinical and radiological data of ten consecutive patients with dentofacial deformities treated using a CAD/CAM technique. Four patients had surgical splints and cutting guides for correction of maxillomandibular asymmetries, three had surgical cutting guides and customized internal distractors for correction of severe maxillary deficiencies and three had custom-made implants for additional chin contouring and/or mandibular defects following bimaxillary osteotomies and sliding genioplasty. We recorded age, gender, dentofacial deformity, surgical procedure and intra- and postoperative complications. All of the patients had stable cosmetic results with a high rate of patient satisfaction at the 1-year follow-up examination. No intra- and/or postoperative complications were encountered during any of the different steps of the procedure. This study demonstrated that the application of CAD/CAM patient-specific surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants in orthognathic surgery allows for a successful outcome in the ten patients presented in this series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Computation of a Reference Model for Robust Fault Detection and Isolation Residual Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mazars

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers matrix inequality procedures to address the robust fault detection and isolation (FDI problem for linear time-invariant systems subject to disturbances, faults, and polytopic or norm-bounded uncertainties. We propose a design procedure for an FDI filter that aims to minimize a weighted combination of the sensitivity of the residual signal to disturbances and modeling errors, and the deviation of the faults to residual dynamics from a fault to residual reference model, using the ℋ∞-norm as a measure. A key step in our procedure is the design of an optimal fault reference model. We show that the optimal design requires the solution of a quadratic matrix inequality (QMI optimization problem. Since the solution of the optimal problem is intractable, we propose a linearization technique to derive a numerically tractable suboptimal design procedure that requires the solution of a linear matrix inequality (LMI optimization. A jet engine example is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Determination of boron in ceramic reference materials by prompt gamma activation analysis using focused neutron guided beam of JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, T.; Kuroiwa, T.; Chiba, K.; Matsue, H.

    2008-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis using a focused thermal neutron guided beam at JAEA JRR-3M was applied to the determination of B in ceramic certified reference materials (BAM CRM S-003 Silicon Carbide Powder and NMIJ CRM 8004-a Silicon Nitride Powder). Cl and Si were used as internal standards to obtain linear calibration curves of B. The analytical result of B in BAM CRM S-003 was in good agreement with the certified value. The relative expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) were 4.8% for BAM CRM S-003 and 4.9% for NMIJ CRM 8004-a. (author)

  13. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Abe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA -950 ) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950 . The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA -950 . (orig.)

  14. Computed tomography of the brain in cases with venous vasculitis compared with an age-matched reference group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, J.; Ericson, K.; Bergstrand, G.; Berggren, B.M.; Edman, G.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1988-01-01

    Patients with a particular, steroid-sensitive headache and often characteristic pathology at orbital phlebography, have been suggested to suffer from venous vasculitis. Fifty such patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) of the brain. The findings were compared with those of an age-matched reference group selected at random to represent normal subjects. The CT examinations were analyzed with respect to size of lateral ventricles and signs of atrophy. In both groups, there was a significant increase of atrophy with age. There was also a significantly higher degree of atrophy in the patient group as compared with the reference group. The findings indicate that the supposedly underlying venous vasculitis is related to early aging and atrophy of the brain. (orig.)

  15. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  16. Computed tomography of the optic nerve with special reference to the attenuation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Osamu; Shimooku, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Taeko

    1980-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) for ophthalmology needs no longer to be emphasized. Everything, however, has its limitations. In this article, the limitations of CT for the diagnosis of the optic nerve diameter were studied in an orbit-optic nerve model. The difference of 15 Hounsfield units between two scans which demonstrated the optic nerve having almost the same diameter, as a result of the partial volume effect, was obtained. This suggested that the attenuation values of the optic nerve are markedly influenced by the partial volume effect, and that they require further investigation for clinical use. (author)

  17. Small bowel obstruction: the role of computed tomography in its diagnosis and management with reference to other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkill, G.; Bell, J.; Healy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction is a leading cause of acute surgical admissions for abdominal pain. There is an increasing tendency for initial conservative management rather than immediate operative intervention, as a proportion of cases will resolve spontaneously. This has resulted in a growing reliance on radiological investigations to reassure the surgeon that medical therapy can be safely instituted. The onus therefore rests with radiologists to guide their surgical colleagues by correctly interpreting the plain abdominal radiograph and suggesting appropriate further investigation if warranted. Recently, computed tomography (CT) has been proposed as the test of choice to define the level and cause of acute small bowel obstruction and to identify complications such as ischaemia and perforation which will prompt surgical intervention. This review will discuss the utility of early CT in the diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction and outline its impact on patient management. (orig.)

  18. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal system as a reference for CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, C. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)]|[University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kretschmann, H.J. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer-graphics model of the corticospinal system acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of six intracranially-fixed human brains. This model is part of a neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) which enables 3D visualization of the brain and shows the relationship of its components such as anatomical structures, functional fibre tracts and arteries. Sections through the models can be matched with corresponding CT or MR images. This allows the probable localisation of corticospinal fibres on CT or MRI. (orig.) (orig.) With 18 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs.

  19. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of the corticospinal system as a reference for CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, C.; Kretschmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer-graphics model of the corticospinal system acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of six intracranially-fixed human brains. This model is part of a neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) which enables 3D visualization of the brain and shows the relationship of its components such as anatomical structures, functional fibre tracts and arteries. Sections through the models can be matched with corresponding CT or MR images. This allows the probable localisation of corticospinal fibres on CT or MRI. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. Feature-guided analysis for reduction of false positives in CAD of polyps for computed tomographic colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeppi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of our novel technique of feature-guided analysis of polyps on the reduction of false-positive (FP) findings generated by our computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for the detection of polyps from computed tomography colonographic data sets. The detection performance obtained by use of feature-guided analysis in the segmentation and feature analysis of polyp candidates was compared with that obtained by use of our previously employed fuzzy clustering technique. We also evaluated the effect of a feature called modified gradient concentration (MGC) on the detection performance. A total of 144 data sets, representing prone and supine views of 72 patients that included 14 patients with 21 colorectal polyps 5-25 mm in diameter, were used in the evaluation. At a 100% by-patient (95% by-polyp) detection sensitivity, the FP rate of our CAD scheme with feature-guided analysis based on round-robin evaluation was 1.3 (1.5) FP detections per patient. This corresponds to a 70-75 % reduction in the number of FPs obtained by use of fuzzy clustering at the same sensitivity levels. Application of the MGC feature instead of our previously used gradient concentration feature did not improve the detection result. The results indicate that feature-guided analysis is useful for achieving high sensitivity and a low FP rate in our CAD scheme

  1. Value of computed tomography for evaluating the injection site in endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Nishio, Takeshi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Yasuda, Chikao; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) safely and effectively relieves pain associated with intra-abdominal malignancies when the neurolytic is accurately injected. We applied contrast medium to evaluate the ethanol injection sites in patients who received EUS-CPN due to abdominal pain caused by malignancies. We injected, under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), ethanol containing 10% contrast medium into the celiac plexus of patients with intra-abdominal pain due to malignancies. Immediately after the endoscopic therapy, patients underwent computed tomography (CT) to confirm the injection site. Images of distribution of injected solutions were classified into three groups. Injected solution dispersed in unilateral and bilateral anterocrural space was defined as ''unilateral injection'' or bilateral injection'', respectively. Injected solution located out of the anterocrural space was defined as ''inappropriate injection''. Pre- and postprocedure pain was assessed using a standard analog scale. Before and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the procedure, pain scores were evaluated. From April 2003 to May 2005, 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Improvement of pain score in the ''bilateral injection'' and ''unilateral injection'' groups was significantly superior to the change in the ''inappropriate injection'' group. Although EUS-CPN was effective in eight of 13 patients (61.5%), additional EUS-CPN to the ''inappropriate injection group'' increased the response rate to 84.6%. Injection of ethanol to the anterocrural space by EUS-CPN produced adequate pain relief. Immediate examination by CT for confirmation of injection sites after EUS-CPN would increase the likelihood of induction of pain relief. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  3. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiming [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing [The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Luo, Kaidong [The Department of Radiology, Longyan Hosptial of Traditional Chinese Medical, 59 Longteng Middle Road, Longyan 364000 (China); Lin, Zhengyu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of {sup 125}I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided {sup 125}I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors.

  4. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  5. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Golmakani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. All women, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to three groups: progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and control groups. The intervention groups performed the exercises twice a day for a period of four weeks at home after two sessions of relaxation training (held during two weeks. Then, the quality of sleep was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For data analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, paired t-test, and post-hoc test were performed, using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The total score of sleep quality and its components (except use of sleep medication was significantly lower after the intervention, compared to the pre-intervention period in progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery groups (P

  6. Combustion of hydrogen-air jets in local chemical equilibrium: A guide to the CHARNAL computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, D. B.; Launder, B. E.; Morse, A. P.; Maples, G.

    1974-01-01

    A guide to a computer program, written in FORTRAN 4, for predicting the flow properties of turbulent mixing with combustion of a circular jet of hydrogen into a co-flowing stream of air is presented. The program, which is based upon the Imperial College group's PASSA series, solves differential equations for diffusion and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and also of the R.M.S. fluctuation of hydrogen concentration. The effective turbulent viscosity for use in the shear stress equation is computed. Chemical equilibrium is assumed throughout the flow.

  7. A reference sample for investigating the stability of the imaging system of x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Brown, Stephen; Flay, Nadia; McCarthy, Michael; McBride, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of x-ray computed tomography for dimensional measurements associated with engineering applications has flourished in recent years. However, error sources associated with the technology are not well understood. In this paper, a novel two-sphere reference sample has been developed and used to investigate the stability of the imaging system that consists of an x-ray tube and a detector. In contrast with other research work reported, this work considered relative positional variation along the x -, y - and z -axes. This sample is a significant improvement over the one sphere sample proposed previously, which can only be used to observe the stability of the imaging system along x - and y -axes. Temperature variations of different parts of the system have been monitored and the relationship between temperature variations and x-ray image stability has been studied. Other effects that may also influence the stability of the imaging system have been discussed. The proposed reference sample and testing method are transferable to other types of x-ray computed tomography systems, for example, systems with transmission targets and systems with sub-micrometre focal spots. (paper)

  8. Addition computed tomography with stable xenon; Special reference to ischemic cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    Stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) is used as a contrast agent because it freely diffuses to cerebral tissues through the blood-brain barrier. In this study, 2 axial levels for Xe{sup s} enhancement analysis were selected from a baseline series of computed tomographic (CT) scans and 6 serial CT scans were obtained every 20 seconds for each scan level during the 240 seconds inhalation period of 30% Xe{sup s} in 10 volunteer controls and in 52 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD). The serial CT scans were added and averaged in each pixel. This was used to make a new CT picture (addition CT scans). The CT scans before the Xe{sup s} inhalation, the scan at the end of the Xe{sup s} inhalation, and the addition CT scan were compared to see whether gray matter and ischemic areas could be differentiated from white matter. The addition CT scans could differentiate the three structures very well in both the acute and chronic stages of ICVD. This technique is thought to be a very simple and useful method to detect the small infarcted areas and low perfusion areas that cannot be visualized on precontrast CT scans. (author).

  9. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  10. Essential Means for Urban Computing: Specification of Web-Based Computing Platforms for Urban Planning, a Hitchhiker’s Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirouz Nourian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the specifications of web-based computing platforms for urban data analytics and computational urban planning practice. There are currently a variety of tools and platforms that can be used in urban computing practices, including scientific computing languages, interactive web languages, data sharing platforms and still many desktop computing environments, e.g., GIS software applications. We have reviewed a list of technologies considering their potential and applicability in urban planning and urban data analytics. This review is not only based on the technical factors such as capabilities of the programming languages but also the ease of developing and sharing complex data processing workflows. The arena of web-based computing platforms is currently under rapid development and is too volatile to be predictable; therefore, in this article we focus on the specification of the requirements and potentials from an urban planning point of view rather than speculating about the fate of computing platforms or programming languages. The article presents a list of promising computing technologies, a technical specification of the essential data models and operators for geo-spatial data processing, and mathematical models for an ideal urban computing platform.

  11. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of plutonium. Nuclear safety technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-12-23

    This report presents results of computations of doses and the associated health risks of postulated accidental atmospheric releases from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of one gram of weapons-grade plutonium in a form that is respirable. These computations are intended to be reference computations that can be used to evaluate a variety of accident scenarios by scaling the dose and health risk results presented here according to the amount of plutonium postulated to be released, instead of repeating the computations for each scenario. The MACCS2 code has been used as the basis of these computations. The basis and capabilities of MACCS2 are summarized, the parameters used in the evaluations are discussed, and results are presented for the doses and health risks to the public, both the Maximum Offsite Individual (a maximally exposed individual at or beyond the plant boundaries) and the population within 50 miles of RFP. A number of different weather scenarios are evaluated, including constant weather conditions and observed weather for 1990, 1991, and 1992. The isotopic mix of weapons-grade plutonium will change as it ages, the {sup 241}Pu decaying into {sup 241}Am. The {sup 241}Am reaches a peak concentration after about 72 years. The doses to the bone surface, liver, and whole body will increase slightly but the dose to the lungs will decrease slightly. The overall cancer risk will show almost no change over this period. This change in cancer risk is much smaller than the year-to-year variations in cancer risk due to weather. Finally, x/Q values are also presented for other applications, such as for hazardous chemical releases. These include the x/Q values for the MOI, for a collocated worker at 100 meters downwind of an accident site, and the x/Q value integrated over the population out to 50 miles.

  12. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbridge, B.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Academic Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: brent.burbridge@usask.ca

    2007-04-15

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  14. Computational investigations on a catenary-shaped double-reflecting neutron guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesmeyer, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The results of Monte-Carlo calculations of the neutron transmission of a vertical catenary-shaped neutron guide are presented. A two-dimensional problem was considered. Focussing and special coatings are investigated. (orig.) [de

  15. C-arm cone beam computed tomography needle path overlay for fluoroscopic guided vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Alda L; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Chinndurai, Ponraj; Rohm, Esther; Hall, Andrew F; Wallace, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Retrospective review. To report our early clinical experience using C-arm cone beam computed tomography (C-arm CBCT) with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance during vertebroplasty. C-arm CBCT is advanced three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat panel based angiography systems. The imaging information provided by C-arm CBCT allows for the acquisition and reconstruction of "CT-like" images in flat panel based angiography/interventional suites. As part of the evolution of this technology, enhancements allowing the overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real time fluoroscopy. We report our early clinical experience with C-arm CBCT with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance during vertebroplasty. This is a retrospective review of 10 consecutive oncology patients who underwent vertebroplasty of 13 vertebral levels using C-arm CBCT with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance from November 2007 to December 2008. Procedural data including vertebral level, approach (transpedicular vs. extrapedicular), access (bilateral vs. unilateral) and complications were recorded. Technical success with the overlay technology was assessed based on accuracy which consisted of 4 measured parameters: distance from target to needle tip, distance from planned path to needle tip, distance from midline to needle tip, and distance from the anterior 1/3 of the vertebral body to needle tip. Success within each parameter required that the distance between the needle tip and parameter being evaluated be no more than 5 mm on multiplanar CBCT or fluoroscopy. Imaging data for 12 vertebral levels was available for review. All vertebral levels were treated using unilateral access and 9 levels were treated with an extrapedicular approach. Technical success rates were 92% for both distance from planned path and distance from midline to final needle tip, 100% when distance from needle tip to the anterior 1

  16. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  17. A RVI/LAI-reference curve to detect N stress and guide N fertigation using combined information from spectral reflectance and leaf area measurements in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Thomsen, Anton Gårde

    2017-01-01

    More user-friendly methods are needed to detect crop N status/stress and guide the timing of in-season N application. In the current study, a reference curve method of detecting N stress was proposed to remedy practical problems of methods that require leaf sampling or maintaining a N sufficient...... was applied during the season. The total N ranged from 0 to180 kg N ha−1. RVI and LAI from the economically optimum 180 kg N ha−1 treatments were used to derive the reference curve. RVI and LAI from 180 kg N ha−1 treatment had a high (R2 = 0.97) correlation and were best fitted with a 2nd order polynomial...... function, which was independent of season. The treatments where N fertigation was stopped before reaching 180 kg N ha−1 started to deviate from the 95% confidence interval of the reference curve about 10 days after N-fertigation was stopped. This corresponded to 10–20 kg ha−1 difference in total plant N...

  18. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Takeshi, E-mail: ogo.takeshi.hp@mail.ncvc.go.jp [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Department of Advanced Mediccal Research for Pulmonary Hypertension, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Tetsuya [Department of Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Sanda, Yoshihiro [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Morita, Yoshiaki [Department of Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao [Division of Pulmonary Circulation, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Satoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Recent advancement in CT enables distal CTEpH lesions to be visualized. • We investigated the efficacy and safety of BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT. • BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT is effective and safe in patients with CTEpH . • These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. - Abstract: Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. Methods: We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1 year after BPA. Results: Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1 year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. Conclusions: BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment.

  19. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogo, Takeshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advancement in CT enables distal CTEpH lesions to be visualized. • We investigated the efficacy and safety of BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT. • BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated area detector CT is effective and safe in patients with CTEpH . • These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. - Abstract: Background: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. Methods: We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1 year after BPA. Results: Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1 year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. Conclusions: BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment.

  20. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  1. The uncertainty of reference standards--a guide to understanding factors impacting uncertainty, uncertainty calculations, and vendor certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Kevin; Chang, Ning; Dilek, Isil; Jian, Huahua; Pogue, Sherri; Sreenivasan, Uma

    2009-10-01

    Certified solution standards are widely used in forensic toxicological, clinical/diagnostic, and environmental testing. Typically, these standards are purchased as ampouled solutions with a certified concentration. Vendors present concentration and uncertainty differently on their Certificates of Analysis. Understanding the factors that impact uncertainty and which factors have been considered in the vendor's assignment of uncertainty are critical to understanding the accuracy of the standard and the impact on testing results. Understanding these variables is also important for laboratories seeking to comply with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements and for those preparing reference solutions from neat materials at the bench. The impact of uncertainty associated with the neat material purity (including residual water, residual solvent, and inorganic content), mass measurement (weighing techniques), and solvent addition (solution density) on the overall uncertainty of the certified concentration is described along with uncertainty calculations.

  2. A far-infrared Michelson interferometer for tokamak electron density measurements using computer-generated reference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, P.A.; Stimson, P.A.; Falconer, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    A simple far-infrared interferometer which uses the 394 μm laser line from optically-pumped formic acid vapour to measure tokamak electron density is described. This interferometer is unusual in requiring only one detector and a single probing beam since reference fringes during the plasma shot are obtained by computer interpolation between the fringes observed immediately before and after the shot. Electron density has been measured with a phase resolution corresponding to + - 1/20 wavelength fringe shift, which is equivalent to a central density resolution of + - 0.1 x 10 19 m -3 for an assumed parabolic density distribution in a plasma of diameter of 0.2 m, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ms. (author)

  3. A comparison of digital tomosynthesis and chest radiography in evaluating airway lesions using computed tomography as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Yu, Ami; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Heon; Choi, Jung Won; Kang, Eun-Young; Oh, Yu Whan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and chest radiography for detecting airway abnormalities, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. We evaluated 161 data sets from 149 patients (91 with and 70 without airway abnormalities) who had undergone radiography, DTS, and CT to detect airway problems. Radiographs and DTS were evaluated to localize and score the severity of the airway abnormalities, and to score the image quality using CT as a reference. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC), McNemar's test, weighted kappa, and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity of DTS was higher (reader 1, 93.51 %; reader 2, 94.29 %) than chest radiography (68.83 %; 71.43 %) in detecting airway lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of DTS (90.91 %; 94.70 %) was also significantly better than that of radiography (78.03 %; 82.58 %, all p chest radiography (1.83, 2.74; p < 0.05) in the results of both readers. The inter-observer agreement with respect to DTS findings was moderate and superior when compared to radiography findings. DTS is a more accurate and sensitive modality than radiography for detecting airway lesions that are easily obscured by soft tissue structures in the mediastinum. • Digital tomosynthesis offers new diagnostic options for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis is more sensitive and accurate than radiography for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis shows better image quality than radiography. • Assessment of lesion severity, via tomosynthesis is comparable to computed tomography.

  4. Design of a Nanoscale, CMOS-Integrable, Thermal-Guiding Structure for Boolean-Logic and Neuromorphic Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R

    2016-12-21

    One of the requirements for achieving faster CMOS electronics is to mitigate the unacceptably large chip areas required to steer heat away from or, more recently, toward the critical nodes of state-of-the-art devices. Thermal-guiding (TG) structures can efficiently direct heat by "meta-materials" engineering; however, some key aspects of the behavior of these systems are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate control of the thermal-diffusion properties of TG structures by using nanometer-scale, CMOS-integrable, graphene-on-silica stacked materials through finite-element-methods simulations. It has been shown that it is possible to implement novel, controllable, thermally based Boolean-logic and spike-timing-dependent plasticity operations for advanced (neuromorphic) computing applications using such thermal-guide architectures.

  5. Complex Osteotomies of Tibial Plateau Malunions Using Computer-Assisted Planning and Patient-Specific Surgical Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnstahl, Philipp; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Schweizer, Andreas; Fucentese, Sandro F; Koch, Peter P

    2015-08-01

    The accurate reduction of tibial plateau malunions can be challenging without guidance. In this work, we report on a novel technique that combines 3-dimensional computer-assisted planning with patient-specific surgical guides for improving reliability and accuracy of complex intraarticular corrective osteotomies. Preoperative planning based on 3-dimensional bone models was performed to simulate fragment mobilization and reduction in 3 cases. Surgical implementation of the preoperative plan using patient-specific cutting and reduction guides was evaluated; benefits and limitations of the approach were identified and discussed. The preliminary results are encouraging and show that complex, intraarticular corrective osteotomies can be accurately performed with this technique. For selective patients with complex malunions around the tibia plateau, this method might be an attractive option, with the potential to facilitate achieving the most accurate correction possible.

  6. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Takayuki [Keio University School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA{sub -950}) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA{sub -950}. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA{sub -950}. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of digital tomosynthesis and chest radiography in evaluating airway lesions using computed tomography as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Choi, Jung Won; Yu, Ami; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Eun-Young; Oh, Yu Whan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and chest radiography for detecting airway abnormalities, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. We evaluated 161 data sets from 149 patients (91 with and 70 without airway abnormalities) who had undergone radiography, DTS, and CT to detect airway problems. Radiographs and DTS were evaluated to localize and score the severity of the airway abnormalities, and to score the image quality using CT as a reference. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC), McNemar's test, weighted kappa, and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity of DTS was higher (reader 1, 93.51 %; reader 2, 94.29 %) than chest radiography (68.83 %; 71.43 %) in detecting airway lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of DTS (90.91 %; 94.70 %) was also significantly better than that of radiography (78.03 %; 82.58 %, all p < 0.05). DTS image quality was significantly better than chest radiography (1.83, 2.74; p < 0.05) in the results of both readers. The inter-observer agreement with respect to DTS findings was moderate and superior when compared to radiography findings. DTS is a more accurate and sensitive modality than radiography for detecting airway lesions that are easily obscured by soft tissue structures in the mediastinum. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the UF/NCI hybrid computational phantoms for use in organ dosimetry of pediatric patients undergoing fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emily L.; Borrego, David; Tran, Trung; Fudge, James C.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that pediatric patients face a higher relative risk of radiation induced cancers than their adult counterparts at equivalent exposures. Infants and children with congenital heart defects are a critical patient population exposed to ionizing radiation during life-saving procedures. These patients will likely incur numerous procedures throughout their lifespan, each time increasing their cumulative radiation absorbed dose. As continued improvements in long-term prognosis of congenital heart defect patients is achieved, a better understanding of organ radiation dose following treatment becomes increasingly vital. Dosimetry of these patients can be accomplished using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, coupled with modern anatomical patient models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the University of Florida/National Cancer Institute (UF/NCI) pediatric hybrid computational phantom library for organ dose assessment of patients that have undergone fluoroscopically guided cardiac catheterizations. In this study, two types of simulations were modeled. A dose assessment was performed on 29 patient-specific voxel phantoms (taken as representing the patient’s true anatomy), height/weight-matched hybrid library phantoms, and age-matched reference phantoms. Two exposure studies were conducted for each phantom type. First, a parametric study was constructed by the attending pediatric interventional cardiologist at the University of Florida to model the range of parameters seen clinically. Second, four clinical cardiac procedures were simulated based upon internal logfiles captured by a Toshiba Infinix-i Cardiac Bi-Plane fluoroscopic unit. Performance of the phantom library was quantified by computing both the percent difference in individual organ doses, as well as the organ dose root mean square values for overall phantom assessment between the matched phantoms (UF/NCI library or reference) and the patient

  9. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  10. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of uranium and Class W plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents ''reference'' computations that can be used by safety analysts in the evaluations of the consequences of postulated atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. These computations deal specifically with doses and health risks to the public. The radionuclides considered are Class W Plutonium, all classes of Enriched Uranium, and all classes of Depleted Uranium. (The other class of plutonium, Y, was treated in an earlier report.) In each case, one gram of the respirable material is assumed to be released at ground leveL both with and without fire. The resulting doses and health risks can be scaled to whatever amount of release is appropriate for a postulated accident being investigated. The report begins with a summary of the organ-specific stochastic risk factors appropriate for alpha radiation, which poses the main health risk of plutonium and uranium. This is followed by a summary of the atmospheric dispersion factors for unfavorable and typical weather conditions for the calculation of consequences to both the Maximum Offsite Individual and the general population within 80 km (50 miles) of the site

  11. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Carlos; Corrales, Monica; Gonzalez, Gemma; Solano, Alberto; Cáceres, Enrique

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50 degrees-52 degrees ) and type II (mean 62.50 degrees-64 degrees ), with significant differences between them (p craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process averaged 18,25 degrees while the angle with the upper posterior column of the scapula averaged 8 degrees . Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  12. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Alberto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Methods Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. Results The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50°–52° and type II (mean 62,50°–64°, with significant differences between them (p Conclusion Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  13. Diagnostic reference levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations: results from the first Nigerian nationwide dose survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; Adejoh, Thomas; Akwo, Judith D; Emeka, Owujekwe C; Modu, Ali A; Abba, Mohammed; Adesina, Kudirat A; Omiyi, David O; Chiegwu, Uche H

    2018-01-29

    To explore doses from common adult computed tomography (CT) examinations and propose national diagnostic reference levels (nDRLs) for Nigeria. This retrospective study was approved by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University and University Teaching Hospital Institutional Review Boards (IRB: NAUTH/CS/66/Vol8/84) and involved dose surveys of adult CT examinations across the six geographical regions of Nigeria and Abuja from January 2016 to August 2017. Dose data of adult head, chest and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations were extracted from patient folders. The median, 75th and 25th percentile CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and dose-length-product (DLP) were computed for each of these procedures. Effective doses (E) for these examinations were estimated using the k conversion factor as described in the ICRP publication 103 (E DLP  =  k × DLP ). The proposed 75th percentile CTDI vol for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis are 61 mGy, 17 mGy, and 20 mGy, respectively. The corresponding DLPs are 1310 mGy.cm, 735 mGy.cm, and 1486 mGy.cm respectively. The effective doses were 2.75 mSv (head), 10.29 mSv (chest), and 22.29 mSv (abdomen/pelvis). Findings demonstrate wide dose variations within and across centres in Nigeria. The results also show CTDI vol comparable to international standards, but considerably higher DLP and effective doses.

  14. Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Myung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET) images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI) template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR) or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT) images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR) and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR) in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT) and intensity transformation (itCT). We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI) overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison. The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P normalization methods provided reliable striatal SUVR values comparable to those obtained with MR-guided methods. CT-guided methods can be useful for analyzing dopamine transporter PET images when MR images are unavailable.

  15. Guide to making time-lapse graphics using the facilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The advent of large, fast computers has opened the way to modeling more complex physical processes and to handling very large quantities of experimental data. The amount of information that can be processed in a short period of time is so great that use of graphical displays assumes greater importance as a means of displaying this information. Information from dynamical processes can be displayed conveniently by use of animated graphics. This guide presents the basic techniques for generating black and white animated graphics, with consideration of aesthetic, mechanical, and computational problems. The guide is intended for use by someone who wants to make movies on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) CDC-7600. Problems encountered by a geographically remote user are given particular attention. Detailed information is given that will allow a remote user to do some file checking and diagnosis before giving graphics files to the system for processing into film in order to spot problems without having to wait for film to be delivered. Source listings of some useful software are given in appendices along with descriptions of how to use it. 3 figures, 5 tables

  16. Conventional multi-slice computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) for computer-aided implant placement. Part II: reliability of mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisan, Volkan; Karabuda, Zihni Cüneyt; Pişkin, Bülent; Özdemir, Tayfun

    2013-12-01

    Deviations of implants that were placed by conventional computed tomography (CT)- or cone beam CT (CBCT)-derived mucosa-supported stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guides were analyzed in this study. Eleven patients were randomly scanned by a multi-slice CT (CT group) or a CBCT scanner (CBCT group). A total of 108 implants were planned on the software and placed using SLA guides. A new CT or CBCT scan was obtained and merged with the planning data to identify the deviations between the planned and placed implants. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and multiple regressions (p < .05). Mean angular and linear deviations in the CT group were 3.30° (SD 0.36), and 0.75 (SD 0.32) and 0.80 mm (SD 0.35) at the implant shoulder and tip, respectively. In the CBCT group, mean angular and linear deviations were 3.47° (SD 0.37), and 0.81 (SD 0.32) and 0.87 mm (SD 0.32) at the implant shoulder and tip, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between the CT and CBCT groups (p = .169 and p = .551, p = .113 for angular and linear deviations, respectively). Implant placement via CT- or CBCT-derived mucosa-supported SLA guides yielded similar deviation values. Results should be confirmed on alternative CBCT scanners. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using Synthetic Computed Tomography Images in Brain Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Ryan G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Kim, Joshua P.; Zheng, Weili [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri, E-mail: churst2@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of synthetic computed tomography (CT) (synCT) derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images supports MR-only treatment planning. We evaluated the accuracy of synCT and synCT-generated digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) relative to CT and determined their performance for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance simulation (MR-SIM) and CT simulation (CT-SIM) images were acquired of an anthropomorphic skull phantom and 12 patient brain cancer cases. SynCTs were generated using fluid attenuation inversion recovery, ultrashort echo time, and Dixon data sets through a voxel-based weighted summation of 5 tissue classifications. The DRRs were generated from the phantom synCT, and geometric fidelity was assessed relative to CT-generated DRRs through bounding box and landmark analysis. An offline retrospective analysis was conducted to register cone beam CTs (n=34) to synCTs and CTs using automated rigid registration in the treatment planning system. Planar MV and KV images (n=37) were rigidly registered to synCT and CT DRRs using an in-house script. Planar and volumetric registration reproducibility was assessed and margin differences were characterized by the van Herk formalism. Results: Bounding box and landmark analysis of phantom synCT DRRs were within 1 mm of CT DRRs. Absolute planar registration shift differences ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 mm for phantom DRRs on all treatment platforms and from 0.0 to 0.4 mm for volumetric registrations. For patient planar registrations, the mean shift differences were 0.4 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.6 to 1.6 mm), 0.0 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.9 to 1.2 mm), and 0.1 ± 0.3 mm (range, −0.7 to 0.6 mm) for the superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) axes, respectively. The mean shift differences in volumetric registrations were 0.6 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.2 to 1.6 mm), 0.2 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.3 to 1.2 mm), and 0.2 ± 0

  18. Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using Synthetic Computed Tomography Images in Brain Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Ryan G.; Kim, Joshua P.; Zheng, Weili; Chetty, Indrin J.; Glide-Hurst, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of synthetic computed tomography (CT) (synCT) derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images supports MR-only treatment planning. We evaluated the accuracy of synCT and synCT-generated digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) relative to CT and determined their performance for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance simulation (MR-SIM) and CT simulation (CT-SIM) images were acquired of an anthropomorphic skull phantom and 12 patient brain cancer cases. SynCTs were generated using fluid attenuation inversion recovery, ultrashort echo time, and Dixon data sets through a voxel-based weighted summation of 5 tissue classifications. The DRRs were generated from the phantom synCT, and geometric fidelity was assessed relative to CT-generated DRRs through bounding box and landmark analysis. An offline retrospective analysis was conducted to register cone beam CTs (n=34) to synCTs and CTs using automated rigid registration in the treatment planning system. Planar MV and KV images (n=37) were rigidly registered to synCT and CT DRRs using an in-house script. Planar and volumetric registration reproducibility was assessed and margin differences were characterized by the van Herk formalism. Results: Bounding box and landmark analysis of phantom synCT DRRs were within 1 mm of CT DRRs. Absolute planar registration shift differences ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 mm for phantom DRRs on all treatment platforms and from 0.0 to 0.4 mm for volumetric registrations. For patient planar registrations, the mean shift differences were 0.4 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.6 to 1.6 mm), 0.0 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.9 to 1.2 mm), and 0.1 ± 0.3 mm (range, −0.7 to 0.6 mm) for the superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) axes, respectively. The mean shift differences in volumetric registrations were 0.6 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.2 to 1.6 mm), 0.2 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.3 to 1.2 mm), and 0.2 ± 0

  19. Development of a guidance guide for dosimetry in computed tomography; Desenvolvimento de um guia orientativo para dosimetria em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Due to frequent questions from users of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated in the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (LCI - IPEN), on how to properly apply the factors indicated in their calibration certificates, a guide was prepared guidance for dosimetry in computed tomography. The guide includes guidance prior knowledge of half value layer (HVL), as it is necessary to know the effective beam energy for application quality for correction factor (kq). The evaluation of HVL in TC scanners becomes a difficult task due to system geometry and therefore a survey was conducted of existing methodologies for the determination of HVL in clinical beams Computed Tomography, taking into account technical, practical and economic factors. In this work it was decided to test a Tandem System consists of absorbing covers made in the workshop of IPEN, based on preliminary studies due to low cost and good response. The Tandem system consists of five cylindrical absorbing layers of 1mm, 3mm, 5mm, 7mm and 10mm aluminum and 3 cylindrical absorbing covers 15mm, 25mm and acrylic 35mm (PMMA) coupled to the ionization chamber of commercial pencil type widely used in quality control tests in dosimetry in clinical beams Computed tomography. Through Tandem curves it was possible to assess HVL values and from the standard curve pencil-type ionization chamber, Kq find the appropriate beam. The elaborate Guide provides information on how to build the calibration curve on the basis of CSR, to find the Kq and information for construction Tandem curve, to find values close to CSR. (author)

  20. Computer-Aided Authoring System (AUTHOR) User's Guide. Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Charles R.

    This user's guide for AUTHOR, an automatic authoring system which produces programmed texts for teaching symbol recognition, provides detailed instructions to help the user construct and enter the information needed to create the programmed text, run the AUTHOR program, and edit the automatically composed paper. Major sections describe steps in…

  1. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  2. Efficacy and safety of balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension guided by cone-beam computed tomography and electrocardiogram-gated area detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Takeshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Akihiro; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ueda, Jin; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Konagai, Nao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease characterized by chronic obstructive thrombus and pulmonary hypertension. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), an emerging alternative catheter-based treatment for inoperable patients with CTEPH, has not yet been standardised, especially for lesion assessment in distal pulmonary arteries. Recent advancement in computed tomography enables distal CTEPH lesions to be visualized. We retrospectively studied 80 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who received BPA guided by cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) or electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated area detector CT (ADCT) for target lesion assessment. We collected clinical and hemodynamic data, including procedural complications, before BPA and at 3 months and 1year after BPA. Three hundred eight-five BPA sessions (4.8 sessions/patient) were performed for the lesions of subsegmental arteries (1155 lesions), segmental arteries (738 lesions), and lobar arteries (4 lesions) identified by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT. Significant improvements in the symptoms, 6-min walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide level, exercise capacity, and haemodynamics were observed 3 months and 1year after BPA. No cases of death or cardiogenic shock with a low rate of severe wire perforation (0.3%) and severe reperfusion oedema (0.3%) were observed. BPA guided by CBCT or ECG-gated ADCT is effective and remarkably safe in patients with CTEPH . These new advanced CT techniques may be useful in pre-BPA target lesion assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Navy Occupational Health Information Management System (NOHIMS). Users’ Reference Manual. COSTAR (Computer-Stored Ambulatory Record System). Operators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    standing or foot hazardous areas 0 (J) Crawling, kneeling or squatting F1 (K) Chemicals, solvents, greases, oils Ej (L) Other Restriction (Specify...a pip* or Cigarsi? AQ 111111 obsrve (TtS i OIf nio skiooquestion 6.1 SPC - :] IS A. How many years fiaveldid Y PC you smoke a pip* or cigars? 1.11 6...HEALTH REVIEW 1> 15 2> >>> PCS-B LLFG7-B AVERAGE NO OF PACKS OF CIGARETTES SMOKED (ONE PACK PER DAY) STATUS: HEALTH REVIEW Question 5 (Code SPC

  4. Osteoid osteomas in common and in technically challenging locations treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylona, Sophia; Patsoura, Sofia; Karapostolakis, Georgios; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Anastasia; Thanos, Loukas

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of osteoid osteomas in common and in technically challenging locations. Twenty-three patients with osteoid osteomas in common (nine cases) and technically challenging [14 cases: intra-articular (n = 7), spinal (n = 5), metaphyseal (n = 2)] positions were treated with CT-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed under conscious sedation with a seven-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 C and power of 90-110 W. The patients went home under instruction. A brief pain inventory (BPI) score was calculated before and after (1 day, 4 weeks, 6 months and 1 year) treatment. All procedures were technically successful. Primary clinical success was 91.3% (21 of total 23 patients), despite the lesions' locations. BPI score was dramatically reduced after the procedure, and the decrease in BPI score was significant (P < 0.001, paired t-test; n - 1 = 22) for all periods during follow up. Two patients had persistent pain after 1 month and were treated successfully with a second procedure (secondary success rate 100%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. CT-guided RF ablation is safe and highly effective for treatment of osteoid osteomas, even in technically difficult positions. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomography-guided interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy for centrally located liver tumours: a single institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselis, Nikolaos; Chatzikonstantinou, Georgios; Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Kolotas, Christos [Hirslanden Medical Center, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau (Switzerland); Milickovic, Natasa; Baltas, Dimos [Klinikum Offenbach, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial (IRT) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BRT) in the treatment of unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies. This report updates and expands our previously described experience with this treatment technique. Forty-one patients with 50 tumours adjacent to the liver hilum and bile duct bifurcation were treated in 59 interventions of CT-guided IRT HDR BRT. The tumours were larger than 4 cm with a median volume of 84 cm{sup 3} (38-1,348 cm{sup 3}). The IRT HDR BRT delivered a median total physical dose of 20.0 Gy (7.0-32.0 Gy) in twice daily fractions of median 7.0 Gy (4.0-10.0 Gy) in 19 patients and in once daily fractions of median 8.0 Gy (7.0-14.0 Gy) in 22 patients. With a median follow-up of 12.4 months, the local control for metastatic hepatic tumours was 89 %, 73 % and 63 % at 6, 12 and 18 months respectively. The local control for primary hepatic tumours was 90 %, 81 % and 50 % at 6, 12 and 18 months respectively. Severe side effects occurred in 5.0 % of interventions with no treatment-related deaths. CT-guided IRT HDR BRT is a promising procedure for the radiation treatment of centrally located liver malignancies. (orig.)

  6. 3D artificial bones for bone repair prepared by computed tomography-guided fused deposition modeling for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Ye, Xiaojian; Wei, Daixu; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Yuyun; Xu, Guohua; He, Dannong

    2014-09-10

    The medical community has expressed significant interest in the development of new types of artificial bones that mimic natural bones. In this study, computed tomography (CT)-guided fused deposition modeling (FDM) was employed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL 3D artificial bones to mimic natural goat femurs. The in vitro mechanical properties, in vitro cell biocompatibility, and in vivo performance of the artificial bones in a long load-bearing goat femur bone segmental defect model were studied. All of the results indicate that CT-guided FDM is a simple, convenient, relatively low-cost method that is suitable for fabricating natural bonelike artificial bones. Moreover, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones prepared by CT-guided FDM have more close mechanics to natural bone, good in vitro cell biocompatibility, biodegradation ability, and appropriate in vivo new bone formation ability. Therefore, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones could be potentially be of use in the treatment of patients with clinical bone defects.

  7. On the Need for Research Evidence to Guide the Design of Computer Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Computer games for learning (also called video games or digital games) have potential to improve education. This is the intriguing idea that motivates this special issue of the "Educational Psychologist" on "Psychological Perspectives on Digital Games and Learning." Computer games for learning are games delivered via computer…

  8. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA-950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. • Tomosynthesis showed significantly better diagnostic performance for pulmonary emphysema than radiography. • Interobserver agreement for tomosynthesis was significantly higher than that for radiography. • Sensitivity increased with increasing LAA -950 in both tomosynthesis and radiography. • Tomosynthesis imparts a similar radiation dose to two projection chest radiography. • Radiation dose and cost of tomosynthesis are lower than those of MDCT.

  9. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  10. Image-guided interventions and computer-integrated therapy: Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Terry M; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-10-01

    Significant efforts have been dedicated to minimizing invasiveness associated with surgical interventions, most of which have been possible thanks to the developments in medical imaging, surgical navigation, visualization and display technologies. Image-guided interventions have promised to dramatically change the way therapies are delivered to many organs. However, in spite of the development of many sophisticated technologies over the past two decades, other than some isolated examples of successful implementations, minimally invasive therapy is far from enjoying the wide acceptance once envisioned. This paper provides a large-scale overview of the state-of-the-art developments, identifies several barriers thought to have hampered the wider adoption of image-guided navigation, and suggests areas of research that may potentially advance the field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Stampi: a message passing library for distributed parallel computing. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    1998-11-01

    A new message passing library, Stampi, has been developed to realize a computation with different kind of parallel computers arbitrarily and making MPI (Message Passing Interface) as an unique interface for communication. Stampi is based on MPI2 specification. It realizes dynamic process creation to different machines and communication between spawned one within the scope of MPI semantics. Vender implemented MPI as a closed system in one parallel machine and did not support both functions; process creation and communication to external machines. Stampi supports both functions and enables us distributed parallel computing. Currently Stampi has been implemented on COMPACS (COMplex PArallel Computer System) introduced in CCSE, five parallel computers and one graphic workstation, and any communication on them can be processed on. (author)

  12. Reliability of implant placement with stereolithographic surgical guides generated from computed tomography: clinical data from 94 implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ahmet Ersan; Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Ozan, Oguz; McGlumphy, Edwin A

    2008-08-01

    Dental implant placement requires precise planning with regard to anatomic limitations and restorative goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the match between the positions and axes of the planned and placed implants using stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guides. Ninety-four implants were placed using SLA surgical guides generated from computed tomography (CT) between 2005 and 2006. Radiographic templates were used for all subjects during CT imaging. After obtaining three-dimensional CT images, each implant was virtually placed on the CT images. SLA surgical guides, fabricated using an SLA machine with a laser beam to polymerize the liquid photo-polymerized resin, were used during implant placement. A new CT scan was taken for each subject following implant placement. Special software was used to fuse the images of the planned and placed implants, and the locations and axes were compared. Compared to the planned implants, the placed implants showed angular deviation of 4.9 degrees+/-2.36 degrees, whereas the mean linear deviation was 1.22+/-0.85 mm at the implant neck and 1.51+/-1 mm at the implant apex. Compared to the implant planning, the angular deviation and linear deviation at the neck and apex of the placed maxillary implants were 5.31 degrees+/-0.36 degrees, 1.04+/-0.56 mm, and 1.57+/-0.97 mm, respectively, whereas corresponding figures for placed mandibular implants were 4.44 degrees+/-0.31 degrees, 1.42+/-1.05 mm, and 1.44+/-1.03 mm, respectively. SLA surgical guides using CT data may be reliable in implant placement and make flapless implant placement possible.

  13. Evaluation of the setup margins for cone beam computed tomography–guided cranial radiosurgery: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco, E-mail: jfcdrr@yahoo.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain); Wunderink, Wouter [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delgado, David; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; Casals, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the setup margins from the clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments guided by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). We designed an end-to-end (E2E) test using a skull phantom with an embedded 6mm tungsten ball (target). A noncoplanar plan was computed (E2E plan) to irradiate the target. The CBCT-guided positioning of the skull phantom on the linac was performed. Megavoltage portal images were acquired after 15 independent deliveries of the E2E plan. The displacement 2-dimensional (2D) vector between the centers of the square field and the ball target on each portal image was used to quantify the isocenter accuracy. Geometrical margins on each patient's direction (left-right or LR, anterior-posterior or AP, superior-inferior or SI) were calculated. Dosimetric validation of the margins was performed in 5 real SRS cases: 3-dimesional (3D) isocenter deviations were mimicked, and changes in CTV dose coverage and organs-at-risk (OARs) dosage were analyzed. The CTV-PTV margins of 1.1 mm in LR direction, and 0.7 mm in AP and SI directions were derived from the E2E tests. The dosimetric analysis revealed that a 1-mm uniform margin was sufficient to ensure the CTV dose coverage, without compromising the OAR dose tolerances. The effect of isocenter uncertainty has been estimated to be 1 mm in our CBCT-guided SRS approach.

  14. Computer science I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science I includes fundamental computer concepts, number representations, Boolean algebra, switching circuits, and computer architecture.

  15. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of `frontal lobe dementia`. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author).

  16. Intellectual function and radiological images in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Special reference to single photon emission computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kanda, Mikio; Fukui, Toshiya; Sugita, Koujiro

    1994-01-01

    To clarify cognitive decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we compared cognitive and motor signs with neuroradiological features, with special reference to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in 23 patients with ALS. Of these 23 patients, five demented patients (ALS-D) showed a decrease in voluntary speech output, abnormal behavior or character change. SPECT images in these patients were specifically characterized by marked uptake reduction in the frontal lobes. ALS patients with normal mentality (ALS-N) showed either a normal pattern or non-specific patchy uptake reduction on SPECT, but never showed the diffuse frontal uptake reduction that was observed in ALS-D patients. None of the ALS-N patients showed cognitive decline or frontal uptake reduction during the follow-up period of up to 29 months. There was no relation in either ALS-D or ALS-N patients between the degree of tracer uptake reduction and clinical features of ALS including severity and duration of illness. Clinical and neuroradiological features in ALS-D patients were compatible with those of 'frontal lobe dementia'. ALS-D patients may compose a distinct group because cognitive decline is unlikely to occur in ALS-N patients with a long clinical course. ALS-D patients may be differentiated from other non-demented ALS patients in the early clinical course by the characteristic diffuse frontal uptake reduction on SPECT. (author)

  17. Distributed computing methodology for training neural networks in an image-guided diagnostic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagianakos, V P; Magoulas, G D; Vrahatis, M N

    2006-03-01

    Distributed computing is a process through which a set of computers connected by a network is used collectively to solve a single problem. In this paper, we propose a distributed computing methodology for training neural networks for the detection of lesions in colonoscopy. Our approach is based on partitioning the training set across multiple processors using a parallel virtual machine. In this way, interconnected computers of varied architectures can be used for the distributed evaluation of the error function and gradient values, and, thus, training neural networks utilizing various learning methods. The proposed methodology has large granularity and low synchronization, and has been implemented and tested. Our results indicate that the parallel virtual machine implementation of the training algorithms developed leads to considerable speedup, especially when large network architectures and training sets are used.

  18. Computer systems experiences of users with and without disabilities an evaluation guide for professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Borsci, Simone; Federici, Stefano; Mele, Maria Laura

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the necessary tools for the evaluation of the interaction between the user who is disabled and the computer system that was designed to assist that person. The book creates an evaluation process that is able to assess the user's satisfaction with a developed system. Presenting a new theoretical perspective in the human computer interaction evaluation of disabled persons, it takes into account all of the individuals involved in the evaluation process.

  19. A canonical perturbation method for computing the guiding-center motion in magnetized axisymmetric plasma columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratreau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The motion of charged particles in a magnetized plasma column, such as that of a magnetic mirror trap or a tokamak, is determined in the framework of the canonical perturbation theory through a method of variation of constants which preserves the energy conservation and the symmetry invariance. The choice of a frame of coordinates close to that of the magnetic coordinates allows a relatively precise determination of the guiding-center motion with a low-ordered approximation in the adiabatic parameter. A Hamiltonian formulation of the motion equations is obtained

  20. Fatal paradoxical pulmonary air embolism complicating percutaneous computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Rajesh; Singh, Virendra; Isaac, Rethish; John, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with left upper zone haziness on chest X-ray and an infiltrative lesion with a pleural mass in the left upper lobe on CT scan was scheduled for CT-guided percutaneous trans-thoracic needle biopsy. During the procedure, the patient had massive haemoptysis and cardiorespiratory arrest and could not be revived. Post-mortem CT showed air in the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery and also in the left atrium and aorta. A discussion on paradoxical air embolism following percutaneous trans-thoracic needle biopsy is presented Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  1. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  2. Stampi: a message passing library for distributed parallel computing. User's guide, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2000-02-01

    A new message passing library, Stampi, has been developed to realize a computation with different kind of parallel computers arbitrarily and making MPI (Message Passing Interface) as an unique interface for communication. Stampi is based on the MPI2 specification, and it realizes dynamic process creation to different machines and communication between spawned one within the scope of MPI semantics. Main features of Stampi are summarized as follows: (i) an automatic switch function between external- and internal communications, (ii) a message routing/relaying with a routing module, (iii) a dynamic process creation, (iv) a support of two types of connection, Master/Slave and Client/Server, (v) a support of a communication with Java applets. Indeed vendors implemented MPI libraries as a closed system in one parallel machine or their systems, and did not support both functions; process creation and communication to external machines. Stampi supports both functions and enables us distributed parallel computing. Currently Stampi has been implemented on COMPACS (COMplex PArallel Computer System) introduced in CCSE, five parallel computers and one graphic workstation, moreover on eight kinds of parallel machines, totally fourteen systems. Stampi provides us MPI communication functionality on them. This report describes mainly the usage of Stampi. (author)

  3. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  4. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu

    2011-10-01

    Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction shows a motion blur of 13 mm

  5. PROACT user's guide: how to use the pallet recovery opportunity analysis computer tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Bradley Hager; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Pallet recovery projects are environmentally responsible and offer promising business opportunities. The Pallet Recovery Opportunity Analysis Computer Tool (PROACT) assesses the operational and financial feasibility of potential pallet recovery projects. The use of project specific information supplied by the user increases the accuracy and the validity of the...

  6. Press Play for Learning: A Framework to Guide Serious Computer Game Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, Erica; Budd, Janene; Smith, Shamus

    2017-01-01

    Computer gaming is a global phenomenon and there has been rapid growth in "serious" games for learning. An emergent body of evidence demonstrates how serious games can be used in primary and secondary school classrooms. Despite the popularity of serious games and their pedagogical potential, there are few specialised frameworks to guide…

  7. The no-nonsense guide to legal issues in web 2.0 and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Oppenheim, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Offers an advice on getting the most out of web 2.0 and cloud computing. This book features practical working tool that makes the relevant legal principles simple to understand for those with little or no experience and common problems quick to solve when you're struggling with daily deadlines.

  8. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  9. Sci-Thur PM – Colourful Interactions: Highlights 07: Canadian Computed Tomography Survey: National Diagnostic Reference Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, Graeme M; Martel, Narine [Consumer & Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau / Health Canada (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Canadian Computed (CT) Tomography Survey sought to collect CT technology and dose index data (CTDI and DLP) at the national level in order to establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for seven common CT examinations of standard-sized adults and pediatric patients. Methods: A single survey booklet (consisting of four sections) was mailed to and completed for each participating CT scanner. Survey sections collected data on (i) General facility and scanner information, (ii) routine protocols (as available), (iii) individual patient data (as applied) and (iv) manual CTDI measurements. Results: Dose index (CTDIvol and DLP) and associated patient data from 24 280 individual patient exam sequences was analyzed for seven common CT examinations performed in Canada: Adult Head, Chest, Abdomen/Pelvis, and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis, and Pediatric Head, Chest, and Abdomen. Pediatric examination data was sub-divided into three age ranges: 0–3, 3–7 and 7–13 years. DRLs (75th percentile of dose index distributions) were found for all thirteen groups. Further analysis also permitted segmentation of examination data into 8 sub-groups, whose dose index data was displayed along with group histograms – showing relative contribution of axial vs. helical, contrast use (C+ vs. C-), and application of fixed current vs. dose reduction (DR) – 75th percentiles of DR sub-groups were, in almost all cases, lower than whole group (examination) DRLs. Conclusions: The analysis and summaries presented in the pending survey report can serve to aid local CT imaging optimization efforts within Canada and also contribute further to international efforts in radiation protection of patients.

  10. Computer System for Monitoring Environmental Campaigns. User's Guide. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailador, M.A.; Barcala, M.; Blanco, F.; Gonzalez, C.; Perez, J. M.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, E.; Willmot, C.

    2012-01-01

    CIEMAT has an environmental mobile unit to carry out the execution of environmental measures at diverse environments. During the last years, this unit has been involved in changes relative to its instrumentation, being necessary to developed an informatics system, SiSCA Informatics System for the monitoring of environmental campaigns, that is able to: Acquiring in a synchronized way the data from the environmental mobile unit instruments. Showing in a georrefential way these data by means of GIS technology. Transmitting in a secure way and in real time the data to a centralized data base repository This document is the user guide that picks up all the necessary information to use SiSCA when UMA environmental campaigns are carrying out. (Author)

  11. Diagnostic yield and complications of transthoracic computed tomography-guided biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2016-01-01

    , the tissue material was found to be sufficient. In 32% of the biopsies, a complication arose, mostly pneumothorax (30%), but chest drainage was needed in only 15% of the 520 cases. Patients with more than ten cigarette pack-years had a complication risk that was twice as high at that of patients with fewer...... packyears. We found that the risk of pneumothorax increased the further the lesion was from the skin surface, the smaller the lesions were and when the patient was biopsied in a lateral position. We also found a higher risk of complications in females than in males. CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided biopsy...... is an excellent tool for analysing pulmonary lesions. The present study clearly shows that the risk of developing a pneumothorax is significantly increased among smokers and former smokers with more than ten pack-years....

  12. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Boileau, Pascal [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nice (France)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements {+-} SD decreased from 7.8 {+-} 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 {+-} 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 {+-} 17.2 to 15.1 {+-} 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  13. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) Immediately after CT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Aspiration Biopsy as a Predictor of Overt Pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Tae June; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kang, Young Ae; Kwon, Sung-Youn; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyung Won; Lee, Jae Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims This study examined the correlation between pneumothorax detected by immediate post-transthoracic needle aspiration-biopsy (TTNB) chest computed tomography (CT) and overt pneumothorax detected by chest PA, and investigated factors that might influence the correlation. Methods Adult patients who had undergone CT-guided TTNB for lung lesions from May 2003 to June 2007 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were included. Immediate post-TTNB CT and chest PA follow-up at 4 and 16 hours after CT-guided TTNB were performed in 934 patients. Results Pneumothorax detected by immediate chest CT (CT-pneumothorax) was found in 237 (25%) and overt pneumothorax was detected by chest PA follow-up in 92 (38.8%) of the 237 patients. However, overt pneumothorax was found in 18 (2.6%) of the 697 patients without CT-pneumothorax. The width and depth of CT-pneumothorax were predictive risk factors for overt pneumothorax. Conclusions CT-pneumothorax is very sensitive for predicting overt pneumothorax, and the width and depth on CT-pneumothorax are reliable risk factors for predicting overt pneumothorax. PMID:19949733

  14. Fluorescence-Guided Probes of Aptamer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles with Computed Tomography Imaging Accesses for in Vivo Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Su, Hsin-Jan; Lai, Wei-Yun; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Wang, Di-Yan; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2015-10-28

    Recent development of molecular imaging probes for fluorescence-guided surgery has shown great progresses for determining tumor margin to execute the tissue resection. Here we synthesize the fluorescent gold nanoparticles conjugated with diatrizoic acid and nucleolin-targeted AS1411 aptamer. The nanoparticle conjugates exhibit high water-solubility, good biocompatibility, visible fluorescence and strong X-ray attenuation for computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement. The fluorescent nanoparticle conjugates are applied as a molecular contrast agent to reveal the tumor location in CL1-5 tumor-bearing mice by CT imaging. Furthermore, the orange-red fluorescence emitting from the conjugates in the CL1-5 tumor can be easily visualized by the naked eyes. After the resection, the IVIS measurements show that the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticle conjugates in the tumor is greatly enhanced in comparison to that in the controlled experiment. Our work has shown potential application of functionalized nanoparticles as a dual-function imaging agent in clinical fluorescence-guided surgery.

  15. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline; Hauger, Olivier; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Boileau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements ± SD decreased from 7.8 ± 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 ± 17.2 to 15.1 ± 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  16. A Comparison of Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Biopsy and Positron Emission Tomography with Integrated Computed Tomography in Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Vilmann, P; Krasnik, K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Exact staging of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is important to improve selection of resectable and curable patients for surgery. Positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) and endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle...... aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) are new and promising methods, but indications in lung cancer staging are controversial. Only few studies have compared the 2 methods. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic values of PET/CT and EUS-FNA for diagnosing advanced lung cancer in patients, who...... had both procedures performed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 27 patients considered to be potential candidates for resection of NSCLC underwent PET/CT and EUS-FNA. Diagnoses were confirmed either by open thoracotomy, mediastinoscopy or clinical follow-up. Advanced lung cancer was defined as tumour...

  17. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  18. Development of the regional EPR and PACS sharing system on the infrastructure of cloud computing technology controlled by patient identifier cross reference manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Kei; Kawai, Tatsurou; Mochida, Maki; Nishimura, Motohiro

    2013-01-01

    A Newly developed Oshidori-Net2, providing medical professionals with remote access to electronic patient record systems (EPR) and PACSs of four hospitals, of different venders, using cloud computing technology and patient identifier cross reference manager. The operation was started from April 2012. The patients moved to other hospital were applied. Objective is to show the merit and demerit of the new system.

  19. A user's guide to the POPFOOD computer code for evaluating ingestion collective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.; Palamountain, J.

    1980-09-01

    A complete description is given of the wide range of user options available for running the POPFOOD computer code, which was developed for the calculation of annual ingestion collective doses from routine atmospheric discharges of radioactivity in the UK. The various options have been depicted pictorially to allow the prospective user to obtain a rapid appreciation of their scope. Facilities for modifying temporarily the library and input data are also described. In addition, input and output data for a sample test case, covering broad range of the various available options, are provided to facilitate programme testing. POPFOOD is written in Fortran IV (level H). The programme is compiled under release 20.6, OPT=2 on the IBM 370/165 computer. (author)

  20. User's guide for vectorized code EQUIL for calculating equilibrium chemistry on Control Data STAR-100 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A vectorized code, EQUIL, was developed for calculating the equilibrium chemistry of a reacting gas mixture on the Control Data STAR-100 computer. The code provides species mole fractions, mass fractions, and thermodynamic and transport properties of the mixture for given temperature, pressure, and elemental mass fractions. The code is set up for the electrons H, He, C, O, N system of elements. In all, 24 chemical species are included.

  1. From E-commerce to Social Commerce: A Framework to Guide Enabling Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    Social commerce is doing commerce in a collaborative and participative way, by using social media, through an enterprise interactive interface that enables social interactions. Technologies such as Web 2.0, Cloud Computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) enable social commerce. Yet, a framework for social commerce, putting Enterprise Social Interactions as central entities, would provide a strong business justification for social commerce design and adoption with these enabling techno...

  2. Computation of solution equilibria: A guide to methods in potentiometry, extraction, and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloun, M.; Havel, J.; Hogfeldt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Although this book contains a very good review of computation methods applicable to equilibrium systems, most of the book is dedicated to the description and evaluation of computer programs available for doing such calculations. As stated in the preface, the authors (two computniks and a user of graphical and computer methods) have joined forces in order to present the reader with the points of view of both the creator and user of modern computer program tools available for the study of solution equilibria. The successful presentation of such a complicated amalgamation of concepts is greatly aided by the structure of the book, which begins with a brief but thorough discussion of equilibrium concepts in general, followed by an equally brief discussion of experimental methods used to study equilibria with potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. These sections would not be sufficient to teach these topics to the beginner but offer an informative presentation of concepts in relation to one another to those already familiar with basic equilibrium concepts. The importance of evaluating and analyzing the suitability of data for further analysis is then presented before an in depth (by a chemist's standards) look at the individual parts that make up a detailed equilibrium analysis program. The next one-third of the book is an examination of specific equilibrium problems and the programs available to study them. These are divided into chapters devoted to potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. The format is to discuss a variety of programs, one at a time, including the parts of the program, the types of problems to which it has been applied, and the program's limitations. A number of problems are then presented, which are representative of the type of questions that are normally addressed by research projects in the area

  3. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  4. Image-guided adaptive gating of lung cancer radiotherapy: a computer simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Rottmann, Joerg; Park, Sang-June; Berbeco, Ross I [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nishioka, Seiko [Department of Radiology, NTT Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: maristophanous@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-08-07

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect that image-guided adaptation of the gating window during treatment could have on the residual tumor motion, by simulating different gated radiotherapy techniques. There are three separate components of this simulation: (1) the 'Hokkaido Data', which are previously measured 3D data of lung tumor motion tracks and the corresponding 1D respiratory signals obtained during the entire ungated radiotherapy treatments of eight patients, (2) the respiratory gating protocol at our institution and the imaging performed under that protocol and (3) the actual simulation in which the Hokkaido Data are used to select tumor position information that could have been collected based on the imaging performed under our gating protocol. We simulated treatments with a fixed gating window and a gating window that is updated during treatment. The patient data were divided into different fractions, each with continuous acquisitions longer than 2 min. In accordance to the imaging performed under our gating protocol, we assume that we have tumor position information for the first 15 s of treatment, obtained from kV fluoroscopy, and for the rest of the fractions the tumor position is only available during the beam-on time from MV imaging. The gating window was set according to the information obtained from the first 15 s such that the residual motion was less than 3 mm. For the fixed gating window technique the gate remained the same for the entire treatment, while for the adaptive technique the range of the tumor motion during beam-on time was measured and used to adapt the gating window to keep the residual motion below 3 mm. The algorithm used to adapt the gating window is described. The residual tumor motion inside the gating window was reduced on average by 24% for the patients with regular breathing patterns and the difference was statistically significant (p-value = 0.01). The magnitude of the residual tumor motion

  5. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  6. Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Farin, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    A leading expert in CAGD, Gerald Farin covers the representation, manipulation, and evaluation of geometric shapes in this the Third Edition of Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design. The book offers an introduction to the field that emphasizes Bernstein-Bezier methods and presents subjects in an informal, readable style, making this an ideal text for an introductory course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.The Third Edition includes a new chapter on Topology, offers new exercises and sections within most chapters, combines the material on Geometric Continuity i

  7. Simple steps to data encryption a practical guide to secure computing

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Everyone wants privacy and security online, something that most computer users have more or less given up on as far as their personal data is concerned. There is no shortage of good encryption software, and no shortage of books, articles and essays that purport to be about how to use it. Yet there is precious little for ordinary users who want just enough information about encryption to use it safely and securely and appropriately--WITHOUT having to become experts in cryptography. Data encryption is a powerful tool, if used properly. Encryption turns ordinary, readable data into what

  8. A fascinating country in the world of computing your guide to automated reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Wos, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This book shows you - through examples and puzzles and intriguing questions - how to make your computer reason logically. To help you, the book includes a CD-ROM with OTTER, the world's most powerful general-purpose reasoning program. The automation of reasoning has advanced markedly in the past few decades, and this book discusses some of the remarkable successes that automated reasoning programs have had in tackling challenging problems in mathematics, logic, program verification, and circuit design. Because the intended audience includes students and teachers, the book provides many exercis

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) radiation dose in children: A survey to propose regional diagnostic reference levels in Greater Accra-Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, Patience

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the doses delivered to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) examinations of the head, chest and abdomen, and establishing regional diagnostic reference levels (RDRLs) for four age groups. The patient data, technique parameters and dose descriptors collected include: age, sex, tube voltage, tube current, rotation time, slice thickness, scan length, volume CT dose index (CTDI_v_o_l) and dose length product (DLP). Currently, paediatric CT examinations account for 11% of radiation exposure. For the paediatric age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years), (6-10 years) and (11-15 years), the proposed RDRLs for head in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (28, 38, 48 and 86 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (395, 487, 601, 1614 mGy cm) respectively. For Chest examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (1 and 5 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (18 and 110 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year and (1-5 years) respectively. For Abdomino-pelvic examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (3, 3 and 10 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (71, 120 and 494 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years) and (6-10 years) respectively. For abdomen examinations, proposed RDRLs in terms of CTDI_v_o_l are (3, 5 and 5 mGy) and in terms of DLP; (83, 124 and 233 mGy cm) for age groups; < 1 year, (1-5 years) and (11-15 years) respectively. RDRLs have been proposed for CTDI_v_o_l and DLP for head, chest, abdomen and Abdomino-pelvic paediatric CT examinations in this study. An optimisation is required for 11-15 years age group for the DLP values which was higher than their corresponding international DRLs. For an effective optimization of patient protection a trade-off between image quality and patients doses studies should be investigated. (au)

  10. Computational Model Prediction and Biological Validation Using Simplified Mixed Field Exposures for the Development of a GCR Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Rhone, J.; Beitman, A.; Saganti, P.; Plante, I.; Ponomarev, A.; Slaba, T.; Patel, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations has been shown to increase in the lymphocytes of astronauts after long-duration missions of several months in space. Chromosome exchanges, especially translocations, are positively correlated with many cancers and are therefore a potential biomarker of cancer risk associated with radiation exposure. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the induction of chromosomal aberrations by low- and high-LET radiation in human lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells exposed in vitro, there is a lack of data on chromosome aberrations induced by low dose-rate chronic exposure and mixed field beams such as those expected in space. Chromosome aberration studies at NSRL will provide the biological validation needed to extend the computational models over a broader range of experimental conditions (more complicated mixed fields leading up to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) simulator), helping to reduce uncertainties in radiation quality effects and dose-rate dependence in cancer risk models. These models can then be used to answer some of the open questions regarding requirements for a full GCR reference field, including particle type and number, energy, dose rate, and delivery order. In this study, we designed a simplified mixed field beam with a combination of proton, helium, oxygen, and iron ions with shielding or proton, helium, oxygen, and titanium without shielding. Human fibroblasts cells were irradiated with these mixed field beam as well as each single beam with acute and chronic dose rate, and chromosome aberrations (CA) were measured with 3-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting methods. Frequency and type of CA induced with acute dose rate and chronic dose rates with single and mixed field beam will be discussed. A computational chromosome and radiation-induced DNA damage model, BDSTRACKS (Biological Damage by Stochastic Tracks), was updated to simulate various types of CA induced by

  11. Use of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography to Guide Management of Patients With Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle C.; Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Smith, Joel; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A.; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Timmis, Adam D.; Newby, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 4,146 patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the consequences of CCTA-assisted diagnosis on invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes. Methods In post hoc analyses, we assessed changes in invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes using national electronic health records. Results Despite similar overall rates (409 vs. 401; p = 0.451), invasive angiography was less likely to demonstrate normal coronary arteries (20 vs. 56; hazard ratios [HRs]: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23 to 0.68]; p coronary artery disease (283 vs. 230; HR: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.55]; p = 0.005) in those allocated to CCTA. More preventive therapies (283 vs. 74; HR: 4.03 [95% CI: 3.12 to 5.20]; p coronary heart disease, CCTA leads to more appropriate use of invasive angiography and alterations in preventive therapies that were associated with a halving of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590) PMID:27081014

  12. Computed tomography-guided bupivacaine and corticosteroid injection for the treatment of symptomatic calcification in the great toe tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatoprak O

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Omer Karatoprak,1 Sinan Karaca,2 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,3 Ozgur Karaman,2 Azmi Hamzaoglu41Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kadikoy Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kolan International Hospital Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Istanbul Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul TurkeyBackground: Calcification in the great toe tendon is a rare disorder that is characterized by the deposition of calcium on degenerative collagen fibrils.Case presentations: In this report, we present two cases of calcific tendonitis: one in the adductor hallucis and the other in the flexor hallucis longus tendon. We preferred computed tomography-guided steroid injection in our cases because of pain unresponsive to conservative treatment. Patients were free of symptoms at the follow-up visit, 4 weeks after injection.Conclusion: Calcification of the hallux tendons is a rare disorder. Treatment of tendonitis consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Local anesthetic and steroid injection may be considered in cases unresponsive to conservative treatment. Because of the anatomic location of tendons, injection could be difficult. Computed tomography guidance may improve the success rate of injections.Keywords: bupivacaine, calcification, great toe tendons, corticosteroid injection

  13. Implant-Supported PMMA Monolithic Full-Arch Rehabilitation with Surgical Computer-Planned Guide and Immediate Provisional: A Case Report with One Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Luca Zizzari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to describe the surgical and prosthetic procedures to achieve maxillary and mandibular implant-supported PMMA monolithic full-arch rehabilitation (PMFR with surgical computer-planned guide and immediate provisional. In such cases, the correct planning of dental implants’ position, length, and diameter and the prosthetic phases via computer-aided design are very important to achieve good aesthetic and functional long-lasting results.

  14. Implant-Supported PMMA Monolithic Full-Arch Rehabilitation with Surgical Computer-Planned Guide and Immediate Provisional: A Case Report with One Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; Tacconelli, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the surgical and prosthetic procedures to achieve maxillary and mandibular implant-supported PMMA monolithic full-arch rehabilitation (PMFR) with surgical computer-planned guide and immediate provisional. In such cases, the correct planning of dental implants’ position, length, and diameter and the prosthetic phases via computer-aided design are very important to achieve good aesthetic and functional long-lasting results.

  15. Computed tomography-guided cryoablation of local recurrence after primary resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pusceddu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of local recurrences after primary resection of pancreatic cancer still remains to be clarified. A 58-yearold woman developed an isolated recurrence of pancreatic cancer six year after distal pancreatectomy. Re-resection was attempted but the lesion was deemed unresectable at surgery. Then chemotherapy was administrated without obtaining a reduction of the tumor size nor an improvement of the patient’s symptoms. Thus the patient underwent percutaneous cryoablation under computed tomography (CT-guidance obtaining tumor necrosis and a significant improvement in the quality of life. A CT scan one month later showed a stable lesion with no contrast enhancement. While the use of percutaneous cryoblation has widened its applications in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, it has never been described for the treatment of local pancreatic cancer recurrence after primary resection. Percutaneous cryoablation deserves further studies in the multimodality treatment of local recurrence after primary pancreatic surgery.

  16. Forecasting Outcomes of Multilateral Negotiations: Computer Programs. Volume 2. Guide for Programmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    In -Tor DISTRIBUTION LIST: .... National Defense University .. 1 Armed Forces Staff College Department of Defense Computer Institute - . U.S...AND !1I~OR UICTIONARy nO 500 Jmlo-NMAJ RfrAI(LIN, 8) MAJUR , (TITLE(J),.Jz1,6),NMIN WRITE(LOUTo9) MAJOR, (TITLE(J)PJ:1*6) DO0 450 IIzlsJMIN RE A1)(L I N...5XtI4,2Xp6A8) 21 FORfMATC1H1,* LI1ST OF L :TTEREU THEHLS IN NUMUI~CAL OPD)ER*I/) 22 FORMATCI~EAl,6At8). 23 F0RMAT(5X,I5,Als2H**,6A8). 24 FORMIAT (1X,’ MAJUR

  17. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  18. Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration for Staging of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer without Mediastinal Involvement at Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Therese Maria Henriette; Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul Frost

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staging of lung cancer is essential to the treatment, which is curative only in cases of localized disease. Previous studies have suggested that endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is unnecessary when positron emission tomography-computed tomog...

  19. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  20. A novel approach for computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3d designed/printed surgical tooling. An ex vivo proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anssari Moin, D.; Derksen, W.; Verweij, J.P.; van Merkesteyn, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. Materials and Methods: A partially edentulous human

  1. Accuracy of computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom three-dimensional designed/printed surgical tooling : A cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anssari Moin, D.; Verweij, J.P.; Waars, H.; van Merkesteyn, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present cadaveric study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3-dimensional (3D) designed/printed surgical tooling. Materials and Methods: Ten partially edentulous human mandibular cadavers were scanned using

  2. A history of the INTERNIST-1 and Quick Medical Reference (QMR) computer-assisted diagnosis projects, with lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A

    2010-01-01

    The INTERNIST-1/Quick Medical Reference (QMR) diagnostic decision support project spans four decades, from 1971-onward. This paper describes the history of the project and details insights gained of relevance to the general clinical and informatics communities.

  3. Computed-tomography-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) ablation of metastases adjacent to the liver hilum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collettini, Federico, E-mail: federico.collettini@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Singh, Anju [Department of Medical Oncology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Schnapauff, Dirk [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Powerski, Maciej Janusz [Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate technical feasibility and clinical outcome of computed tomography-guided high-dose-rate-brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) ablation of metastases adjacent to the liver hilum. Materials and methods: Between November 2007 and May 2012, 32 consecutive patients with 34 metastases adjacent to the liver hilum (common bile duct or hepatic bifurcation ≤5 mm distance) were treated with CT-HDRBT. Treatment was performed by CT-guided applicator placement and high-dose-rate brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. MRI follow-up was performed 6 weeks and every 3 months post intervention. The primary endpoint was local tumor control (LTC); secondary endpoints included time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Patients were available for MRI evaluation for a mean follow-up time of 18.75 months (range: 3–56 months). Mean tumor diameter was 4.3 cm (range: 1.3–10.7 cm). One major complication was observed. Four (11.8%) local recurrences were observed after a local tumor control of 5, 8, 9 and 10 months, respectively. Twenty-two patients (68.75%) experienced a systemic tumor progression during the follow up period. Mean TTP was 12.9 months (range: 2–56 months). Nine patients died during the follow-up period. Median OS was 20.24 months. Conclusion: Minimally invasive CT-HDRBT is a safe and effective option also for unresectable liver metastases adjacent to the liver hilum that would have been untreatable by thermal ablation.

  4. Virtual reality using guided imagery to create Kanji or Hiragana by computer graphics: I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigame, Masaaki; Miura, Nozomu; Hosaka, Akiko

    1997-04-01

    We have been studying a kind of word-processor that is able to create Japanese characters, Kanji or Hiragana strings in the cursive style, using an electronic writing brush model. Int his paper, we describe in detail the operation characteristics of the electronic writing brush which we have proposed. We defined a touch shape pattern of the electronic writing brush as a form which is projected as a circle and a cone. The brush goes on certain points of the skeleton of the character figure which is given as skeleton data. The thickness of the line is determined by a diametric variable brush pressure. Our progressive action model can rotate the direction of the writing brush tip corresponding to the difference angle between the direction of brush tip and the direction of the brush movement, and also the softness of the writing brush to express the writing brush method called the side writing brush. The front side and back side of the writing brush can be expressed in a calligraphic drawing. With our technique we can draw characters in actual stroke order on a virtual computer plane as if they are written by an actual writing brush.

  5. Individualized treatment of craniovertebral junction malformation guided by intraoperative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfeng; Wang, Peng; Chen, LiFeng; Ma, Xiaodong; Bu, Bo; Yu, Xinguang

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to report our preliminary experience of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) using a mobile scanner with integrated neuronavigation system (NNS). The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential utility of iCT with integrated NNS in individualized treatment of craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJM). The surgical management of congenital craniovertebral anomalies is complex due to the relative difficulty in accessing the region, critical relationships of neurovascular structures, and the intricate biomechanical issues involved. We reported our first 19 complex CVJM cases including 11 male and 8 female patients from January, 2009 to June, 2009 (mean age, 33.9 y; age range, 13 to 58 y). A sliding gantry 40-slice CT scanner was installed in a preexisting operating room. Image data was transferred directly from the scanner into the NNS using an automated registration system. We applied this technology to transoral odontoidectomy in 17 patients. Moreover, with the extra help of iCT integrated with NNS, odontoidectomy through posterior midline approach, and transoral atlantal lateral mass resection were, for the first time, performed for treatment of complex CVJM. NNS was found to correlate well with the intraoperative findings, and the recalibration was uneven in all cases with an accuracy of 1.6 mm (1.6: 1.2 to 2.0). All patients were clinically evaluated by Nurick grade criteria, and neurological deficits were monitored after 3 months of surgery. Fifteen patients (79%) were improved by at least 1 Nurick grade, whereas the grade did not change in 4 patients (21%). iCT scanning with integrated NNS was both feasible and beneficial for the surgical management of complex CVJM. In this unusual patient population, the technique seemed to be valuable in negotiating complex anatomy and achieving a safe and predictable decompression.

  6. User's Guide to Handlens - A Computer Program that Calculates the Chemistry of Minerals in Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    HandLens is a computer program, written in Excel macro language, that calculates the chemistry of minerals in mineral mixtures (for example, in rocks, soils and sediments) for related samples from inputs of quantitative mineralogy and chemistry. For best results, the related samples should contain minerals having the same chemical compositions; that is, the samples should differ only in the proportions of minerals present. This manual describes how to use the program, discusses the theory behind its operation, and presents test results of the program's accuracy. Required input for HandLens includes quantitative mineralogical data, obtained, for example, by RockJock analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and quantitative chemical data, obtained, for example, by X-ray florescence (XRF) analysis of the same samples. Other quantitative data, such as sample depth, temperature, surface area, also can be entered. The minerals present in the samples are selected from a list, and the program is started. The results of the calculation include: (1) a table of linear coefficients of determination (r2's) which relate pairs of input data (for example, Si versus quartz weight percents); (2) a utility for plotting all input data, either as pairs of variables, or as sums of up to eight variables; (3) a table that presents the calculated chemical formulae for minerals in the samples; (4) a table that lists the calculated concentrations of major, minor, and trace elements in the various minerals; and (5) a table that presents chemical formulae for the minerals that have been corrected for possible systematic errors in the mineralogical and/or chemical analyses. In addition, the program contains a method for testing the assumption of constant chemistry of the minerals within a sample set.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography: A Guide for the General Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadsmoore, Clare; Newman, David; MacIver, Duncan; Pawaroo, Davina

    2015-11-01

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in Canada and worldwide. Whilst advances in anatomical imaging to detect and monitor malignant disease have continued over the last few decades, limitations remain. Functional imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), has improved the sensitivity and specificity in detecting malignant disease. In combination with computed tomography (CT), PET is now commonly used in the oncology setting and is an integral part of many cancer patients' pathways. Although initially the CT component of the study was purely for attenuation of the PET imaging and to provide anatomical coregistration, many centers now combine the PET study with a diagnostic quality contrast enhanced CT to provide one stop staging, thus refining the patient's pathway. The commonest tracer used in everyday practice is FDG (F18-fluorodeoxyglucose). There are many more tracers in routine clinical practice and those with emerging roles, such as 11C-choline, useful in the imaging of prostate cancer; 11C-methionine, useful in imaging brain tumours; C11-acetate, used in imaging hepatocellular carcinomas; 18F-FLT, which can be used as a marker of cellular proliferation in various malignancies; and F18-DOPA and various 68Ga-somatostatin analogues, used in patients with neuroendocrine tumours. In this article we concentrate on FDG PETCT as this is the most commonly available and widely utilised tracer now used to routinely stage a number of cancers. PETCT alters the stage in approximately one-third of patients compared to anatomical imaging alone. Increasingly, PETCT is being used to assess early metabolic response to treatment. Metabolic response can be seen much earlier than a change in the size/volume of the disease which is measured by standard CT imaging. This can aid treatment decisions in both in terms of modifying therapy and in addition to providing important prognostic information. Furthermore, it is helpful in patients with distorted anatomy from surgery

  8. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic masses using pneumodissection; Biopsia percutanea de massas pancreaticas guiada por tomografia computadorizada com pneumodisseccao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Arruda; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira; Martins, Eduardo Bruno Lobato; Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka Matushita; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: chiangjengtyng@gmail.com [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem; Coimbra, Felipe Jose Fernandez [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Abdominal

    2013-05-15

    Objective: to describe the technique of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of pancreatic tumors with pneumodissection. Materials and methods: in the period from June 2011 to May 2012, seven computed tomography guided percutaneous biopsies of pancreatic tumors utilizing pneumodissection were performed in the authors' institution. All the procedures were performed with an automatic biopsy gun and coaxial system with Tru-core needles. The biopsy specimens were histologically assessed. Results: in all the cases the pancreatic mass could not be directly approached by computed tomography without passing through major organs and structures. The injection of air allowed the displacement of adjacent structures and creation of a safe coaxial needle pathway toward the lesion. Biopsy was successfully performed in all the cases, yielding appropriate specimens for pathological analysis. Conclusion: Pneumodissection is a safe, inexpensive and technically easy approach to perform percutaneous biopsy in selected cases where direct access to the pancreatic tumor is not feasible. (author)

  9. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ling; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification. Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP) and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP) were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners. The 5 horizontal reference planes were reliable and

  10. Computer-assisted orthognathic surgery: waferless maxillary positioning, versatility, and accuracy of an image-guided visualisation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max J; Mischkowski, Robert A; Dreiseidler, Timo; Thamm, Oliver C; Rothamel, Daniel; Zöller, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    There may well be a shift towards 3-dimensional orthognathic surgery when virtual surgical planning can be applied clinically. We present a computer-assisted protocol that uses surgical navigation supplemented by an interactive image-guided visualisation display (IGVD) to transfer virtual maxillary planning precisely. The aim of this study was to analyse its accuracy and versatility in vivo. The protocol consists of maxillofacial imaging, diagnosis, planning of virtual treatment, and intraoperative surgical transfer using an IGV display. The advantage of the interactive IGV display is that the virtually planned maxilla and its real position can be completely superimposed during operation through a video graphics array (VGA) camera, thereby augmenting the surgeon's 3-dimensional perception. Sixteen adult class III patients were treated with by bimaxillary osteotomy. Seven hard tissue variables were chosen to compare (ΔT1-T0) the virtual maxillary planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3-dimensional cephalometry. Clinically acceptable precision for the surgical planning transfer of the maxilla (orthognathic planning. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational study: The influence of omni-directional guide vane on the flow pattern characteristic around Savonius wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Standart Savonius wind turbine have a low performance such as low coefficient of power and low coefficient of torque compared with another type of wind turbine. This phenomenon occurs because the wind stream can cause the negative pressure at the returning rotor. To solve this problem, standard Savonius combined with Omni Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) proposed. The aim of this research is to study the influence of ODGV on the flow pattern characteristic around of Savonius wind turbine. The numerical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-ɛ turbulent model. This equation solved by a finite volume discretization method. This case was analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such as SolidWorks Flow Simulations. Simulations were performed at the different wind directions; there are 0°, 30°,60° at 4 m/s wind speed. The numerical method validated with the past experimental data. The result indicated that the ODGV able to augment air flow to advancing rotor and decrease the negative pressure in the upstream of returning rotor compared to the bare Savonius wind turbine.

  12. Image Guided Virtual Autopsy: An Adjunct with Radiographic and Computed Tomography Modalities - An Important Tool in Forensic Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The forensic examination of dead bodies is very helpful in order to identify the person, cause of death, gender, and solving the mysterious cases. It includes a number of techniques, out of which autopsy is the primary investigation that is performed in every medicolegal case. Because of mutilation technologies, traditional autopsy technique is most disturbing in terms of emotions and rituals of relatives. The use of radiology in forensic science comprises performance, interpretation, and reporting of radiographs that is helpful in detecting those changes that are not clinically visible. Forensic radiology plays an important role for identification of humans in mass disasters, criminal investigations, and evaluation of cause of death. The introduction of radiological modalities in autopsy techniques is a complementary tool for forensic identification and is known as virtual autopsy. The advance imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is used in virtual autopsy in order to visualize and reconstruct the internal organs to know the site, type, and depth of injury. This review elaborates the role of maxillofacial imaging in image-guided virtual autopsy.

  13. User's guide to GASPAR code (a computer program for calculating radiation exposure to man from routine air releases of nuclear reactor effluents). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Congel, F.J.; Roecklein, A.K.; Pasciak, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    The document is a user's guide for the GASPAR code, a computer program written for the evaluation of radiological impacts due to the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere during normal operation of light water reactors. The GASPAR code implements the radiological impact models of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, Revision 1, for atmospheric releases. The code is currently used by NRC in reactor licensing evaluations to estimate (1) the collective or population dose to the population within a 50-mile radius of a facility, (2) the total collective dose to the U.S. population, and (3) the maximum individual doses at selected locations in the vicinity of the plant

  14. snoSeeker: an advanced computational package for screening of guide and orphan snoRNA genes in the human genome

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Zhou, Hui; Huang, Mian-Bo; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Yue-Qin; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2006-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) represent an abundant group of non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes. They can be divided into guide and orphan snoRNAs according to the presence or absence of antisense sequence to rRNAs or snRNAs. Current snoRNA-searching programs, which are essentially based on sequence complementarity to rRNAs or snRNAs, exist only for the screening of guide snoRNAs. In this study, we have developed an advanced computational package, snoSeeker, which includes CDseeker and ACAseeker ...

  15. 3D computations of flow field in a guide vane blading designed by means of 2D model for a low head hydraulic turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzemianowski, Z; Puzyrewski, R

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the main parameters of the flow field behind the guide vane cascade designed by means of 2D inverse problem and following check by means of 3D commercial program ANSYS/Fluent applied for a direct problem. This approach of using different models reflects the contemporary design procedure for non-standardized turbomachinery stage. Depending on the model, the set of conservation equation to be solved differs, although the physical background remains the same. The example of computations for guide vane cascade for a low head hydraulic turbine is presented.

  16. Prosthesis-guided implant restoration of an auricular defect using computed tomography and 3-dimensional photographic imaging technologies: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuming; Leng, Xu; Zheng, Yaqi; Zhang, Dapeng; Wu, Guofeng

    2015-02-01

    The concept of prosthesis-guided implantation has been widely accepted for intraoral implant placement, although clinicians do not fully appreciate its use for facial defect restoration. In this clinical report, multiple digital technologies were used to restore a facial defect with prosthesis-guided implantation. A simulation surgery was performed to remove the residual auricular tissue and to ensure the correct position of the mirrored contralateral ear model. The combined application of computed tomography and 3-dimensional photography preserved the position of the mirrored model and facilitated the definitive implant-retained auricular prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reference interaction site model with hydrophobicity induced density inhomogeneity: An analytical theory to compute solvation properties of large hydrophobic solutes in the mixture of polyatomic solvent molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Siqin; Sheong, Fu Kit; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Reference interaction site model (RISM) has recently become a popular approach in the study of thermodynamical and structural properties of the solvent around macromolecules. On the other hand, it was widely suggested that there exists water density depletion around large hydrophobic solutes (>1 nm), and this may pose a great challenge to the RISM theory. In this paper, we develop a new analytical theory, the Reference Interaction Site Model with Hydrophobicity induced density Inhomogeneity (RISM-HI), to compute solvent radial distribution function (RDF) around large hydrophobic solute in water as well as its mixture with other polyatomic organic solvents. To achieve this, we have explicitly considered the density inhomogeneity at the solute-solvent interface using the framework of the Yvon-Born-Green hierarchy, and the RISM theory is used to obtain the solute-solvent pair correlation. In order to efficiently solve the relevant equations while maintaining reasonable accuracy, we have also developed a new closure called the D2 closure. With this new theory, the solvent RDFs around a large hydrophobic particle in water and different water-acetonitrile mixtures could be computed, which agree well with the results of the molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we show that our RISM-HI theory can also efficiently compute the solvation free energy of solute with a wide range of hydrophobicity in various water-acetonitrile solvent mixtures with a reasonable accuracy. We anticipate that our theory could be widely applied to compute the thermodynamic and structural properties for the solvation of hydrophobic solute

  18. Guide to federal water quality programs and information: A guide with computer software developed by the interagency work group on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The publication makes key Federal information on water quality available to environmental analysts. The Guide includes information on (1) underlying demographic pressures; (2) the use of land, water, and resources; (3) pollutant loadings; (4) ambient water quality; (5) other effects of water pollution; and (6) a listing of programs established to preserve, protect and restore water quality

  19. Dosimetric consequences of the shift towards computed tomography guided target definition and planning for breast conserving radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korevaar Erik W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shift from conventional two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D-conformal target definition and dose-planning seems to have introduced volumetric as well as geometric changes. The purpose of this study was to compare coverage of computed tomography (CT-based breast and boost planning target volumes (PTV, absolute volumes irradiated, and dose delivered to the organs at risk with conventional 2D and 3D-conformal breast conserving radiotherapy. Methods Twenty-five patients with left-sided breast cancer were subject of CT-guided target definition and 3D-conformal dose-planning, and conventionally defined target volumes and treatment plans were reconstructed on the planning CT. Accumulated dose-distributions were calculated for the conventional and 3D-conformal dose-plans, taking into account a prescribed dose of 50 Gy for the breast plans and 16 Gy for the boost plans. Results With conventional treatment plans, CT-based breast and boost PTVs received the intended dose in 78% and 32% of the patients, respectively, and smaller volumes received the prescribed breast and boost doses compared with 3D-conformal dose-planning. The mean lung dose, the volume of the lungs receiving > 20 Gy, the mean heart dose, and volume of the heart receiving > 30 Gy were significantly less with conventional treatment plans. Specific areas within the breast and boost PTVs systematically received a lower than intended dose with conventional treatment plans. Conclusion The shift towards CT-guided target definition and planning as the golden standard for breast conserving radiotherapy has resulted in improved target coverage at the cost of larger irradiated volumes and an increased dose delivered to organs at risk. Tissue is now included into the breast and boost target volumes that was never explicitly defined or included with conventional treatment. Therefore, a coherent definition of the breast and boost target volumes is needed, based on

  20. Dosimetric consequences of the shift towards computed tomography guided target definition and planning for breast conserving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V; Maduro, John H; Korevaar, Erik W; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2008-01-01

    The shift from conventional two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D)-conformal target definition and dose-planning seems to have introduced volumetric as well as geometric changes. The purpose of this study was to compare coverage of computed tomography (CT)-based breast and boost planning target volumes (PTV), absolute volumes irradiated, and dose delivered to the organs at risk with conventional 2D and 3D-conformal breast conserving radiotherapy. Twenty-five patients with left-sided breast cancer were subject of CT-guided target definition and 3D-conformal dose-planning, and conventionally defined target volumes and treatment plans were reconstructed on the planning CT. Accumulated dose-distributions were calculated for the conventional and 3D-conformal dose-plans, taking into account a prescribed dose of 50 Gy for the breast plans and 16 Gy for the boost plans. With conventional treatment plans, CT-based breast and boost PTVs received the intended dose in 78% and 32% of the patients, respectively, and smaller volumes received the prescribed breast and boost doses compared with 3D-conformal dose-planning. The mean lung dose, the volume of the lungs receiving > 20 Gy, the mean heart dose, and volume of the heart receiving > 30 Gy were significantly less with conventional treatment plans. Specific areas within the breast and boost PTVs systematically received a lower than intended dose with conventional treatment plans. The shift towards CT-guided target definition and planning as the golden standard for breast conserving radiotherapy has resulted in improved target coverage at the cost of larger irradiated volumes and an increased dose delivered to organs at risk. Tissue is now included into the breast and boost target volumes that was never explicitly defined or included with conventional treatment. Therefore, a coherent definition of the breast and boost target volumes is needed, based on clinical data confirming tumour control probability and normal

  1. Computing the Free Energy Barriers for Less by Sampling with a Coarse Reference Potential while Retaining Accuracy of the Target Fine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V

    2014-08-12

    Proposed in this contribution is a protocol for calculating fine-physics (e.g., ab initio QM/MM) free-energy surfaces at a high level of accuracy locally (e.g., only at reactants and at the transition state for computing the activation barrier) from targeted fine-physics sampling and extensive exploratory coarse-physics sampling. The full free-energy surface is still computed but at a lower level of accuracy from coarse-physics sampling. The method is analytically derived in terms of the umbrella sampling and the free-energy perturbation methods which are combined with the thermodynamic cycle and the targeted sampling strategy of the paradynamics approach. The algorithm starts by computing low-accuracy fine-physics free-energy surfaces from the coarse-physics sampling in order to identify the reaction path and to select regions for targeted sampling. Thus, the algorithm does not rely on the coarse-physics minimum free-energy reaction path. Next, segments of high-accuracy free-energy surface are computed locally at selected regions from the targeted fine-physics sampling and are positioned relative to the coarse-physics free-energy shifts. The positioning is done by averaging the free-energy perturbations computed with multistep linear response approximation method. This method is analytically shown to provide results of the thermodynamic integration and the free-energy interpolation methods, while being extremely simple in implementation. Incorporating the metadynamics sampling to the algorithm is also briefly outlined. The application is demonstrated by calculating the B3LYP//6-31G*/MM free-energy barrier for an enzymatic reaction using a semiempirical PM6/MM reference potential. These modifications allow computing the activation free energies at a significantly reduced computational cost but at the same level of accuracy compared to computing full potential of mean force.

  2. Proposal of a technical guide for the evaluation and management of the solitary pulmonary nodule in function of the radiological characteristics obtained by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton Hidalgo, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    A guide is proposed to guide clinical personnel in early diagnosis, assessment and management of the solitary pulmonary nodule, with high potential of to develop lung cancer, in function of the radiological characteristics obtained by computed tomography. The management of patients with diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule is standardized with the purpose of to unify diagnostic criteria in a multidisciplinary and institutional environment. Tomographic radiological characteristics are described to allow the suspicion of the solitary pulmonary nodule benignity or malignity. A flow diagram is developed to guide the physician to an adequate monitoring, control and eventual therapeutic treatment. A clear and structured perspective of the diagnostic and therapeutic process is provided to the treating physician and patient [es

  3. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous trephine removal of the nidus in osteoid osteoma patients: experience of a single center in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrilli, Marcelo; Senerchia, Andreza Almeida; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Garcia Filho, Reynaldo Jesus, E-mail: andrezasenerchia@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Oncologia Pediatrica

    2015-07-15

    Objective: to report the results of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous resection of the nidus in 18 cases of osteoid osteoma. Materials and methods: the medical records of 18 cases of osteoid osteoma in children, adolescents and young adults, who underwent CT-guided removal of the nidus between November, 2004 and March, 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic data, lesion site, clinical outcome and complications after procedure. Results: clinical follow-up was available for all cases at a median of 29 months (range 6-60 months). No persistence of pre-procedural pain was noted on 17 patients. Only one patient experienced recurrence of symptoms 12 months after percutaneous resection, and was successfully retreated by the same technique, resulting in a secondary success rate of 18/18 (100%). Conclusion: CT-guided removal or destruction of the nidus is a safe and effective alternative to surgical resection of the osteoid osteoma nidus. (author)

  4. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

  5. An analysis of brachytherapy with computed tomography-guided permanent implantation of Iodine-125 seeds for recurrent nonkeratin nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinying Shen,1,2 Yong Li,2 Yanfang Zhang,2 Jian Kong,2 Yanhao Li1 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Background: 125I seed implantation is a new method in treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, and it is worthwhile to evaluate its feasibility. In this study, we performed brachytherapy with computed tomography (CT-guided permanent implantation of 125I seeds in the treatment of patients with the recurrence of NPC.Methods: A total 30 patients (20 male and ten female at the median age of 55 (range 25–80 years were diagnosed with recurrent nonkeratin NPC, with a total 38 lesions and a short disease-free interval (median ~11 months after primary radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. Patients received CT scan, starting from 2 months after the treatment. Follow-up was conducted for ~2–38 months to observe the local control rate and overall survival rate. We also analyzed the possible correlation between survival periods and the status of recurrent tumors.Results: The local control rates at 6, 12, 24, 30, and 36 months after the procedure of 125I seed implantation were 86.8%, 73.7%, 26.3%, 15.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 80.0% (24/30, 30.0% (9/30, and 6.7% (2/30, respectively, with a median survival period of 18 months (17.6±8.6 months. Interestingly, the survival periods of the patients who had primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were 15.8±7.9 and 24.3±7.9 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that χ2 (log rank was 7.555, with very significant difference (P<0.01. The survival periods of patients in tumor stages I, II, III, and IV were 25.4±8.7, 19.8±9.4, 16.1±4.5, and 12.8±7.8 months, respectively, with

  6. Monte Carlo computed machine-specific correction factors for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beam for several ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o correction factors for machine-specific reference (msr) conditions by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beams for ion chambers Exradin A1SL, A12; PTW 30006, 31010 Semiflex, 31014 PinPoint, 31018 microLion; NE 2571. Methods: For the calibration of TomoTherapy units, reference conditions specified in current codes of practice like IAEA/TRS-398 and AAPM/TG-51 cannot be realized. To cope with this issue, Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] described a new formalism introducing msr factors k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o for reference dosimetry, applicable to static TomoTherapy beams. In this study, those factors were computed directly using MC simulations for Q 0 corresponding to a simplified 60 Co beam in TRS-398 reference conditions (at 10 cm depth). The msr conditions were a 10 × 5 cm 2 TomoTherapy beam, source-surface distance of 85 cm and 10 cm depth. The chambers were modeled according to technical drawings using the egs++ package and the MC simulations were run with the egs c hamber user code. Phase-space files used as the source input were produced using PENELOPE after simulation of a simplified 60 Co beam and the TomoTherapy treatment head modeled according to technical drawings. Correlated sampling, intermediate phase-space storage, and photon cross-section enhancement variance reduction techniques were used. The simulations were stopped when the combined standard uncertainty was below 0.2%. Results: Computed k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o values were all close to one, in a range from 0.991 for the PinPoint chamber to 1.000 for the Exradin A12 with a statistical uncertainty below 0.2%. Considering a beam quality Q defined as the TPR 20,10 for a 6 MV Elekta photon beam (0.661), the additional correction k Q msr, Q f msr, f ref to k Q,Q o defined in Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] formalism was in a range from 0.997 to 1.004.Conclusion: The MC computed

  7. Usefulness of computed tomography in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with special reference to visualization of its capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y; Hirai, K; Nagasaki, Y [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Sakami, T; Motokawa, M

    1981-05-01

    Diagnostic significance of computed tomography was studied in 45 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis was correct in 95.6%, and in 66.6% of 21 cases with encapsulated hepatoma which shows expanding growth, its capsules were demonstrated by simple or contrast enhanced CT. Capsules surrounding tumor nodules were showed characteristic features; low density area by plain CT, and markedly enhanced high density or iso-density area around tumor nodules (called ''corona sign'') by contrast medium injection.

  8. Reconstruction of a Severely Atrophied Alveolar Ridge by Computer-Aided Gingival Simulation and 3D-Printed Surgical Guide: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Lee, Mi-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Lee, Ui-Lyong

    Dental implants positioned in severely atrophied anterior maxillae require esthetic or functional compromises. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a severely atrophied alveolar ridge with a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) surgical guide. A 50-year-old woman had a severely atrophied anterior maxilla with unfavorably positioned dental implants. Functional and esthetic prosthodontic restoration was difficult to achieve. An anterior segmental osteotomy was planned to reposition the dental implants. A 3D surgical guide was designed for precise relocation of the segment. The surgical guide firmly grasped the impression copings of the dental implants, minimizing surgical errors. Three-dimensional gingival simulation was used preoperatively to estimate the appropriate position of the gingiva. Rigid fixation to the surrounding bone allowed immobilization of the implant-bone segment. Satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes were attained 6 months after surgery. Finally, a severely atrophied alveolar ridge with unfavorably positioned dental implants was recovered with minimal esthetic and functional deterioration using gingival simulation and a 3D CAD/CAM surgical guide.

  9. Frequency and Risk Factors of Various Complications After Computed Tomography-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akira; Oyama, Yoshimasa; Toyoshima, Masami; Nakamura, Kenji; Inoue, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To retrospectively determine the frequency and risk factors of various side effects and complications after percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tumors. Methods. We reviewed and analyzed records of 112 treatment sessions in 57 of our patients (45 men and 12 women) with unresectable lung tumors treated by ablation. Risk factors, including sex, age, tumor diameter, tumor location, history of surgery, presence of pulmonary emphysema, electrode gauge, array diameter, patient position, maximum power output, ablation time, and minimum impedance during ablation, were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Total rates of side effects and minor and major complications occurred in 17%, 50%, and 8% of treatment sessions, respectively. Side effects, including pain during ablation (46% of sessions) and pleural effusion (13% of sessions), occurred with RF ablation. Minor complications, including pneumothorax not requiring chest tube drainage (30% of sessions), subcutaneous emphysema (16% of sessions), and hemoptysis (9% of sessions) also occurred after the procedure. Regarding major complications, three patients developed fever >38.5 deg. C; three patients developed abscesses; two patients developed pneumothorax requiring chest tube insertion; and one patient had air embolism and was discharged without neurologic deficit. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that a lesion located ≤1 cm of the chest wall was significantly related to pain (p < 0.01, hazard index 5.76). Risk factors for pneumothorax increased significantly with previous pulmonary surgery (p < 0.05, hazard index 6.1) and presence of emphysema (p <0.01, hazard index 13.6). Conclusion. The total complication rate for all treatment sessions was 58%, and 25% of patients did not have any complications after RF ablation. Although major complications can occur, RF ablation of lung tumors can be considered a safe and minimally invasive

  10. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Qi, X. Sharon; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  11. Prognostic Factors Influencing the Development of an Iatrogenic Pneumothorax for Computed Tomography-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Upper Renal Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.K.; Kim, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of upper renal tumors is considered a minimally invasive treatment, but this technique may cause pneumothorax. Purpose: To assess retrospectively the prognostic factors influencing the development of iatrogenic pneumothorax for RF ablation of upper renal tumors. Material and Methods: Computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation was performed in 24 patients (21 men, three women; age range 31-77 years, mean age 53.3 years) with 28 upper renal tumors. Various factors for pneumothorax-complicated (PC) upper renal tumors and non-pneumothoracic (NP) upper renal tumors were compared during RF ablation to determine which of the factors were involved in the development of pneumothorax. Results: Among 28 upper renal tumors in 24 patients, a pneumothorax occurred accidentally in six patients with eight tumors and intentionally in two patients with two tumors. This complication was treated with conservative management, instead of tube drainage. PC upper renal tumors had shorter distance from the lung or from the costophrenic line to the tumor, a larger angle between the costophrenic line and the tumor, and a higher incidence of intervening lung tissue than NP upper renal tumors (P<0.01). Intervening lung tissue was more frequently detected on CT images obtained with the patient in the prone position than on CT images obtained with the patient in the supine position. Conclusion: The presence of intervening lung tissue and the close proximity between an upper renal tumor and the lung are high risk factors for developing an iatrogenic pneumothorax. Pre-ablation CT scan should be performed in the prone position to exactly evaluate intervening lung tissue

  12. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  13. Preoperative Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Hookwire Localization of Metallic Marker Clips in the Breast with a Radial Approach: Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y.; Sanuki, J.; Kimura, K.; Tanaka, K.; Takahashi, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Pathology, and Dept. of Breast Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Hookwire localization is the current standard technique for radiological marking of nonpalpable breast lesions. Stereotactic directional vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB) is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to replace surgical biopsy. Wire localization for metallic marker clips placed after SVAB is needed. Purpose: To describe a method for performing computed tomography (CT)-guided hookwire localization using a radial approach for metallic marker clips placed percutaneously after SVAB. Material and Methods: Nineteen women scheduled for SVAB with marker-clip placement, CT-guided wire localization of marker clips, and, eventually, surgical excision were prospectively entered into the study. CT-guided wire localization was performed with a radial approach, followed by placement of a localizing marker-clip surgical excision. Feasibility and reliability of the procedure and the incidence of complications were examined. Results: CT-guided wire localization surgical excision was successfully performed in all 19 women without any complications. The mean total procedure time was 15 min. The median distance on CT image from marker clip to hookwire was 2 mm (range 0-3 mm). Conclusion: CT-guided preoperative hookwire localization with a radial approach for marker clips after SVAB is technically feasible.

  14. Preoperative computed tomography-guided percutaneous hookwire localization of metallic marker clips in the breast with a radial approach: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, T; Kasami, M; Uchida, Y; Sanuki, J; Kimura, K; Tanaka, K; Takahashi, K

    2007-06-01

    Hookwire localization is the current standard technique for radiological marking of nonpalpable breast lesions. Stereotactic directional vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB) is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to replace surgical biopsy. Wire localization for metallic marker clips placed after SVAB is needed. To describe a method for performing computed tomography (CT)-guided hookwire localization using a radial approach for metallic marker clips placed percutaneously after SVAB. Nineteen women scheduled for SVAB with marker-clip placement, CT-guided wire localization of marker clips, and, eventually, surgical excision were prospectively entered into the study. CT-guided wire localization was performed with a radial approach, followed by placement of a localizing marker-clip surgical excision. Feasibility and reliability of the procedure and the incidence of complications were examined. CT-guided wire localization surgical excision was successfully performed in all 19 women without any complications. The mean total procedure time was 15 min. The median distance on CT image from marker clip to hookwire was 2 mm (range 0-3 mm). CT-guided preoperative hookwire localization with a radial approach for marker clips after SVAB is technically feasible.

  15. The Guide to Simulation Games for Education and Training. Appendix: A Basic Reference Shelf on Simulation and Gaming by Paul A. Twelker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, David W.; Horn, Robert E.

    Simulation games are classed in this guide by subject area: business, domestic politics, economics, ecology, education, geography, history, international relations, psychology, skill development, sociology, social studies, and urban affairs. A summary description (of roles, objectives, decisions, and purposes), cost producer, playing data (age…

  16. Application of digital diagnostic impression, virtual planning, and computer-guided implant surgery for a CAD/CAM-fabricated, implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Brandon M; Lin, Wei-Shao; Ntounis, Athanasios; Harris, Bryan T; Morton, Dean

    2014-09-01

    This clinical report demonstrated the use of an implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis fabricated with a contemporary digital approach. The digital diagnostic data acquisition was completed with a digital diagnostic impression with an intraoral scanner and cone-beam computed tomography with a prefabricated universal radiographic template to design a virtual prosthetically driven implant surgical plan. A surgical template fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) was used to perform computer-guided implant surgery. The definitive digital data were then used to design the definitive CAD/CAM-fabricated fixed dental prosthesis. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An additional reference axis improves femoral rotation alignment in image-free computer navigation assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae; Nakagawa, Takumi

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have demonstrated improvement in accuracy of rotational alignment using image-free navigation systems mainly due to the inconsistent registration of anatomical landmarks. We have used an image-free navigation for total knee arthroplasty, which adopts the average algorithm between two reference axes (transepicondylar axis and axis perpendicular to the Whiteside axis) for femoral component rotation control. We hypothesized that addition of another axis (condylar twisting axis measured on a preoperative radiograph) would improve the accuracy. One group using the average algorithm (double-axis group) was compared with the other group using another axis to confirm the accuracy of the average algorithm (triple-axis group). Femoral components were more accurately implanted for rotational alignment in the triple-axis group (ideal: triple-axis group 100%, double-axis group 82%, P<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of Computer-Assisted Template-Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth With Custom Three-Dimensional Designed/Printed Surgical Tooling: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssari Moin, David; Verweij, Jop Pieter; Waars, Hugo; van Merkesteyn, Richard; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present cadaveric study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3-dimensional (3D) designed/printed surgical tooling. Ten partially edentulous human mandibular cadavers were scanned using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and an intraoral scanning system. The 3D data of these cadavers were imported to specialized software and used to analyze the region of the recipient sites, and the donor teeth were selected. Subsequently, congruent to the donor teeth, custom surgical tooling and surgical-guided templates were designed and 3D printed. The guided osteotomies were performed and the donor teeth transplanted. To evaluate the planned donor teeth positions compared with the transplanted donor teeth positions, the mandibles were scanned again using the CBCT system, and software matching was applied to measure the accuracy of the procedure. The mean angular deflection of the transplanted donor teeth with the planned donor teeth positions was 5.6 ± 5.4°. Comparing the 3D positions of the shoulders, a mean deviation of 3.15 ± 1.16 mm and a mean apical deviation of 2.61 ± 0.78 mm were found. The described method of computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3D designed/printed surgical tooling could potentially provide a relatively accurate alternative for the currently available treatment approaches. Further research should focus on improving the accuracy of this technique and evaluating the clinical success and advantages of this method. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate pre-surgical determination for self-drilling miniscrew implant placement using surgical guides and cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Kawaguchi, Misuzu; Tabuchi, Masako; Goto, Shigemi

    2010-12-01

    Miniscrew implants have proven to be effective in providing absolute orthodontic anchorage. However, as self-drilling miniscrew implants have become more popular, a problem has emerged, i.e. root contact, which can lead to perforation and other root injuries. To avoid possible root damage, a surgical guide was fabricated and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to incorporate guide tubes drilled in accordance with the planned direction of the implants. Eighteen patients (5 males and 13 females; mean age 23.8 years; minimum 10.7, maximum 45.5) were included in the study. Forty-four self-drilling miniscrew implants (diameter 1.6, and length 8 mm) were placed in interradicular bone using a surgical guide procedure, the majority in the maxillary molar area. To determine the success rates, statistical analysis was undertaken using Fisher's exact probability test. CBCT images of post-surgical self-drilling miniscrew implant placement showed no root contact (0/44). However, based on CBCT evaluation, it was necessary to change the location or angle of 52.3 per cent (23/44) of the guide tubes prior to surgery in order to obtain optimal placement. If orthodontic force could be applied to the screw until completion of orthodontic treatment, screw anchorage was recorded as successful. The total success rate of all miniscrews was 90.9 per cent (40/44). Orthodontic self-drilling miniscrew implants must be inserted carefully, particularly in the case of blind placement, since even guide tubes made on casts frequently require repositioning to avoid the roots of the teeth. The use of surgical guides, fabricated using CBCT images, appears to be a promising technique for placement of orthodontic self-drilling miniscrew implants adjacent to the dental roots and maxillary sinuses.

  20. Evaluation of every other day-cone beam computed tomography in image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Suk; Ahn, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Sik; Song, Ki Won

    2014-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography(CBCT) in Image Guided Radiation Therapy(IGRT), Set-up error can be reduced but exposure dose of the patient due to CBCT will increase. Through this study, we are to evaluate by making a scenario with the implementation period of CBCT as every other day. Of prostate cancer patients, 9 patients who got a Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy(IMRT) with CBCT in IGRT were analyzed. Based on values corrected by analyzing set-up error by using CBCT every day during actual treatment, we created a scenario that conducts CBCT every other day. After applying set-up error values of the day not performing CBCT in the scenario to the treatment planning system(Pinnacle 9.2, Philips, USA) by moving them from the treatment iso-center during actual treatment, we established re-treatment plan under the same conditions as actual treatment. Based on this, the dose distribution of normal organs and Planning Target Volume(PTV) was compared and analyzed. In the scenario that performs CBCT every other day based on set-up error values when conducting CBCT every day, average X-axis : 0.2±0.73 mm , Y-axis : 0.1±0.58 mm , Z-axis : -1.3±1.17 mm difference was shown. This was applied to the treatment planning to establish re-treatment plan and dose distribution was evaluated and as a result, Dmean : -0.17 Gy, D99% : -0.71 Gy of PTV difference was shown in comparison with the result obtained when carrying out CBCT every day. As for normal organs, V66 : 1.55% of rectal wall, V66 : -0.76% of bladder difference was shown. In case of a CBCT perform every other day could reduce exposure dose and additional treatment time. And it is thought to be able to consider the application depending on the condition of the patient because the difference in the dose distribution of normal organs, PTV is not large

  1. The clinical feasibility and effect of online cone beam computer tomography-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Bai Sen; Chen Nianyong; Xu Feng; Jiang Xiaoqin; Li Yan; Xu Qingfeng; Shen Yali; Zhang Hong; Gong Youling; Zhong Renming; Jiang Qingfeng

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Online adaptive correction in image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy appeared to be a promising approach for precision radiation treatment in head and neck tumors. This protocol was designed to evaluate the clinical feasibility and effect of online cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance in IMRT of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Methods and materials: The Elekta Synergy system, which integrates an X-ray volumetric imager (XVI), was used to deliver radiation treatment for 22 cases of NPC. The acquired CBCT was registered to the planning CT for online and offline analysis. The systematic and random setup errors, as well as planning target volume (PTV) margin, were calculated at different correction threshold levels. The impact of online setup correction on dosimetry was evaluated by simulation of pre-correction errors. Results: The correction-of-setup-errors frequencies for 1, 2 and 3 mm thresholds were 41.3-53.9%, 12.7-21.2% and 6.3-10.3%, respectively. Online correction was effective at the 2 mm threshold level for all three axes. The pre-correction systematic errors for the whole group ranged 1.1-1.3 mm, and the random errors were also 1.1-1.3 mm. After online correction, the systematic and random errors ranged 0.4-0.5 mm and 0.7-0.8 mm, respectively, in the three directions. The PTV margins for the pre-correction, pretreatment and post-treatment positions were 3.5-4.2 mm, 1.6-1.8 mm and 2.5-3.2 mm, respectively, in three directions. Analysis of hypothetical dosimetric change due to a translational isocenter shift of 3 mm showed that if no correction was applied, the mean maximum dose to both the brain stem and spinal cord would be increased by 10 Gy, the mean dose to the left and right parotids would be increased by 7.8 and 8.5 Gy, respectively, and the dose to target volumes would be decreased: 4 Gy for 95% GTV and 5.6 Gy for 95% CTV 60. Conclusions: CBCT-based online correction increased the accuracy of IMRT for NPC and

  2. Priori mask guided image reconstruction (p-MGIR) for ultra-low dose cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Justin C.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the compressed sensing (CS) based iterative reconstruction method has received attention because of its ability to reconstruct cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with good quality using sparsely sampled or noisy projections, thus enabling dose reduction. However, some challenges remain. In particular, there is always a tradeoff between image resolution and noise/streak artifact reduction based on the amount of regularization weighting that is applied uniformly across the CBCT volume. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel low-dose CBCT reconstruction algorithm framework called priori mask guided image reconstruction (p-MGIR) that allows reconstruction of high-quality low-dose CBCT images while preserving the image resolution. In p-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume was mathematically modeled as a combination of two regions: (1) where anatomical structures are complex, and (2) where intensities are relatively uniform. The priori mask, which is the key concept of the p-MGIR algorithm, was defined as the matrix that distinguishes between the two separate CBCT regions where the resolution needs to be preserved and where streak or noise needs to be suppressed. We then alternately updated each part of image by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively, where one minimization was focused on preserving the edge information of the first part while the other concentrated on the removal of noise/artifacts from the latter part. To evaluate the performance of the p-MGIR algorithm, a numerical head-and-neck phantom, a Catphan 600 physical phantom, and a clinical head-and-neck cancer case were used for analysis. The results were compared with the standard Feldkamp-Davis-Kress as well as conventional CS-based algorithms. Examination of the p-MGIR algorithm showed that high-quality low-dose CBCT images can be reconstructed without compromising the image resolution. For both phantom and the patient cases, the p-MGIR is able to achieve a clinically

  3. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous ozone injection of the Gasserian ganglion for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An JX

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Xiong An,1,2 Hui Liu,1 Ruo-Wen Chen,1,2 Yong Wang,1 Wen-Xing Zhao,1 Derek Eastwood,3 John P Williams4 1Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University & Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pain Services, Wirral University Teaching Hospital, Wirral, Merseyside, UK; 4Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of computed tomography (CT-guided percutaneous ozone injection for refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Design: A retrospective evaluation was performed in the study. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital pain center. Patients and methods: A total of 29 patients with a clinical diagnosis of refractory trigeminal neuralgia were enrolled. All patients were treated with a percutaneous ozone injection and one patient was excluded. There were 21 patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (group A and seven patients with painful trigeminal neuropathy caused by post-herpetic neuralgia (group B. The percutaneous injection was an oxygen–ozone mixture at an ozone concentration of 30 mg/­mL into the Gasserian ganglion performed under CT guidance. The number of ­procedures performed varied from one to as many as 16. Outcomes were evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS pain scores. Results: The combined VAS scores were 7.11 ± 1.23 pretreatment, 2.86 ± 1.69 posttreatment (P < 0.05 and 3.25 ± 2.01 after 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05. In group A, the VAS scores were 7.10 ± 1.04 pretreatment and 2.90 ± 1.84 posttreatment (P < 0.05. In group B, the VAS scores were 7.14 ± 1.77 pretreatment and 2.71 ± 1.25 posttreatment (P < 0.05. After 6-months follow-up, the VAS score was 3.38

  4. Personalized Assessment of kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography Doses in Image-guided Radiotherapy of Pediatric Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yibao [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yan Yulong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Bao Shanglian [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative method for the estimation of kV cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) doses in pediatric patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two children were retrospectively analyzed in subgroups of different scanned regions: one group in the head-and-neck and the other group in the pelvis. Critical structures in planning CT images were delineated on an Eclipse treatment planning system before being converted into CT phantoms for Monte Carlo simulations. A benchmarked EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions of kVCBCT scans with full-fan high-quality head or half-fan pelvis protocols predefined by the manufacturer. Based on planning CT images and structures exported in DICOM RT format, occipital-frontal circumferences (OFC) were calculated for head-and-neck patients using DICOMan software. Similarly, hip circumferences (HIP) were acquired for the pelvic group. Correlations between mean organ doses and age, weight, OFC, and HIP values were analyzed with SigmaPlot software suite, where regression performances were analyzed with relative dose differences (RDD) and coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: kVCBCT-contributed mean doses to all critical structures decreased monotonically with studied parameters, with a steeper decrease in the pelvis than in the head. Empirical functions have been developed for a dose estimation of the major organs at risk in the head and pelvis, respectively. If evaluated with physical parameters other than age, a mean RDD of up to 7.9% was observed for all the structures in our population of 42 patients. Conclusions: kVCBCT doses are highly correlated with patient size. According to this study, weight can be used as a primary index for dose assessment in both head and pelvis scans, while OFC and HIP may serve as secondary indices for dose estimation in corresponding regions. With the proposed empirical functions, it is possible

  5. A computer code for calculation of solvent-extraction separation in a multicomponent system with reference to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Liuzzo, G.; Morelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear technology development pointed out the need for a new assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing is known as one of the problems not yet satisfactorily solved, together with separation process of uranium and plutonium from fission products in highly irradiated fuels. Aim of this work is to present an improvement of the computer code for solvent extraction process calculation previously designed by the authors. The modeling of the extraction system has been modified by introducing a new method for calculating the distribution coefficients. The new correlations were based on deriving empirical functions for not only the apparent equilibrium constants, but also the solvation number. The mathematical model derived for calculating separation performance has been then tested for up to ten components and twelve theoretical stages with minor modifications to the convergence criteria. Suitable correlations for the calculation of the distribution coefficients of Uranium, Plutonium, Nitric Acid and fission products were constructed and used to successfully simulate several experimental conditions. (Author)

  6. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-01-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97 R computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  7. Computer classes and games in virtual reality environment to reduce loneliness among students of an elderly reference center: Study protocol for a randomised cross-over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle de; Crocetta, Tania Brusque; Antão, Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira de Lima; Barbosa, Renata Thais de Almeida; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-03-01

    Physical and mental changes associated with aging commonly lead to a decrease in communication capacity, reducing social interactions and increasing loneliness. Computer classes for older adults make significant contributions to social and cognitive aspects of aging. Games in a virtual reality (VR) environment stimulate the practice of communicative and cognitive skills and might also bring benefits to older adults. Furthermore, it might help to initiate their contact to the modern technology. The purpose of this study protocol is to evaluate the effects of practicing VR games during computer classes on the level of loneliness of students of an elderly reference center. This study will be a prospective longitudinal study with a randomised cross-over design, with subjects aged 50 years and older, of both genders, spontaneously enrolled in computer classes for beginners. Data collection will be done in 3 moments: moment 0 (T0) - at baseline; moment 1 (T1) - after 8 typical computer classes; and moment 2 (T2) - after 8 computer classes which include 15 minutes for practicing games in VR environment. A characterization questionnaire, the short version of the Short Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S) and 3 games with VR (Random, MoviLetrando, and Reaction Time) will be used. For the intervention phase 4 other games will be used: Coincident Timing, Motor Skill Analyser, Labyrinth, and Fitts. The statistical analysis will compare the evolution in loneliness perception, performance, and reaction time during the practice of the games between the 3 moments of data collection. Performance and reaction time during the practice of the games will also be correlated to the loneliness perception. The protocol is approved by the host institution's ethics committee under the number 52305215.3.0000.0082. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  8. Computer-designed surgical guide template compared with free-hand operation for mesiodens extraction in premaxilla using “trapdoor” method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying Kai; Xie, Qian Yang; Yang, Chi; Xu, Guang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of mesiodens extraction using a vascularized pedicled bone flap by piezosurgery and to compare the differences between a computer-aided design surgical guide template and free-hand operation. A total of 8 patients with mesiodens, 4 with a surgical guide (group I), and 4 without it (group II) were included in the study. The surgical design was to construct a trapdoor pedicle on the superior mucoperiosteal attachment with application of piezosurgery. The bone lid was repositioned after mesiodens extraction. Group I patients underwent surgeries based on the preoperative planning with surgical guide templates, while group II patients underwent free-hand operation. The outcome variables were success rate, intraoperative time, anterior nasal spine (ANS) position, changes of nasolabial angle (NLA), and major complications. Data from the 2 groups were compared by SPSS 17.0, using Wilcoxon test. The operative time was significantly shorter in group I patients. All the mesiodentes were extracted successfully and no obvious differences of preoperative and postoperative ANS position and NLA value were found in both groups. The patients were all recovered uneventfully. Surgical guide templates can enhance clinical accuracy and reduce operative time by facilitating accurate osteotomies. PMID:28658139

  9. ANDOSE: a computer code for calculating annual doses to man from routine releases of LWR effluents for the purpose of evaluating compliance with JAEC's guide for doseobjectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Tadao

    1979-10-01

    For environmental doses from routine releases of LWRs effluents to meet the Criterion 'As Low As is Practicable (ALAP)', Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) established a series of guides, the first for 'Dose Objectives' (May 1975), the second for models and parameters for calculating the environmental doses to compare with the 'Dose Objectives' (September 1976), and the third providing onsite meteorological programs, statistics of the data obtained and atmospheric dispersion models (June 1977). JAERI has developed a computer code, designated as ANDOSE, for calculating annual releases of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents and, then, total body doses and thyroid doses to individuals around sites on the basis of these guides. The total body doses are from radioactive noble gases as well as from radioactive materials taken with marine food. For the calculation of thyroid doses are taken into account exposure pathways via inhalation and ingestion of leafy vegetables, cow's milk and marine food. The age-specific thyroid doses are evaluated. The doses are summed up when multisource or multisite conditions need to be evaluated (Nuclear Safety Bureau's requirement). In the present report, are described source-term models, environmental transport models and dose models used in the code, of which most are provided in the guides but some are complemented by the authors, the functions of ANDOSE and the manual for users of the code. The program lists and the latter two guides mentioned above are included in the appendices. (author)

  10. User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wiley, R A

    1977-01-01

    User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

  11. A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1988--1992. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    We present an indexed guide to the literature experimental particle physics for the years 1988--1992. About 4,000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction Momentum (including the final state), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Detector/Experiment. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and reference in the ID/Reference/Title Index. The information in this guide is also publicly available from a regularly updated computer database.

  12. SU-E-J-243: Possibility of Exposure Dose Reduction of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in An Image Guided Patient Positioning System by Using Various Noise Suppression Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamezawa, H; Arimura, H; Ohki, M; Shirieda, K; Kameda, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems

  13. SU-E-J-243: Possibility of Exposure Dose Reduction of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in An Image Guided Patient Positioning System by Using Various Noise Suppression Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamezawa, H [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan); Arimura, H; Ohki, M [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirieda, K; Kameda, N [Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems.

  14. Computed tomography guided navigation assisted percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteoma in a 7-year-old patient: the low dose approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis; Tappero, Carlo; Bogdanovic, Daniel; Stamm, Anna-Christina [Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Ziebarth, Kai [Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign tumour that can cause severe pain and functional limitation to children and young adults; the treatment of choice is image-guided ablation. Due to the very small size of the lesion, detection and accurate needle placement may be challenging. Computed tomography (CT) offers very detailed imaging of the skeleton and is the modality of choice for the detection of small OO and for ablation guidance. Nevertheless, CT-guided positioning of the ablation applicator is linked to significant radiation exposure, particularly for the paediatric population. This case describes the successful use of a novel CT-based navigation system that offers the possibility of accurate ablation with only minimal radiation exposure in a paediatric patient. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of a novel Seldinger-needle for computed tomography guided interventions: initial experiences; Evaluierung einer neuen Seldinger-Nadel fuer computertomografisch gesteuerte Interventionen: Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumhans, C.; Mahnken, A.; Iwa, R.; Behrendt, F.F.; Sebastian, K.; Guenther, R.W.; Honnef, D. [Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate a new Seldinger puncture device for computed tomography-guided interventions under difficult conditions, to analyze applicability, and to investigate assets and drawbacks. From November 2007 to March 2008, we performed CT-guided interventions in 16 patients (7 women, 9 men; mean age 62 years old) using a new 20G-Seldinger needle (Sika-Med, Wiehl, Germany). This novel needle serves as a guide for many different interventional devices due to a guide wire welded on the proximal needle end. It allows continuous application of anesthesia via four tiny holes at the distal needle end until the region of interest is reached. Each intervention was subject to difficult interventional conditions. The indications for intervention were drainage (n = 7), Trucut biopsy of tumor (n = 8) and radiofrequency ablation (n = 1). Handling, success, advantages, drawbacks, complications and patient tolerance were noted after each procedure. A pain scale from 1 - 10 was used to grade the pain level during the intervention. All interventions were performed successfully and no severe complications were observed. Patient tolerance was very good resulting in a mean pain score of 2 {+-} 1. Regions with dangerous and difficult access were successfully reached with the new Seldinger needle in 15 of 16 cases by dilatation of the puncture tract and continuous administration of local anesthesia via the system. Furthermore, different devices such as Trucut systems and a drainage catheter were able to be inserted without complication via the needle. With a proximal removable luer-lock connection, liquid material was able to be aspirated in six cases. Under difficult interventional conditions, the use of a Seldinger needle as a reliable technique for CT-guided interventions can provide a safe and successful procedure. (orig.)

  16. The combined use of computer-guided, minimally invasive, flapless corticotomy and clear aligners as a novel approach to moderate crowding: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Michele; Altieri, Federica; Pandolfi, Stefano; Giansanti, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe an innovative orthodontic treatment method that combined surgical and orthodontic techniques. The novel method was used to achieve a positive result in a case of moderate crowding by employing a computer-guided piezocision procedure followed by the use of clear aligners. A 23-year-old woman had a malocclusion with moderate crowding. Her periodontal indices, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and treatment time were evaluated. The treatment included interproximal corticotomy cuts extending through the entire thickness of the cortical layer, without a full-thickness flap reflection. This was achieved with a three-dimensionally printed surgical guide using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. Orthodontic force was applied to the teeth immediately after surgery by using clear appliances for better control of tooth movement. The total treatment time was 8 months. The periodontal indices improved after crowding correction, but the oral health impact profile showed a slight deterioration of OHRQoL during the 3 days following surgery. At the 2-year retention follow-up, the stability of treatment was excellent. The reduction in surgical time and patient discomfort, increased periodontal safety and patient acceptability, and accurate control of orthodontic movement without the risk of losing anchorage may encourage the use of this combined technique in appropriate cases.

  17. Common-mask guided image reconstruction (c-MGIR) for enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Justin C; Li, Jonathan G; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Compared to 3D cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT), the image quality of commercially available four-dimensional (4D) CBCT is severely impaired due to the insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Since the traditional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK)-based algorithm is infeasible for reconstructing high quality 4D CBCT images with limited projections, investigators had developed several compress-sensing (CS) based algorithms to improve image quality. The aim of this study is to develop a novel algorithm which can provide better image quality than the FDK and other CS based algorithms with limited projections. We named this algorithm ‘the common mask guided image reconstruction’ (c-MGIR).In c-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume is mathematically modeled as a combination of phase-specific motion vectors and phase-independent static vectors. The common-mask matrix, which is the key concept behind the c-MGIR algorithm, separates the common static part across all phase images from the possible moving part in each phase image. The moving part and the static part of the volumes were then alternatively updated by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively. As the novel mathematical transformation allows the static volume and moving volumes to be updated (during each iteration) with global projections and ‘well’ solved static volume respectively, the algorithm was able to reduce the noise and under-sampling artifact (an issue faced by other algorithms) to the maximum extent. To evaluate the performance of our proposed c-MGIR, we utilized imaging data from both numerical phantoms and a lung cancer patient. The qualities of the images reconstructed with c-MGIR were compared with (1) standard FDK algorithm, (2) conventional total variation (CTV) based algorithm, (3) prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, and (4) motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithm, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the

  18. Common-mask guided image reconstruction (c-MGIR) for enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Justin C; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Li, Jonathan G; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-12-07

    Compared to 3D cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT), the image quality of commercially available four-dimensional (4D) CBCT is severely impaired due to the insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Since the traditional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK)-based algorithm is infeasible for reconstructing high quality 4D CBCT images with limited projections, investigators had developed several compress-sensing (CS) based algorithms to improve image quality. The aim of this study is to develop a novel algorithm which can provide better image quality than the FDK and other CS based algorithms with limited projections. We named this algorithm 'the common mask guided image reconstruction' (c-MGIR).In c-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume is mathematically modeled as a combination of phase-specific motion vectors and phase-independent static vectors. The common-mask matrix, which is the key concept behind the c-MGIR algorithm, separates the common static part across all phase images from the possible moving part in each phase image. The moving part and the static part of the volumes were then alternatively updated by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively. As the novel mathematical transformation allows the static volume and moving volumes to be updated (during each iteration) with global projections and 'well' solved static volume respectively, the algorithm was able to reduce the noise and under-sampling artifact (an issue faced by other algorithms) to the maximum extent. To evaluate the performance of our proposed c-MGIR, we utilized imaging data from both numerical phantoms and a lung cancer patient. The qualities of the images reconstructed with c-MGIR were compared with (1) standard FDK algorithm, (2) conventional total variation (CTV) based algorithm, (3) prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, and (4) motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithm, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the algorithm

  19. A Research-Inspired and Computer-Guided Clinical Interview for Mathematics Assessment: Introduction, Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Lee, Young-Sun; Pappas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment involves the gathering of information that can guide the teaching of individual or groups of children. This approach requires a sound understanding of children's thinking and learning, as well as an effective method for gaining the information. We propose that formative assessment should employ a version of clinical…

  20. Teacher's Guide for Computational Models of Animal Behavior: A Computer-Based Curriculum Unit to Accompany the Elementary Science Study Guide "Behavior of Mealworms." Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Hal; Goldenberg, Paul

    This experimental curriculum unit suggests how dramatic innovations in classroom content may be achieved through use of computers. The computational perspective is viewed as one which can enrich and transform traditional curricula, act as a focus for integrating insights from diverse disciplines, and enable learning to become more active and…

  1. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  2. How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer or network the complete guide for your home and work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    It seems like everywhere you go on the Internet, there is spam, spyware, and the risk of viruses infecting your computer and ruining your online experience. In businesses alone, according to Nucleus Research Inc. spam costs more than 712 per employee each year in productivity and computing resources and the estimation on money lost by businesses due to computer viruses ranges between 100 million and 2 billion annually depending on how the total is calculated. This complete, revolutionary book has compiled all of the vital information you need to make sure that you are able to combat the risk

  3. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  4. Cervical Gross Tumor Volume Dose Predicts Local Control Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Diffusion-Weighted Imaging—Guided High-Dose-Rate and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography—Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Kathryn J.; Narra, Vamsi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L.; Schwarz, Julie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.

  5. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression of pregnant women referred to health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Akbari, Hossein; Tagharrobi, Leila; Tabatabaee, Akram Sadat

    2018-01-01

    If anxiety and depression do not detect in pregnant women, they may cause complications for the mother, child, and family, including postpartum depression. With regard to the administrative capability of relaxation in health centers, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women in the city of Kashan at 28-36 weeks. At the onset of the study, demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Depression Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were completed. Providing obtaining score of mild-to-moderate in the stress, anxiety, and depression scale and score of 10 or higher in Edinburgh Depression Scale, individuals were divided randomized to the intervention group ( n = 33) and control group ( n = 33). DASS-21 was again completed in the 4 th -7 th weeks of beginning of the study by all women. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated significant differences in mean of scores of stress, anxiety, and depression at three different times in relaxation group ( P pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Computed Tomography-Guided Core-Needle Biopsy Specimens Demonstrate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.M.; Chang, J.W.C.; Cheung, Y.C.; Lin, G.; Hsieh, J.J.; Hsu, T.; Huang, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Target therapy with a new class of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors shows improved clinical response in EGFR gene-mutated lung cancers. Purpose: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT)-guided core-needle biopsy specimens for the assessment of EGFR gene mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: Seventeen (nine males, eight females) patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT-guided core-needle biopsy of the lung tumor prior to treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. There were no life-threatening complications of biopsy. The specimens were sent fresh-frozen for EGFR mutation analysis and histopathological study. Results: There were 12 (70.6%) EGFR gene mutants and five (29.4%) nonmutants. The objective response rate to gefitinib therapy was 73.3% (11 of 15 patients), with 91.7% (11 of 12 mutants) for the mutant group and 0% for the nonmutant group. Conclusion: CT-guided core-needle biopsy of advanced NSCLC enables the acquisition of sufficient tissue for EGFR gene mutation analysis

  7. Short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer: A multi-center retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Min; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guang Hui; Wei, Zhigang [Dept. of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan (China); Fan, Wei Jun [Imaging and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Kaixian [Dept. of Oncology, Teng Zhou Central People' s Hospital Affiliated with Jining Medical College, Tengzhou (China); Bi, Jing Wang [Dept. of Oncology, Jinan Military General Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Jinan (China)

    2016-11-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer.

  8. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan

  9. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  10. Guide to improving the performance of a manipulator system for nuclear fuel handling through computer controls. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.M. Jr.; Albus, J.S.; Barbera, A.J.; Rosenthal, R.; Truitt, W.B.

    1975-11-01

    The Office of Developmental Automation and Control Technology of the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology of the National Bureau of Standards provides advising services, standards and guidelines on interface and computer control systems, and performance specifications for the procurement and use of computer controlled manipulators and other computer based automation systems. These outputs help other agencies and industry apply this technology to increase productivity and improve work quality by removing men from hazardous environments. In FY 74 personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory visited NBS to discuss the feasibility of using computer control techniques to improve the operation of remote control manipulators in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Subsequent discussions led to an agreement for NBS to develop a conceptual design for such a computer control system for the PaR Model 3000 manipulator in the Thorium Uranium Recycle Facility (TURF) at ORNL. This report provides the required analysis and conceptual design. Complete computer programs are included for testing of computer interfaces and for actual robot control in both point-to-point and continuous path modes

  11. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  12. Starpc: a library for communication among tools on a parallel computer cluster. User's and developer's guide to Starpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro

    2000-02-01

    We report on a RPC(Remote Procedure Call)-based communication library, Starpc, for a parallel computer cluster. Starpc supports communication between Java Applets and C programs as well as between C programs. Starpc has the following three features. (1) It enables communication between Java Applets and C programs on an arbitrary computer without security violation, although Java Applets are supposed to communicate only with programs on the specific computer (Web server) in subject to a restriction on security. (2) Diverse network communication protocols are available on Starpc, because of using Nexus communication library developed at Argonne National Laboratory. (3) It works on many kinds of computers including eight parallel computers and four WS servers. In this report, the usage of Starpc and the development of applications using Starpc are described. (author)

  13. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department.

  14. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  16. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  17. GeoT User’s Guide, A Computer Program for Multicomponent Geothermometry and Geochemical Speciation, Version 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiffer, Loic [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-06

    GeoT implements the multicomponent geothermometry method developed by Reed and Spycher (1984, Geochim. Cosmichim. Acta 46 513–528) into a stand-alone computer program, to ease the application of this method and to improve the prediction of geothermal reservoir temperatures using full and integrated chemical analyses of geothermal fluids. Reservoir temperatures are estimated from statistical analyses of mineral saturation indices computed as a function of temperature. The reconstruction of the deep geothermal fluid compositions, and geothermometry computations, are all implemented into the same computer program, allowing unknown or poorly constrained input parameters to be estimated by numerical optimization using existing parameter estimation software, such as iTOUGH2, PEST, or UCODE. This integrated geothermometry approach presents advantages over classical geothermometers for fluids that have not fully equilibrated with reservoir minerals and/or that have been subject to processes such as dilution and gas loss.

  18. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  2. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  3. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  4. Added value of cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of mechanical aortic valve: Emphasis on evaluation of pannus with surgical findings as standard reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Lee, Sak; Im, Dong Jin; Chang, Suyon; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Young Jin

    2016-07-01

    The added value of cardiac computed tomography (CT) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for evaluating mechanical aortic valve (AV) dysfunction has not yet been investigated. The purposes of this study were to investigate the added value of cardiac CT for evaluation of mechanical AVs and diagnoses of pannus compared to TEE, with surgical findings of redo-aortic valve replacement (AVR) used as a standard reference. 25 patients who underwent redo-AVR due to mechanical AV dysfunction and cardiac CT before redo-AVR were included. The presence of pannus, encroachment ratio by pannus, and limitation of motion (LOM) were evaluated on CT. The diagnostic performance of pannus detection was compared using TEE, CT, and CT+TEE, with surgical findings as a standard reference. The added value of CT for diagnosing the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction was assessed compared to TTE+TEE. In two patients, CT analysis was not feasible due to severe metallic artifacts. On CT, pannus and LOM were found in 100% (23/23) and 60.9% (14/23). TEE identified pannus in 48.0% of patients (12/25). CT, TEE, and CT+TEE correctly identified pannus with sensitivity of 92.0%, 48.0%, and 92.0%, respectively (P=0.002 for CT vs. TEE). In 11 of 13 cases (84.6%) with inconclusive or negative TEE results for pannus, CT detected the pannus. Among 13 inconclusive cases of TTE+TEE for the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction, CT suggested 6 prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) by pannus, 4 low-flow low-gradient PVO, and one LOM without significant PVO. Cardiac CT showed added diagnostic value with TEE in the detection of pannus as the cause of mechanical AV dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computed Tomographic-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Recurrent or Residual Hepatocellular Carcinomas around Retained Iodized Oil after Transarterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Hwan [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon-Il [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Beom [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju [Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and risk factors influencing local tumor progression, following CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of recurrent or residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), around iodized oil retention. Sixty-four patients (M : F = 51 : 13, 65.0 ± 8.2 years old) with recurrent or residual HCC (75 index tumors, size = 14.0 ± 4.6 mm) had been treated by CT-guided RFA, using retained iodized oil as markers for targeting. The technical success, technique effectiveness rate and complications of RFA were then assessed. On pre-ablative and immediate follow-up CT after RFA, we evaluated the size of enhancing index tumors and iodized oil retention, presence of abutting vessels, completeness of ablation of iodized oil retention, and the presence of ablative margins greater than 5 mm. Also, the time interval between transarterial chemoembolization and RFA was assessed. The cumulative local tumor progression rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazards model was adopted, to clarify the independent factors affecting local tumor progression. The technical success and technique effectiveness rate was 100% and 98.7%, respectively. Major complications were observed in 5.6%. The cumulative rates of local tumor progression at 1 and 2 years were 17.5% and 37.5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, partial ablation of the targeted iodized oil retention was the sole independent predictor of a higher local tumor progression rate. CT-guided RFA of HCC around iodized oil retention was effective and safe. Local tumor progression can be minimized by complete ablation of not only index tumors, but targeted iodized oil deposits as well.

  6. Microprocessors & their operating systems a comprehensive guide to 8, 16 & 32 bit hardware, assembly language & computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, R C

    1989-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive guide to all of the major microprocessor families (8, 16 and 32 bit). The hardware aspects and software implications are described, giving the reader an overall understanding of microcomputer architectures. The internal processor operation of each microprocessor device is presented, followed by descriptions of the instruction set and applications for the device. Software considerations are expanded with descriptions and examples of the main high level programming languages (BASIC, Pascal and C). The book also includes detailed descriptions of the three main operatin

  7. Oral Rehabilitation of a Patient With Ectodermal Dysplasia Treated With Fresh-Frozen Bone Allografts and Computer-Guided Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Carlo; Poli, Pier Paolo; Poggio, Carlo; Barbieri, Paola; Beretta, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of ectodermally derived structures. A recurrent oral finding is oligodontia, which in turn leads to a severely hypotrophic alveolar process with typical knife-edge morphology and adverse ridge contours. This unfavorable anatomy can seriously hamper proper implant placement. Fresh-frozen bone (FFB) allografts recently have been proposed to augment the residual bone volume for implant placement purposes; however, scientific evidence concerning the use of FFB to treat ED patients is absent. Similarly, data reporting computer-aided template-guided implant placement in medically compromised patients are limited. Thus the purpose of this report is to illustrate the oral rehabilitation of a female patient affected by ED and treated with appositional FFB block grafts and consecutive computer-guided flapless implant placement in a 2-stage procedure. Fixed implant-supported dental prostheses were finally delivered to the patient, which improved her self-esteem and quality of life. During the follow-up recall 1 year after the prosthetic loading, the clinical examination showed healthy peri-implant soft tissues with no signs of bleeding on probing or pathologic probing depths. The panoramic radiograph confirmed the clinical stability of the result. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were radiographically stable with neither pathologic bone loss at the mesial and distal aspects of each implant nor peri-implant radiolucency. Within the limitations of this report, the use of FFB allografts in association with computer-aided flapless implant surgery might be considered a useful technique in patients affected by ED. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkis Steve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, the CORESTA Special Analytes Sub Group (SPA SG has been working on the development of CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs for the analysis of cigarette smoke components. All CRMs have been posted on the CORESTA website and several associated papers published. In this study, 21 laboratories shared data and in-house methodologies for 28 additional smoke components of regulatory interest to prioritise the development of further CRMs. Laboratories provided data, where available, from CORESTA monitor test pieces (CM6 and CM7 and Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (1R5F / 3R4F covering the period 2010-2012 obtained under both the ISO 3308 and Health Canada Intense regimes. Scant data were available on the CORESTA monitor test pieces and the Kentucky 1R5F reference. The greatest amount of data was obtained on the Kentucky 3R4F and this was used in the analyses described in this paper. SPA SG discussions provided invaluable insight into identifying causes and ways of reducing inter-laboratory variability which will be investigated in joint experiments before embarking on final collaborative studies using draft CRMs to obtain mean yields, repeatability and reproducibility values. Phenolic compounds (phenol, 3 cresol isomers, hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol gave consistent results by liquid chromatography (LC separation and fluorescence detection after extracting collected “tar” on a Cambridge filter pad (CFP. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Similar ratios of phenols were also obtained from each method. Of the 28 studied analytes, the between-laboratory variability was lowest for the phenols. Hydrogen cyanide was derivatised using various reagents and the colour development measured after continuous flow analysis (CFA by ultra-violet absorbance. Although, methodologies gave reasonably consistent results, investigations on the trapping system

  9. Feasibility of Systematic Respiratory-Gated Acquisition in Unselected Patients Referred for 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Robin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveRespiratory motion in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT induces blurred images, leading to errors in location and quantification for lung and abdominal lesions. Various methods have been developed to correct for these artifacts, and most of current PET/CT scanners are equipped with a respiratory gating system. However, they are not routinely performed because their use is time-consuming. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and quantitative impact of a systematic respiratory-gated acquisition in unselected patients referred for FDG PET/CT, without increasing acquisition time.MethodsPatients referred for a FDG PET/CT examination to the nuclear medicine department of Brest University Hospital were consecutively enrolled, during a 3-month period. Cases presenting lung or liver uptakes were analyzed. Two sets of images were reconstructed from data recorded during a unique acquisition with a continuous table speed of 1 mm/s of the used Biograph mCT Flow PET/CT scanner: standard free-breathing images, and respiratory-gated images. Lesion location and quantitative parameters were recorded and compared.ResultsFrom October 1 2015 to December 31 2015, 847 patients were referred for FDG PET/CT, 741 underwent a respiratory-gated acquisition. Out of them, 213 (29% had one or more lung or liver uptake but 82 (38% had no usable respiratory-gated signal. Accordingly, 131 (62% patients with 183 lung or liver uptakes were analyzed. Considering the 183 lesions, 140 and 43 were located in the lungs and the liver, respectively. The median (IQR difference between respiratory-gated images and non-gated images was 18% (4−32 for SUVmax, increasing to 30% (14−57 in lower lobes for lung lesions, and −18% (−40 to −4 for MTV (p < 0.05. Technologists’ active personal dosimetry and mean total examinations duration were not statistically different between periods with and without

  10. Biopsy system for CT-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, G.; Cosman, E.; Wells, T.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.; Costello, P.; Kane, R.

    1987-01-01

    CT stereotaxic brain biopsies have made brain biopsies safe and minimally invasive. CT-guided biopsies of the body, however, have traditionally used a hand-guidance method. CT biopsy guidance systems for the body have recently become available that have similar capabilities as those of brain biopsy systems. To compare the clinical utility of stereotaxically guided biopsies with hand-guided biopsies, the authors prospectively compared 40 biopsies performed with each method. In the stereotaxic method, a localizor grid was placed on the patient to define a reference point, and a frame was used to guide the needle along the intended path. Computer software programs calculated complex paths from one scan plane to another. Although the results disclosed no significant differences in lesion size or path length between the two groups, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 75% fewer needle manipulations to hit the intended target. Consequently, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 40% less time and 80% fewer localization scans to find the biopsy needle than did the hand-guided biopsies

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  12. User's guide for SAMMY: a computer model for multilevel r-matrix fits to neutron data using Bayes' equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Perey, F.G.

    1980-11-01

    A method is described for determining the parameters of a model from experimental data based upon the utilization of Bayes' theorem. This method has several advantages over the least-squares method as it is commonly used; one important advantage is that the assumptions under which the parameter values have been determined are more clearly evident than in many results based upon least squares. Bayes' method has been used to develop a computer code which can be utilized to analyze neutron cross-section data by means of the R-matrix theory. The required formulae from the R-matrix theory are presented, and the computer implementation of both Bayes' equations and R-matrix theory is described. Details about the computer code and compelte input/output information are given

  13. Evidence: Study Guide. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) correct application of principles of military rules of evidence. This study guide is also intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps judge advocates and Coast Guard law...

  14. The location of midfacial landmarks according to the method of establishing the midsagittal reference plane in three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of facial asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheock; Yoon, Suk Ja [Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Ja [Dept. of Nursing, Kwangju Women' s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods of establishing the midsagittal reference plane (MRP) on the locations of midfacial landmarks in the three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis of facial asymmetry. A total of 24 patients (12 male and 12 female; mean age, 22.5 years; age range, 18.2-29.7 years) with facial asymmetry were included in this study. The MRP was established using two different methods on each patient's CT image. The x-coordinates of four midfacial landmarks (the menton, nasion, upper incisor, and lower incisor) were obtained by measuring the distance and direction of the landmarks from the MRP, and the two methods were compared statistically. The direction of deviation and the severity of asymmetry found using each method were also compared. The x-coordinates of the four anatomic landmarks all showed a statistically significant difference between the two methods of establishing the MRP. For the nasion and lower incisor, six patients (25.0%) showed a change in the direction of deviation. The severity of asymmetry also changed in 16 patients (66.7%). The results of this study suggest that the locations of midfacial landmarks change significantly according to the method used to establish the MRP.

  15. Handheld single photon emission computed tomography (handheld SPECT) navigated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery of computer tomography-guided radioactively marked pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Putora, Paul Martin; Schneider, Tino; Zeisel, Christoph; Brutsche, Martin; Baty, Florent; Markus, Alexander; Kick, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Radioactive marking can be a valuable extension to minimally invasive surgery. The technique has been clinically applied in procedures involving sentinel lymph nodes, parathyroidectomy as well as interventions in thoracic surgery. Improvements in equipment and techniques allow one to improve the limits. Pulmonary nodules are frequently surgically removed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons; here video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the preferred technique. VATS might be impossible with nodules that are small or located deep in the lung. In this study, we examined the clinical application and safety of employing the newly developed handheld single photon emission tomography (handheld SPECT) device in combination with CT-guided radioactive marking of pulmonary nodules. In this pilot study, 10 subjects requiring surgical resection of a pulmonary nodule were included. The technique involved CT-guided marking of the target nodule with a 20-G needle, with subsequent injection of 25-30 MBq (effective: 7-14 MBq) Tc-99m MAA (Macro Albumin Aggregate). Quality control was made with conventional SPECT-CT to confirm the correct localization and exclude possible complications related to the puncture procedure. VATS was subsequently carried out using the handheld SPECT to localize the radioactivity intraoperatively and therefore the target nodule. A 3D virtual image was superimposed on the intraoperative visual image for surgical guidance. In 9 of the 10 subjects, the radioactive application was successfully placed directly in or in the immediate vicinity of the target nodule. The average size of the involved nodules was 9 mm (range 4-15). All successfully marked nodules were subsequently completely excised (R0) using VATS. The procedure was well tolerated. An asymptomatic clinically insignificant pneumothorax occurred in 5 subjects. Two subjects were found to have non-significant discrete haemorrhage in the infiltration canal of the needle. In a single subject, the

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  18. Promotion Guide – A guide for career reviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 8 February, the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) approved the Promotion Guide, subtitled “A guide for career reviews”. The English version is already published on the HR website. This Promotion Guide is not very different from the Career Path Guide which it replaces following the implementation of the new career structure with benchmark jobs and grades. Structure The guide is composed of three parts: Section I – Introduction revisits the reference documents: the Staff Rules and Regulations (S&R) and the Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26). In the Staff Rules and Regulations, the term promotion is defined as a change of grade1 and in Administrative Circular No. 26, the Promotion Guide is referenced under paragraph 452. The objective of the Promotion Guide is laid out in Section I: “The Promotion Guide defines the criteria to be used as a reference for career reviews with a view to a potential promotion”. However, this guide do...

  19. Non-real-time computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for heapocellular carcinoma undetectable by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-real-time CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 37 lesions) untreatable by ultrasonography-guided (US)-PEIT. The HCC lesion was localized on the lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a 21 G or 22 G needle in a stepwise fashion with intermittent localization scans using a tandem method to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol containing contrast medium was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion of the lesion was judged to be complete. A total of 44 CT-PEIT procedures were performed. The average number of needle passes from the skin to the liver in each CT-PEIT procedure was 2.3, the average amount of ethanol injected was 14.4 ml, and the average time required was 49.3 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol on monitoring CT images was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complication. Local recurrence was detected only in 5 lesions. At present, it is more time-consuming to perform CT-PEIT than US-PEIT because conventional CT guidance is not real-time imaging. However, it is expected that this limitation of CT-PEIT will be overcome in the near future with the introduction of CT fluoroscopy. In conclusion, CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC undetectable by US. (author)

  20. Experimental and Computational Studies on the Scattering of an Edge-Guided Wave by a Hidden Crack on a Racecourse Shaped Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, Benjamin Steven; Rose, Louis Raymond Francis; Chiu, Wing Kong

    2017-07-01

    Reliable and quantitative non-destructive evaluation for small fatigue cracks, in particular those in hard-to-inspect locations, is a challenging problem. Guided waves are advantageous for structural health monitoring due to their slow geometrical decay of amplitude with propagating distance, which is ideal for rapid wide-area inspection. This paper presents a 3D laser vibrometry experimental and finite element analysis of the interaction between an edge-guided wave and a small through-thickness hidden edge crack on a racecourse shaped hole that occurs, in practice, as a fuel vent hole. A piezoelectric transducer is bonded on the straight edge of the hole to generate the incident wave. The excitation signal consists of a 5.5 cycle Hann-windowed tone burst of centre frequency 220 kHz, which is below the cut-off frequency for the first order Lamb wave modes (SH1). Two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation (2D FFT) is applied to the incident and scattered wave field along radial lines emanating from the crack mouth, so as to identify the wave modes and determine their angular variation and amplitude. It is shown experimentally and computationally that mid-plane symmetric edge waves can travel around the hole's edge to detect a hidden crack. Furthermore, the scattered wave field due to a small crack length, a , (compared to the wavelength λ of the incident wave) is shown to be equivalent to a point source consisting of a particular combination of body-force doublets. It is found that the amplitude of the scattered field increases quadratically as a function of a/λ , whereas the scattered wave pattern is independent of crack length for small cracks a < λ . This study of the forward scattering problem from a known crack size provides a useful guide for the inverse problem of hidden crack detection and sizing.