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Sample records for computerized tomographical analysis

  1. Computerized tomographic studies in cerebral palsy. Analysis of 200 cases

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    Sugie, Y. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 200 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were analysed from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations, disease complications and etiological factors. CT scans of 135 cases (67.5%) were found to be abnormal and there were 14 (7%) borderline cases. The major abnormality found on CT scans was cerebral atrophy. Other important changes included focal or diffuse low density area in the brain tissue, congenital malformation, and cerebellar atrophy. From the clinical point of view, a large number of patients with spastic tetraplegia and spastic diplegia showed highly abnormal CT scans. On the other hand, in patients with spastic monoplegia, spastic paraplegia, and athetotic type, CT findings were normal or revealed only minor cerebral atrophy. Most children showing asymmetric clinical symptoms had corresponding asymmetric CT abnormalities which included ventricular enlargement, low density area in the brain tissue, and hemispherical volume. There was a significant correlation between the severity of physical impairment and the extent of CT abnormalities. Severely affected children had grossly abnormal CT scans such as hydranencephaly, polycystic change, and extensive cerebral atrophy. In the patients complicated with epilepsy, the incidence and severity of abnormal CT were higher than those of non-epileptic patients. Mentally retarded patients had variable enlargement of the subarachnoidal space depending on the severity of their mental retardation. Patients with suspected postnatal etiology also had high incidence of severe CT abnormality. CT scan is a valuable tool for evaluating patients with CP and in some cases, possible etiology of the disease may be discovered.

  2. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

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    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Springer, E.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  3. Project, construction and test of a mini computerized tomograph

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    Oliveira Junior, J.M. de [Universidade de Sorocaba (UNISO), SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas (CETEC)

    2003-06-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from both transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. CT is an imaging technique that has revolutionized the field of medical diagnostics. There are many others applications for CT images, such as, nondestructive evaluation of industrial products and analysis of biological specimens. A mini computerized tomograph was projected, constructed and tested. It operates with a gamma ray source of {sup 241} Am (photons of 60 keV and 100 mCi of intensity) and a NaI(Tl) solid state detector. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 100 mm effective field of view, and 1 mm spatial resolution. The preliminary results indicated a resolution between 5 % to 7 % to detect mass attenuation coefficient variations. The total cost of the Mini Computerized Tomograph of UNISO (MTCU) was about US$ 20.000,00. (author)

  4. Limb-length discrepancy measured with computerized axial tomographic equipment

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    Huurman, W.W.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Anderson, J.C.; Chu, W.K.

    1987-06-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for measuring limb-length discrepancies with computerized axial tomographic equipment is described. With this method less irradiation is delivered and some of the errors of computation are eliminated, compared with conventional methods. The costs of the technique are comparable with those of scanograms. The method is particularly applicable in the patient who has contracture of a joint.

  5. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

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    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  6. Urinary Metabolomic Analysis to Detect Changes After Intravenous, Non-ionic, Low Osmolar Iodinated Radiocontrast for Computerized Tomographic Imaging

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    Deborah B Diercks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a result of injury to the proximal tubules caused by oxidative stress and ischemia. Metabolomics is a novel technique that has been used to identify renal damage from drug toxicities. The objective of this study is to analyze the metabolic changes in the urine after dosing with intravenous (IV contrast for computed tomograph (CT of the chest Methods: A convenience sample of patients undergoing a chest CT with IV contrast who had at least one of the following: age ≥50 years, diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, or diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg -- were eligible for enrollment. Urine samples were collected prior to imaging and 4-6 hours post imaging. Samples underwent gas chromography/mass spectrometry profiling. We measured peak metabolite values and log transformed data. Paired T tests were calculated. We used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM to determine the most significant metabolites. Results: The cohort comprised 14 patients with matched samples; 9 /14 (64.3 were males, and the median age was 61 years (IQR 50-68. A total of 158 metabolites were identified. Using SAM we identified 9 metabolites that were identified as significant using a delta of 1.6. Conclusion: Changes in urinary metabolites are present soon after contrast administration. This change in urinary metabolites may be potential early identifiers of contrast-induced nephropathy and could identify patients at high-risk for developing this condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:152–157.

  7. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Paranasal Sinusitis

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    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) images of the paranasal sinusitis(PNS). The author examined the extent and the recurring patterns of the paranasal sinusitis and some important anatomic landmarks. The author analyzed PNS images retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The most frequently affected sinus was maxillary sinus (82.9%), followed by anterior ethmoid sinus (67.9%), posterior ethmoid sinus (48.9%), frontal sinus (42.0%) and sphenoid sinus (41.4%). The characteristic features of CT images of the sinusitis were sinus opacification (22.4%), mucoperiosteal thickening (34.3%), and polyposis (2.0%). Sinonasal inflammatory diseases were categorized into 5 patterns according to Babbel's classification. They were 1) infundibular (13.0%), 2) ostiomeatal unit (67.4%), 3)sphenoethmoidal recess (13.0%), 4) sinonasal polyposis (9.6%) and 5) unclassifiable patterns (18.0%). The incidences of contact between sinus and optic nerve were as follows ; the incidences of contact with posterior ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus, both posterior sinuses were 11.4%, 66.8%, 6.3%, respectively. The incidences of contact between sphenoid sinus and maxillary nerve, vidian nerve, internal carotid artery were 74.5%, 79.2%, 45.1% respectively. The incidences of pneumatization of the posterior ethmoid sinus were as follows; normal 70.6% and overriding type 29.4%. The incidences of sphenoid sinus pneumatization were as follows; normal 56.9% , rudimentary 12.5%, pterygoid recess 22.7%, anterior clinoid recess 2.7%, and both pterygoid and anterior clinoid recess 5.2%. The inflammatory sinonasal diseases were classified into five patterns using the CT of PNS, which was proven to be an excellent imaging modality providing detailed information about mucosal abnormality, pathologic patterns and the proximity of the important structures to the posterior paranasal sinuses. This

  8. Computerized tomographic evaluation of intracranial metastases

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    Kim, Bo Yong; Lee, Mi Sook; Choi, Jin Ok; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    In a study of intracranial metastases, 46 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to February, 1986. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of intracranial metastases were 67:33. The 5th decade group (34.8%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 6th decade (21.7%) and 7th decade (21.7%). 2. The number of lesions was found be: single -25 cases (54.3%); multiple -21 cases (45.7%). 3. The source of intracranial metastases found to be: lung 15 cases (32.6%); unknown 12 cases (26.0%); chorioca 3 cases (6.5%); liver 3 cases (6.5%); stomach 2 cases (4.3%); parotid, breast, kidney, prostate, melanoma, rectal ca, rhabdomyosarcoma, nasal ca, lymphoma, testicular ca, cervix, each 1 case (2.2%). 4. The locations of the intracranial metastases were as follows: Cerebral hemisphere 37.7% in parietal region Cerebral hemisphere 15.9% in in frontal region Cerebral hemisphere 13.4% in occipital region Cerebral hemisphere 10.5% in temporal region Cerebellar hemisphere 3.2% Cerebellopontine angle 3.2% Intraventricular 4.8% Meninges 4.8% Skull vault 6.5% 5. Peritumor edema was found to be: Grade II-17 cases (37.0%): Grade III-14 cases (30.4%); Grade I-8 cases (17.4%); Grade 0-7 cases (15.2%) in that order. 6. The chief complaints of intracranial metastases on admission, were as follows: Headache 30 cases (65.2%); Vomiting 11 cases (23.9%); deteriorated mental state 10 cases (21.7%); Hemiplegia 7 cases (15.2%); visual disturbance 6 cases (13.0%); hemiparesis 4 cases (8.7%); seizure 4 cases (8.7%); other symptoms were less frequent. 7. On pre-contrast scan, hyperdense lesions were present in 18 cases (39.1%); hypodense lesions in 15 cases (32.6%); mixed density in 8 cases (17.4%); isodensity was present in 5 cases (10.9%). On post-contrast scan, ring enhancement was seen in 19 cases (41.3%); nodular enhancement in 17 cases (37%), mixed ring

  9. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography.

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    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site http://www.osirix-viewer.com.

  10. The utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy after a computerized tomographic colonography revealing only rectosigmoid lesions.

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    Young, P E; Gentry, A B; Cash, B D

    2008-03-15

    Identifying polyps by computerized tomographic colonography typically prompts colonoscopy, increasing its cost, risk and inconvenience. Many polyps are confined to the rectosigmoid and theoretically amenable to resection via flexible sigmoidoscopy. To determine the prevalence of advanced proximal colonic neoplasia when computerized tomographic colonography reveals only rectosigmoid polyps, and characterize the yield of polypectomy via flexible sigmoidoscopy in such patients. Subjects underwent computerized tomographic colonography and colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Patients with only rectosigmoid findings by computerized tomographic colonography were identified retrospectively. Flexible sigmoidoscopy findings were estimated by including lesions distal to the descending/sigmoid colon junction during colonoscopy. Proximal lesions were also reviewed. Advanced lesions were defined as: adenocarcinoma, tubular adenoma >1 cm, > or =3 tubular adenomas, tubulovillous histology or high-grade dysplasia. By computerized tomographic colonography, 15% (203 of 1372) had only rectosigmoid polyps. Concomitant lesions in the proximal colon were seen in 32% (64 of 203) during colonoscopy. Advanced proximal neoplasia occurred in 2% (three of 203) with only rectosigmoid polyps on computerized tomographic colonography. Using flexible sigmoidoscopy to follow-up computerized tomographic colonography demonstrating only rectosigmoid polyps would eliminate 15% of subsequent colonoscopies. This strategy carries a small risk of missed proximal advanced neoplasia. This miss rate appears comparable to that of colonoscopy alone. Further study on the cost-effectiveness of this approach is warranted.

  11. Computerized tomographic study of normal Evans index in adult Nigerians

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    Ahmed Umdagas Hamidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of degree of ventricular enlargement should be based on established indices rather than on personal experience as this is highly subjective. Our aim was to establish normal values for Evans index in a Nigerian adult population as none has been found in the Nigerian medical literature. Materials and Methods: Axial computerized tomographic brain scans of 488 normal subjects were reviewed retrospectively. Of them, 319 (65.36% of the patients were males and 169 (34.63% were females; their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean age of 37.26 years. The images were acquired using a multi-slice GE Sigma excite scanner. Evans index was measured as the linear ratio of the total width of the frontal horns of the cerebral lateral ventricles to the maximum intracranial diameter. Results: The mean value for Evans index for the studied population was 0.252 ± 0.04. The EI increased with age and it was slightly higher among males. The difference in Evans value in males and females was not statistically significant. Individuals above 60 years old had the highest Evans values in both sexes. Conclusion: This study has established ranges of normal value for Evans index in a Nigerian population. It agrees with the diagnostic cut-off value of > 0.3 for hydrocephalus and it compares well with that of the Caucasians.

  12. ECAT: A New Computerized Tomographic Imaging System for Position-Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals

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    Phelps, M. E.; Hoffman, E. J.; Huang, S. C.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ECAT was designed and developed as a complete computerized positron radionuclide imaging system capable of providing high contrast, high resolution, quantitative images in 2 dimensional and tomographic formats. Flexibility, in its various image mode options, allows it to be used for a wide variety of imaging problems.

  13. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

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    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  14. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

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    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  15. A COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF UNCINATE PROCESS OF ETHMOID BONE

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    N. Vinay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncinate process is an important landmark in the anatomy of osteo-meatal complex of frontal recess which also plays a vital role in the ventilation of middle meatus and sinuses. Its superior attachment shows great anatomic variability. The aim of this study was to observe and classify superior attachment and presence of pneumatisation in uncinate process. Materials and methods: Computed tomographic images of paranasal region from 100 patients were studied retrospectively. In 100 patients, 54 belonged to male and 46 female and were in the age group of 11 to 75 years with an average of 32.7 years. The superior attachment of uncinate process was observed and tabulated according to Landsberg and Friedman classification and pneumatisation of uncinate process was also noted. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The superior attachment of uncinate process was observed in 200 sides out of 100 patients and its attachment to the agger nasi cells (type - 2 was found in 36% while its attachment to lamina papyracea (type – 1 and to middle turbinate (type – 6 were found in 19% and 20% respectively. Uncinate process ending at the junction of middle turbinate with cribriform plate (type – 4, at the ethmoid skull base (type – 5, bifurcating towards lamina papyracea and junction of middle turbinate with cribriform plate (type – 3 were seen in 2%, 8% and 5% respectively. In 11%, the superior end showed no attachment to surrounding structures. The uncinate process was pneumatised in 34 of 200 sides (17%, among which 45.5% was unilateral and 54.5% bilateral. Conclusion: Preoperatively evaluating variations of uncinate process and its pneumatisation helps to avoid intraoperative damage to surrounding structures. The detailed knowledge of extent of uncinate process may also help to deduce the reason for refractory chronic sinusitis.

  16. Case of cerebral cryptococcosis. Mainly computerized tomographic findings

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    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Nomura, Takayoshi; Imagawa, Kenji; Asai, Akira; Kawasaki, Michiro (National Hospital of Nagoya (Japan))

    1984-05-01

    A 66-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with chief complaint of vertigo, gait disturbance and dysarthria. These symptoms started about one year before admission and worsened. Vomiting and urinary incontinence appeared. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria. In plain CT (computerized tomography) irregular ill-defined low density area was noted in the cerebellar vermis and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. And slight ventricular dilatation was found. Irregular shape of ring-like enhancement corresponding to capsule and patchy or mottled enhancement inside the tumor were seen. Suboccipital craniectomy was performed and yellowish necrotic tumor with hard capsule was removed. Histological diagnosis was not neoplasm or tuberculoma. Postoperatively liver function progressively worsened. She died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Autopsy revealed typical liver cirrhosis without malignant change. 3.0 x 2.5 cm sized, slightly hard, yellowish lesion was found on upper part of cerebellar hemispheres. This had extremely necrotic tissue and a great number of cryptococcus neoformans were found. And other intracranial lesion was not confirmed. Finding of pulmonary cryptococcosis was not gained. Our case is very rare because of solitary cerebellar abscess and absence of meningitic episode or pulmonary cryptococcosis. There are three types of inflammation in cerebral cryptococcosis. The commonest manifestation is the meningitic type, the second mode is granulomatous lesion and the third and the least presentation is intracranial abscess formation. CT reveals various finidngs according to clinical stage. CT findings are those of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, granuloma and abscess. Cryptococcal granuloma or abscess often simulates brain abscess, glioma and metastatic brain tumor. We discussed CT findings of cerebral cryptococcosis and examined the CT number of our case.

  17. Motion-Computerized Tomographic Colography is a Better Method for Screening for Polyps: Arguments for the Motion

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    Benoit C Pineau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem that is amenable to prevention and early treatment. Traditional screening techniques - fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy, barium enema and colonoscopy - each have limitations in terms of diagnostic accuracy, cost and/or patient acceptability. Compliance with recommendations for screening has been poor, in part, because of negative perceptions about the available modalities. Virtual colonoscopy, or computerized tomographic colography, is a minimally invasive technique that safely evaluates the entire colon and does not require sedation. Thorough cleansing as well as immobilization and air insufflation of the colon is crucial to a successful examination. Sensitivity and specificity rates are reasonable, compared with conventional colonoscopy, and it has been shown that the latter technique can be averted in over two-thirds of cases, with few false-negative examinations. Most patients find virtual colonoscopy more acceptable than the conventional technique, and would prefer it if a repeat procedure were warranted. An economic analysis that found that computerized tomographic colography was less cost effective than conventional colonoscopy did not consider the indirect costs of the latter, which is an important limitation. Virtual colonoscopy is a novel radiological technique that may revolutionize screening for colorectal cancer.

  18. Anatomical Variations of Carotid Artery and Optic Nerve in Sphenoid Sinus Using Computerized Tomographic Imaging

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    Nikakhlagh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sphenoid sinus is surrounded by many vital vascular and nervous structures. In more than 20% of patients with chronic sinusitis, involvement of sphenoid sinus has been observed. Besides, sphenoid sinus is an appropriate route to access anterior and middle cranial fossa in surgery. Therefore, it is important to have an adequate knowledge about the contents of sphenoid sinus and its proximity for nasal endoscopy, sinus surgeries and neurosurgeries. Objectives The aim of this study was to study sphenoid sinus proximity with carotid artery and the optic nerve using computerized tomographic imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, computerized tomographic images of sphenoid sinus of patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Apadana hospitals were studied. The images were studied regarding any bulging, as well as not having a bone covering in sphenoid sinus regarding internal carotid artery and optic nerve. Furthermore, unilateralness or bilateralness of their relationships was studied. Results Among 468 coronal and axial CT scan images of sphenoid sinus, 365 (78% showed post-sellar pneumatization and 103 (22% pre-sellar pneumatization. Regarding existence of internal septa, 346 (74% cases showed multiple septation, and the remaining images were reported to have a single septum. According to the reports of CT scan images, the existence of bulging as a result of internal carotid artery and uncovered artery were 4.22% and 5.8% in the right sinus, 4.9% and 5.4% in the left sinus, and 4.34% and 4.6% in both sinuses, respectively. According to the reports of CT scan images, existence of bulging as a result of optic nerve and uncovered nerve were 5.7% and 4.3% in the right sinus, 6% and 5.4% in the left sinus, and 12% and 3.2% in both sinuses, respectively. Conclusions Due to variability of sphenoid sinus pneumatization and the separator blade of the two sinus cavities, careful attention is required during sinus surgery to avoid

  19. Multidetector computerized tomographic fistulography in the evaluation of congenital branchial cleft fistulae and sinuses.

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    Sun, Zhipeng; Fu, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zuyan; Zhao, Yanping; Ma, Xuchen

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to primarily investigate the usefulness of computerized tomographic (CT) fistulography in the diagnosis and management of branchial cleft fistulae and sinuses. Fifteen patients with confirmed branchial fistulae or sinuses who had undergone CT fistulography were included. The diagnoses were confirmed by clinical, radiologic, or histopathologic examinations. The internal openings, distribution, and neighboring relationship of the lesions presented by CT fistulography were analyzed to evaluate the usefulness in comparison with x-ray fistulography. Nine patients were diagnosed with first branchial fistulae or sinuses, 2 with second branchial fistulae, and 4 with third or fourth branchial fistulae. The presence and location of the lesions could be seen on x-ray fistulography. The distribution of the lesions, internal openings, and neighboring relationship with parotid gland, carotid sheath, and submandibular gland could be clearly demonstrated on CT cross-sectional or volume-rendering images. CT fistulography could provide valuable information and benefit surgical planning by demonstrating the courses of branchial anomalies in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computerized tomographic fistulography in congenital fistula of neck].

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    Zheng, H; Ye, Q; Wang, X Y; Zheng, X H; Yang, X Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, Y; Li, R Y

    2017-08-07

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness and effectiveness of multi-slice spiral computerized tomographic fistulography (MSCTF) in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital fistula of neck. Methods: Thirty-four patients with thyroglossal fistulasor branchial cleft fistulas who were initial treated from July 2008 to August 2015 in Fujian Provincial Hospital were retrospectively analyses. Thirteen males and 21 females patients aging from 3 to 46 years old with a median age of 37 were included. There were thyroglossal fistula in 6 cases, the first branchialcleft fistula in 9 cases, the second branchialcleft fistula in 3 cases, the third branchialcleft fistula in 9 cases, and the fourth branchialcleft fistula in 7 cases. All the patients underwent preopeative MSCTF and the diagnoses were finally confirmed with surgery and histopathology. Multiplanar reconstruction(MPR), maximumintensity projection(MIP)and volume rendering(VR) were completed with AW Volume Share 4.2 image processing software after initial CT scanning.The internal openings, distribution, and neighboring relationship of the fistulas showed by MSCTF were analyzed and the surgical strategies were subsequently made. Results: Except 2 cases, 32 patients had obtained successfully MSCTF image. The presence and location of the fistulas could be showed clearly on MSCTF. Based on the results of MSCTF examination, the surgical planes to treat the fistulas were made. The fistulas in all cases were successfully found and excised. Three cases underwent selective neck dissection. Postoperative infection occurred in 1 case. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to surgery recovered 3 months after surgery with follow-up. One case lost follow-up, the remaining 33 cases were followed up for 13-97 months with no the fistula recurrence. Conclusions: MSCTF could provide valuable information and benefit surgical planning by demonstrating the coursesof congenital fistulas of neck in detail.

  1. Analysis of concrete material through gamma ray computerized tomography

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    Oliveira Junior, J.M. de [Universidade de Sorocaba - UNISO, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Martins, A.C.G.; Milito, J.A. de [Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba - FACENS, SP (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    Computerized Tomography (CT) refers to the cross sectional imaging of an object from both transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. The most important contribution of CT is to greatly improve abilities to distinguish regions with different gamma ray transmittance and to separate over-lying structures. The mathematical problem of the CT imaging is that of estimating an image from its projections. These projections can represent, for example, the linear attenuation coefficient of {gamma}-rays along the path of the ray. In this work we will present some new results obtained by using tomographic techniques to analyze column samples of concrete to check the distribution of various materials and structural problems. These concrete samples were made using different proportions of stone, sand and cement. Another set of samples with different proportions of sand and cement were also used to verify the outcome from the CT analysis and the differences between them. Those samples were prepared at the Material Laboratory of Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba, following the same procedures used in real case of concrete tests. The projections used in this work was obtained by Mini Computerized Tomograph of Uniso (MTCU), located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Laboratory at University of Sorocaba. This tomograph operates with a gamma ray source of {sup 241}Am (photons of 60 keV and 100 mCi of intensity) and a NaI(Tl) solid state detector. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 100 mm effective field of view, and 1 mm spatial resolution. The image reconstruction problem is solved using Discrete Filtered Backprojection (FBP). (author)

  2. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

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    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  3. Induced apnea enhances image quality and visualization of cardiopulmonary anatomic during contrastenhanced cardiac computerized tomographic angiography in children

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    Murali Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases. Methods: Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past 3 years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the "apnea group" were compared with those in "nonapnea group." After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored. Results: We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another 10 without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U, Fischer′s exact test and Pearson′s Chi-square test. In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33 of the studies, while in the "no apnea group," only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%. In the nonapnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in

  4. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

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    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...

  5. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

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    Lazić Vojkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  6. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Ju [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Denstistry, Chonbuk National Universty, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  7. Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT. The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.

  8. The use of transport and diffusion equations in the three-dimensional reconstruction of computerized tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Sandrerley Ramos, E-mail: sandrerley@eee.ufg.br [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao - EEEC, Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Flores, Edna Lucia; Pires, Dulcineia Goncalves F.; Carrijo, Gilberto Arantes; Veiga, Antonio Claudio Paschoarelli [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica - FEELT, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Barcelos, Celia Aparecida Z. [Faculdade de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia - UFU, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The visualization of a computerized tomographic (TC) exam in 3D increases the quality of the medical diagnosis and, consequently, the success probability in the treatment. To obtain a high quality image it is necessary to obtain slices which are close to one another. Motivated towards the goal of reaching an improved balance between quantity of slices and visualization quality, this research work presents a digital inpainting technique of 3D interpolation for CT slices used in the visualization of human body structures. The inpainting is carried out via non-linear partial differential equations (PDE). The PDE's have been used, in the image-processing context to fill in the damaged regions in a digital 2D image. Inspired by this idea, this article proposes an interpolation method for the filling in of the empty regions between the CT slices. To do it, considering the high similarity between two consecutive real slice, the first step of the proposed method is to create the virtual slices. The virtual slices contain all similarity between the intercalated slices and, when there are not similarities between real slices, the virtual slices will contain indefinite portions. In the second step of the proposed method, the created virtual slices will be used together with the real slices images, in the reconstruction of the structure in three dimensions, mapped onto the exam. The proposed method is capable of reconstructing the curvatures of the patient's internal structures without using slices that are close to one another. The experiments carried out show the proposed method's efficiency. (author)

  9. Thoracic computerized tomographic (CT findings in 2009 influenza A (H1N1 virus infection in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rostami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus arrived at Isfahan in August 2009. The virus is still circulating in the world. The abnormal thoracic computerized tomographic (CT scan findings vary widely among the studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza. We evaluated the thoracic CT findings in patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection to describe findings compared to previously reported findings, and to suggest patterns that may be suggestive for 2009 influenza A (H1N1 in an appropriate clinical setting. Methods: Retrospectively, the archive of all patients with a diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A were reviewed, in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, central Iran, between September 23 rd 2009 to February 20 th 2010. Out of 216 patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1 virus, 26 cases with abnormal CT were enrolled in the study. Radiologic findings were characterized by the type and pattern of opacities and zonal distribution. Results: Patchy infiltration (34.6%, lobar consolidation (30.8%, and interstitial infiltration (26.9% with airbronchogram (38.5% were the predominant findings in our patients. Bilateral distribution was seen in 80.8% of the patients. Only one patient (3.8% showed ground-glass opacity, predominant radiographic finding in the previous reports and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. Conclusions: The most common thoracic CT findings in pandemic H1N1 were patchy infiltration, lobar consolidation, and interstitial infiltration with airbronchogram and bilateral distribution. While these findings can be associated with other infections; they may be suggestive to 2009 influenza A (H1N1 in the appropriate clinical setting. Various radiographic patterns can be seen in thoracic CT scans of the influenza patients. Imaging findings are nonspecific.

  10. Teleradiology Assessment of Computerized Tomographs Online Reliability Study (TRACTORS) for acute stroke evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karen C; Worrall, Bradford B

    2003-01-01

    Telemedicine has potential to increase the use of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke and is increasingly offered to provide stroke expertise to remote and underserved areas. The accuracy of stroke neurologists' use of telemedicine to read head computed tomography scans (CT) has not been demonstrated. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of neurologists' reading of acute stroke head CTs via teleradiology. The pilot study compared stroke neurologists' reading of CTs via teleradiology to gold standard readings of hard copies on a view box. Head CTs obtained during consecutive acute evaluations for thrombolytic therapy between February and July 2001 were used. For this study, each stroke neurologist was masked to all prior readings, clinical decisions regarding thrombolysis eligibility, and the reading of the other study neurologist. Each neurologist read one-half of the CT scans using teleradiology and the other one-half using a view box. We used the official reading by a neuroradiologist for comparison. The kappa statistic measured reliability. Validity was measured by sensitivity and specificity. Sixty scans were used for the analysis. The neurologists identified the same four hemorrhages using teleradiology that they and the neuroradiologist identified using the light board. Compared to the readings on a view box, the kappa statistic for eligibility for thrombolysis via teleradiology was 1.0. Sensitivity was 100%, 95% CI = (0.93, 1.0); specificity was 100%, 95% CI = (0.40, 0.98) in both comparisons. This pilot study provides encouraging preliminary evidence that neurologists with stroke expertise can determine radiological intravenous t-PA eligibility via teleradiology. Further analysis in a larger sample is necessary to validate these results.

  11. Electron Tomographic Analysis of Synaptic Ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burette, Alain C.; Lesperance, Thomas; Crum, John; Martone, Maryann; Volkmann, Niels; Ellisman, Mark H.; Weinberg, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic function depends on interactions among sets of proteins that assemble into complex supramolecular machines. Molecular biology, electrophysiology, and live-cell imaging studies have provided tantalizing glimpses into the inner workings of the synapse, but fundamental questions remain regarding the functional organization of these “nano-machines.” Electron tomography reveals the internal structure of synapses in three dimensions with exceptional spatial resolution. Here we report results from an electron tomographic study of axospinous synapses in neocortex and hippocampus of the adult rat, based on aldehyde-fixed material stabilized with tannic acid in lieu of postfixation with osmium tetroxide. Our results provide a new window into the structural basis of excitatory synaptic processing in the mammalian brain. PMID:22684938

  12. Evaluation of computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in independent data sets of computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been reported to be an effective means for clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in detection of pulmonary embolism in CTPA images. The pulmonary vessel tree is extracted based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices at multiple scales followed by 3D hierarchical EM segmentation. A multiprescreening method is designed to identify suspicious PEs along the extracted vessels. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with feature selection is then used to reduce false positives (FPs). Two data sets of 59 and 69 CTPA PE cases were randomly selected from patient files at the University of Michigan (UM) and the PIOPED II study, respectively, and used as independent training and test sets. The PEs that were identified by three experienced thoracic radiologists were used as the gold standard. The detection performance of the CAD system was assessed by free response receiver operating characteristic analysis. The results indicated that our PE detection system can achieve a sensitivity of 80% at 18.9 FPs/case on the PIOPED cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the UM cases. The test sensitivity with the UM cases is 80% at 22.6 FPs/cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the PIOPED cases.

  13. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  14. Entropy analysis to psychological evaluation of tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Dodanuki, S.; Moribe, N. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Entropy analysis to psychological evaluation for tomographic images is applied. An optic canal and an internal ear tomogram are taken by hypocycloidal, elliptical, spiral and circular blurring movements. Fifteen tomograms are taken for each tomographic blurring movement of the two different parts, so a total of 60 sheets of tomograms are taken. All optic canal tomograms are evaluated by two groups composed of five ophthalmologists and five radiologic technologists, and internal ear tomograms are evaluated by five otolaryngologists and five radiologic technologists. Each observer participated in this experiment twice, so the total number of tomograms are 120 sheets per observer. The subjects were directed to classify 120 tomograms by using a three-category rating scale. Characteristics of each observer and each group can be shown quantitatively by calculated information values.

  15. Computerized mouse pupil size measurement for pupillary light reflex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu; Zhang, Keqing; Lei, Bo

    2008-06-01

    Accurate measurement of pupil size is essential for pupillary light reflex (PLR) analysis in clinical diagnosis and vision research. Low pupil-iris contrast, corneal reflection, artifacts and noises in infrared eye imaging pose challenges for automated pupil detection and measurement. This paper describes a computerized method for pupil detection or identification. After segmentation by a region-growing algorithm, pupils are detected by an iterative randomized Hough transform (IRHT) with an elliptical model. The IRHT iteratively suppresses the effects of extraneous structures and noise, yielding reliable measurements. Experimental results with 72 images showed a mean absolute difference of 3.84% between computerized and manual measurements. The inter-run variation for the computerized method (1.24%) was much smaller than the inter-observer variation for the manual method (7.45%), suggesting a higher level of consistency of the former. The computerized method could facilitate PLR analysis and other non-invasive functional tests that require pupil size measurements.

  16. Tomographic causal analysis of two-qubit states and tomographic discord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya St., 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Geoelectromagnetic Research Center of Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 30, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, Aleksey, E-mail: akf@rqc.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya St., 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya St. 100, Skolkovo, Moscow 143025 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    We study a behavior of two-qubit states subject to tomographic measurement. In this Letter we propose a novel approach to definition of asymmetry in quantum bipartite state based on its tomographic Shannon entropies. We consider two types of measurement bases: the first is one that diagonalizes density matrices of subsystems and is used in a definition of tomographic discord, and the second is one that maximizes Shannon mutual information and relates to symmetrical form quantum discord. We show how these approaches relate to each other and then implement them to the different classes of two-qubit states. Consequently, new subclasses of X-states are revealed.

  17. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  18. Tomographic corneal profile analysis of central toxic keratopathy after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shameema; Khalifa, Yousuf M; Neuffer, Marcus C; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral central toxic keratopathy (CTK) in a post-laser in situ keratomileusis-treated patient using tomographic methods for more than a 1-year follow-up. Case report and literature review. Tomographic analysis of a patient with bilateral CTK revealed flattening of the anterior cornea curvature and thinning at the level of anterior stromal bed, with minimal changes of the posterior curvature. A thin central flap was also noted on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Over the course of a year, the patient's hyperopic shift resolved with steepening of the anterior curvature and concomitant thickening of the flap and stromal bed. Using Scheimpflug imaging and Visante OCT, we demonstrated that the hyperopia that accompanies CTK is related to anterior corneal curvature changes. We also found that the majority of corneal tissue loss occurs at the anterior stromal bed mainly in the first postoperative week and is followed by a regeneration of tissue. A thin central flap was noted, and it is not clear whether this was created intraoperatively or resulted from the presence of CTK, requiring further study.

  19. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  20. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jun; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations.

  1. Morphological analysis of the vestibular aqueduct by computerized tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: sergioanat.morf@epm.br; Smith, Ricardo Luiz [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Isotani, Sadao [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alonso, Luis Garcia [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Anadao, Carlos Augusto [Otorhinolaryngology Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Prates, Jose Carlos [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Objective: In the last two decades, advances in the computerized tomography (CT) field revise the internal and medium ear evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the morphology and morphometric aspects of the vestibular aqueduct on the basis of computerized tomography images (CTI). Material and method: Computerized tomography images of vestibular aqueducts were acquired from patients (n = 110) with an age range of 1-92 years. Thereafter, from the vestibular aqueducts images a morphometric analysis was performed. Through a computerized image processing system, the vestibular aqueduct measurements comprised of its area, external opening, length and the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus. Results: The morphology of the vestibular aqueduct may be funnel-shaped, filiform or tubular and the respective proportions were found to be at 44%, 33% and 22% in children and 21.7%, 53.3% and 25% in adults. The morphometric data showed to be of 4.86 mm{sup 2} of area, 2.24 mm of the external opening, 4.73 mm of length and 11.88 mm of the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus, in children, and in adults it was of 4.93 mm{sup 2}, 2.09 mm, 4.44 mm, and 11.35 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Computerized tomography showed that the vestibular aqueduct presents high morphological variability. The morphometric analysis showed that the differences found between groups of children and adults or between groups of both genders were not statistically significant.

  2. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.

  3. Early resin luting material damage around a circular fiber post in a root canal treated premolar by using micro-computerized tomographic and finite element sub-modeling analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Hao; Lin, Chun-Li

    2015-11-01

    This study utilizes micro-computerized tomographic (micro-CT) and finite element (FE) sub-modeling analyses to investigate the micro-mechanical behavior associated with voids/bubbles stress behavior at the luting material layer to understand the early damage in a root canal treated premolar. 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a macro-root canal treated premolar and two sub-models at the luting material layer to provide the void/bubble distribution and dimensions were constructed from micro-CT images and simulated to receive axial and lateral forces. The boundary conditions for the sub-models were determined from the macro-premolar model results and applied in sub-modeling analysis. The first principal stresses for the dentin, luting material layer and post in macro-premolar model and for luting material void/bubble in sub-models were recorded. The simulated results revealed that the macro-premolar model dramatically underestimated the luting material stress because the voids/bubbles at the adhesive layer cannot be captured due to coarse mesh and high stress gradient and the variations between sub- and macro-models ranging from 2.65 to 4.5 folds under lateral load at the mapping location. Stress concentrations were found at the edge of the voids/bubbles and values over 20 MPa in sub-modeling analysis immediately caused the luting material failure/micro-crack. This study establishes that micro-CT and FE sub-modeling techniques can be used to simulate the stress pattern at the micro-scale luting material layer in a root canal treated premolar, suggesting that attention must be paid to resin luting material initial failure/debonding when large voids/bubbles are generated during luting procedures.

  4. [Computerized cardiotocography analysis of fetal heart response to acoustic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Kwon, Clarice; Miyadahira, Seizo; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-11-01

    to study the effect of acoustic stimulation in the fetal cardiac response, according to parameters from computerized cardiotocography in low risk pregnancies. twenty low risk pregnant women were included in the study, according to the following criteria: age over 18; single gestation, living fetus; gestational age between 36 and 40 weeks; amniotic liquid index over 8.0 cm and absence of fetal malformation. Cases with post-natal diagnosis of fetal anomaly were excluded. Computerized cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes, before and after fetal acoustic stimulation. Results were analyzed by the t test for dependent samples, with significance level at pstimulation was successfully performed in all cases analyzed. By the analysis of the cardiotocographic parameters, there was no significant difference when the pre and post-stimulation parameters were compared: average number of fetal movements per hour (55.6 versus 71.9, p=0.1); mean basal fetal heart rate (FHR) (135.2 versus 137.5 bpm, p=0.3); mean FHR increases>10 bpm (6.5 versus 6.8, p=0.7); mean FHR increases>15 bpm (3.8 versus 4.3, p=0.5); mean duration of high FHR variation episodes (11.4 versus 10.9 min, p=0.7); mean duration of low FHR variation episodes (2.5 versus 1.1 min, p=0.2), and mean short-term variation (10.6 versus 10.9 ms, p=0.6). in low risk gestations at term, computerized cardiotocography has not evidenced differences in the FHR parameters after the fetal sonic stimulation.

  5. Computerized image analysis of the Ki-67 proliferation index in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaker, Yngvild N; Brodtkorb, Marianne; Maddison, John;

    2015-01-01

    practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computerized image analysis software for scoring of Ki-67 in MCL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an automated method for determining the Ki-67 index by computerized image analysis and tested it using a cohort of 62 MCL patients. The data were...... compared to Ki-67 scores obtained by semiquantitative estimation and image-based manual counting. When using the Ki-67 index as a continuous parameter, both image-based manual counting and computerized image analysis were related inversely to survival (P = 0.020 and P = 0.025, respectively). Ki-67 index...... obtained by semiquantitative estimation was not associated significantly with survival (P = 0.093). The results were validated in a second patient cohort with similar results. CONCLUSION: Computerized image analysis of the Ki-67 index in MCL is an attractive alternative to semiquantitative estimation...

  6. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Jun; Pu Jiantao; Zheng Bin; Wang Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K. [Department of Radiology, Imaging Research Division, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length {<=}20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios {>=}80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy {>=}4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and/or segmentation schemes.

  7. Self-Potential data inversion through the integration of spectral analysis and tomographic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Rosa; Piegari, Ester; Rani, Payal; Avella, Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    An integrated approach to interpret Self-Potential (SP) anomalies based on spectral analysis and tomographic methods is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is used for providing accurate estimates of the depth of the anomaly source. The 2-D tomographic inversion technique, based on the underground charge occurrence probability (COP) function, is, then, used to fully characterize the anomalous body, as the MEM is not helpful in delineating the shape of the anomaly source. The proposed integrated approach is applied for the inversion of synthetic SP data generated by geometrically simple anomalous bodies, such as cylinders and inclined sheets. This numerical study has allowed the determination of mathematical relationships between zero lines of the COP distributions, the polarization angles and the positions along the profile of the causative sources, which have been of great help for interpreting the related SP anomalies. Finally, the analysis of field examples shows the high potential applicability of the proposed integrated approach for SP data inversion.

  8. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Yearbook of Radiology) 3. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Huo Z, Vyborny CJ; Computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Proceedings...International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Toronto, Canada, June, 2000. 4. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Automatic segmentation of breast...lesions on ultrasound. Medical Physics (in press). 5. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound

  9. Discriminating dysplasia: Optical tomographic texture analysis of colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqi; Coats, Maria; Zhang, Jianguo; McKenna, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Optical projection tomography enables 3-D imaging of colorectal polyps at resolutions of 5-10 µm. This paper investigates the ability of image analysis based on 3-D texture features to discriminate diagnostic levels of dysplastic change from such images, specifically, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. We build a patch-based recognition system and evaluate both multi-class classification and ordinal regression formulations on a 90 polyp dataset. 3-D texture representations computed with a hand-crafted feature extractor, random projection, and unsupervised image filter learning are compared using a bag-of-words framework. We measure performance in terms of error rates, F-measures, and ROC surfaces. Results demonstrate that randomly projected features are effective. Discrimination was improved by carefully manipulating various important aspects of the system, including class balancing, output calibration and approximation of non-linear kernels.

  10. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES, PART TWO: APPLICABILITY OF CURRENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-10-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no U.S. nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  12. Computerized tomography analysis of aceptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichioka, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Takeshi; Matsuno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Isao; Sugano, Hiroki; Konno, Takushi.

    1988-03-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) findings of the normal femoral head in 14 patients with unilateral aceptic necrosis of the femoral head (ANF) and in healthy adults were analyzed for early diagnostic significance. CT appearance of the bone trabeculae fell into normal finding, diffuse sclerosis, and mottled sclerosis. The development of necrosis during the process was accompanied by diffuse sclerosis, suggesting that diffuse sclerosis is an early CT appearance in the case of ANF. In a three-dimensional quantification of the necrotic area for 20 patients before rotational osteotomy of the femoral head, deformation of the femoral head after the surgery was found to frequently result from 50 % or more of the necrotic area in the femoral head, irrespective of the size of necrosis on the surface of the femoral head. This suggested the influence of the three-dimensional spread of necrosis on the intensity of the femoral head. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  14. Risk analysis and user satisfaction after implementation of computerized physician order entry in Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Willem; de Gier, Han J. J.; van der Schaaf, Tjerk; Taxis, Katja; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in hospitals is widely considered to be important for patient safety, but implementation is lagging behind and user satisfaction is often low. Risk analysis methods may improve the implementation process and thus user satisfaction. Objective The a

  15. A Procedure for the Computerized Analysis of Cleft Palate Speech Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, David A.; Jones, David L.; Barton, Belinda; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    The phonetic symbols used by speech-language pathologists to transcribe speech contain underlying hexadecimal values used by computers to correctly display and process transcription data. This study aimed to develop a procedure to utilise these values as the basis for subsequent computerized analysis of cleft palate speech. A computer keyboard…

  16. A Procedure for the Computerized Analysis of Cleft Palate Speech Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, David A.; Jones, David L.; Barton, Belinda; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    The phonetic symbols used by speech-language pathologists to transcribe speech contain underlying hexadecimal values used by computers to correctly display and process transcription data. This study aimed to develop a procedure to utilise these values as the basis for subsequent computerized analysis of cleft palate speech. A computer keyboard…

  17. Internet-Based and other computerized psychological treatments for adults depression: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized and, more recently, Internet-based treatments for depression have been developed and tested in controlled trials. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the effects of these treatments and investigate characteristics of studies that may be related to the effects. In particular,

  18. Experimental Study on Effect of Compound Biejia Ruangan Prescription(复方鳖甲软肝方) on High-Resolution Computerized Tomographic Images in Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东伟; 王继峰; 牛建昭; 高宝华; 李贡宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of Compound Biejia Ruangan prescription (CBRP) on rat model with pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Methods: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (9 rats in each group). From the first day to the 28th day of the experiment, except to those in the sham-model control group that were treated with normal saline, the same amount of bleomycin injection as the normal saline given to the control group was given through endotracheal instillation to all the rats in all the other groups. From the 29th day of the modeling, CBRP solution of different dosages was respectively injected into the rats in the high, moderate and low CBRP dose group, while equal volume of normal saline was given to those in the sham-model control group and the model control group, and an equal volume of prednisone solution was given to rats in the prednisone group. On the 80th day, the high-resolution computerized tomographic (HRCT) images were observed on an equal footing, and HRCT-pathology was correlatively studied. Results: Different HRCT pathological changes were shown in the rats with pulmonary fibrosis, such as lung consolidation, thickening of interlobular septum and interlobular mesenchyma as well as lobular deformation, nodule shadow, abnormal brochiovascular tract, thickened pleura with irregular junction and polished glass-like dense shadows. Honeycomb lung was observed in some cases. Pathological sections showed fibrotic proliferation of lung tissues and noticeable pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. CBRP could improve HRCT images of rats with pulmonary fibrosis, and lower fibrotic proliferation of the lung tissue.Conclusion: CBRP plays its therapeutic role possibly through its effect on the structure of the lung in rats with pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Electron-tomographic analysis of intraflagellar transport particle trains in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigino, Gaia; Geimer, Stefan; Lanzavecchia, Salvatore; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Cantele, Francesca; Diener, Dennis R; Rosenbaum, Joel L; Lupetti, Pietro

    2009-10-05

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bidirectional movement of multipolypeptide particles between the ciliary membrane and the axonemal microtubules, and is required for the assembly, maintenance, and sensory function of cilia and flagella. In this paper, we present the first high-resolution ultrastructural analysis of trains of flagellar IFT particles, using transmission electron microscopy and electron-tomographic analysis of sections from flat-embedded Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. Using wild-type and mutant cells with defects in IFT, we identified two different types of IFT trains: long, narrow trains responsible for anterograde transport; and short, compact trains underlying retrograde IFT. Both types of trains have characteristic repeats and patterns that vary as one sections longitudinally through the trains of particles. The individual IFT particles are highly complex, bridged to each other and to the outer doublet microtubules, and are closely apposed to the inner surface of the flagellar membrane.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-ups on the dentins.Impressions were taken of the casts with alginate and duplicated with dental stone. Models were measured with digital caliper manually. Then images were taken from the occlusal views of the casts by a digital camera. Measurements were done on digital images with the AutoCAD software.The results of the computerized and manual methods were compared with the gold standard.Intra class correlation coefficient of reliability was used to measure the accuracy ofthe methods and the Friedman technique used to evaluate the significance of differences.Results: Results indicated that all measurements were highly correlated, e.g. gold standard and manual (0.9613-0.9991, gold standard and computerized (0.7118-0.9883, manual and computerized (0.6734-0.9914. Statistically significant differences were present between these methods (P<0.05, but they proved not to be clinically significant.Conclusion: Manual measurement is still the most accurate method when compared to the computerized measurements and the results of measurement by computer should be interpreted with caution.

  1. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiantao; Gu, Suicheng; Liu, Shusen; Zhu, Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M; Gur, David

    2012-05-01

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  2. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Jiantao; Gu Suicheng; Liu Shusen; Zhu Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M.; Gur, David [Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 580 S. Aiken Avenue, Suite 400, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  3. Detection of neonatal seizures through computerized EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A; Hahn, J S; Heldt, G P; Coen, R W

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are a symptom of central nervous system disturbances. Neonatal seizures may be identified by direct clinical observation by the majority of electrographic seizures are clinically silent or subtle. Electrographic seizures in the newborn consist of periodic or rhythmic discharges that are distinctively different from normal background cerebral activity. Utilizing these differences, we have developed a technique to identify electrographic seizure activity. In this study, autocorrelation analysis was used to distinguish seizures from background electrocerebral activity. Autocorrelation data were scored to quantify the periodicity using a newly developed scoring system. This method, Scored Autocorrelation Moment (SAM) analysis, successfully distinguished epochs of EEGs with seizures from those without (N = 117 epochs, 58 with seizure and 59 without). SAM analysis showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98%. SAM analysis of EEG may provide a method for monitoring electrographic seizures in high-risk newborns.

  4. Computerized prototypes of DAPI-stained chromosomes for FISH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, A.; Smith, L.C.; Knapp, R.D. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    DAPI is fluorescent dye widely used in chromosome counterstaining for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. It produces a Q-banding pattern that allows chromosomes to be identified and permits molecular probes to be assigned to specific cytogenetic bands. Using a statistical procedure based on eigenanalysis, we have extracted features from digital images of DAPI-stained chromosomes and constructed prototypes of each of the 24 human chromosomes. The features of prototypes are directly proportional, in intensity profile and band location, to those of real chromosomes. The prototype`s intensity profile can be translated into cytogenetic bands to provide a computer-based strategy for chromosome mapping and analysis amenable to automation. Data have been obtained using images from the 24 human chromosomes and mouse X chromosome. Moreover, the same procedure is general and can be used for the analysis of chromosomes from other species, as well as with banding techniques other than those using DAPI. Images of hybridization patterns produced by complex probes are also suitable for this analysis. The speed and flexibility of the procedure opens the way to application so far unexplored, such as computer-assisted chromosome band assignment of probe; combined analysis of multiple, geometrically distorted chromosomes; and the direct comparison of raw data from different experiments. The applications will not be limited to mapping experiments but will include analysis of chromosome structure, variability and analysis of the pattern of chromosome distribution of repetitive sequences. The results from such analysis is suitable for objective statistical evaluation and, eventually, for autonomous machine interpretation.

  5. Computerized tomographic imaging for space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Coplan, Michael A.; Moore, John H.; Berenstein, Carlos A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of plasma electron velocity distribution functions as a problem in imaging and image reconstruction is considered. A model instrument that measures the integral of the distribution function along lines in velocity space is presented. This allows the use of the powerful mathematical and numerical methods that have recently been so successful in other areas of imaging. It is found that this approach leads to classes of instruments that are qualitatively different from contemporary designs. An investigation of different methods of reconstruction of the distribution function from integral measurements reveals that the mathematical tools appropriate to one particular imaging problem may be very different from those required to deal with another.

  6. Development of computerized analysis for solid propellant combustion (ISAP-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T. J.; Hallit, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    This report is an improvement of ISAP-1, SRB Vorticity-Acoustic Coupled Instability Analysis, September 1986. Included in this report are the automatic generation of all input data for grid configuration, boundary conditions for coupled acoustic and vortical field calculations, transformation of all dimensions to a parametric form, resulting in flexibility for the user to define the size of the problem (geometric configurations) with reduction in storage (15 to 65%) and computer run-time (50 to 75%). Additional research is required for the following areas: (1) turbulence effects; (2) nonlinear wave oscillations; and (3) chemistry upon combustion instability.

  7. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Computerized breast parenchymal analysis on DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Yuan, Yading; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lan, Li; Bhooshan, Neha; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer, and MRI has been recommended for high-risk women screening, however, it is still unknown how the breast parenchymal enhancement on DCE-MRI is associated with breast density and breast cancer risk. Ninety-two DCE-MRI exams of asymptomatic women with normal MR findings were included in this study. The 3D breast volume was automatically segmented using a volume-growing based algorithm. The extracted breast volume was classified into fibroglandular and fatty regions based on the discriminant analysis method. The parenchymal kinetic curves within the breast fibroglandular region were extracted and categorized by use of fuzzy c-means clustering, and various parenchymal kinetic characteristics were extracted from the most enhancing voxels. Correlation analysis between the computer-extracted percent dense measures and radiologist-noted BIRADS density ratings yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.76 (pBIRADS 3 and 4) were found to have more parenchymal enhancement at their peak time point (Ep) with an average Ep of 116.5% while those women with fatty breasts (BIRADS 1 and 2) demonstrated an average Ep of 62.0%. In conclusion, breast parenchymal enhancement may be associated with breast density and may be potential useful as an additional characteristic for assessing breast cancer risk.

  9. The Rancho EMG analyzer: a computerized system for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Bontrager, E L; Bogey, R A; Gronley, J K; Barnes, L A

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes a computer system which accurately defines the EMG patterns of the lower extremities during gait. Footswitches are used to identify the temporal relationships and determine the phases of the gait cycle. Fine wire electrodes, inserted in the desired muscles of the patient being tested, provide EMG signals for comparison with a normal database. The system is also usable with surface electrodes when an appropriate normal database for surface electrodes is incorporated. Descriptive qualifiers (such as 'premature onset', 'delayed cessation', 'no clinically significant EMG', 'continuous activity' etc.) are used to produce a clinically relevant printed (textual) report. The intensity filtered average (IFA) of the EMG is shown graphically with the representative profile of each stride. The IFAs for all muscles tested can be plotted together (up to six on a page) and the graphic representation of the 'raw' EMG can be produced. The methods of generating the normal database by creating time-adjusted mean profiles (TAMP) are enumerated. The clinical use of the system is discussed. A detailed analysis of 31 of the most recent patient tests for which the system was used provides an indication of its accuracy. For 86% of the 428 muscle tests examined, the EMG analyser was considered to have given the correct result as compared with a visual analysis of the raw EMG record by a trained expert. Recommendations for the use and future improvements of the EMG analyser are made.

  10. The quantitative electroencephalogram and the low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todder, Doran; Levine, Joseph; Abujumah, Ahmad; Mater, Michael; Cohen, Hagit; Kaplan, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of the brain electrical activity as measured on the scalp. Using mathematical algorithms, the 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of the electrical potential inside the brain can be calculated. One of the methods to calculate it is the low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis (LORETA). In this research, we seek to find the brain structures that differentiate patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from controls. Ten right-handed consenting adult male patients were recruited from a PTSD clinic. All patients fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR]) criteria for chronic PTSD (duration >2 years.) and were on drug treatment regimens that had been stable for at least 2 months (involving only serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and benzodiazepines).The control group consisted of 10 healthy hospital staff members. All study participants underwent 19 channel EEG measurements according to current standards of practice. All artifact-free EEG strips were examined for spectral as well as LORETA analysis focusing on the theta (4-7 Hz) band which is suggested to reflect the activity of the limbic system. The theta band showed a statistically significant difference (P QEEG) and the LORETA method, among other methods, may improve the neuroanatomical resolution of EEG data analysis.

  11. Computerized Stokes analysis of optically active polymer films

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    Optics labs are an integral part of the advanced curriculum for physics majors. Students majoring in other disciplines, like chemistry, biology or engineering rarely have the opportunity to learn about the most recent optical techniques and mathematical representation used in today’s science and industry optics. Stokes analysis of polarization of light is one of those methods that are increasingly necessary but are seldom taught outside advanced physics or optics classes that are limited to physics majors. On the other hand biology and chemistry majors already use matrix and polarization techniques in the labs for their specialty, which makes the transition to matrix calculations seamless. Since most of the students in those majors postpone their enrollment in physics, most of the registered in those classes are juniors and seniors, enabling them to handle those techniques. We chose to study polymer samples to aid students majoring in other disciplines, especially chemistry and engineering, with understa...

  12. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Maryam; Karandish, Mohammad Nabi

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with AutoCAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method. Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour interval. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance between canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05). The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for evaluation of tooth movement.

  13. Computerized Comparison and Analysis of Vincent van Gogh's Painting Brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.

    2009-03-01

    With advanced digitization techniques, museums have routinely begun to assemble vast digital libraries of images of their collections. These images can be analyzed by computers to assist art historians for a number of tasks. In our work, we focus on three challenges: artist identification, dating of an art work, and finding distinguishing features among artists. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) the analysis of the geometric statistics based on the extracted individual brushstroke, and (2) the modeling of overall brushstroke texture. These approaches aim at assisting art historians in comparing a painting or parts of a painting to a group of paintings based on multiple criteria. Statistical methods have been used to compare groups of paintings. Each painting image is divided into subimages. Individual brushstrokes are segmented automatically. Geometric features, including the curvature, the overall orientation, and the size, are computed for each brushstroke. We also compute the features representing the interactivity of the brushstrokes extracted. The statistics, including average and standard deviation, of those features are used to model certain aspects of the artist's brushstrokes. For capturing the local brushstroke texture, we first apply a wavelet transform to the image. A spatial model, the 2-D hidden Markov model, is used to model the texture features of each subimage. The methods have shown to be able to distinguish van Gogh paintings and non van Gogh paintings to a great extent. The techniques can provide clues for the dating of van Gogh paintings. A comparison of the van Gogh paintings, Monticelli's paintings, and paintings by contemporary artists provides insights on their similarities and differences. The analysis has provided numerical statistics for further studying these and other paintings.

  14. A new computerized morphometric analysis for peripheral nerve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Chase A; Wang, Ziyi; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; Grewal, Prabhjot; Matloub, Hani S; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2014-02-01

    The commonly used methods to quantify axon numbers and mean area include manual and semiautomated procedures. The authors introduce a new fully automated method of morphometric analysis using ImageJ and Paint.net software to improve efficiency and accuracy. A total of six rat sciatic nerves were examined for their axon numbers and mean axon area by comparing the manual method or semiautomated MetaVue method with the new ImageJ method. It was observed that the number of axons for manual counting and ImageJ were 4,630 ± 403 and 4,779 ± 352, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.5, t-test). The mean axon area measured was 13.44 ± 2.62 µm2 for MetaVue and 8.87 ± 0.78 µm2 for ImageJ, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p ImageJ were 0.32 and 0.087. The authors conclude that their new approach demonstrates improved convenience, time efficiency, accuracy, and less operator error or bias.

  15. Analysis of unsectioned specimens: 2D and tomographic PIXE with STIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.; Lefevre, Harlan W.

    1993-05-01

    Two techniques for quantitative analysis of heterogeneous thick specimens are reviewed. First, a measurement of the total zinc content in the abdomen of a fly is reported. The calculation used to determine the uncertainty in this measurement is detailed. STIM measurements at two different angles were used to determine the possible range of the X-ray production cross section and the X-ray attenuation factors. The abdomen content of zinc was determined to be 0.022( + 0.009, -0.006) (μg. Second, a PIXE-STIM mutomographic determination of metal concentrations in the sting of a scorpion is reviewed. STIM tomography was used to determine the X-ray production cross sections and the X-ray attenuation factors for points inside of the specimen. Details of how this information was then used for reconstructions of PIXE tomographic data are given. Finally, 2D PIXE measurements on a thick section of this sting are reported. On this section the measured concentration of zinc reached 22(± 3)% of dry mass, in satisfactory agreement with the results from tomography, 25(± 3)%.

  16. EEG source imaging with spatio-temporal tomographic nonnegative independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Vega-Hernández, Mayrim; Sánchez-Bornot, José Miguel; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2009-06-01

    This article describes a spatio-temporal EEG/MEG source imaging (ESI) that extracts a parsimonious set of "atoms" or components, each the outer product of both a spatial and a temporal signature. The sources estimated are localized as smooth, minimally overlapping patches of cortical activation that are obtained by constraining spatial signatures to be nonnegative (NN), orthogonal, sparse, and smooth-in effect integrating ESI with NN-ICA. This constitutes a generalization of work by this group on the use of multiple penalties for ESI. A multiplicative update algorithm is derived being stable, fast and converging within seconds near the optimal solution. This procedure, spatio-temporal tomographic NN ICA (STTONNICA), is equally able to recover superficial or deep sources without additional weighting constraints as tested with simulations. STTONNICA analysis of ERPs to familiar and unfamiliar faces yields an occipital-fusiform atom activated by all faces and a more frontal atom that only is active with familiar faces. The temporal signatures are at present unconstrained but can be required to be smooth, complex, or following a multivariate autoregressive model.

  17. Error analysis of tomographic reconstructions in the absence of projection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Snehlata; Munshi, Prabhat

    2015-06-13

    Error estimates for tomographic reconstructions (using Fourier transform-based algorithm) are available for cases where projection data are available. These data are used for reconstructions with different filter functions and the reliability of these reconstructions can be checked as per guidelines of those error estimates. There are cases where projection data are large (in gigabytes or terabytes) so storage of these data becomes an issue. It leads to storing of only the reconstructed images. Error estimation in such cases is presented here. Second-level projection data are calculated from the given reconstructed images ('first-level' images). These 'second-level' data are now used to generate 'second-level' reconstructed images. Different filter functions are employed to check the fidelity of these 'second-level' images. This inference is extended to first-level images in view of the characteristics of the convolution operator. This approach is validated with experimental data obtained by the X-ray micro-CT scanner installed at IIT Kanpur. Five specimens (of same material) have been scanned. Data are available in this case thus we have performed a comparative error estimate analysis for the 'first-level' reconstructions (data obtained from CT machine) and second-level reconstructions (data generated from first-level reconstructions). We observe that both approaches show similar outcome. It indicates that error estimates can also be applied to images when data are not available.

  18. Evolution of residual stress and crack morphologies during 3D FIB tomographic analysis of alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfallagh, F; Inkson, B J

    2008-05-01

    Three-dimensional focused ion beam (FIB) tomography is increasingly being used for 3D characterization of microstructures in the 50 nm-20 microm range. FIB tomography is a destructive, invasive process, and microstructural changes may potentially occur during the analysis process. Here residual stress and crack morphologies in single-crystal sapphire samples have been concurrently analyzed using Cr3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and FIB tomography. Specifically, maps of surface residual stress have been obtained from optically polished single-crystal alumina [surface orientation (1 ī 0 2)], from FIB milled surface trenches, from Vickers micro-indentation sites (loads 50 g-300 g), and from Vickers micro-indentation sites during FIB serial sectioning. The residual stress maps clearly show that FIB sputtering generates residual stress changes. For the case of the Vickers micro-indentations, FIB sputtering causes significant changes in residual stress during the FIB tomographic serial sectioning. 3D reconstruction of the crack distribution around micro-indentation sites shows that the cracks observed are influenced by the location of the FIB milled surface trenches due to localized stress changes.

  19. Quantitative analysis of periapical lesions on cone beam computed tomograph and periapical radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hoa; Lee, Wan; Kim, Kyung Soo; Roh, Young Chea; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To detect the progression of experimentally induced periapical lesions on periapical radiograph and cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT) by quantitative analysis. After the removal of coronal pulps from premolars of two Beagle dogs, the root canals of premolars were exposed to oral environment during one week and then sealed for 70 days. Digital periapical radiographs and CBCTs were taken at baseline and every 7 days for 77 days after pulp exposure. We examined occurrence and areas of periapical bone resorption. Three comparative groups of CBCT radiographs were prepared by average projection of thin slabs with different bucco-lingual thicknesses (0.1, 3.0, and 8.0 mm) using a 3D visualization software. Radiographic densities were compensated by image normalization. Digital images were processed with mathematical morphology operations. The radiographic density and morphological features of periapical lesions were compared among three groups of CBCT in different time points. In the CBCT group with 0.1 mm thickness, radiographic density (p<0.05) and trabecular bone area (p<0.01) were significantly decreased at the fifth week. However, in the CBCT groups with 3 mm and 8 mm thickness and periapical radiographs, none of densitometric and morphological features showed any significant differences in different time points. Radiographic density of periapical lesion showed increasing tendency at the eleventh week after pulp exposure. Radiographic detection of periapical lesions was possible at the fifth week after pulp contamination by quantitative method and was affected by buccolingual bone thickness.

  20. Voronoi analysis of bubbly flows via ultrafast X-ray tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Yuk Man; Mueller, Karolin; Azizi, Salar; Schubert, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Although clustering of bubbles plays a significant role in bubble column reactors regarding the heat and mass transfer due to bubble-bubble and flow field interactions, it has yet to be fully understood. Contrary to flows in bubble columns, most literature studies on clustering report numerical and experimental results on dilute or micro-bubbly flows. In this paper, clustering of bubbles in a cylindrical bubble column of 100 mm diameter is experimentally investigated. Ultrafast X-ray tomographic imaging is used to obtain the bubble positions within a hybrid Eulerian framework. By means of Voronoi analysis, the clustering behavior of bubbles is investigated. Experiments are performed with different superficial gas velocities, where Voronoi diagrams are constructed at several column heights. From the PDFs of the Voronoi diagrams, it is shown that the bubble structuring in terms of Voronoi cell volumes develops slower than the bubble size distribution. The latter reaches a steady state earlier with increasing column height. The measured PDFs are compared with the PDF of randomly distributed points, which showed that the amount of bubbles as part of clusters (Voronoi cells < V/ anti V{sub cluster}) as well as bubbles as part of voids (Voronoi cells > V/ anti V{sub void}) increases with the superficial gas velocity. It is found that all experiments have an approximate cluster limit V/ anti V{sub cluster} of 0.63, while the void limit V/ anti V{sub void} varies between 1.5 and 3.0. (orig.)

  1. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Troncone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess messages posted by mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the Italian Facebook group “Mamme e diabete” using computerized text analysis. The data suggest that these mothers use online discussion boards as a place to seek and provide information to better manage the disease’s daily demands—especially those tasks linked to insulin correction and administration, control of food intake, and bureaucratic duties, as well as to seek and give encouragement and to share experiences regarding diabetes and related impact on their life. The implications of these findings for the management of diabetes are discussed.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Manual and Computerized Methods of Dental Casts Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    H. Rahimi; M. Katchooi; Tehranchi, A.; M. Nouri; Massudi, R

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computerized and manual methods of dental cast analysis.Materials and Methods: Twenty set-ups of upper and lower casts using artificial teeth corresponding to various malocclusions were created for a diagnostic in vitro study. Values of tooth size were calculated from the isolated artificial teeth out of the set-ups, results were considered as a gold standard for the tooth size. Arch width was calculated from the existing set-up...

  3. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Iafusco, Dario

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess messages posted by mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the Italian Facebook group "Mamme e diabete" using computerized text analysis. The data suggest that these mothers use online discussion boards as a place to seek and provide information to better manage the disease's daily demands-especially those tasks linked to insulin correction and administration, control of food intake, and bureaucratic duties, as well as to seek and give encouragement and to share experiences regarding diabetes and related impact on their life. The implications of these findings for the management of diabetes are discussed.

  4. Transfemoral unilateral computerized analysis of march in amputated individuals with endoskeletal and exoskeletal prothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Pinzón✝,

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Computerized Gait Analysis in UnilateralTrans-Femoral Amputees with Endo-Skeleticand Exo-Skeletic Prosthesis. Case Study.The purpose of this study is to perform a computerized gait analysis in subjects with unilateraltrans-femoral amputation with endo-skeleticand exo-skeletic prosthesis. Method: Theparticipants were two soldiers of The ColombianNational Army, with trans-femoral (AK unilateralamputation, because of traumatic cause, age(25+/-10 years. The Software Ariel PerformanceAnalysis System (APAS was employed forthe movement analysis. Information onkinematics, parameters and decisive of the gait,tilt of pelvis, length of step, the length long stride,the broad of step, the march of cadense, the indexof energy, consumption and the percentage ofthe periods of duration of the gait cycle was obtained. Results: The heady data werecompared among if and with a normal gait. Theresults are present in a comparative board.Conclusions: The use of this technology in theintervention physical therapy with amputatedpeople, throws exact data in all the variables of thestudy, what can improve the boarding of thesepeople in the prosthetic and to provide them thegait pattern’s reeducation the nearest thing to thenormal thing.

  5. Computerized analysis of fetal heart rate variability signal during the stages of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Maria Laura; Tagliaferri, Salvatore; Esposito, Francesca Giovanna; Giuliano, Natascia; Mereghini, Flavia; Di Lieto, Andrea; Campanile, Marta

    2016-03-01

    To analyze computerized cardiotocographic (cCTG) parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, baseline FHR; short term variability, STV; approximate entropy, ApEn; low frequency, LF; movement frequency, MF; high frequency, HF) in physiological pregnancy in order to correlate them with the stages of labor. This could provide more information for understanding the mechanisms of nervous system control of FHR during labor progression. A total of 534 pregnant women were monitored on cCTG from the 37th week before the onset of spontaneous labor and during the first and the second stage of labor. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with the Bonferroni adjusted α (labor, and the first and second stages of labor. Differences between some of the stages were found for ApEn, LF and for LF/(HF + MF), where the first and the third were reduced and the second was increased. cCTG modifications during labor may reflect the physiologic increased activation of the autonomous nervous system. Using computerized fetal heart rate analysis during labor it may be possible to obtain more information from the fetal cardiac signal, in comparison with the traditional tracing. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Multi-scale Tomographic Analysis of Ductile Fracture in Ultrahigh Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie Christine

    Three-dimensional tomographic characterization and analysis tools were developed to address microstructural evolution governing toughness, shear instability resistance, and fatigue strength in high-performance steels for naval applications. A multi-scale approach aims to capture this on the sub-micron and millimeter length scales by employing a suite of sectioning, imaging, and analyzing techniques. On the sub-micron scale, serial sectioning by focused ion beam (FIB) milling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) resolved secondary grain-refining dispersions, microvoids, and primary particles in a modified-4330 steel shear band. On the micron scale, crack tips in modified-4330 and BlastAlloy160 steels were serial sectioned by metallographic polishing and optical microscopy to offer a three-dimensional picture of the void nucleation, growth, and coalescence stages involved in ductile fracture. Quantitative comparisons of the process zone, crack advance, zig-zag wavelength, crack opening displacement, void number density, void growth ratios, critical strain, and inclusion statistics illustrate the superior toughness of BlastAlloy160 over modified-4330 steel. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography of BlastAlloy160 crack tips validated serial sectioning methods by showing good corroboration in quantitative parameters. Lastly, three-dimensional reconstructions of fatigue nucleants in the form of non-metallic inclusion clusters and a sharp FIB-milled groove offer insight into early fatigue failure and fatigue crack microstructure interaction. The qualitative and quantitative information collected from the plethora of data will provide ample input and experimental basis for simulations and models of ductile fracture, toughness, and fatigue damage. Predictive modeling of failure is further possible because of three-dimensional characterization.

  7. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Mandibular Second Molars with C-shaped Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Gutmann, James L; del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric aspects of the internal anatomy of the root canal system of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals. Fifty-two extracted second mandibular molars with C-shaped canals, fused roots, and radicular grooves were selected from a Brazilian population. The samples were scanned with a micro-computed tomographic scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. The root canal cross sections were recorded as C1, C2, C3, and C4 root canal configurations according to the modified Melton classification. Morphometric parameters, including the major and minor diameters of the root canals, the aspect ratio, the roundness, and the tridimensional configuration (merging, symmetric, and asymmetric), were evaluated. The 3-dimensional reconstruction images of the teeth indicated an even distribution within the sample. The analysis of the prevalence of the different cross-sectional configurations of the C-shaped molars revealed that these were predominantly of the C4 and C3 configurations (1 mm from the apex) and the C1 and C2 configurations in the cervical third. According to the morphometric parameters, the C1 and the distal aspect of the C2 configurations exhibited the lowest roundness values and higher values for the area, major diameter, and aspect ratio in the apical third. Mandibular molars with C-shaped root canals exhibited similar distributions of symmetric, asymmetric, and merging type canals. The C1 configuration and the distal aspect of the C2 configuration exhibited the highest area values, low roundness values, and large apical diameters. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. OPTICAL COMPUTING: Analysis of the tomographic contrast during the immersion bleaching of layered biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, I. V.; Yarovenko, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    The control of optical properties of biological tissues irradiated by a cw laser source is considered. Within the framework of the stationary model of the radiation transfer, basic factors affecting the tomographic contrast of a layered medium are revealed theoretically and numerically, when immersion liquids, decreasing the radiation scattering level in a medium, are used.

  9. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M

    1993-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  10. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  11. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, José Martins; Germano Martins, Antonio César

    2010-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  12. Determining Women’s Sexual Self-Schemas Through Advanced Computerized Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M.; Boyd, Ryan L.; Pulverman, Carey S.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women’s sexual self-schemas. Participants (n = 239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants’ descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. PMID:26146161

  13. A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM ON KINETIC ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF GAS/SOLID REACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Liu; J. Y. Zhang; S.K. Wei

    2003-01-01

    The present paper presents the structure, features and functions of a computerized system on kinetic analysis and evaluation of gas/solid reactions, KinPreGSR. KinPreGSR is a menu driven system, can be operated with MS Windows as workbench in a PC computer. It has been developed using visual C++ with FoxPro hybrid coding technique.KinPreGSR combines the characteristics of gas/solid reactions with the kinetic models as well as mass and heat transfer equations. The database files were established for the apparent activation energies of some reduction and decomposition reactions to allow the prediction of the reaction kinetics to some extents. Outputs can be displayed using graphical or numerical forms. Examples regarding the oxide reduction and carbonate decomposition under isothermal conditions are given to show those functions.

  14. Computerized lung sound analysis following clinical improvement of pulmonary edema due to congestive heart failure exacerbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; XIONG Ying-xia

    2010-01-01

    Background Although acute congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, lung sounds are not normally subjected to rigorous analysis. The goals of this study were to use a computerized analytic acoustic tool to evaluate lung sound patterns in CHF patients during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement and to compare CHF profiles with those of normal individuals.Methods Lung sounds throughout the respiratory cycle was captured using a computerized acoustic-based imaging technique. Thirty-two consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created, geographical area of the images and lung sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed.Results The geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were (67.9±4.7) and (60.3±3.5) kilo-pixels, respectively (P <0.05). In CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema (REPE), after clinical improvement the geographical area of vibration energy image of lung sound increased to (74.5±4.4) and (73.9±3.9) kilo-pixels (P <0.05), respectively. Vibration energy decreased in CHF patients with REPE following clinical improvement by an average of (85±19)% (P <0.01). Conclusions With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image. Lung sound analysis may be useful to track in acute CHF exacerbations.

  15. Propositional idea density in women's written language over the lifespan: computerized analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Colyvas, Kim

    2014-06-01

    The informativeness of written language, as measured by Propositional Idea Density (PD), has been shown to be a sensitive predictive index of language decline with age and dementia in previous research. The present study investigated the influence of age and education on the written language of three large cohorts of women from the general community, born between 1973 and 1978, 1946-51 and 1921-26. Written texts were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in which participants were invited to respond to an open-ended question about their health. The informativeness of written comments of 10 words or more (90% of the total number of comments) was analyzed using the Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 (CPIDR-3). Over 2.5 million words used in 37,705 written responses from 19,512 respondents were analyzed. Based on a linear mixed model approach to statistical analysis with adjustment for several factors including number of comments per respondent and number of words per comment, a small but statistically significant effect of age was identified for the older cohort with mean age 78 years. The mean PD per word for this cohort was lower than the younger and mid-aged cohorts with mean age 27 and 53 years respectively, with mean reduction in PD 95% confidence interval (CI) of .006 (.003, .008) and .009 (.008, .011) respectively. This suggests that PD for this population of women was relatively more stable over the adult lifespan than has been reported previously even in late old age. There was no statistically significant effect of education level. Computerized analyses were found to greatly facilitate the study of informativeness of this large corpus of written language. Directions for further research are discussed in relation to the need for extended investigation of the variability of the measure for potential application to the identification of acquired language pathologies.

  16. 非典型心绞痛人群冠心病诊断评分方案的创建及冠状动脉CT检查对其的影响%Establishment of a scoring scheme for diagnosis of coronary heart disease in patients with atypical angina and effect of coronary computerized tomographic scanning on it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贵军; 韩雅玲; 荆全民; 王效增; 李毅; 邓捷; 张磊; 霍勇; 张岩

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To establish an efficient diagnostic scoring system to predict prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with atypical angina. Methods By retrospectively studing a database of 3 420 patients with atypical angina and with suspected CHD, risk factors were selected from clinical factors examined through multivariate logistic analysis and were assigned according to odds ratio (OR). Risk points are calculated and ascoring system for diagnosis of CHD with atypical angina was established. Correlations between risk score and prevalence of CHD as well as between risk score and coronary artery lesion severity were analyzed. Application efficiency of diagnostic scoring scheme was tested by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Coronary computerized tomographic scanning (CT) was conducted a risk factor analysis and assigned according to OR. Considering coronary CT was as one of the factors for diagnostic scoring scheme, the new area under the ROC curve was calculated to examine the application efficiency of new scheme. Results Prevalence of CHD is 63.68% in this study. Age, male, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were 6 risk factors for diagnostic scoring system named as "ABCDDS". Area under the ROC curve of diagnostic scoring scheme was 0.723 and standard error was 0.010. Range of risk score in diagnostic scoring scheme was from 0 to 11. The higher the score in the diagnostic scoring scheme was, the higher potentiality of CHD in a patient with atypical angina, and the more serious the coronary artery disease was. Score of coronary CT was 7. Area under the ROC curve of diagnostic scoring scheme increased to 0.832 when coronary CT was included. Conclusions Diagnostic scoring scheme is simple and practical for efficiently predicting probability of CHD in patients with atypical angina, and its application can be improved by coronary CT.%目的 建立预测非典型心绞痛冠状动脉粥样硬

  17. Predictors of internal mammary vessel diameter: A computed tomographic angiography-assisted anatomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Momeni, Arash; Chu, Michael W

    2016-10-01

    The internal mammary vessels are the most common recipient vessels in free flap breast reconstruction. The literature on internal mammary vascular anatomy is limited by small sample sizes, cadaveric studies, or intraoperative changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze internal mammary anatomy using computed tomographic angiography. A retrospective review of 110 consecutive computed tomographic angiography studies of female patients was performed. Measurements of vessel caliber, distance of internal mammary vessels to sternum, location of internal mammary vein bifurcation, intercostal space height, and chest width were analyzed. Patient demographics and comorbidities were reviewed. The right internal mammary artery and vein were larger than the left in all intercostal spaces (p = 0.02 and p breast reconstruction. On average, the internal mammary vein bifurcates at the third intercostal space; patients with larger chest widths and body mass index had larger caliber internal mammary vessels, and 25% of patients had third intercostal space <1.5 cm and, thus, may not be suitable candidates for rib-sparing techniques.

  18. TOMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF T-1 VERTEBRA TO INSERT LAMINAR SCREWS IN CHILDREN FROM 0 TO 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Delboni Marchese

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Tomographic analysis of the T1 vertebra in children from 0 to 12 years of age, in order to obtain anatomical parameters that assist intralaminar fixation in this pediatric population. Methods : Retrospectively analysis of the spine with CT (cervical and thoracic of individuals aged between 0 and 12 years old, of both sexes, without anatomical deformities. The CT scans were evaluated separately, on each side, for length and thickness of the laminas as well as spinolaminar angle. The morphometric analysis was performed with iSite PACS Philips Healthcare Informatics(r program and the values were expressed in millimeters (mm. The variables were correlated with age groups and sex of individuals. Statistical analysis was performed using t test and the results were considered significant when p<0.05. Results : By means of tomographic analysis of 24 patients it was found that age has no correlation with the angle of attack for intralaminar screws T1. However, the length and thickness of the T1 lamina increase proportionally with age. The total average length of the laminas was 28.62 ± 4.42 mm. The total average thickness was 4.75 ± 0.95 mm (3.2 to 6.5. Conclusion : This study shows relevant data on the use of Tran laminar screws currently commercially available with a minimum thickness of 3.5 mm. It is thus possible to say in this sample, they can be used in 87.5% of all laminas, being applicable in all lamina in patients older than 44 months of age.

  19. Predicting outcomes in glioblastoma patients using computerized analysis of tumor shape: preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Czarnek, Nicholas M.; Collins, Leslie M.; Peters, Katherine B.; Clark, Kal

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor characterized by very poor survival. However, while some patients survive only a few months, some might live for multiple years. Accurate prognosis of survival and stratification of patients allows for making more personalized treatment decisions and moves treatment of GBM one step closer toward the paradigm of precision medicine. While some molecular biomarkers are being investigated, medical imaging remains significantly underutilized for prognostication in GBM. In this study, we investigated whether computer analysis of tumor shape can contribute toward accurate prognosis of outcomes. Specifically, we implemented applied computer algorithms to extract 5 shape features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 22 GBM patients. Then, we determined whether each one of the features can accurately distinguish between patients with good and poor outcomes. We found that that one of the 5 analyzed features showed prognostic value of survival. The prognostic feature describes how well the 3D tumor shape fills its minimum bounding ellipsoid. Specifically, for low values (less or equal than the median) the proportion of patients that survived more than a year was 27% while for high values (higher than median) the proportion of patients with survival of more than 1 year was 82%. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) even though the number of patients analyzed in this pilot study was low. We concluded that computerized, 3D analysis of tumor shape in MRI may strongly contribute to accurate prognostication and stratification of patients for therapy in GBM.

  20. Advancing Clinicopathologic Diagnosis of High-risk Neuroblastoma Using Computerized Image Analysis and Proteomic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M Khalid Khan; Chung, Jonathan H; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J; Martinez, Daniel; Castellanos, Raquel; Irwin, Meredith S; Master, Stephen R; Pawel, Bruce R; Gurcan, Metin N; Weiser, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    A subset of patients with neuroblastoma are at extremely high risk for treatment failure, though they are not identifiable at diagnosis and therefore have the highest mortality with conventional treatment approaches. Despite tremendous understanding of clinical and biological features that correlate with prognosis, neuroblastoma at ultra-high risk for treatment failure remains a diagnostic challenge. As a first step towards improving prognostic risk stratification within the high-risk group of patients, we determined the feasibility of using computerized image analysis and proteomic profiling on single slides from diagnostic tissue specimens. After expert pathologist review of tumor sections to ensure quality and representative material input, we evaluated multiple regions of single slides as well as multiple sections from different patients' tumors using computational histologic analysis and semiquantitative proteomic profiling. We found that both approaches determined that intertumor heterogeneity was greater than intratumor heterogeneity. Unbiased clustering of samples was greatest within a tumor, suggesting a single section can be representative of the tumor as a whole. There is expected heterogeneity between tumor samples from different individuals with a high degree of similarity among specimens derived from the same patient. Both techniques are novel to supplement pathologist review of neuroblastoma for refined risk stratification, particularly since we demonstrate these results using only a single slide derived from what is usually a scarce tissue resource. Due to limitations of traditional approaches for upfront stratification, integration of new modalities with data derived from one section of tumor hold promise as tools to improve outcomes.

  1. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  2. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  3. Estimating multi-phase pore-scale characteristics from X-ray tomographic data using cluster analysis-based segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, D.; Culligan, K.A.; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun

    2006-01-01

    of individual pores and interfaces. However, separation of the various phases (fluids and solids) in the grey-scale tomographic images has posed a major problem to quantitative analysis of the data. We present an image processing technique that facilitates identification and separation of the various phases...... characterization. The results clearly illustrate the advantage of using X-ray tomography together with cluster analysis-based image processing techniques. We were able to obtain detailed information on pore scale distribution of air and water phases, as well as quantitative measures of air bubble size and air......Recent advances in experimental techniques have made it possible to characterize and distinguish such micro-scale entities as fluid phase ditributions and pore geometry in porous media. In particular, non-destructive synchrotron based X-ray computed microtomography allows 3D resolution...

  4. Computerized analysis of occlusal contacts in bruxism patients treated with occlusal splint therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Tuna, Süleyman Hakan; Özcan, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Occlusal splints are commonly used to prevent tooth wear caused by bruxism. However, the effects of splints on occlusion are still unclear. Although it is rarely alluded in literature, splints can provoke severe occlusal alterations and other complications. This study was aimed to identify differences in the responses of individuals with bruxism and healthy individuals to a full-arch maxillary stabilization splint in terms of occlusal changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Occlusal contacts in 20 (5 male, 15 female) bruxism patients and 20 (5 male, 15 female) controls with normal occlusion were evaluated before and after occlusal splint therapy. T-Scan III, a computerized occlusal analysis system, was used to simultaneously measure occlusion and disclusion times as well as left-right and anterior-posterior contact distributions before splint therapy and 3 months after therapy. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analyses (α=.05). RESULTS No differences were found in the posterior contact of bruxism patients before and after stabilization splint treatment. However, differences in posterior contact were observed between bruxists and normal individuals prior to treatment, and this difference disappeared following treatment. CONCLUSION The results of this study showed the use of a stabilization splint may not have an effect on occlusion. However, the area of posterior occlusal contact among bruxists was found to be greater than that of normal individuals. According to this study, the clinical use of splints may be harmless. PMID:24049566

  5. Assessment of the TMJ Dysfunction Using the Computerized Facebow Analysis of Selected Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kijak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of the Paper. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected parameters of mandible movements, electronically registered in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and healthy ones. Material. Function test of the mandible movements was conducted in 175 patients. Gender distribution was 143 women and 32 men, aged 9 to 84. Methods. The studied population, after accurate clinical examination, was divided into age groups with the range of five years. All the patients had Zebris JMA computerized facebow examination done, according to the generally accepted principles and procedures. Results. Mean values of mouth opening calculated to 45.6 mm in healthy group and 37.6 mm in TMJ dysfunction group. Mean length of condylar path amounted to 39±7% of the maximum value of mouth opening in the group of healthy people, 44±11% in the case of muscle-based disorders, and 35±11% with joint-based. The mean value of the condylar path inclination oscillated in the range of 25° to 45°. Conclusions. The ratio of length of the condylar path to the size of mouth opening may be a significant value characterising the type and degree of intensification of the TMJ dysfunctions.

  6. Analysis of rocket beacon transmissions for computerized reconstruction of ionospheric densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Chaturvedi, P. K.; Fulford, J. A.; Forsyth, P. A.; Anderson, D. N.; Zalesak, S. T.

    1993-08-01

    Three methods are described to obtain ionospheric electron densities from transionospheric, rocket-beacon TEC data. First, when the line-of-sight from a ground receiver to the rocket beacon is tangent to the flight trajectory, the electron concentration can be obtained by differentiating the TEC with respect to the distance to the rocket. A similar method may be used to obtain the electron-density profile if the layer is horizontally stratified. Second, TEC data obtained during chemical release experiments may be interpreted with the aid of physical models of the disturbed ionosphere to yield spatial maps of the modified regions. Third, computerized tomography (CT) can be used to analyze TEC data obtained along a chain of ground-based receivers aligned along the plane of the rocket trajectory. CT analysis of TEC data is used to reconstruct a 2D image of a simulated equatorial plume. TEC data is computed for a linear chain of nine receivers with adjacent spacings of either 100 or 200 km. The simulation data are analyzed to provide an F region reconstruction on a grid with 15 x 15 km pixels. Ionospheric rocket tomography may also be applied to rocket-assisted measurements of amplitude and phase scintillations and airglow intensities.

  7. New applications to computerized tomography: analysis of solid dosage forms produced by pharmaceutical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de [Universidade de Sorocaba (Uniso), SP (Brazil); Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has been used as a new probe to study solid dosage forms (tablets) produced by pharmaceutical industry. This new approach to study tablet and powder, or granulation, properties used in pharmaceutical industry is very suitable. First because CT can generate information that traditional technologies used in this kind of analysis can not, such as, density distribution of internal structures and tablet dimensions, pore size distribution, particle shape information, and also investigation of official and unofficial (counterfeit) copies of solid dosage forms. Second because CT is a nondestructive technique, allowing the use of tablets or granules in others analysis. In this work we discus how CT can be used to acquire and reconstruct internal microstructure of tablets and granules. CT is a technique that is based on attenuation of X-rays passing through matter. Attenuation depends on the density and atomic number of the material that is scanned. In this work, a micro-CT X-ray scanner (manufactured by the group of Applied Nuclear Physics at University of Sorocaba) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of the tablets and granules for nondestructive analysis. These images showed a non uniform density distribution of material inside some tablets, the morphology of some granules analyzed, the integrity of the liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsule and so on. It could also be observed that the distribution of different constituents presents an osmotic controlled-release dosage form. The present work shows that it is possible to use X-ray microtomography to obtain useful qualitative and quantitative information on the structure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  8. Trends in computerized structural analysis and synthesis; Proceedings of the Symposium, Washington, D.C., October 30-November 1, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K. (Editor); Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The subjects considered are related to future directions of structural applications and potential of new computing systems, advances and trends in data management and engineering software development, advances in applied mathematics and symbolic computing, computer-aided instruction and interactive computer graphics, nonlinear analysis, dynamic analysis and transient response, structural synthesis, structural analysis and design systems, advanced structural applications, supercomputers, numerical analysis, and trends in software systems. Attention is given to the reliability and optimality of the finite element method, computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics, a standard computer graphics subroutine package, and a drag method as a finite element mesh generation scheme.

  9. A gender-based analysis of high school athletes using computerized electrocardiogram measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of the ECG to the preparticipation examination (PPE of high school athletes has been a topic for debate. Defining the difference between the high school male and female ECG is crucial to help initiate its implementation in the High School PPE. Establishing the different parameters set for the male and female ECG would help to reduce false positives. We examined the effect of gender on the high school athlete ECG by obtaining and analyzing ECG measurements of high school athletes from Henry M. Gunn High School. METHODS: In 2011 and 2012, computerized Electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed on 181 athletes (52.5% male; mean age 16.1 ± 1.1 years who participated in 17 different sports. ECG statistics included intervals and durations in all 3 axes (X, Y, Z to calculate 12 lead voltage sums, QRS Amplitude, QT interval, QRS Duration, and the sum of the R wave in V5 and the S Wave in V2 (RS Sum. RESULTS: By computer analysis, we demonstrated that male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, Q-wave duration, and T wave amplitude. (P<0.05. By contrast, female athletes had a significantly greater QTc interval. (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The differences in ECG measurements in high school athletes are strongly associated with gender. However, body size does not correlate with the aforementioned ECG measurements. Our tables of the gender-specific parameters can help facilitate the development of a more large scale and in-depth ECG analysis for screening high school athletes in the future.

  10. Micro-computed tomographic analysis of the root canal morphology of the distal root of mandibular first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filpo-Perez, Carolina; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Villas-Boas, Marcelo Haas; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antonio; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphologic aspects of the root canal anatomy of the distal root of a mandibular first molar using micro-computed tomographic analysis. One-hundred distal roots of mandibular first molars were scanned using a micro-computed tomographic device at an isotropic resolution of 19.6 μm. The percentage frequency distribution of the morphologic configuration of the root canal was performed according to the Vertucci classification system. Two-dimensional parameters (area, perimeter, roundness, aspect ratio, and major and minor diameters) and the cross-sectional shape of the root canal were analyzed in the apical third at every 1-mm interval from the main apical foramen in roots presenting Vertucci types I and II configurations (n = 79). Data were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests with a significance level set at 5%. Seventy-six percent of the distal roots had a single root canal. Two, three, and four canals were found in 13%, 8%, and 3% of the sample, respectively. In 13 specimens, the configuration of the root canal did not fit into Vertucci's classification. Overall, 2-dimensional parameter values significantly increased at the 3-mm level (P molars showed a high prevalence of single root canals. The prevalence of long oval and flattened canals increased in the coronal direction. In 13% of the samples, canal configurations that were not included in Vertucci's configuration system were found. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  12. Comparison between clinical indicators of transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis and multidetector computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Mauro; L'Acqua, Camilla; Passamonti, Serena Maria; Mietto, Cristina; Protti, Alessandro; Riva, Roberto; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess whether multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) could accurately confirm the clinical suspicion of transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis (MOT) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Twenty-seven oxygenators were examined using MDCT at the end of patient treatment. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was suspected in 15 of them according to the presence of at least 2 of the following clinical indicators: (1) increase in d-dimer, (2) decrease in platelet count, (3) decrease in oxygenator performance, and (4) presence of clots on the surface of the oxygenator. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was confirmed by MDCT in 5 (33%) of them. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was unexpectedly found in 5 (41%) of the remaining 12 oxygenators not suspected for MOT. Eight (80%) of these oxygenators had clots accounting for less than 1% of total volume. Clots were mainly detectable at the apical corner of the oxygenator, most likely due to greater blood stasis. We found a significant increase in d-dimer and in membrane oxygenator shunt and a decrease in platelet count from the start to the discontinuation of ECMO. Hemostatic abnormalities significantly reverted 48 hours after oxygenator removal, suggesting the role of ECMO in activation of the coagulation cascade. Multidetector computed tomographic scan could not accurately confirm the clinical suspicion of MOT.

  13. Fractal analysis of en face tomographic images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wanrong; Zhu, Yue [Department of Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-15

    The quantitative modeling of the imaging signal of pathological areas and healthy areas is necessary to improve the specificity of diagnosis with tomographic en face images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT). In this work, we propose to use the depth-resolved change in the fractal parameter as a quantitative specific biomarker of the stages of disease. The idea is based on the fact that tissue is a random medium and only statistical parameters that characterize tissue structure are appropriate. We successfully relate the imaging signal in FFOCT to the tissue structure in terms of the scattering function and the coherent transfer function of the system. The formula is then used to analyze the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the cancerous tissue to the normal tissue. We found that when the tissue changes from the normal to cancerous the ratio of the spectrum of the index inhomogeneities takes the form of an inverse power law and the changes in the fractal parameter can be determined by estimating slopes of the spectra of the ratio plotted on a log-log scale. The fresh normal and cancer liver tissues were imaged to demonstrate the potential diagnostic value of the method at early stages when there are no significant changes in tissue microstructures. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Design and development of computerized local and overall country's environmental data analysis network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Gyu; Kang, Jong Gyu; Han, H.; Han, J. S.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, S. R.; Kang, D. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Yun, S. H. [Daedeok College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this development, we designed a integrated database for efficient data processing of radiation-environment data and developed the CLEAN (Computerized Local and overall country's Environmental data Analysis Network) system. The CLEAN system consists of local radiation-environment network, data analysis system, data open system. We developed the CLEAN system focused on building an integrated database, a data mart, and a CLEAN web site. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically, can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation.

  15. Toward a tomographic analysis of the cross-correlation between Planck CMB lensing and H-ATLAS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Federico; Calabrese, Matteo; Bielewicz, Pawel; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Danese, Luigi; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Bourne, Nathan; Cooray, Asantha; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved and extended analysis of the cross-correlation between the map of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing potential derived from the Planck mission data and the high-redshift galaxies detected by the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) in the photometric redshift range $z_{\\rm ph} \\ge 1.5$. We compare the results based on the 2013 and 2015 Planck datasets, and investigate the impact of different selections of the H-ATLAS galaxy samples. Significant improvements over our previous analysis have been achieved thanks to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the new CMB lensing map recently released by the Planck collaboration. The effective galaxy bias parameter, $b$, for the full galaxy sample, derived from a joint analysis of the cross-power spectrum and of the galaxy auto-power spectrum is found to be $b = 3.54^{+0.15}_{-0.14}$. Furthermore, a first tomographic analysis of the cross-correlation signal is implemented, by splitting the galaxy sample into two re...

  16. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  17. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrukhin, P V; Ermolaeva, A I; Shestakov, E A; Khramenkov, A V

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (Eγ up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ∼ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (Eγ up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (2-3 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  18. Analysis of How People with Intellectual Disabilities Organize Information Using Computerized Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Lussier-Desrochers, Dany; Sauzéon, Hélène; Consel, Charles; Roux, Jennie; Balland, Emilie; Godin-Tremblay, Valérie; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Lachapelle, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Access to residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) contributes to their social participation, but presents particular challenges. Assistive technologies can help people perform activities of daily living. However, the majority of the computerized solutions offered use guidance modes with a fixed, unchanging sequencing that leaves little room for self-determination to emerge. The objective of the project was to develop a flexible guidance mode...

  19. Structural analysis of the human tibia by tomographic (pQCT) serial scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, Ricardo Francisco; Feldman, Sara; Mortarino, Pablo; Reina, Paola Soledad; Schiessl, Hans; Rittweger, Jörn; Ferretti, José Luis; Cointry, Gustavo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    This study analyses the evaluation of tomographic indicators of tibia structure, assuming that the usual loading pattern shifts from uniaxial compression close to the heel to a combined compression, torsion and bending scheme towards the knee. To this end, pQCT scans were obtained at 5% intervals of the tibia length (S5-S95 sites from heel to knee) in healthy men and women (10/10) aged 20-40 years. Indicators of bone mass [cortical area, cortical/total bone mineral content (BMC)], diaphyseal design (peri/endosteal perimeters, cortical thickness, circularity, bending/torsion moments of inertia - CSMIs), and material quality [(cortical vBMD (bone mineral density)] were determined. The longitudinal patterns of variation of these measures were similar between genders, but male values were always higher except for cortical vBMD. Expression of BMC data as percentages of the minimal values obtained along the bone eliminated those differences. The correlative variations in cortical area, BMC and thickness, periosteal perimeter and CSMIs along the bone showed that cortical bone mass was predominantly associated with cortical thickness toward the mid-diaphysis, and with bone diameter and CSMIs moving more proximally. Positive relationships between CSMIs (y) and total BMC (x) showed men's values shifting to the upper-right region of the graph and women's values shifting to the lower-left region. Total BMC decayed about 33% from S5 to S15 (where minimum total BMC and CSMI values and variances and maximum circularity were observed) and increased until S45, reaching the original S5 value at S40. The observed gender-related differences reflected the natural allometric relationships. However, the data also suggested that men distribute their available cortical mass more efficiently than women. The minimum amount and variance of mass indicators and CSMIs, and the largest circularity observed at S15 reflected the assumed adaptation to compression pattern at that level. The increase

  20. Advances in tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novara, M.

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with advanced developments in 3D particle image velocimetry based on the tomographic PIV technique (Tomo-PIV). The latter is a relatively recent measurement technique introduced by Elsinga et al. in 2005, which is based on the tomographic reconstruction of particle tracers in thr

  1. Computerized analysis of isometric tension studies provides important additional information about vasomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail

  2. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Brownstein, Joel R.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ho, Shirley; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2017-08-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) analysis using the two-point galaxy correlation function measured from the combined sample of Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (BOSS DR12), which covers the redshift range of 0.2 clustering, we obtain a measurement of DA(z)/rd and H(z)rd at nine effective redshifts with the full covariance matrix calibrated using MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues. Using the reconstructed galaxy catalogues, we obtain the precision of 1.3-2.2 per cent for DA(z)/rd and 2.1-6.0 per cent for H(z)rd. To quantify the gain from the tomographic information, we compare the constraints on the cosmological parameters using our nine-bin BAO measurements, the consensus three-bin BAO and redshift space distortion measurements at three effective redshifts in Alam et al., and the non-tomographic (one-bin) BAO measurement at a single effective redshift. Comparing the nine-bin with one-bin constraint result, it can improve the dark energy Figure of Merit by a factor of 1.24 for the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization for equation-of-state parameter wDE. The errors of w0 and wa from nine-bin constraints are slightly improved when compared to the three-bin constraint result.

  3. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in configuration space

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuting; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Ross, Ashley J; Percival, Will J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Cuesta, Antonio J; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Brownstein, Joel R; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Ho, Shirley; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Olmstead, Matt; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations analysis using the two-point galaxy correlation function measured from the combined sample of BOSS DR12, which covers the redshift range of $0.2tomographic information, we compare the constraints on the cosmological parameters using our 9-bin BAO measurements, the consensus 3-bin BAO and RSD measurements at three effective redshifts in \\citet{Alam2016}, and the non-tomographic (1-bin) BAO measurement at a single effective redshift. Comparing the 9-bin with 1-bin constraint result, it can improve the...

  4. Computerized content analysis of some adolescent writings of Napoleon Bonaparte: a test of the validity of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Louis A; DeFrancisco, Don; Bechtel, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the validity of a computer software program previously demonstrated to be capable of making DSM-IV neuropsychiatric diagnoses from the content analysis of speech or verbal texts. In this report, the computer program was applied to three personal writings of Napoleon Bonaparte when he was 12 to 16 years of age. The accuracy of the neuropsychiatric evaluations derived from the computerized content analysis of these writings of Napoleon was independently corroborated by two biographers who have described pertinent details concerning his life situations, moods, and other emotional reactions during this adolescent period of his life. The relevance of this type of computer technology to psychohistorical research and clinical psychiatry is suggested.

  5. Moving image analysis to the cloud: A case study with a genome-scale tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Kevin; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the time required to measure a terabyte of microscopic imaging data has gone from years to minutes. This shift has moved many of the challenges away from experimental design and measurement to scalable storage, organization, and analysis. As many scientists and scientific institutions lack training and competencies in these areas, major bottlenecks have arisen and led to substantial delays and gaps between measurement, understanding, and dissemination. We present in this paper a framework for analyzing large 3D datasets using cloud-based computational and storage resources. We demonstrate its applicability by showing the setup and costs associated with the analysis of a genome-scale study of bone microstructure. We then evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages associated with local versus cloud infrastructures.

  6. Analysis of discrete-to-discrete imaging models for iterative tomographic image reconstruction and compressive sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Jakob H; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Discrete-to-discrete imaging models for computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly ubiquitous as the interest in iterative image reconstruction algorithms has heightened. Despite this trend, all the intuition for algorithm and system design derives from analysis of continuous-to-continuous models such as the X-ray and Radon transform. While the similarity between these models justifies some crossover, questions such as what are sufficient sampling conditions can be quite different for the two models. This sampling issue is addressed extensively in the first half of the article using singular value decomposition analysis for determining sufficient number of views and detector bins. The question of full sampling for CT is particularly relevant to current attempts to adapt compressive sensing (CS) motivated methods to application in CT image reconstruction. The second half goes in depth on this subject and discusses the link between object sparsity and sufficient sampling for accurate reconstruction. Par...

  7. Moving image analysis to the cloud: A case study with a genome-scale tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Kevin [4Quant Ltd., Switzerland & Institute for Biomedical Engineering at University and ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Stampanoni, Marco [Institute for Biomedical Engineering at University and ETH Zurich, Switzerland & Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-01-28

    Over the last decade, the time required to measure a terabyte of microscopic imaging data has gone from years to minutes. This shift has moved many of the challenges away from experimental design and measurement to scalable storage, organization, and analysis. As many scientists and scientific institutions lack training and competencies in these areas, major bottlenecks have arisen and led to substantial delays and gaps between measurement, understanding, and dissemination. We present in this paper a framework for analyzing large 3D datasets using cloud-based computational and storage resources. We demonstrate its applicability by showing the setup and costs associated with the analysis of a genome-scale study of bone microstructure. We then evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages associated with local versus cloud infrastructures.

  8. High-resolution Surface Analysis by Microarea Auger Spectroscopy: Computerization and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R.

    1986-01-01

    A custom scanning Auger electron microscope (SAM) capable of introducing a 3-5 keV electron beam of several nA into a 30 nm diameter sample area was fitted with a sample introduction system and was fully computerized to be used for materials science research. The method of multispectral Auger imaging was devised and implemented. The instrument was applied to various problems in materials science, including the study of the fiber/matrix interface in a SiC reinforced titanium alloy, the study of SiC whiskers in Al alloy 2124 (in cooperation with NASA-Langley), the study of NiCrAl superalloys (in collaboration with NASA-Lewis), the study of zircalloy specimens (in collaboration with Stanford University), and the microstructure of sintered SiC specimens (in collaboration with NASA-Lewis). The report contains a number of manuscripts submitted for publication on these subjects.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction based on microcomputed tomographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Shin, Chuog; Song, Wu-Chul; Koh, Ki-Seok

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide data on various dimensions of the normal cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction based on high-resolution micro-CT images. The petrous parts of 39 temporal bones were scanned by micro-computed tomography (CT) with a slice thickness of 35 μm. The micro-CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volumes of the bony labyrinth using computer software. The volumes were used to measure 12 dimensions of the cochlea, and statistical analysis was carried out. The dimensions of cochleae varied widely between different specimens. The mean height and length of the cochlea were 3.8 and 9.7 mm, respectively. The angle between the basal and middle turns was slightly larger in males than in females, while none of the other 11 dimensions differed significantly between males and females. The cochlear accessory canals were observed in about half of the cases (51.3%). Correlation analysis among measured items revealed positive correlations among several of the measured dimensions. The present study could investigate the detailed anatomy of the normal cochlea using high-resolution imaging technologies. The results of the present study could be helpful for the precise diagnosis of congenital cochlear malformations and for producing optimized cochlear implants.

  10. Scintillation detectors in computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilar, O.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)

    1984-07-01

    A new scintillator, Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ (BGO), was tested for use in the detection part of computerized tomographs. In comparison with the NaI(Tl) scintillator it has a three-fold mass stopping power and allows the detection of medium and high energy gamma radiation with a higher detection efficiency, i.e., for the same detection efficiency its size is much smaller. Some other mechanical, physical and optical parameters of the BGO scintillator are given. BGO is prospective for use in high energy spectrometry and may replace NaI(Tl) wherever the following parameters are significant: crystal size, detection efficiency for gamma radiation, and good spatial resolution.

  11. [Upper airway's 3D analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea using tomographic cone beam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, A; Poirrier, A L; Limme, M; Poirrier, R

    2014-12-01

    The progress of medical imaging over the last decades has led to a better understanding of the upper airway structure in sleep-disordered patients. The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is attributed to a functional narrowing of the upper airway, particularly of the oropharynx, during sleep. This narrowing is multifactorial. We have shown that in 60% cases, the maxilla (nasal pyramid) seems too narrow. A mandible retroposition may also play a dominant role in 30% of the cases. Both scenarios can be combined. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a new medical imaging technique that permits to visualize the upper airway with less ionizing radiation than the conventional scanner. To date, only five authors have performed an upper airway's 3D analysis of sleep apnea patients with cone beam. A better understanding of the affected segment of the upper airway should help refine treatment options.

  12. Multiscale tomographic analysis of polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Jiu, Tonggang; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for significantly larger surface areas than with ET (~10 vs. ~0.1 μm2). The combination of ET and 3D FIB ``slice-and-view'' reconstructions provides complementary and coherent information on the 3D morphology of the hybrid systems at different length scales. Phase separation between the nanoparticles and the polymer is investigated by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes and is related to the performances of the hybrid devices.The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for

  13. Nurse staff allocation by nurse patient ratio vs. a computerized nurse dependency management system: a comparative cost analysis of Australian and New Zealand hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza; Plummer, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Coding, costing, and accounting for nursing care requirements in Australian public and private hospitals lacks systematic research. Nurse costing for two nurse staffing allocation methods--nurse patient ratios and a computerized nurse dependency management system--were compared. Retrospective nursing workload management data were obtained from hospital information systems in 21 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive statistics, cost analysis, and cost modeling were conducted for 103,269 shifts of nursing care. The comparison of costs for nursing staff by nurse-patient ratios and by a computerized nurse dependency management system demonstrated differences. The provision of nursing care using the computerized nurse dependency management system was, overall, lower in cost than for nurse-patient ratios.

  14. Effect of Simvastatin on induced apical periodontitis in rats: a tomographic and biochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Machado PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Simvastatin is one of several statins that are used to treat hypercholesterolemia, and in dentistry, few studies have attempted to associate the administration of this compound with bone repair. Objective To evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the progression of induced apical periodontitis in rats. Material and method To this end, 36 male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (N=12: Induced Apical Periodontitis Associated with Simvastatin Group (APSG N=12, Induced Periodontitis Apical Induced Group (APG N=12 and Negative Control Group (CG. On the first day, APG and APSG were anesthetized, and the coronal opening of the mandibular first molar was performed. For thirty days, the APSG received 6 mg of simvastatin daily via gavage. On the thirty-first day, all groups underwent blood collection and euthanasia. The jaws were removed and fixed in formalin. CT scans were performed to measure the periapical regions. In addition, the body mass and lipid profile were analyzed. The data were subjected to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Result The APG (3.42±0.65 showed the highest perimeters for the space periapical ligament, followed by APSG (1.54±0.78 and CG (0.64±0.24 (p<0.05. The lipid profile revealed the effect of simvastatin on the amount of glucose, triglycerides, HDL, and VLDL (p<0.05. Body mass APG showed the most weight gain (264.75±44.11, followed by CG (252.00±44.36 and APSG (245.41±42.56. The three groups showed significant differences in decreasing order (p<0.05. Conclusion The use of simvastatin decreased the progression of the increasing periapical ligament space in rats.

  15. Quantitative analysis of signal transduction in motile and phototactic cells by computerized light stimulation and model based tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streif, Stefan; Staudinger, Wilfried Franz; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the responses of Halobacterium salinarum to stimulation with light (phototaxis and photokinesis), we designed an experimental setup consisting of optical devices for automatic video image acquisition and computer-controlled light stimulation, and developed algorithms to analyze physiological responses of the cells. Cells are categorized as motile and nonmotile by a classification scheme based on the square displacement of cell positions. Computerized tracking based on a dynamic model of the stochastic cell movement and a Kalman filter-based algorithm allows smoothed estimates of the cell tracks and the detection of physiological responses to complex stimulus patterns. The setup and algorithms were calibrated which allows quantitative measurements and systematic analysis of cellular sensing and response. Overall, the setup is flexible, extensible, and consists mainly of commercially available products. This facilitates modifications of the setup and algorithms for physiological studies of the motility of cells or microorganisms.

  16. Quantitative analysis of signal transduction in motile and phototactic cells by computerized light stimulation and model based tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streif, Stefan; Staudinger, Wilfried Franz; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the responses of Halobacterium salinarum to stimulation with light (phototaxis and photokinesis), we designed an experimental setup consisting of optical devices for automatic video image acquisition and computer-controlled light stimulation, and developed algorithms to analyze physiological responses of the cells. Cells are categorized as motile and nonmotile by a classification scheme based on the square displacement of cell positions. Computerized tracking based on a dynamic model of the stochastic cell movement and a Kalman filter-based algorithm allows smoothed estimates of the cell tracks and the detection of physiological responses to complex stimulus patterns. The setup and algorithms were calibrated which allows quantitative measurements and systematic analysis of cellular sensing and response. Overall, the setup is flexible, extensible, and consists mainly of commercially available products. This facilitates modifications of the setup and algorithms for physiological studies of the motility of cells or microorganisms.

  17. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…

  18. Computerized image analysis of cell-cell interactions in human renal tissue by using multi-channel immunoflourescent confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Kaverina, Natalya; Clark, Marcus R.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of interactions between B and T cells in tubulointerstitial inflammation is important for understanding human lupus nephritis. We developed a computer technique to perform this analysis, and compared it with manual analysis. Multi-channel immunoflourescent-microscopy images were acquired from 207 regions of interest in 40 renal tissue sections of 19 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis. Fresh-frozen renal tissue sections were stained with combinations of immunoflourescent antibodies to membrane proteins and counter-stained with a cell nuclear marker. Manual delineation of the antibodies was considered as the reference standard. We first segmented cell nuclei and cell membrane markers, and then determined corresponding cell types based on the distances between cell nuclei and specific cell-membrane marker combinations. Subsequently, the distribution of the shortest distance from T cell nuclei to B cell nuclei was obtained and used as a surrogate indicator of cell-cell interactions. The computer and manual analyses results were concordant. The average absolute difference was 1.1+/-1.2% between the computer and manual analysis results in the number of cell-cell distances of 3 μm or less as a percentage of the total number of cell-cell distances. Our computerized analysis of cell-cell distances could be used as a surrogate for quantifying cell-cell interactions as either an automated and quantitative analysis or for independent confirmation of manual analysis.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, R S

    1982-04-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a computerized ECG interpretation system in an ambulatory health care organization has been evaluated in comparison with a conventional (manual) system. The automated system was shown to be more cost-effective at a minimum load of 2,500 patients/month. At larger monthly loads an even greater cost-effectiveness was found, the average cost/ECG being about $2. In the manual system the cost/unit is practically independent of patient load. This is primarily due to the fact that 87% of the cost/ECG is attributable to wages and fees of highly trained personnel. In the automated system, on the other hand, the cost/ECG is heavily dependent on examinee load. This is due to the relatively large impact of equipment depreciation on fixed (and total) cost. Utilization of a computer-assisted system leads to marked reduction in cardiologists' interpretation time, substantially shorter turnaround time (of unconfirmed reports), and potential provision of simultaneous service at several remotely located "heart stations."

  20. Quantitative strain analysis in analogue modelling experiments: insights from X-ray computed tomography and tomographic image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Wieneke, B.

    2009-04-01

    deformation. We have adapted our analogue modelling setups for optimal analysis of complex deformation processes using leading-edge volumetric strain monitoring techniques (3D volume DIC, Tomographic DIC). In this study, we apply DIC on X-ray CT images of analogue models. Our first results indicate that DIC can successfully be applied to quantify the 2D and 3D spatial and temporal patterns of strain accumulation. REFERENCES Adam, J., Urai, J.L, Wieneke, B., Oncken, O., Pfeiffer, K., Kukowski, N., Lohrmann, J., Hoth, S. van der Zee, W., and Schmatz, J.; 2005: Shear localisation and strain distribution during tectonic faulting - new insights from granular-flow experiments and high-resolution optical image correlation techniques. Journal of Structural Geology, 27, 283-301. Lohrmann, J., Kukowski, N., Adam, J. & Oncken, O.; 2003: The control of sand wedges by material properties: sensitivity analyses and application to convergent margin mechanics. - Journal of Structural Geology, 25, 1691-1711 Panien, M., Schreurs, G., and Pfiffner, A.; 2006. Mechanical behaviour of granular materials used in analogue modelling: insights from grain characterisation, ring-shear tests and analogue experiments. Journal of Structural Geology, 28, 1710-1724. Schreurs, G., Hänni, R, and Vock, P.; 2002: Analogue modelling of transfer zones in fold and thrust belts: a 4-D analysis. In: Schellart, W.P. and Passchier, C. (eds). Analogue modelling of large-scale tectonic processes. Journal of the Virtual Explorer, 7, 67-73. Schreurs, G., Hänni, R, Panien, M. and Vock, P.; 2003: Analysis of analogue models by helical X-ray computed tomography. In: Mees, F., Swennen, R., Van Geet, M. and Jacobs, P. (eds). Applications of X-ray Computed Tomogaphy in Earth Sciences. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 215, 213-223.

  1. Applying computerized adaptive testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch analysis of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-02-17

    Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than -4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision.

  2. Morphometric analysis of the cervical spine of Indian population by using computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Banerjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to measure the surgically important morphological parameters of cervical spine region of a representative sample of Indian population from the images obtained through computerized tomography (CT. Another purpose has been to compare the computed statistical mean, standard deviation and range of variation of these data with those of other Asian population and also European/American populations. With that aim, ninety five (95 CT scan data of Indian people (73 for male patients and 22 for female patients pertaining to undeformed normal cervical spine has been collected from an Indian hospital. From these, 15 important morphological parameters have been measured. These values have been tabulated and their mean, standard deviation and range of variation have been computed. It has been found that pedicle dimensions of Indian people are smaller at almost all vertebra levels as compared to Caucasian people. Pedicle axis length for Indian people are found to be smaller at C3, C4 and C5 levels than those for other Asian people including Chinese people, but it is bigger at C6 and C7 levels. Indian people have longer measurements of pedicle length + lateral mass on an average than their other Asian counterparts at C5, C6 and C7 levels, but shorter measurements at C3 and C4 levels. The results of the present work may help in better understanding of morphological parameters of cervical spine region of Indian population. It may be further useful in designing spinal implants which would be biomechanically compatible to the anatomy of Indian people.

  3. Computerized analysis of the greater palatine foramen to gain the palatine neurovascular bundle during palatal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagimni, Pınar; Govsa, Figen; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Kazak, Zuhal

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of the computerized dimensional anatomic location of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) and lesser palatine foramens (LPF) is important indicating site to collect palatal donor tissue, reconstructioning the orofacial area of the oncology patient and applying the greater palatine nerve block anesthesia. The aim of this study is to determine a patient-friendly landmark and to specify the precise location of the GPF in order to standardise certain anatomical marks of safe neurovascular bundle. 120 bony palates were examined to detect the position of the GPF and the LPF related to adjacent anatomical landmarks using a computer software program. The GPF was assessed regarding the position, the diameter and the distances between each foramen and the midline maxillary suture (MMS), the inner border of alveolar ridge (AR), posterior palatal border (PBB), and incisive foramen (IF). The GPF was identified as single in 81 %, double in 16 %, triple in 2 % and absent in 2 % of the specimens. The mean distances between the GPF and the MSS, the GPF and the AR, the GPF and the PPB, the GPF and the IF were 16, 4, 4, and 40 mm, respectively. In majority of the cases, the GPF was seen between the distal surfaces of the third maxillary molar (78 %). Single LPF was observed in 53.45 % of the skulls, two LPF were observed in 31 % of the skulls bilaterally and five LPF were rare in 2.1 % of the specimens. The LPF was most commonly at the junction of the palatine bone and the inner lamella of the pterygoid plate (71.9 %). This study made possible to investigate the variability of the GPF and the feasibility of the greater palatine neurovascular bundle, and to calculate the lengths of some parameters with the help of certain software. To collect the donor tissue of the neurovascular greater palatine network, each distance among the AR-GPF-PPB were equal to 4 mm. To estimate the possible length of the graft, the incision was made along the third and the second molar

  4. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially

  5. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lampit, Amit; Hallock, Harry; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    .... Computerized cognitive training (CCT) is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed...

  6. Computerized texture analysis of atypical immature myeloid precursors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: an entity between blasts and promyelocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand-Metze Irene GH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow (BM blast count is an essential parameter for classification and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, a high degree of cell atypias in bone marrow hemopoietic cells may be found in this group of clonal disorders, making it difficult to quantify precisely myeloblasts, and to distinguish them from promyelocytes and atypical immature myeloid precursors. Our aim was to investigate whether computerized image analysis of routine cytology would help to characterize these cells. Methods In May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained BM smears of 30 newly diagnosed MDS patients and 19 cases of normal BM, nuclei of blasts and promyelocytes were digitalized and interactively segmented. The morphological classification of the cells was done by consensus of two observers. Immature granulocytic precursors, which could not be clearly classified either as blasts or promyelocytes, were called "atypic myeloid precursors". Nuclear morphometry and texture features derived from the co-occurrence matrix and fractal dimension (FD were calculated. Results In normal BM, when compared to myeloblasts, nuclei of promyelocytes showed significant increase in perimeter and local texture homogeneity and a decrease in form factor, chromatin gray levels, Haralick's entropy, inertia, energy, contrast, diagonal moment, cluster prominence, the fractal dimension according to Minkowski and its goodness-of-fit. Compared to normal myeloblast nuclei, the chromatin texture of MDS myeloblasts revealed higher local homogeneity and goodness-of-fit of the FD, but lower values of entropy, contrast, diagonal moment, and fractal dimension. The same differences were found between nuclei of normal promyelocytes and those of MDS. Nuclei of atypical myeloid precursors showed intermediate characteristics between those of blasts and promyelocytes according to the quantitative features (perimeter, form factor, gray level and its standard deviation, but were similar to

  7. Computed tomographic findings of trichuriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naime Tokmak; Zafer Koc; Serife Ulusan; Ismail Soner Koltas; Nebil Bal

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present computed tomographic findings of colonic trichuriasis. The patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain, and weight loss.Diagnosis was achieved by colonoscopic biopsy. Abdominal computed tomography showed irregular and nodular thickening of the wall of the cecum and ascending colon.Although these findings are nonspecific, they may be one of the findings of trichuriasis. These findings, confirmed by pathologic analysis of the biopsied tissue and KatoKatz parasitological stool flotation technique, revealed adult Trichuris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of colonic trichuriasis indicated by computed tomography.

  8. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127-54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures.

  9. Fetal Vibroacoustic Stimulation in Computerized Cardiotocographic Analysis: The Role of Short-Term Variability and Approximate Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS on computerized cardiotocography short-term variability (STV and approximate entropy (ApEn in both low- and high-risk pregnancies. VAS was performed on 121 high- and 95 low-risk pregnancies after 10 minutes of continuous quiet, while their FHR parameters were monitored and recorded by cCTG analysis. Fetal heart rate was recorded using a computer-assisted equipment. Baseline FHR, accelerations, decelerations, STV, long-term irregularity (LTI, ApEn, and fetal movements (FMs were calculated for defined observational periods before VAS and after 10 minutes. Data were also investigated in relationship with the perinatal outcome. In each group of patients, FHR after VAS remained almost unmodified. Fetal movements significantly increased after VAS in both groups. Results show that only in the high-risk pregnancies, the increase of STV and the decrease of ApEn after VAS were significantly associated with favorable perinatal outcomes.

  10. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    . The analysis focuses on the emergence of general clinical work practice demands on guidance • An analysis of guidance demands from clinical work practice and business strategy, focusing on implications for the design of computerised CPGs. In my research, I have applied observation studies, interviews...... is comprised by fieldwork in three oncology departments and a case study of advanced life support. Although close to all patients within oncology are treated according to a CPG, I found limited application of physical CPGs and web-based CPG portals. However, I found comprehensive application of activity...... feasible • Designed in a way that provides room for local adaptations of guidance • Designed with focus on specific business strategic aims Further, based on my findings, I will suggest that design of computerized CPGs should be based on: 1) scrutinization of the clinical work practice, 2) articulation...

  11. Automatic computerized analysis of heart rate variability with digital filtering of ectopic beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, N; Ericson, M; Lindblad, L; Jensen-Urstad, M

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been used in studies of autonomic function and risk assessment in different patient groups such as in patients with diabetes mellitus, after myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular disease. Ectopic beats can, however, interfere with HRV analysis and give erroneous results. We have therefore studied the impact of ectopic beats on HRV analysis and the ability of a filter algorithm to correct this. Power spectral analysis of synthetic data with an increasing proportion of ectopic beats and 24-h Holter recordings from 98 healthy subjects and 93 post MI patients was done with and without digital filtering and interpolation of errors in the data stream. The analysis of HRV was seriously hampered by less than 1% of ectopic beats. A filter algorithm based on detection and linear interpolation of ectopic beats and other noise in the data stream corrected effectively for this in the synthetic data employed. In the healthy subjects and the post MI patients, filtering markedly reduced the extra variability related to non-normal beats. The software could automatically analyse over one hundred 24-h files in one batch. HRV analysis should include filtering for ectopic beats even with a small number of such beats. It is possible to make a fast analysis automatically even in huge clinical series, which makes it possible to use the method both clinically and in epidemiological studies.

  12. MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM (FOR MICRO- COMPUTERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental engineering calculations involving uncertainties; either in the model itself or in the data, are far beyond the capabilities of conventional analysis for any but the simplest of models. There exist a number of general-purpose computer simulation languages, using Mon...

  13. MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM (FOR MICRO- COMPUTERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental engineering calculations involving uncertainties; either in the model itself or in the data, are far beyond the capabilities of conventional analysis for any but the simplest of models. There exist a number of general-purpose computer simulation languages, using Mon...

  14. The efficacy of poetry therapy: a computerized content analysis of the death poetry of Emily Dickinson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J F; Porter, D

    1989-11-01

    A computer content analysis of a representative sample of the death poetry of Emily Dickinson is examined in an attempt to identify its therapeutic efficacy. The findings suggest that its therapeutic value lies in an underlying theme that offers a coherent experience with death from which the reader can achieve a degree of mastery and control.

  15. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru (Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG).

  16. [The development of an computerized analysis system for the women pelvic cavity impedance rheogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J; Cheng, L; Xie, Z; Zhang, J; Xia, M; Cheng, L; Ying, Y

    1997-11-01

    This article introduces the components and functions of an computered analysis system for the women pelvic cavity impedance rheogram. It can sample the pelvic cavity impedance rheogram signal of the body double-side and the reference ECG signal. With help of manual intervence, it also can automatically recognize characteristic points of the pelvic cavity impedance rheogram and measure the parameters. It can correct the recognized characteristic points simultaneously and print the pelvic cavity impedance rheogram of the body double-side and 15 characteristic data parameters. After clinical applying, the analysis results of mors 100 patients make clear that: this system has remarkably clinical significance for diagnosis of the women pelvic cavity extravasated blood and evaluation of treating effect, so it has much better clinical applied expectation.

  17. Computerized Oceanic Particle Characterization Using Heavy Metal Staining, SEM, EDXS and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    its place in the EDXS spectrum is unoccupied. When a polycarbonate-type filter membrane and the particles captured on it are both stained with...thus backscattered SAX analysis of oceanic mncroparticles 1659 throughout a relatively large volume. In a flat and uniform polycarbonate membrane ...filter, such as a Nuclepore TM or Poretics TM , most of the backscattered electrons (BSE) are reabsorbed within the body of the filter, leaving relatively

  18. Computerized analysis of retinal vessel width and tortuosity in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Clare M; Cocker, Kenneth D; Moseley, Merrick J; Paterson, Carl; Clay, Simon T; Schulenburg, William E; Mills, Monte D; Ells, Anna L; Parker, Kim H; Quinn, Graham E; Fielder, Alistair R; Ng, Jeffrey

    2008-08-01

    To determine, with novel software, the feasibility of measuring the tortuosity and width of retinal veins and arteries from digital retinal images of infants at risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The Computer-Aided Image Analysis of the Retina (CAIAR) program was developed to enable semiautomatic detection of retinal vasculature and measurement of vessel tortuosity and width from digital images. CAIAR was tested for accuracy and reproducibility of tortuosity and width measurements by using computer-generated vessel-like lines of known frequency, amplitude, and width. CAIAR was then tested by using clinical digital retinal images for correlation of vessel tortuosity and width readings compared with expert ophthalmologist grading. When applied to 16 computer-generated sinusoidal vessels, the tortuosity measured by CAIAR correlated very well with the known values. Width measures also increased as expected. When the CAIAR readings were compared with five expert ophthalmologists' grading of 75 vessels on 10 retinal images, moderate correlation was found in 10 of the 14 tortuosity output calculations (Spearman rho = 0.618-0.673). Width was less well correlated (rho = 0.415). The measures of tortuosity and width in CAIAR were validated using sequential model vessel analysis. On comparison of CAIAR output with assessments made by expert ophthalmologists, CAIAR correlates moderately with tortuosity grades, but less well with width grades. CAIAR offers the opportunity to develop an automated image analysis system for detecting the vascular changes at the posterior pole, which are becoming increasingly important in diagnosing treatable ROP.

  19. Programs for analysis and resizing of complex structures. [computerized minimum weight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the PARS (Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures) system. PARS is a user oriented system of programs for the minimum weight design of structures modeled by finite elements and subject to stress, displacement, flutter and thermal constraints. The system is built around SPAR - an efficient and modular general purpose finite element program, and consists of a series of processors that communicate through the use of a data base. An efficient optimizer based on the Sequence of Unconstrained Minimization Technique (SUMT) with an extended interior penalty function and Newton's method is used. Several problems are presented for demonstration of the system capabilities.

  20. HYDRGN - a computerized technique for the analysis of thermochemical water-splitting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Funk, J. E.; Barker, R.

    1977-06-01

    The HYDRGN computer program was designed to analyze closed thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen from water. This report includes the basic theory, assumptions, and methods of calculation used in this analysis along with a description of the program and its use. The source program and necessary data bank are available from the University of Kentucky. These may be obtained by sending a magnetic tape (minimum length 1200 ft) and a written request specifying the type of computer and recording characteristics of the tape. A small fee is charged for the recording and handling of the tape.

  1. MULTISPECTRAL MICROSCOPY AND COMPUTERIZED IMAGE ANALYSIS: A METHOD TO OBTAIN MORE RELIABLE AND REPRODUCIBLE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Spatola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of image analysis methods has allowed us to obtain more reliable and repro-ducible immunohistochemistry (IHC results. Wider use of such approaches and sim-plification of software allowing a colorimetric study has meant that these methods are available to everyone, and made it possible to standardize the technique by a reliable systems score. Moreover, the recent introduction of multispectral image acquisition systems methods has further refined these techniques, minimizing artefacts and eas-ing the evaluation of the data by the observer.

  2. Corneal Segmentation Analysis Increases Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of Optic Nerve Head Examination, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph's Moorfield's Regression Analysis, and Glaucoma Probability Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Frances, F; Jañez, L; Berrozpe-Villabona, C; Borrego-Sanz, L; Morales-Fernández, L; Acebal-Montero, A; Mendez-Hernandez, C D; Martinez-de-la-Casa, J M; Santos-Bueso, E; Garcia-Sanchez, J; Garcia-Feijoo, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study whether a corneal thickness segmentation model, consisting in a central circular zone of 1 mm radius centered at the corneal apex (zone I) and five concentric rings of 1 mm width (moving outwards: zones II to VI), could boost the diagnostic accuracy of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph's (HRT's) MRA and GPS. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. 121 healthy volunteers and 125 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Six binary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed (MOD-A1, MOD-A2, MOD-B1, MOD-B2, MOD-C1, and MOD-C2). The dependent variable was the presence of glaucoma. In MOD-A1, the predictor was the result (presence of glaucoma) of the analysis of the stereophotography of the optic nerve head (ONH). In MOD-B1 and MOD-C1, the predictor was the result of the MRA and GPS, respectively. In MOD-B2 and MOD-C2, the predictors were the same along with corneal variables: central, overall, and zones I to VI thicknesses. This scheme was reproduced for model MOD-A2 (stereophotography along with corneal variables). Models were compared using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Results. MOD-A1-AUC: 0.771; MOD-A2-AUC: 0.88; MOD-B1-AUC: 0.736; MOD-B2-AUC: 0.845; MOD-C1-AUC: 0.712; MOD-C2-AUC: 0.838. Conclusion. Corneal thickness variables enhance ONH assessment and HRT's MRA and GPS diagnostic capacity.

  3. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hsia Lin

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification.Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed.A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners.The 5 horizontal reference planes were

  4. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  5. Computerized Heat-Transfer and Stress Analysis of Wind Tunnel Metal Throat Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    m e n t TN = angle of conical section RE = radius at entry of liner XC NN N u i Read design data for heat-transfer analysis of = l e n g t h...P Z * ( ~ 0 " - 2 - R ] * * ~ ) ) SNHI : ( 2 . 0 • ROCk2 • P ~ ) / ( R I e • 2 - ~O•~E) S~HO : (P~ • (ROIe~ • R Z • I ~ ) ) / ( R X I I...n s t a n t r a d i u s o f s u b s o n i c e n t r y s e c t i o n , i n c h . (INTEGER] Order of throat entry curve equation. (INTEGER

  6. Computerizing reading training: evaluation of a latent semantic analysis space for science text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurby, Christopher A; Wiemer-Hastings, Katja; Ganduri, Nagasai; Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; McNamara, Danielle S

    2003-05-01

    The effectiveness of a domain-specific latent semantic analysis (LSA) in assessing reading strategies was examined. Students were given self-explanation reading training (SERT) and asked to think aloud after each sentence in a science text. Novice and expert human raters and two LSA spaces (general reading, science) rated the similarity of each think-aloud protocol to benchmarks representing three different reading strategies (minimal, local, and global). The science LSA space correlated highly with human judgments, and more highly than did the general reading space. Also, cosines from the science LSA spaces can distinguish between different levels of semantic similarity, but may have trouble in distinguishing local processing protocols. Thus, a domain-specific LSA space is advantageous regardless of the size of the space. The results are discussed in the context of applying the science LSA to a computer-based version of SERT that gives online feedback based on LSA cosines.

  7. Temporal and computerized psycholinguistic analysis of the blog of a Chinese adolescent suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tim M H; Chau, Michael; Yip, Paul S F; Wong, Paul W C

    2014-01-01

    Text analysis of personal documents provides insight into the cognition of those who complete suicide. Many personal documents are digitalized and easily found on the Internet, which can be used to advance suicide research. (1) To examine the temporal relationships between posting intensity and language use to sketch the suicidal process of a young man on the basis of his blog entries. (2) To investigate whether digitalized personal documents and paper documents of suicide cases have similar or different language patterns. Firstly, 193 blog entries of a 13-year-old boy posted during the year prior to his suicide were analyzed using the Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (CLIWC) program. The temporal relationships between posting intensity and language use were illustrated by time series visualization. Secondly, the findings of this case study were compared with previous case studies from a systematic search of three Ovid databases. Posting frequency and language use in the blog helped sketch the suicidal process of the young boy. In this case study, the ratio of positive to negative emotion words was associated with the posting trend. Progressive self-referencing appeared to be a primary predictive sign of suicide. However, the comparison did not show other clearly consistent patterns. Digitalized personal documents, when interpreted with other information of the individual, provide insight into the suicidal process of completed suicides. This study extends the findings of psycholinguistic analyses of suicides to the Chinese social context and online document form.

  8. New computerized fetal heart rate analysis for surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, E A; Lobmaier, S; Fischer, T; Schneider, R; Bauer, A; Schneider, K T; Schmidt, G

    2011-05-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability is associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study used a new method [phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA)] to calculate acceleration- and deceleration-related fluctuations of the fetal heart rate. Cardiotocograms from 74 growth-restricted and 161 normal fetuses were included. Both groups were matched for gestational age. The transformed PRSA signal was quantified by the acceleration-related parameter-averaged acceleration capacity (AAC) and compared to the standard short-term variation (STV). Mann-Whitney test and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. For AAC, the median values of the IUGR group and control group were 1.97 bpm [interquartile range (IQR): 1.66-2.23] and 2.49 bpm (IQR: 2.24-2.72), respectively. For STV, these values were 5.44 ms (IQR: 4.49-7.38) and 7.79 ms (IQR: 6.35-9.66), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 81.4% for AAC and 70.5% for STV. The results of AAC are in both groups comparable to STV. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the association of AAC with the clinical outcome of the newborn. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Relationship between articulation paper mark size and percentage of force measured with computerized occlusal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Sarah; Kerstein, Robert; Kim, Ryan Jin Yung; Huh, Jung-Bo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2012-02-01

    Articulation paper mark size is widely accepted as an indicator of forceful tooth contacts. However, mark size is indicative of contact location and surface area only, and does not quantify occlusal force. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the size of paper marks and the percentage of force applied to the same tooth. Thirty dentate female subjects intercuspated into articulation paper strips to mark occlusal contacts on their maxillary posterior teeth, followed by taking photographs. Then each subject made a multi-bite digital occlusal force percentage recording. The surface area of the largest and darkest articulation paper mark (n = 240 marks) in each quadrant (n = 60 quadrants) was calculated in photographic pixels, and compared with the force percentage present on the same tooth. Regression analysis shows a bi-variant fit of force % on tooth (Pforce indicated a low positive correlation. The coefficient of determination showed a low causative relationship between mark area and force (r(2) = 0.067). The largest paper mark in each quadrant was matched with the most forceful tooth in that same quadrant only 38.3% of time. Only 6 2/3% of mark surface area could be explained by applied occlusal force, while most of the mark area results from other factors unrelated to the applied occlusal force. The findings of this study indicate that size of articulation paper mark is an unreliable indicator of applied occlusal force, to guide treatment occlusal adjustments.

  10. A meta-analysis of computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of DSM-5 anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Caroline B; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bartley, Christine A; Bontempo, Allyson; Bloch, Michael H

    2014-07-01

    Access to qualified cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) remains a major barrier to improving clinical outcomes in anxiety disorders. The current meta-analysis examined the efficacy of computerized CBT (cCBT) for anxiety disorders and the durability of treatment gains during follow-up. We searched PubMed and references from included trials and previous meta-analyses in the area. We included randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of cCBT for non-OCD and non-PTSD anxiety disorders. Forty trials involving 2,648 participants were included in this meta-analysis. We used a fixed-effect model to examine standardized mean difference in posttreatment anxiety levels. cCBT was compared to wait-list, in-person CBT, and Internet control. We also examined moderators of cCBT treatment gains over follow-up. Meta-analysis indicated that cCBT was significantly more effective than wait-list control in the treatment of anxiety disorders (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.92 [95% CI, 0.83 to 1.02], k = 31, z = 18.8, P anxiety disorders had greater efficacy than that targeting mixed anxiety symptoms. The efficacy of cCBT was equivalent to in-person CBT in studies that compared them head-to-head, for both children and adults (SMD = 0.05 [95% CI, -0.09 to 0.19], k = 15, z = 0.7, P = .46). Longitudinal studies indicate that individuals undergoing cCBT tended to continue to improve after completion of treatment, with longer follow-up periods associated with greater symptom reduction. cCBT represents an efficacious intervention for the treatment of anxiety disorders and may circumvent barriers to accessing traditional CBT treatments. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of cCBT in real-world settings, for individuals with clinical comorbidities, and in comparison with more ecologically valid comparison conditions. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Assessment of gait in subcortical vascular encephalopathy by computerized analysis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäzner, H; Oster, M; Daffertshofer, M; Hennerici, M

    2000-11-01

    In subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) gait disturbance is a common and early clinical sign which might be used to monitor disease progression. In the absence of reliable scales and with regard to the equivocal results of highly complex gait imaging devices we assessed the natural course of SVE in a prospective study, using a new straight forward technique to quantify and compare sequential gait studies. We report the results of 300 computerized gait analyses in 119 patients with SVE and 63 age-matched controls. Thirty-nine SVE patients were re-evaluated to monitor the natural course of the disease and to study the correlation of gait disturbances with MRI changes and neuropsychological findings. The system consists of a set of shoes containing 16 load sensors and a measuring-unit reading each sensor at 20-ms intervals. By off-line analysis we graded each recording on a Gait Disorder Score (GDS) with six variables indicating gait steadiness: step frequency, length of gait lines (which represent the movement of the centre of gravity during heel to toe movement), length of single support lines, variability of single and of double support lines, and double support time. In cross-sectional analysis, patients with SVE showed cadence (steps/min) to be reduced at 87.3 +/- 19.5 (96.4 +/- 7.8 in controls, P gait lines was significantly less: 0.70 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.05 in controls, with length of single support gait lines reduced at 0.42 +/- 0.14 in SVE (0.58 +/- 0.06 in controls, P phases was increased (0.19 +/- 0.10 s vs. 0.13 +/- 0.02 s in controls, P gait disorder who were re-investigated after a mean interval of 26 months (5.4 +/- 4.5 vs. 8.4 +/- 5.5, P gait analysis system for the evaluation of gait disorders and it quantifies the deterioration of gait in SVE patients.

  12. Comparison of computed tomographic and magnetic resonance perfusion measurements in acute ischemic stroke: back-to-back quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longting; Bivard, Andrew; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) and computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) are being increasingly applied in acute stroke trials and clinical practice, yet the comparability of their perfusion values is not well validated. The aim of this study was to validate the comparability of CTP and MRP measures. A 3-step approach was used. Step 1 was a derivation step, where we analyzed 45 patients with acute ischemic stroke who had both CTP and MRP performed within 2 hours of each other and within 9 hours of stroke onset. In this step, we derived the optimal perfusion map with the least difference between MRP and CTP. In step 2, the optimal map was validated on whole-brain perfusion data of 15 patients. Step 3 was to apply the optimal perfusion map to define cross-modality reperfusion from acute CTP to 24-hour MRP in 45 patients and, in turn, to assess how accurately this predicted 3-month clinical outcome. Among 8 different perfusion maps included in this study, time to peak of the residual function (T(max)) was the only one with a nonsignificant difference between CTP and MRP in delineating perfusion defects. This was validated on whole-brain perfusion data, showing high concordance of T(max) between the 2 modalities (concordance correlation coefficient of Lin, >0.91); the best concordance was at 6 s. At T(max)>6 s threshold, MRP and CTP reached substantial agreement in mismatch classification (κ >0.61). Cross-modality reperfusion calculated by T(max)>6 s strongly predicted good functional outcome at 3 months (area under the curve, 0.979; P<0.05). MRP and CTP can be used interchangeably if one uses T(max) measurement. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Experimental computer tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The computed tomography is one of the most important medical instruments, allowing the non-invasive visualization of cross sections which are free from superpositions. Since 2000 an experimental computer tomo-graph of the third generation for the purpose of education and research was set up and further developed. Besides the mechanical construction design reconstruction algorithms, including certain corrections of the measured data were developed and implemented. In 2013 iterative reconstruction methods were investigated and implemented for advanced reconstructions and dose reduction using various ray tracing algorithms. The new reconstruction technique leads to improvements in image quality and low dose reconstructions.

  14. Accuracy of computerized tomography for the evaluation of mandibular sites prior to implant placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sforza, Nicola Marco; Franchini, Federico; Lamma, Achille

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of positioning of the mandible on the accuracy of cross-sectional images obtained by reformatting computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An additional aim was to evaluate the ability of a software program (DentalVox, Era Scientific) to re...

  15. [A quantitative evaluation of brain computerized tomography in children using color image analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, M; Naganuma, Y; Hongoh, K; Murakami, M; Konishi, T; Okada, T

    1989-11-01

    We attempted the quantitative analysis of brain computerized tomographic scans in children using Color Image Analyzer. A consecutive series of 167 computerized tomographic scans were reviewed. Areas of subarachnoid spaces, cavums, ventricles and cerebellums were measured on three slices: A slice is at the level of head of caudate nucleus, anterior horn of lateral ventricle and third ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. C slice is at the level of sella turcica and pons. We investigated these values compared with Evans ratio, Cella Media Index, cerebellar atrophy score and visually evaluations. Serial brain CT scans of eight patient with infantile spasms were also evaluated for the assessment of the brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. 1) The ratios of the subarachnoid space/the intracranial area on A and B slices (SAS A%, SAS B%) were significantly higher in the patients of severe brain atrophy. 2) There were linear relationship between Evans ratio and SAS A% (r = 0.405, p less than 0.001), Cella Media Index and the ratio of the lateral ventricles/the intracranial areas on B slice (r = -0.501, p less than 0.001), and the cerebellar atrophy score by Une and SAS C% (r = 0.369, p less than 0.001). 3) In the normal patients, the values of SAS A% and SAS B% were much greater in less than 1.5 years old children. These results suggest that the trend of CT findings related to age may reflect physiological changes of the space between the skull and the brain with age. 4) Brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy was more pronounced in the subarachnoid space than the ventricle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in Fourier space

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Saito, Shun; Wang, Dandan; Ross, Ashley J; Beutler, Florian; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Percival, Will J; Brownstein, Joel R; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Weinberg, David H; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) analysis using the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum measured from the pre-reconstructed combined galaxy sample of the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release (DR)12 covering the redshift range of $0.20

  17. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Saito, Shun; Wang, Dandan; Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Percival, Will J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Weinberg, David H.; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2017-04-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) analysis using the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum measured from the pre-reconstructed combined galaxy sample of the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release12 covering the redshift range of 0.20 < z < 0.75. By allowing for overlap between neighbouring redshift slices, we successfully obtained the isotropic and anisotropic BAO distance measurements within nine redshift slices to a precision of 1.5-3.4 per cent for DV/rd, 1.8-4.2 per cent for DA/rd and 3.7-7.5 per cent for H rd, depending on effective redshifts. We provide our BAO measurement of DA/rd and H rd with the full covariance matrix, which can be used for cosmological implications. Our measurements are consistent with those presented in Alam et al., in which the BAO distances are measured at three effective redshifts. We constrain dark energy parameters using our measurements and find an improvement of the Figure-of-Merit of dark energy in general due to the temporal BAO information resolved. This paper is a part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS.

  18. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  19. 计算机组卷算法的分析%Analysis on Algorithm of Computerized Exam Paper Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜向然; 吴树锦; 王文清

    2015-01-01

    计算机考试系统是计算机辅助教学的重要分支之一,它是评价和改进学生学习情况和教师教课情况的重要依据之一。计算机组卷算法是考试系统中重要组成部分之一,它决定了试卷的效果。本文介绍了几种常见的组卷算法,并对这些算法进行分析。%As an important branch of the computer assisted instruction ,the computerized test sys‐tem provides an important basis for evaluation and improvement of students’ learning and teachers’ teaching .As an important part of the test system ,the algorithm of computerized test paper generation determines the effect of the test paper .This paper introduces and analyzes several common algorithms of test paper generation .

  20. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  1. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  2. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of human condyles in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: increased cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume fraction with reduced mineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G

    2014-12-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 μm resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles.

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield′s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT glaucoma probability score (GPS with that of Moorfield′s regression analysis (MRA. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 - 0.315. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives. The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific and 57.14 and 98% (least specific. The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific. The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08 and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44.The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs.

  4. A computerized track detector reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  5. Comparative validation of the radiographic and tomographic measurement of patellar height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Schueda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate the radiographic measurement of patellar height with computerized tomography scans. METHODS: Measured the patellar height through the lateral radiographic image supported by one foot and sagittal tomographic view of the knee in extension, flexion of 20°, and quadriceps contraction of 40 patients (80 knees, asymptomatic and no history of knee injuries using Insall-Salvati index. There were 20 adult females and 20 adult males. RESULTS: The height patellar index was higher in women of all images taken, in proportion. There was no statistical difference of patellar height index between the radiographics and tomographics images. CONCLUSION: The Insall-Salvati index in females was higher in all cases evaluated. Furthermore, it is possible to measure the patellar height index during tomographic study without distorting the results obtained, using to define the presence of patella alta or patella baja.

  6. Induced arousal following zolpidem treatment in a vegetative state after brain injury in 7 cases Analysis using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Du; Aijun Shan; Di Yang; Wei Xiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the use of zolpidem for induced arousal after permanent vegetative states. However, changes in brain function and EMG after zolpidem treatment requires further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of zolpidem, an unconventional drug, on inducing arousal in patients in a permanent vegetative state after brain injury using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor. DESIGN: A self-controlled observation. SETTING: Shenzhen People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients in a permanent vegetative state were selected from the Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen People's Hospital from March 2005 to May 2007. The group included 5 males and 2 females, 24–55 years of age, with a mean age of 38.5 years. All seven patients had been in a permanent vegetative statement for at least six months. The patient group included three comatose patients, who had sustained injuries to the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or thalamus in motor vehicle accidents, and four patients, who had suffered primary/secondary brain stem injury. Informed consents were obtained from the patients’ relatives. METHODS: The patients brains were imaged by 99Tcm ECD single photon emission computerized tomography prior to treatment with zolpidem [Sanofi Winthrop Industrie, France, code number approved by the State Food & Drug Administration (SFDA) J20040033, specification 10 mg per tablet. At 8:00 p.m., 10 mg zolpidem was dissolved with distilled water and administered through a nasogastric tube at 1 hour before and after treatment and 1 week following treatment, respectively. Visual analysis of cerebral perfusion changes in the injured brain regions before and after treatment was performed. Simultaneously, three monitoring parameters were obtained though a cerebral state monitor, which included cerebral state index, electromyographic index, and burst suppression index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison

  7. Estudo comparativo das análises cefalométricas manual e computadorizada A comparative study of manual vs. computerized cephalometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Araújo Guedes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: realizar uma análise comparativa dos traçados manual e computadorizado utilizando um software específico, com a finalidade de definir os resultados inter e intra-avaliadores. MÉTODOS: foi utilizada uma amostra composta por 50 radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral, sendo todas padronizadas, contendo pacientes de ambos os gêneros e de várias faixas etárias. A análise das radiografias foi realizada por dois avaliadores, os quais realizaram os traçados manuais e computadorizados das 50 radiografias. Para compor as medições, foram selecionadas medidas angulares e lineares, que posteriormente foram submetidas ao teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney, com o objetivo de comparar os resultados entre os dois tipos de traçados inter e intra-avaliadores. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se que pode ser aumentada a confiança nos traçados cefalométricos computadorizados, haja vista que as discrepâncias encontradas entre as medidas dos traçados cefalométricos manual e computadorizado inter e intra-avaliadores, em sua maioria, não foram estatisticamente significativas.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis between manual and computerized tracings using specific software, in order to define inter- and intra-evaluator results. METHODS: A sample was used consisting of 50 standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs, of male and female patients of various age groups. The radiographs were analyzed by two evaluators, who each performed the manual and computerized tracings of all 50 radiographs. Angular and linear measurements were obtained, which were later submitted to the Mann-Whitney test in order to compare the inter- and intra-evaluator results between the two types of tracings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the study concluded that confidence can be increased in tracings obtained from computer-assisted cephalometric analysis, as the discrepancies found between inter- and intra-evaluator tracings, both manual and

  8. Computerizing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  9. Computerized Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the introduction of a computerized peer assessment system as part of an undergraduate module in computer studies in the United Kingdom. Analyzes student responses to modification of the tutor-student relationship to a student-student relationship for assessment purposes, discusses plagiarism and the Web, and investigates effects on…

  10. Computerized Drug Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  11. Accuracy and reproducibility of dental measurements on tomographic digital models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jamille B; Christovam, Ilana O; Alencar, David S; da Motta, Andréa F J; Mattos, Claudia T; Cury-Saramago, Adriana

    2017-04-26

    The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of dental measurements obtained from digital study models generated from CBCT compared with those acquired from plaster models. The electronic databases Cochrane Library, Medline (via PubMed), Scopus, VHL, Web of Science, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe were screened to identify articles from 1998 until February 2016. The inclusion criteria were: prospective and retrospective clinical trials in humans; validation and/or comparison articles of dental study models obtained from CBCT and plaster models; and articles that used dental linear measurements as an assessment tool. The methodological quality of the studies was carried out by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. A meta-analysis was performed to validate all comparative measurements. The databases search identified a total of 3160 items and 554 duplicates were excluded. After reading titles and abstracts, 12 articles were selected. Five articles were included after reading in full. The methodological quality obtained through QUADAS-2 was poor to moderate. In the meta-analysis, there were statistical differences between the mesiodistal widths of mandibular incisors, maxillary canines and premolars, and overall Bolton analysis. Therefore, the measurements considered accurate were maxillary and mandibular crowding, intermolar width and mesiodistal width of maxillary incisors, mandibular canines and premolars, in both arches for molars. Digital models obtained from CBCT were not accurate for all measures assessed. The differences were clinically acceptable for all dental linear measurements, except for maxillary arch perimeter. Digital models are reproducible for all measurements when intraexaminer assessment is considered and need improvement in interexaminer evaluation.

  12. Advanced computed tomographic anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P., E-mail: opolski.mp@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kepka, Cezary, E-mail: c.kepka@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Achenbach, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.achenbach@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Pregowski, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzypregowski74@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kruk, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszkruk2000@yahoo.com [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Staruch, Adam D., E-mail: adstarman@gmail.com [Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Kadziela, Jacek, E-mail: j.kadziela@ikard.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Ruzyllo, Witold, E-mail: w.ruzyllo@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, Adam, E-mail: witkowski@hbz.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To determine the application of advanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plaque analysis for predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 71 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥50–80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. Advanced anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis was performed based on CCTA data set to determine optimal criteria for significant flow impairment. A significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. Results: FFR averaged 0.85 ± 0.09, and 19 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with minimum lumen area (MLA) (r = 0.456, p < 0.001), minimum lumen diameter (MLD) (r = 0.326, p = 0.006), reference lumen diameter (RLD) (r = 0.245, p = 0.039), plaque burden (r = −0.313, p = 0.008), lumen area stenosis (r = −0.305, p = 0.01), lesion length (r = −0.692, p < 0.001), and plaque volume (r = −0.668, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between FFR and CCTA morphometric plaque parameters. By multivariate analysis the independent predictors of FFR were lesion length (beta = −0.581, p < 0.001), MLA (beta = 0.360, p = 0.041), and RLD (beta = −0.255, p = 0.036). The optimal cutoffs for lesion length, MLA, MLD, RLD, and lumen area stenosis were >18.5 mm, ≤3.0 mm{sup 2}, ≤2.1 mm, ≤3.2 mm, and >69%, respectively (max. sensitivity: 100% for MLA, max. specificity: 79% for lumen area stenosis). Conclusions: CCTA predictors for FFR support the mathematical relationship between stenosis pressure drop and coronary flow. CCTA could prove to be a useful rule-out test for significant hemodynamic effects of intermediate coronary stenoses.

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...

  14. Fixture-abutment connection surface and micro-gap measurements by 3D micro-tomographic technique analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Meleo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT is a miniaturized form of conventional computed axial tomography (CAT able to investigate small radio-opaque objects at a-few-microns high resolution, in a nondestructive, non-invasive, and tri-dimensional way. Compared to traditional optical and electron microscopy techniques, which provide two-dimensional images, this innovative investigation technology enables a sample tri-dimensional analysis without cutting, coating or exposing the object to any particular chemical treatment. X-ray micro-tomography matches ideal 3D microscopy features: the possibility of investigating an object in natural conditions and without any preparation or alteration; non-invasive, non-destructive, and sufficiently magnified 3D reconstruction; reliable measurement of numeric data of the internal structure (morphology, structure and ultra-structure. Hence, this technique has multi-fold applications in a wide range of fields, not only in medical and odontostomatologic areas, but also in biomedical engineering, materials science, biology, electronics, geology, archaeology, oil industry, and semi-conductors industry. This study shows possible applications of micro-CT in dental implantology to analyze 3D micro-features of dental implant to abutment interface. Indeed, implant-abutment misfit is known to increase mechanical stress on connection structures and surrounding bone tissue. This condition may cause not only screw preload loss or screw fracture, but also biological issues in peri-implant tissues.

  15. Tomographic Analysis of Anterior and Posterior and Total Corneal Refractive Power Changes After Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Franziska; Böhm, Myriam; Herzog, Michael; Petermann, Kerstin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the effect of penetrating femtosecond laser-assisted keratotomy (pFLAK) during laser lens surgery on anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism and total corneal refractive power (TCRP) astigmatism (CAant, CApost, CATCRP) measured with Scheimpflug tomography. Prospective, interventional case series. This institutional study included 27 eyes of 23 patients (aged 65 ± 8 years) with low-to-moderate CATCRP determined with Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam HR; Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) after penetrating femtosecond laser-assisted keratotomy (pFLAK) and laser lens surgery. The CAant, CApost, and CATCRP were determined before and 1 and 3 months after surgery. Vector analysis according to the Alpins method was used to calculate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA). The mean preoperative CAant (0.97 ± 0.30 diopter [D]) was significantly reduced to 0.63 ± 0.34 D (P low (0.12 ± 0.07 D). The CATCRP showed similar results as CAant. pFLAKs planned according to Scheimpflug-based CATCRP result in a significant reduction of the CAant and CATCRP, but do not affect the posterior corneal curvature significantly, as measured by Scheimpflug tomography. Further research is required to develop a new valid nomogram for laser-assisted lens surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computerized analysis of interstitial lung diseases on chest radiographs based on lung texture, geometric-pattern features, and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2002-05-01

    For computerized detection of interstitial lung disease on chest radiographs, we developed three different methods: texture analysis based on the Fourier transform, geometric- pattern feature analysis, and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of image data. With these computer-aided diagnostic methods, quantitative measures can be obtained. To improve the diagnostic accuracy, we investigated combined classification schemes by using the results obtained with the three methods for distinction between normal and abnormal chest radiographs with interstitial opacities. The sensitivities of texture analysis, geometric analysis, and ANN analysis were 88.0+/- 1.6%, 91.0+/- 2.6%, and 87.5+/- 1.9%, respectively, at a specificity of 90.0%, whereas the sensitivity of a combined classification scheme with the logical OR operation was improved to 97.1%+/- 1.5% at the same specificity of 90.0%. The combined scheme can achieve higher accuracy than the individual methods for distinction between normal and abnormal cases with interstitial opacities.

  17. Effectiveness of computerized decision support systems linked to electronic health records: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren H; Lytras, Theodore; Bertizzolo, Lorenzo; Brandt, Linn; Pecoraro, Valentina; Rigon, Giulio; Vaona, Alberto; Ruggiero, Francesca; Mangia, Massimo; Iorio, Alfonso; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2014-12-01

    We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effectiveness of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) featuring rule- or algorithm-based software integrated with electronic health records (EHRs) and evidence-based knowledge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Information on system design, capabilities, acquisition, implementation context, and effects on mortality, morbidity, and economic outcomes were extracted. Twenty-eight RCTs were included. CDSS use did not affect mortality (16 trials, 37395 patients; 2282 deaths; risk ratio [RR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.08; I(2) = 41%). A statistically significant effect was evident in the prevention of morbidity, any disease (9 RCTs; 13868 patients; RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.99; I(2) = 64%), but selective outcome reporting or publication bias cannot be excluded. We observed differences for costs and health service utilization, although these were often small in magnitude. Across clinical settings, new generation CDSSs integrated with EHRs do not affect mortality and might moderately improve morbidity outcomes.

  18. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  19. A computerized TLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, C.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    A computerized thermoluminescent (TL) readout technique is presented which considerably improves the precision of dose readout and facilitates the dose information management and storage. The technique is relatively simple and it involves an interface between a commercially available thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) analyzer and a minicomputer. Curve fitting, subtraction of unwanted thermogram peaks, background subtraction, studies of TL decay kinetics, and storage of large number of measured TL data are easily performed with the technique.

  20. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application and comp......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... and compliance with CPGs in most areas of clinical practice are deficient. Computerization of CPGs has been brought forward as a method to disseminate and to support application of CPGs. Until now, CPG-computerization has focused on development of formal expressions of CPGs. The developed systems have, however......, not gained any extensive application in clinical practice. The basic assumption in this thesis is that the scanty penetration is due to an inappropriate design process when designing computerized CPGs for clinical work practice. This thesis examines the application of guidance within areas where CPG...

  1. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qian [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: lilh@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang [Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, 310010 (China); Zheng, Bin [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. Materials and Methods: The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. Results: In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is higher in the breast depicted suspicious lesions as compared to another negative (lesion-free) breast. In classifying between malignant and benign cases, using the computed image feature achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 with 95% confidence interval of [0.762, 0.898]. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the global contrast enhancement feature of DCE-MRI can be relatively easily and robustly computed without accurate breast tumor detection and segmentation. This global feature provides supplementary information and a higher discriminatory power in assisting diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. Determination of the Early Time of Death by Computerized Image Analysis of DNA Degradation: Which Is the Best Quantitative Indicator of DNA Degradation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lijiang; SHU Xiji; REN Liang; ZHOU Hongyan; LI Yan; LIU Wei; ZHU Cheng; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the correlation between DNA degradation of the splenic lymphocytes and the early time of death, examined the early time of death by computerized image analysis technique (CIAT) and identified the best parameter that quantitatively reflects the DNA degradation.The spleen tissues from 34 SD rats were collected, subjected to cell smearing every 2 h within the first 36 h after death, stained by Feulgen-Van's staining, three indices reflecting DNA content in splenic lymphocytes, including integral optical density (IOD), average optical density (AOD), average gray scale (AG) were measured by the image analysis. Our results showed that IOD and AOD decreased and AG increased over time within the first 36 h. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that only AG was fitted. A correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and AG was identified and the corresponding regression equation was obtained. Our study suggests that CIAT is a useful and promising tool for the estimation of early PMI with good objectivity and reproducibility,and AG is a more effective and better quantitative indicator for the estimation of PMI within the first 36 h after death in rats.

  3. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lampit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases' inception to 9 July 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of ≥ 4 h of CCT on performance in neuropsychological tests in older adults without dementia or other cognitive impairment. Fifty-two studies encompassing 4,885 participants were eligible. Intervention designs varied considerably, but after removal of one outlier, heterogeneity across studies was small (I(2 = 29.92%. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. The overall effect size (Hedges' g, random effects model for CCT versus control was small and statistically significant, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.29. Small to moderate effect sizes were found for nonverbal memory, g = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38; verbal memory, g = 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; working memory (WM, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.35; processing speed, g = 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.50; and visuospatial skills, g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.54. No significant effects were found for executive functions and attention. Moderator analyses revealed that home-based administration was ineffective compared to group-based training, and that more than three training sessions per week was ineffective versus three or fewer. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of WM training, and only weak

  4. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F

    2012-01-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  5. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  6. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  7. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for the other month of the study. The control group consumed a conventional diet throughout the study period. Stool samples were collected. Bacterial cellular fatty acids were extracted directly from the stool samples and measured by GLC. Computerized analysis of the resulting fatty acid profiles was performed. Such a profile represents all bacterial cellular fatty acids in a sample and thus reflects its microflora and can be used to detect changes, differences, or similarities of bacterial flora between individual samples or sample groups. GLC profiles changed significantly in the test group after the induction and discontinuation of the vegan diet but not in the control group at any time, whereas quantitative bacterial culture did not detect any significant change in fecal bacteriology in either of the groups. The results suggest that an uncooked extreme vegan diet alters the fecal bacterial flora significantly when it is measured by direct stool sample GLC of bacterial fatty acids. PMID:1482187

  8. Performance of computed tomographic urography in diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, in patients presenting with hematuria: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlapoutakis, Konstantinos [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Theocharopoulos, Nicholas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Natural Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 140, 71004 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Yarmenitis, Spyros [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: damilaki@med.uoc.gr

    2010-02-15

    Computed tomographic urography (CTU) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging technique, which combines the diagnostic advantages introduced by helical tomographic imaging, with the established technique of imaging during the renal excretory phase, into one single examination. Increasing availability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) units, further promotes the technique as the 'one-stop-shop' for the imaging investigation of patients with haematuria. We reviewed and meta-analyzed published literature, in order to evaluate the performance of CTU for the detection of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. CTU proved to be a very sensitive and specific method for the detection of urothelial malignancy, with sensitivity ranging between 88% and 100%, and specificity between 93% and 100%. Pooled sensitivity was 96% (95% CI: 88-100%) and pooled specificity was 99% (95% CI: 98-100%). Direct comparison of the method with intravenous urography (IVU), confirmed the superiority of CTU over IVU in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Major drawbacks of CTU are increased radiation risk, injection of iodinated contrast media which may potentially be accompanied by serious side effects and increased cost, estimated as roughly three times that of IVU. According to our study, CTU is the method of choice for the detection of pathology in 'high risk' haematuria patients, i.e. patients older than 40 years of age presenting with gross haematuria.

  9. Tomographic Neutron Imaging using SIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor, Jens [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Neutron imaging is complementary to x-ray imaging in that materials such as water and plastic are highly attenuating while material such as metal is nearly transparent. We showcase tomographic imaging of a diesel particulate filter. Reconstruction is done using a modified version of SIRT called PSIRT. We expand on previous work and introduce Tikhonov regularization. We show that near-optimal relaxation can still be achieved. The algorithmic ideas apply to cone beam x-ray CT and other inverse problems.

  10. Tomographic imaging with polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y; Zacharakis, Giannis; Spiliopoulos, George; Favicchio, Rosy; Correia, Teresa; Arridge, Simon R; Ripoll, Jorge

    2012-06-01

    We report three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of optical parameters for the mesoscopic light scattering regime from experimentally obtained datasets by using polarized light. We present a numerically inexpensive approximation to the radiative transfer equation governing the polarized light transport. This approximation is employed in the reconstruction algorithm, which computes two optical parameters by using parallel and perpendicular polarizations of transmitted light. Datasets were obtained by imaging a scattering phantom embedding highly absorbing inclusions. Reconstruction results are presented and discussed.

  11. Computerized voiding diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1993-01-01

    An electronic, computerized voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (patent pending) was developed in order to simplify, augment, and automate patients' recording of bladder symptomatology. A voiding diary as a tool has the potential to provide essential information for a more complete diagnostic and therefore therapeutic picture for each patient. Two major problems with the standard written voiding diary have been a lack of patient compliance and the limited amount of information it garners. Twenty-five women with various types of voiding dysfunctions were compared to twenty-five age and parity-matched control women in order to determine patient preferences of the Compu-Void when compared to the standard written voiding diary, compliance with each method, and amount and quality of information obtained with each method. Over 90% of subjects and over 70% of control group patients preferred the Compu-Void over the written diary (P Compu-Void exceeded that obtained with the written method.

  12. Computerizing natural history collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs.

  13. [Improvement in the efficiency of an ambulatory service case load by applying a computerized method (patient flow analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, G; Canciani, G P; de Luyk, S; Parco, S; Visconti, P; Grandolfo, M; Mangiarotti, M A

    1984-03-01

    The authors describe the application of a technique called Patient Flow Analysis aimed at the improvement of Clinic Personnel efficiency and reduction of patient waiting time. Results were satisfactory and encourage further experiences.

  14. Bell's inequalities in the tomographic representation

    CERN Document Server

    Lupo, C; Marmo, G

    2006-01-01

    The tomographic approach to quantum mechanics is revisited as a direct tool to investigate violation of Bell-like inequalities. Since quantum tomograms are well defined probability distributions, the tomographic approach is emphasized to be the most natural one to compare the predictions of classical and quantum theory. Examples of inequalities for two qubits an two qutrits are considered in the tomographic probability representation of spin states.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a nurse-centered computerized potassium regulation protocol in the intensive care unit - a before and after analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Iwan CC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potassium disorders can cause major complications and must be avoided in critically ill patients. Regulation of potassium in the intensive care unit (ICU requires potassium administration with frequent blood potassium measurements and subsequent adjustments of the amount of potassium administrated. The use of a potassium replacement protocol can improve potassium regulation. For safety and efficiency, computerized protocols appear to be superior over paper protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a computerized potassium regulation protocol in the ICU improved potassium regulation. Methods In our surgical ICU (12 beds and cardiothoracic ICU (14 beds at a tertiary academic center, we implemented a nurse-centered computerized potassium protocol integrated with the pre-existent glucose control program called GRIP (Glucose Regulation in Intensive Care patients. Before implementation of the computerized protocol, potassium replacement was physician-driven. Potassium was delivered continuously either by central venous catheter or by gastric, duodenal or jejunal tube. After every potassium measurement, nurses received a recommendation for the potassium administration rate and the time to the next measurement. In this before-after study we evaluated potassium regulation with GRIP. The attitude of the nursing staff towards potassium regulation with computer support was measured with questionnaires. Results The patient cohort consisted of 775 patients before and 1435 after the implementation of computerized potassium control. The number of patients with hypokalemia (5.0 mmol/L were recorded, as well as the time course of potassium levels after ICU admission. The incidence of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia was calculated. Median potassium-levels were similar in both study periods, but the level of potassium control improved: the incidence of hypokalemia decreased from 2.4% to 1.7% (P Conclusions Computerized potassium control

  16. Neural network analysis of crosshole tomographic images: The seismic signature of gas hydrate bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Pratt, R. G.; Haberland, C.; Weber, M.

    2008-10-01

    Crosshole seismic experiments were conducted to study the in-situ properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS) in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). Seismic tomography provided images of P velocity, anisotropy, and attenuation. Self-organizing maps (SOM) are powerful neural network techniques to classify and interpret multi-attribute data sets. The coincident tomographic images are translated to a set of data vectors in order to train a Kohonen layer. The total gradient of the model vectors is determined for the trained SOM and a watershed segmentation algorithm is used to visualize and map the lithological clusters with well-defined seismic signatures. Application to the Mallik data reveals four major litho-types: (1) GHBS, (2) sands, (3) shale/coal interlayering, and (4) silt. The signature of seismic P wave characteristics distinguished for the GHBS (high velocities, strong anisotropy and attenuation) is new and can be used for new exploration strategies to map and quantify gas hydrates.

  17. A novel flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph for early melanoma detection, skin analysis, testing of anti-age products, and in situ nanoparticle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2010-02-01

    High-resolution 3D microscopy based on multiphoton induced autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been introduced in 1990. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have first been launched by JenLab company with the tomography DermaInspect®. This year, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel multiphoton tomograph MPTflex, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. Improved image quality and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are achieved by a very short source-drain spacing, by larger active areas of the detectors and by single photon counting (SPC) technology. Shorter image acquisition time due to improved image quality reduces artifacts and simplifies the operation of the system. The compact folded optical design and the light-weight structure of the optical head eases the handling. Dual channel detectors enable to distinguish between intratissue elastic fibers and collagenous structures simultaneously. Through the use of piezo-driven optics a stack of optical cross-sections (optical sectioning) can be acquired and 3D imaging can be performed. The multiphoton excitation of biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin is done by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key femtosescond near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid high-quality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research.

  18. Cone-beam computerized tomography imaging and analysis of the upper airway: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijarro-Martinez, R.; Swennen, G.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature concerning upper airway imaging and analysis using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed. A PubMed search (National Library of Medicine, NCBI; revised 9th January 2011) yielded 382 papers published between 1968 and 2010. The 382 full papers were scr

  19. A Project to Develop and Evaluate a Computerized System for Instructional Response Analysis; Project SIRA. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, J.A., Jr.

    Project SIRA (System for Instructional Response Analysis) used a systems approach to develop a complete range of programs and techniques both for evaluation of student performance and for evaluation and revision of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) lesson material. By use of the PLATO computer-based instructional hardware system at the…

  20. A computerized system to conduct the Tweed-Merrifield analysis in orthodontics Sistema computadorizado para conduzir a análise de Tweed-Merrifield na ortodontia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Brandão Barreto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Precision in orthodontic diagnosis can increase the chance of therapeutic success. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a computerized system (prototype, created from a printed table of the Cranial Facial Analysis and Total Dentition Space Analysis with Difficulty Index - Tweed-Merrifield Analysis - in order to aid orthodontic diagnosis. The analysis was transposed from the manual format to the digital format. A user-logical and clear interface was sought for the development of the prototype, consisting of tables and graphs, including automatic, fast and accurate calculations. The result was the immediate visualization of the resolution of the analysis after filling out the fields on the computer. This technological innovation can be a helpful instrument for the orthodontist that favors a more accurate dental-cranial-facial analysis, increases patient safety, orients conduct and may contribute to teaching and research.A precisão no diagnóstico ortodôntico pode aumentar a chance de êxito terapêutico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever o desenvolvimento de um sistema computadorizado (protótipo, criado a partir de uma tabela impressa da Análise Craniofacial e Análise do Espaço Total com o Índice de Dificuldade - Análise de Tweed-Merrifield, que visa auxiliar o diagnóstico ortodôntico. Foi aplicada a transposição da análise do formato manual para o digital. Buscou-se uma interface lógica e simples para o desenvolvimento do protótipo, composta por tabelas e gráficos, incluindo a realização de cálculos automáticos rápidos e precisos. O resultado foi a visualização imediata da resolução da análise, após o preenchimento dos campos no computador. Essa inovação tecnológica pode ser um instrumento de auxílio ao ortodontista, favorecendo a obtenção de um diagnóstico dentocraniofacial mais acurado, aumentando a segurança do paciente, orientando a conduta e pode contribuir para o ensino e

  1. Effects of a computerized provider order entry and a clinical decision support system to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis: a cost saving analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura LM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients’ needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation, where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD, crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days. We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. Results: In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised >95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05. In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. Conclusion: The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs.

  2. Computerized detection of noncalcified plaques in coronary CT angiography: Evaluation of topological soft gradient prescreening method and luminal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun, E-mail: jvwei@umich.edu; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The buildup of noncalcified plaques (NCPs) that are vulnerable to rupture in coronary arteries is a risk for myocardial infarction. Interpretation of coronary CT angiography (cCTA) to search for NCP is a challenging task for radiologists due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries, and multiple phase CT acquisition. The authors conducted a preliminary study to develop machine learning method for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. Methods: With IRB approval, a data set of 83 ECG-gated contrast enhanced cCTA scans with 120 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. A multiscale coronary artery response and rolling balloon region growing (MSCAR-RBG) method was applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary arterial trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for NCP candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. The NCP candidates were then characterized by a luminal analysis that used 3D geometric features to quantify the shape information and gray-level features to evaluate the density of the NCP candidates. With machine learning techniques, useful features were identified and combined into an NCP score to differentiate true NCPs from false positives (FPs). To evaluate the effectiveness of the image analysis methods, the authors performed tenfold cross-validation with the available data set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the classification performance of individual features and the NCP score. The overall detection performance was estimated by free response ROC (FROC) analysis. Results: With our TSG prescreening method, a prescreening sensitivity of 92.5% (111/120) was achieved with a total of 1181 FPs (14.2 FPs/scan). On average, six features

  3. Characterization and classification of tumor lesions using computerized fractal-based texture analysis and support vector machines in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Shao, Jiaqing; Ruiz, Virginie F

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of fractal-based methods for texture characterization of mammographic mass lesions and architectural distortion. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of fractal and lacunarity analysis for the characterization and classification of both tumor lesions and normal breast parenchyma in mammography. We conducted comparative evaluations of five popular fractal dimension estimation methods for the characterization of the texture of mass lesions and architectural distortion. We applied the concept of lacunarity to the description of the spatial distribution of the pixel intensities in mammographic images. These methods were tested with a set of 57 breast masses and 60 normal breast parenchyma (dataset1), and with another set of 19 architectural distortions and 41 normal breast parenchyma (dataset2). Support vector machines (SVM) were used as a pattern classification method for tumor classification. Experimental results showed that the fractal dimension of region of interest (ROIs) depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion was statistically significantly lower than that of normal breast parenchyma for all five methods. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that fractional Brownian motion (FBM) method generated the highest area under ROC curve (A ( z ) = 0.839 for dataset1, 0.828 for dataset2, respectively) among five methods for both datasets. Lacunarity analysis showed that the ROIs depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion had higher lacunarities than those of ROIs depicting normal breast parenchyma. The combination of FBM fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded the highest A ( z ) value (0.903 and 0.875, respectively) than those based on single feature alone for both given datasets. The application of the SVM improved the performance of the fractal-based features in differentiating tumor lesions from normal breast parenchyma by generating higher A ( z ) value. FBM texture model is the

  4. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  5. DARE: Unesco Computerized Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences (Including an Analysis of the Present System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Paul

    The new data retrieval system for the social sciences which has recently been installed in the UNESCO Secretariat in Paris is described in this comprehensive report. The computerized system is designed to facilitate the existing storage systems in the circulation of information, data retrieval, and indexing services. Basically, this report…

  6. Helicopter parameter extraction using joint Time-Frequency and Tomographic Techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique based on time-frequency and tomographic analysis to extract helicopter blade parameters for the purposes of radar non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) is investigated. The proposed algorithm shows that (under certain conditions...

  7. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  8. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery "BALE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Piza, Carolina M J; de Macedo, Elizeu C; Miranda, Monica C; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery ("BALE"): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning

  9. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery BALE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eToledo-Piza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44 drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: 1 an Age Control Group (AC of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44 matched by age, sex, years of schooling and type of school. 2 Reading Control Group (RC of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06 matched by sex, type of school and reading level. All groups were tested on 4 tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery (BALE: Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT; Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT; Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing; and the Reading Competence Test (RCT. These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling and reading isolated words and pseudowords (nonwords. The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. This findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning reading

  10. Sensitivity study of poisson corruption in tomographic measurements for air-water flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, P. (Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Saarbrucken (Germany)); Vaidya, M.S. (Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India))

    1993-01-01

    An application of computerized tomography (CT) for measuring void fraction profiles in two-phase air-water flows was reported earlier. Those attempts involved some special radial methods for tomographic reconstruction and the popular convolution backprojection (CBP) method. The CBP method is capable of reconstructing void profiles for nonsymmetric flows also. In this paper, we investigate the effect of corrupted CT data for gamma-ray sources and aCBP algorithm. The corruption in such a case is due to the statistical (Poisson) nature of the source.

  11. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuan, E-mail: chuan@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86

  12. Analysis of the of bones through 3D computerized tomography; Analise de estrutura ossea atraves de microtomografia computadorizada 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Oliveira, L.F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica; Alves, J.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2009-03-15

    This work shows the analysis of the internal structure of the bones samples through 3D micro tomography technique (3D-{mu}TC). The comprehension of the bone structure is particularly important when related to osteoporosis diagnosis because this implies in a deterioration of the trabecular bone architecture, which increases the fragility and the possibility to have bone fractures. Two bone samples (human calcaneous and Wistar rat femur) were used, and the method was a radiographic system in real time with an X Ray microfocus tube. The quantifications parameters are based on stereological principles and they are five: a bone volume fraction, trabecular number, the ratio between surface and bone volume, the trabecular thickness and the trabecular separation. The quantifications were done with a program developed especially for this purpose in Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory - COPPE/UFRJ. This program uses as input the 3D reconstructions images and generates a table with the quantifications. The results of the human calcaneous quantifications are presented in tables 1 and 2, and the 3D reconstructions are illustrated in Figure 5. The Figure 6 illustrate the 2D reconstructed image and the Figure 7 the 3D visualization respectively of the Wistar femur sample. The obtained results show that the 3D-{mu}TC is a powerful technique that can be used to analyze bone microstructures. (author)

  13. C2-fractures: part II. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Heiko; Acosta, Frank; Forstner, Rosemarie; Zenner, Juliane; Resch, Herbert; Tauber, Mark; Lederer, Stefan; Auffarth, Alexander; Hitzl, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    Knowledge on the outcome of C2-fractures is founded on heterogenous samples with cross-sectional outcome assessment focusing on union rates, complications and technical concerns related to surgical treatment. Reproducible clinical and functional outcome assessments are scant. Validated generic and disease specific outcome measures were rarely applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the radiographic, functional and clinical outcome of a patient sample with C2-fractures. Out of a consecutive series of 121 patients with C2 fractures, 44 met strict inclusion criteria and 35 patients with C2-fractures treated either nonsurgically or surgically with motion-preserving techniques were surveyed. Outcome analysis included validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSOQ), and a functional CT-scanning protocol for the evaluation of C1-2 rotation and alignment. Mean follow-up was 64 months and mean age of patients was 52 years. Classification of C2-fractures at injury was performed using a detailed morphological description: 24 patients had odontoid fractures type II or III, 18 patients had fracture patterns involving the vertebral body and 11 included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture. Thirty-one percent of patients were treated with a halo, 34% with a Philadelphia collar and 34% had anterior odontoid screw fixation. At follow-up mean atlantoaxial rotation in left and right head position was 20.2 degrees and 20.6 degrees, respectively. According to the classification system of posttreatment C2-alignment established by our group in part I of the C2-fracture study project, mean malunion score was 2.8 points. In 49% of patients the fractures healed in anatomical shape or with mild malalignment. In 51% fractures healed with moderate or severe malalignment. Self-rated outcome was excellent or good in 65% of patients and moderate or poor in 35%. The raw data of varying nuances allow for comparison in future benchmark studies and metaanalysis. Detailed

  14. Treatment of progressive keratoconus by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen: ultrastructural analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II in vivo confocal microscopy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Traversi, Claudio; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Tommasi, Cristina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To assess ultrastructural stromal modifications after riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in patients with progressive keratoconus. This was a second-phase prospective nonrandomized open study in 10 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by riboflavin-UVA-induced cross-linking of corneal collagen and assessed by means of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II Rostock Corneal Module (HRT II-RCM) in vivo confocal microscopy. The eye in the worst clinical condition was treated for each patient. Treatment under topical anesthesia included corneal deepithelization (9-mm diameter) and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin phosphate-20% dextran T 500 solution at 5 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for a total of 30 minutes. UVA irradiation was 7 mm in diameter. Patients were assessed by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy in vivo at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rarefaction of keratocytes in the anterior and intermediate stroma, associated with stromal edema, was observed immediately after treatment. The observation at 3 months after the operation detected keratocyte repopulation in the central treated area, whereas the edema had disappeared. Cell density increased progressively over the postoperative period. At approximately 6 months, keratocyte repopulation was complete, accompanied by increased density of stromal fibers. No endothelial damage was observed at any time. Reduction in anterior and intermediate stromal keratocytes followed by gradual repopulation has been confirmed directly in vivo in humans by HRT II-RCM confocal microscopy after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking.

  15. Comprehensive Detection, Grading, and Growth Behavior Evaluation of Subthreshold and Low Intensity Photocoagulation Lesions by Optical Coherence Tomographic and Infrared Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koinzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To correlate the long-term clinical effect of photocoagulation lesions after 6 months, as measured by their retinal damage size, to exposure parameters. We used optical coherence tomographic (OCT-based lesion classes in order to detect and assess clinically invisible and mild lesions. Methods. In this prospective study, 488 photocoagulation lesions were imaged in 20 patients. We varied irradiation diameters (100/300 µm, exposure-times (20–200 ms, and power. Intensities were classified in OCT images after one hour, and we evaluated OCT and infrared (IR images over six months after exposure. Results. For six consecutive OCT-based lesion classes, the following parameters increased with the class: ophthalmoscopic, OCT and IR visibility rate, fundus and OCT diameter, and IR area, but not irradiation power. OCT diameters correlated with exposure-time, irradiation diameter, and OCT class. OCT classes discriminated the largest bandwidth of OCT diameters. Conclusion. OCT classes represent objective and valid endpoints of photocoagulation intensity even for “subthreshold” intensities. They are suitable to calculate the treated retinal area. As the area is critical for treatment efficacy, OCT classes are useful to define treatment intensity, calculate necessary lesion numbers, and universally categorize lesions in clinical studies.

  16. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  17. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić Vojkan; Todorović Aleksandar; Živković Slavoljub; Martinović Željko

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder). Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter) that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, pre...

  18. Computerized Buckling Analysis of Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) June 1981 AF Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFSC) 13 NI•RfPA;ES Wright-Patterson Air Force BWse OH 45433...tures." The work was administered by Lt Col J. D. Morgan (AFOSR) and Dr N. S. Khot (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) The contract work was performed between October 1977 and

  19. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, G.C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. The angulation and the position change of the planned implant after tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To measure the differences of the splint pin angulation and the position of the planned implant site after conventional tomographic analysis. The angulation and the location of the metal splint pin retained in acrylic stent were compared with the corrected angulation and the location of the implant fixture on the 331 tomographic images. The stent pins were located buccal in 40%, lingual in 10% to the corrected implant site after analysis of the conventional tomographic image. The angle and the location of the maxillary splint pin were mainly directed buccal on incisor and canine regions. The angle and the location of the splint pins in premolar and molar regions needed less corrections in both maxilla and mandible. This study demonstrated that the use of tomographs was essential for successful dental implant planning.

  1. Analysis of the Computerized Accounting Information System Security Policy%浅析高校会计电算化信息系统安全策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少玲; 俞瑞华; 刘闫锋

    2013-01-01

    In recent years ,college computerized accounting information system is widely used in the fi-nancial management .At present ,the computerized accounting information system has not expected fac-tors ,human factors ,factors such as network security threat .This article is mainly talking about strengthe-ning the standard construction and management ,system management and control ,network security de-fense measures and how to improve the security of system itself to promote safe and effective development of computerized accounting information system .%近年来,高校会计电算化信息系统被广泛应用于财务管理中。目前高校会计电算化信息系统存在着非预期因素、人为因素、网络安全等因素的威胁,通过加强系统的规范建设与管理、人员的管理与控制、网络安全防御等措施提高系统自身的安全性,促进高校会计电算化信息系统的安全有效地发展。

  2. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  3. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  4. Tomographic probability representation for quantum fermion fields

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V A; Man'ko, V I; Son, Nguyen Hung; Thanh, Nguyen Cong; Timofeev, Yu P; Zakharov, S D

    2009-01-01

    Tomographic probability representation is introduced for fermion fields. The states of the fermions are mapped onto probability distribution of discrete random variables (spin projections). The operators acting on the fermion states are described by fermionic tomographic symbols. The product of the operators acting on the fermion states is mapped onto star-product of the fermionic symbols. The kernel of the star-product is obtained. The antisymmetry of the fermion states is formulated as the specific symmetry property of the tomographic joint probability distribution associated with the states.

  5. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  6. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  7. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  8. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Mandibular Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eswar

    2003-01-01

    Five interesting cases of mandibular ameloblastoma are presented here, each case showing different histological pattern and corresponding computer tomographic appearance. Also an attempt is made to establish CT pattern in these histological varieties of ameloblastoma.

  9. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  10. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4...

  11. Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Tekin; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; De Carlo, Francesco; Foster, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data on geographically distributed resources are focused on. Two main challenges are considered: (i) modeling of the performance of tomographic reconstruction workflows and (ii) transparent execution of these workflows on distributed resources. For the former, three main stages are considered: (i) data transfer between storage and computational resources, (i) wait/queue time of reconstruction jobs at compute resources, and (iii) computation of reconstruction tasks. These performance models allow evaluation and estimation of the execution time of any given iterative tomographic reconstruction workflow that runs on geographically distributed resources. For the latter challenge, a workflow management system is built, which can automate the execution of workflows and minimize the user interaction with the underlying infrastructure. The system utilizes Globus to perform secure and efficient data transfer operations. The proposed models and the workflow management system are evaluated by using three high-performance computing and two storage resources, all of which are geographically distributed. Workflows were created with different computational requirements using two compute-intensive tomographic reconstruction algorithms. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed models and system can be used for selecting the optimum resources, which in turn can

  12. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Linda Ludington

    1985-01-01

    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  13. Tomographic PIV: particles versus blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagnat, Frédéric; Cornic, Philippe; Cheminet, Adam; Leclaire, Benjamin; Le Besnerais, Guy; Plyer, Aurélien

    2014-08-01

    We present an alternative approach to tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) that seeks to recover nearly single voxel particles rather than blobs of extended size. The baseline of our approach is a particle-based representation of image data. An appropriate discretization of this representation yields an original linear forward model with a weight matrix built with specific samples of the system’s point spread function (PSF). Such an approach requires only a few voxels to explain the image appearance, therefore it favors much more sparsely reconstructed volumes than classic tomo-PIV. The proposed forward model is general and flexible and can be embedded in a classical multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) or a simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART) inversion procedure. We show, using synthetic PIV images and by way of a large exploration of the generating conditions and a variety of performance metrics, that the model leads to better results than the classical tomo-PIV approach, in particular in the case of seeding densities greater than 0.06 particles per pixel and of PSFs characterized by a standard deviation larger than 0.8 pixels.

  14. Computerized tomographic study on the brain of patients with alcohol dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akira (Biwako Hospital, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)); Tsuji, Motohiro; Nakamura, Michihiko; Nakajima, Teruo

    1991-03-01

    One hundred ten patients with alcohol dependence and 56 psychiatric patients with either senile dementia, amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or chronic schizophrenia were investigated with a CT scan of the brain. The maximum width of the 3rd ventricle was measured, and the presence/absence of enlargement of the lateral ventricle and of atrophy of the frontal lobe was determined independently by 3 physicians. The width of the 3rd ventricle in alcoholic and the other patients examined was gradually enlarged with aging, and the width in these patients was significantly larger than that in the age-matched control patients who were selected from the patients with amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or schizophrenia. The enlargement of the lateral ventricles observed in the alcoholic patients always accompanied the enlargement of the 3rd ventricle, but not vice versa. The alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy showed a higher incidence of withdrawal delirium than the patients without atrophy. These findings suggest that the chronic intake of alcohol might affect primarily the area around the 3rd ventricle, resulting in enlargement of this ventricle and consequential enlargement of the lateral ventricles and also that the alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy could have a high risk for a manifestation of alcoholic withdrawal delirium. (author).

  15. Current experience with computed tomographic cystography and blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, A J; Shaves, S; Talner, L; Porter, J R

    2001-12-01

    We present our experience with computed tomographic (CT) cystography for the diagnosis of bladder rupture in patients with blunt abdominal and pelvic trauma and compare the results of CT cystography to operative exploration. We identified all blunt trauma patients diagnosed with bladder rupture from January 1992 to September 1998. We also reviewed the radiology computerized information system (RIS) for all CT cystograms performed for the evaluation of blunt trauma during the same time period. The medical records and pertinent radiographs of the patients with bladder rupture who underwent CT cystography as part of their admission evaluation were reviewed. Operative findings were compared to radiographic findings. Altogether, 316 patients had CT cystograms as part of an initial evaluation for blunt trauma. Of these patients, 44 had an ultimate diagnosis of bladder rupture; 42 patients had CT cystograms indicating bladder rupture. A total of 28 patients underwent formal bladder exploration; 23 (82%) had operative findings that exactly (i.e., presence and type of rupture) matched the CT cystogram interpretation. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CT cystography for detection of bladder rupture were 95% and 100%, respectively. For intraperitoneal rupture, the sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 99%, respectively. CT cystography provides an expedient evaluation for bladder rupture caused by blunt trauma and has an accuracy comparable to that reported for plain film cystography. We recommend CT cystography over plain film cystography for patients undergoing CT evaluation for other blunt trauma-related injuries.

  16. Analysis of the Reform of Computerized Accounting Course in the Vocational College%高职电算化会计课程改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞玲

    2011-01-01

    高职院校电算化会计课程是一门实践性很强的课程。作为一门会计电算化专业的核心课程,在教学中存在很多难点。从教学内容、教材选用、教学方式、考核方式、软件种类的选用,师资队伍的建设进行改革,从而提高教学效果是很有必要的。%In vocational college,computerized accounting course is a very practical course.As a core curriculum of the major of computerized accounting,there are many difficulties during teaching process.So if we would like to improve its teaching effectiveness,it is necessary to reform it from the teaching contents,materials selection,teaching methods,assessment methods,the selection of software types and the teachers construction.

  17. Comparison among tomographic reconstruction with limited data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eric F.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Vasconcelos, Daniel A.A.; Cadiz, Luis F., E-mail: ccd@ufpe.br [Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN). Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Silvio B., E-mail: sbm@cin.ufpe.br [Informatic Center (CIN), Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays there is a continuing interest in applying computed tomography (CT) techniques in non-destructive testing and inspection of many industrial products. These applications of CT usually require a differentiated analysis when there are strong limitations in acquiring a sufficiently large amount of projection data. The use of a low number of tomographic data normally degrades the quality of the reconstructed image, highlighting the formation of artifacts and noise. This work investigates the reconstruction methods most commonly used (FBP, ART, SIRT, MART, SMART) and shows the performance of each one in this limited scenario. For this purpose, all methods were implemented and tested with a phantom of uniform density with well-known distribution, with measures of transmission of gamma radiation in a first generation CT scanner. The phantom is a concentric stainless steel tube coupled with a half - cylinder of aluminum. The measurements were made with an highest root mean square error, with the formation of visible artifacts. The artifacts are diminished but still visible in the ART and SIRT techniques, and the best performance was observed with the techniques MART and SMART. The technical superiority of these multiplicative methods is clearly seen in the reconstructed image quality, endorsing their application to situations of limited input data. (author)

  18. Automatic computerized radiographic identification of cephalometric landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D J; Sinclair, P M; Coggins, J M

    1998-02-01

    Computerized cephalometric analysis currently requires manual identification of landmark locations. This process is time-consuming and limited in accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel method for automatic computer identification of cephalometric landmarks. Spatial spectroscopy (SS) is a computerized method that identifies image structure on the basis of a convolution of the image with a set of filters followed by a decision method using statistical pattern recognition techniques. By this method, characteristic features are used to recognize anatomic structures. This study compared manual identification on a computer monitor and the SS automatic method for landmark identification on minimum resolution images (0.16 cm2 per pixel). Minimum resolution (defined as the lowest resolution at which a cephalometric structure could be identified) was used to reduce computational time and memory requirements during this development stage of the SS method. Fifteen landmarks were selected on a set of 14 test images. The results showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in mean landmark identification errors between manual identification on the computer display and automatic identification using SS. We conclude that SS shows potential for the automatic detection of landmarks, which is an important step in the development of a completely automatic cephalometric analysis.

  19. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  20. Evaluation of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging and computed tomographic angiography on traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fang-hong; CHEN Wei-jian; YANG Yun-jun; DUAN Yu-xia; FU Feng-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging (MSCTPI) and multislice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) on traumatic cerebral infarction. Methods: MSCTA was performed on 10 patients who were initiailly diagnosed as traumatic cerebral infarction by normal conventional computed tomography (NCCT), among whom, 3 patients were examined by MSCTPI simultaneously. Reconstructed images of the intracranial artery were made with techniques of maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) from MSCTA scanning data. Then the graph of function of four parameters, regional cerebral blood flow (Rcbf), regional cerebral blood volume (Rcbv), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP), acquired by the perfusing analysis software was obtained. Results: Among the 10 patients with traumatic cerebral infarction, 6 showed complex type on NCCT, which depicted abnormality on MSCTA, and 4 showed simple type on NCCT, which had negative results on MSCTA. Among the 4 patients with abnormal great vessels, 2 suffered from steno sis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 1 from spasm of the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 from spasm of the vertebral-basal artery. The image of MSCTPI of 1 patient with massive cerebral infarction on the right cerebral hemisphere confirmed by CT was smaller than those of the other patients, which showed occlusion of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on MSCTA. Among the 6 patients whose MSCTA showed no abnormality, 4 showed simple infarction and 2 showed complex infarction. The infarction focus of 5 patients occurred in the basal ganglia and 1 in the splenium of corpus callosum. Among the 2 cases of small cerebral infarction volume on NCCT, one was normal, the other showed hypoperfusion on MSCTPI and was normal on MSCTA. Conclusion: The combination of MSCTPI and MSCTA is very useful for evaluating the change of intracranial artery in ischemic regions and assessing the cerebral

  1. A quantitative evaluation of brain computerized tomography in children using color image analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamatani, Miwa; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongoh, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Konishi, Tohru; Okada, Toshio (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutifal Univ. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We attempted the quantitative analysis of brain computerized tomographic (CT) scans in children using color image analyzer. A consecutive series of 167 CT scans were reviewed. Areas of subarachnoid space, cavum, ventricle and cerebellum were measured on three slices: A slice is at the level of head of caudate nucleus, anterior horn of lateral ventricle and third ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. C slice is at the level of sella turcica and pons. We investigated these values compared with Evans ratio, Cella Media Index, cerebellar atrophy score and visual evaluation. Serial brain CT scans of 8 patients with infantile spasm were evaluated for the assessment of the brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. The ratios of subarachnoid space/intracranial area on A and B slices (SAS A%, SAS B%) were significantly higher in the patients with severe brain atrophy. There were linear relationships between Evans ratio and SAS A%(r=0.405, p<0.001), Cella Media Index and the ratio of the lateral ventricle/intracranial area on B slice (r=-0.501, p<0.001), and the cerebellar atrophy score by Une and SAS C% (r=0.369, p<0.001). In the normal patients, the values of SAS A% and SAS B% were much greater in less than 1.5 years old children. These results suggest that the trend of CT findings related to age may reflect physiological changes of the space between the skull and the brain with age. Brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy was more pronounced in the subarachnoid space than the ventricle. The prognosis of infantile spasm concerning convulsive attacks was relatively good in patients with severely brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. Quantitative analysis of brain CT scans seemed to be available to clinical and objective evaluations. (author).

  2. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  3. Análise Computadorizada da Cardiotocografia Anteparto em Gestações de Alto Risco Computerized Antepartum Cardiotocography Analysis in High Risk Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar a freqüência dos resultados das cardiotocografias computadorizadas realizadas em gestantes de alto risco e relacionar o critério proposto pelo sistema com os resultados perinatais. Métodos: estudamos prospectivamente 233 gestantes de alto risco que realizaram 485 cardiotocografias computadorizadas. Foram excluídos casos de anomalias fetais e os exames com perda de sinal superior a 20% (proporção de episódios de 3,75 milissegundos do traçado onde não se constata intervalo de pulso por perda de captação dos sinais de batimentos cardíacos fetais. Para estudo da associação da cardiotocografia com os resultados perinatais, analisou-se o último exame realizado na semana anterior ao parto (71 casos, excluindo-se casos com diagnóstico de diástole zero ou reversa na dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais. Resultados: após a exclusão de 33 exames com perda de sinal superior a 20%, constatou-se que 404 cardiotocografias foram caracterizadas como normais (83,3%. Quanto à duração do exame, em 62,1% foi de até 20 minutos e em 79,0% de até 30 minutos. A análise das correlações com os resultados perinatais demonstrou associação significativa (pPurpose: to study computerized cardiotocography performed in high-risk pregnancies, analyze the results, and correlate the criteria to perinatal results. Patients and Methods: two hundred and thirty-three high-risk pregnancies were studied prospectively, performing a total of 485 computerized cardiotocographies. The exclusion criteria included fetal anomalies and signal loss over 20% (proportion of 3.75-millisecond periods in which there were no valid pulse intervals. The perinatal results of 71 pregnancies were correlated to the last cardiotocography, performed at least seven days before birth, excluding patients with absent or reversed end diastolic velocities in the umbilical arteries. Results: thirty-three examinations with signal loss over 20% were excluded. The

  4. Computerized tomography. Yesterday and today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D. (Montreal Neurological Inst., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-10-01

    This presentation describes the evolution of computerized tomography over the past decade and its contribution to the radiologic investigation of neurologic disorders. This new technique has not only stimulated development in the diagnosis of cerebral diseases, but the whole body as well. Detailed investigation of the spine, spinal cord, sella turcica, the orbits, as well as the petrous pyramids has been made possible through the development of high resolution scanning.

  5. [Computerizing the radiological sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaud, V; Belhadj, I; Dameron, O; Garcelon, N; Hendaoui, L; Marin, F; Duvauferrier, R

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present to the radiologist the different theories of the sign and their consequences for sign representation in computer systems. All the theories of the sign are presented, but the most relevant are highlighted in order to explain the great modeling systems currently in use (such as DICOM-SR or the UMLS). The constructivist approach of the notion of disease, the semiosis process, which starting from signs produces new signs, and the structuralist analysis of sign through language are emphasized. The purpose of this analysis is to end up with a consensual representation of the sign that can be understood by human beings and processed by machines. Such a representation, also known as an ontology, is based on a semantic organization of language, thus allowing medicine to become a truly scientific discipline. It aims at disambiguating the symbols given to machines, which will help us in our reasoning.

  6. Computerized sociometric and peer assessment: An empirical and practical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis and comparison was conducted of the psychometric properties of standard (paper-and-pencil) and computerized sociometry and peer assessments. The standard assessment took place with 817 children (47.5% boys) in 34 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms of 28 elementary schools. The c

  7. NCLEX-RN Performance: Predicting Success on the Computerized Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Julie Keith; Beeman, Pamela Butler

    2001-01-01

    Discriminant analysis was used to identify variables predictive of success in the computerized National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses with data from 289 nursing graduates. Using seven significant predictors, 94% of passes and 92% of failures were correctly identified. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  8. Radiation dose in neurological computed tomographic scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R.C.; Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.A.; Glaze, S.A.

    1979-07-01

    Patient dose and dose distribution during neurologicl computed tomography examinations were determined with five different computed tomography scanners. Maximum intracranial doses ranged from 1.17 to 2.67 rads. Doses to the lens of the eye ranged from 0.23 to 2.81 rads. These levels are considered and compared with patient doses reported for other computed tomography studies and for conventional tomographic examinations. In general, patient dose during computer tomographic examinations is less than one quarter of that during conventional tomography of the head.

  9. Quality of drug prescribing in elderly people in nursing homes and special care units for dementia: a cross-sectional computerized pharmacy register analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonny; Bergman, Asa; Carlsten, Anders; Oké, Thimothy; Bernsten, Cecilia; Schmidt, Ingrid K; Fastbom, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Drug prescribing to the elderly is extensive and often inappropriate. Furthermore, the number of drugs used is the most important risk factor for adverse drug reactions. Despite this, drug prescribing in the elderly in Sweden is high and increasing. In 2003 the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare launched a set of indicators to evaluate the quality of drug therapy in the elderly. Use of this tool in combination with the Swedish computerized national register covering all persons receiving multi-dose drug dispensing (drugs dispensed in one dose unit bag for each dose occasion) would enable detection of inappropriate drug prescribing and could help reduce the risk of drug-related problems among the elderly. To assess the extent and quality of drug prescribing in younger and older elderly residents receiving multi-dose drug dispensing in ordinary nursing homes (NHs) and special care units for dementia (NHDs), and to evaluate the relationship between the quality of prescribing and the number of prescribers per resident, in a Swedish county. The computerized national pharmacy drug register provided the database and a cross-sectional design was used. Selected drug-specific quality indicators proposed by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2003 were used to assess the quality of drug prescribing. This study included 3705 residents. Their mean age was 85 years and 72% were women. The mean number of prescribed drugs was 10.3 per resident. The proportion of residents with prescriptions for psychotropic drugs was 80% in NHs and 85% in NHDs. The prevalence of each drug-specific quality indicator was as follows: long-acting benzodiazepines 16.4% (NHs) versus 11.7% (NHDs), anticholinergic drugs 20.7% versus 18.5%, drug duplication 14.6% versus 13.6%, three or more psychotropic drugs 25.6% versus 35.3%, class C interactions (drug combinations that may require dose adjustment) 41.9% versus 38.7% and class D interactions (drug combinations that should be

  10. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    dyspnea and functional disability. Computer-aided tomographic analysis is computationally efficient, and in combination with physiologic and patient-centred measures, it could allow a means for accurately assessing and monitoring the disease progression or response to therapy.

  11. Computerized history-taking as a tool to manage dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakim, David; Fritz, Christine; Braun, Niko; Fritz, Peter; Alscher, M Dominik

    2010-11-12

    Validated guidelines to manage low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol are utilized inconsistently or not at all even though their application lowers the incidence of coronary events. New approaches are needed, therefore, to implement these guidelines in everyday practice. We compared an automated method for applying The National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) guidelines with results from routine care for managing LDL-cholesterol. The automated method comprised computerized history-taking and analysis of historical data without physician input. Results from routine care were determined for 213 unselected patients and compared with results from interviews of the same 213 patients by a computerized history-taking program. Data extracted from hospital charts showed that routine care typically did not collect sufficient information to stratify risk and assign treatment targets for LDL-cholesterol and that there were inconsistencies in identifying patients with normal or elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol in relation to risk. The computerized interview program outperformed routine care in collecting historical data relevant to stratifying risk, assigning treatment targets, and clarifying the presence of hypercholesterolemia relative to risk. Computerized history-taking coupled with automated analysis of the clinical data can outperform routine medical care in applying NCEP guidelines for stratifying risk and identifying patients with hypercholesterolemia in relation to risk.

  12. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  13. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 815 Technical Report AREIS-TR-16006 HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF MUNITIONS...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED...otherwise be accomplished by other nondestructive testing methods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiography High energy Computed tomography (CT

  14. Quantum probability measures and tomographic probability densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amosov, GG; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Using a simple relation of the Dirac delta-function to generalized the theta-function, the relationship between the tomographic probability approach and the quantum probability measure approach with the description of quantum states is discussed. The quantum state tomogram expressed in terms of the

  15. Tomographic Heating Holder for In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Fernández, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    A tomographic heating holder for transmission electron microscopy that can be used to study supported catalysts at temperatures of up to ~1,500°C is described. The specimen is placed in direct thermal contact with a tungsten filament that is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the holder withou...

  16. Tomographic image reconstruction from continuous projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cant, J.; Palenstijn, W.J.; Behiels, G.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-01-01

    An important design aspect in tomographic image reconstruction is the choice between a step-and-shoot protocol versus continuous X-ray tube movement for image acquisition. A step-and-shoot protocol implies a perfectly still tube during X-ray exposure, and hence involves moving the tube to its next p

  17. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...

  18. Marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root dentin surface with orthograde/retrograde application techniques: A microcomputed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fouzan, Khalid; Awadh, Mohammed; Badwelan, Moahmmed; Gamal, Abeer; Geevarghese, Amrita; Babhair, Samar; Al-Rejaie, Mansour; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Rotstein, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a good apical seal for root canals is known to be associated with good mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) adaptation to dentin. This study aims to compare the marginal adaptation of MTA with root dentin between orthograde and retrograde application techniques using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Fifty-two single-rooted human teeth were divided into four equal groups: (Group 1) Retrograde MTA (RMTA), (Group 2) Orthograde MTA (OMTA), (Group 3) Etched RMTA (ERMTA), and (Group 4) Etched OMTA (EOMTA). For Group 1, 3-mm retrograde cavities were prepared and filled with MTA. For Group 2, the apical 6 mm of the canals were filled with MTA and sealed with sealer cement and warm gutta-percha. In Groups 3 and 4, canals were treated the same as Groups 1 and 2, respectively, except that before placing the MTA, canals were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After 48 hours, all the teeth were analyzed using a micro-CT scanner. Mean dentin-MTA contact and the mean length and width of each gap was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was set at an α level of 5%. No significant difference in gap volumes was observed in the dentin-MTA adaptation in both orthograde and retrograde application techniques. However, significant difference in the gap volumes was observed between RMTA and ERMTA (P = 0.045). Etching significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation (P MTA adaptation, instead with the use of 17% EDTA, a significant improvement could be achieved. Within the limitations of the present study, it concludes that MTA adaptation to dentin tooth structure is not significantly different between an orthograde and retrograde approach. However, the use of EDTA significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation.

  19. Micro-computed tomographic analysis of the radial geometry of intrarenal artery-vein pairs in rats and rabbits: Comparison with light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Jennifer P; Le, Bianca; Khan, Zohaib; Kett, Michelle M; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W; Melhem, Mayer M; Maksimenko, Anton; Pearson, James T; Evans, Roger G

    2017-08-10

    We assessed the utility of synchrotron-radiation micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for quantification of the radial geometry of the renal cortical vasculature. The kidneys of nine rats and six rabbits were perfusion fixed and the renal circulation filled with Microfil. In order to assess shrinkage of Microfil, rat kidneys were imaged at the Australian Synchrotron immediately upon tissue preparation and then post fixed in paraformaldehyde and reimaged 24 hours later. The Microfil shrank only 2-5% over the 24 hour period. All subsequent micro-CT imaging was completed within 24 hours of sample preparation. After micro-CT imaging, the kidneys were processed for histological analysis. In both rat and rabbit kidneys, vascular structures identified in histological sections could be identified in two-dimensional (2D) micro-CT images from the original kidney. Vascular morphology was similar in the two sets of images. Radial geometry quantified by manual analysis of 2D images from micro-CT was consistent with corresponding data generated by light microscopy. However, due to limited spatial resolution when imaging a whole organ using contrast-enhanced micro-CT, only arteries ≥100 and ≥60 μm in diameter, for the rat and rabbit respectively, could be assessed. We conclude that it is feasible and valid to use micro-CT to quantify vascular geometry of the renal cortical circulation in both the rat and rabbit. However, a combination of light microscopic and micro-CT approaches are required to evaluate the spatial relationships between intrarenal arteries and veins over an extensive range of vessel size. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Impact of cavity and infiltration on pulmonary function and health-related quality of life in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tomographic control for wide field AO systems on extremely large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Conan, J.-M.; Fusco, T.; Neichel, B.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate in this article tomographic control using both Laser and Natural Guide Stars (LGS and NGS) in the particular framework of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) modules design. A similar global control strategy has been indeed derived for both the Laser Tomographic Adaptive Optics (LTAO) and Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) modules of the E-ELT, due to similar constraints. This control strategy leads in both cases to a split control of low order modes measured thanks to NGS and high order modes measured thanks to LGS. We investigate here this split tomographic control, compared to an optimal coupled solution. To support our analysis, a dedicated simulation code has been developed. Indeed, due to the huge complexity of the EELT, fast simulation tools must be considered to explore quickly the tomographic issues. We describe our control strategy which has lead to considering split tomographic control. First results on Tomography for E-ELT WFAO systems are then presented and discussed.

  2. Detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the acute setting: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of multi-detector computed tomographic angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarno Giovanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA has been increasingly used in the evaluation of the coronary arteries. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the diagnostic performance of MDCTA in the acute setting, for the detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and unstable angina pectoris (UAP. Methods A Pubmed and manual search of the literature published between January 2000 and June 2007 was performed. Studies were included that compared MDCTA with clinical outcome and/or CA in patients with acute chest pain, presenting at the emergency department. More specifically, studies that only included patients with initially negative cardiac enzymes suspected of having NSTEMI or UAP were included. Summary estimates of diagnostic odds ratio (DOR, sensitivity and specificity, negative (NLR and positive likelihood ratio (PLR were calculated on a patient basis. Random-effects models and summary receiver operating curve (SROC analysis were used to assess the diagnostic performance of MDCTA with 4 detectors or more. The proportion of non assessable scans (NAP on MDCTA was also evaluated. In addition, the influence of study characteristics of each study on diagnostic performance and NAP was investigated with multivariable logistic regression. Results Nine studies totalling 566 patients, were included in the meta-analysis: one randomised trial and eight prospective cohort studies. Five studies on 64-detector MDCTA and 4 studies on MDCTA with less than 64 detectors were included (32 detectors n = 1, 16 detectors n = 2, 16 and 4 detectors n = 1. Pooled DOR was 131.81 (95%CI, 50.90–341.31. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95%CI, 0.90–0.98 and 0.90 (95%CI, 0.87–0.93. The pooled NLR and PLR were 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06–0.21 and 8,60 (95%CI, 5.03–14,69. The results of the logistic regressions showed that none of the investigated variables had influence on the diagnostic

  3. Differentiation of Glioblastomas from Metastatic Brain Tumors by Tryptophan Uptake and Kinetic Analysis: A Positron Emission Tomographic Study with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kamson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating high-grade gliomas from solitary brain metastases is often difficult by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; molecular imaging may facilitate such discrimination. We tested the accuracy of α[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT–positron emission tomography (PET to differentiate newly diagnosed glioblastomas from brain metastases. AMT-PET was performed in 36 adults with suspected brain malignancy. Tumoral AMT accumulation was measured by standardized uptake values (SUVs. Tracer kinetic analysis was also performed to separate tumoral net tryptophan transport (by AMT volume of distribution [VD] from unidirectional uptake rates using dynamic PET and blood input function. Differentiating the accuracy of these PET variables was evaluated and compared to conventional MRI. For glioblastoma/metastasis differentiation, tumoral AMT SUV showed the highest accuracy (74% and the tumor/cortex VD ratio had the highest positive predictive value (82%. The combined accuracy of MRI (size of contrast-enhancing lesion and AMT-PET reached up to 93%. For ring-enhancing lesions, tumor/cortex SUV ratios were higher in glioblastomas than in metastatic tumors and could differentiate these two tumor types with > 90% accuracy. These results demonstrate that evaluation of tryptophan accumulation by PET can enhance pretreatment differentiation of glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors. This approach may be particularly useful in patients with a newly diagnosed solitary ring-enhancing mass.

  4. A comparative evaluation of root canal area increase using three different nickel-titanium rotary systems: An ex vivo cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the area increase of root canals with ProTaper, iRaCe and Revo-S systems using cone beam computed tomography for analysis. Materials and Methodology: Forty five extracted human mandibular premolars having single canal and straight root were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15. Samples were decoronized by maintaining root length at 14 mm. Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scan was done after stabilizing the samples on wax blocks. The working length was determined at 1 mm short from the apical foramen by using a ISO 15 K-file tip protruding at apical foramen. Preparation was carried out according to the manufacturer′s instructions. Finally, canals were instrumented upto 30/.06 apically for each group. After each instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with 2ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by 2 ml of 17% EDTA solution. Final irrigation was done with 5ml of saline. Post instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scans of all samples in the 3 groups were acquired. Results: Mean percentage of area increase in different thirds of the canal was highest for ProTaper followed by i-RaCe and Revo-s system which was statistically significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: Root canal area increase was highest for ProTaper followed by i-Race and Revo-S systems.

  5. Computerized video time-lapse (CVTL) analysis of cell death kinetics in human bladder carcinoma cells (EJ30) X-irradiated in different phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth; Leonhardt, Edith A; Trinh, Maxine; Prieur-Carrillo, Geraldine; Lindqvist, Johan; Albright, Norman; Ling, C Clifton; Dewey, William C

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the modes and kinetics of cell death for EJ30 human bladder carcinoma cells irradiated in different phases of the cell cycle. Asynchronous human bladder carcinoma cells were observed in multiple fields by computerized video time-lapse (CVTL) microscopy for one to two cell divisions before irradiation (6 Gy) and for 6-11 days afterward. By analyzing time-lapse movies collected from these fields, pedigrees were constructed showing the behaviors of 231 cells irradiated in different phases of the cell cycle (i.e. at different times after mitosis). A total of 219 irradiated cells were determined to be non-colony-forming over the time spans of the experiments. In these nonclonogenic pedigrees, cells died primarily by necrosis either without entering mitosis or over 1 to 10 postirradiation generations. A total of 105 giant cells developed from the irradiated cells or their progeny, and 30% (31/105) divided successfully. Most nonclonogenic cells irradiated in mid-S phase (9-12 h after mitosis) died by the second generation, while those irradiated either before or after this short period in mid-S phase had cell deaths occurring over one to nine postirradiation generations. The nonclonogenic cells irradiated in mid-S phase also experienced the longest average delay before their first division. Clonogenic cells (11/12 cells) divided sooner after irradiation than the average nonclonogenic cells derived from the same phase of the cell cycle. The early death and long division delay observed for nonclonogenic cells irradiated in mid-S phase could possibly result from an increase in damage induced during the transition from the replication of euchromatin to the replication of heterochromatin.

  6. Computerized classification testing with the Rasch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the

  7. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  8. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  9. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  10. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  11. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  12. Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The constraint to the measured temporal derivative of the PTV particle tracks improves the consistency of the reconstructed velocity field. The method is christened as pouring time into space, as it leverages temporal information to increase the spatial resolution of volumetric PTV measurements. This approach becomes relevant in cases where the spatial resolution is limited by the seeding concentration. The method solves an optimization problem to find the vorticity and velocity fields that minimize a cost function, which includes next to instantaneous velocity, also the velocity material derivative. The velocity and its material derivative are related through the vorticity transport equation, and the cost function is minimized using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. The procedure is assessed numerically with a simulated PTV experiment in a turbulent boundary layer from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The experimental validation considers a tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment in a similar turbulent boundary layer and the additional case of a jet flow. The proposed technique (`vortex-in-cell plus', VIC+) is compared to tomographic PIV analysis (3D iterative cross-correlation), PTV interpolation methods (linear and adaptive Gaussian windowing) and to vortex-in-cell (VIC) interpolation without the material derivative. A visible increase in resolved details in the turbulent structures is obtained with the VIC+ approach, both in numerical simulations and experiments. This results in a more accurate determination of the turbulent stresses distribution in turbulent boundary layer investigations. Data from a jet

  13. A combined reconstruction algorithm for computerized ionospheric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, D. B.; Ou, J. K.; Yuan, Y. B.

    Ionospheric electron density profiles inverted by tomographic reconstruction of GPS derived total electron content TEC measurements has the potential to become a tool to quantify ionospheric variability and investigate ionospheric dynamics The problem of reconstructing ionospheric electron density from GPS receiver to satellite TEC measurements are formulated as an ill-posed discrete linear inverse problem A combined reconstruction algorithm of computerized ionospheric tomography CIT is proposed in this paper In this algorithm Tikhonov regularization theory TRT is exploited to solve the ill-posed problem and its estimate from GPS observation data is input as the initial guess of simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm SIRT The combined algorithm offer a more reasonable method to choose initial guess of SIRT and the use of SIRT algorithm is to improve the quality of the final reconstructed imaging Numerical experiments from the actual GPS observation data are used to validate the reliability of the method the reconstructed results show that the new algorithm works reasonably and effectively with CIT the overall reconstruction error reduces significantly compared to the reconstruction error of SIRT only or TRT only

  14. Computerization upgrade project for the Rocky Flats Plant Critical Mass Laboratory Reactor Control Console

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, H.C.; Miles, R.E.; Sachs, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses present and planned future work on computerization of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) Nuclear Reactor Control Console. No computerized control functions are planned or anticipated at this time. The scope of this computerization effort is limited to Data Acquisition and Analysis. In this work an IBM-PC will be connected to four (4) Nuclear Safety channels, and two (2) nonnuclear safety channels. Programming is being done in interpretive advanced BASIC. At the present time only two channels, Linear Picoammeters 1 and 2, are having their signals processed by the IBM-PC.

  15. Tomographic evaluation of the oropharynx = Avaliação tomográfica da orofaringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the major constriction area of the oropharynx, using 3-dimensional images derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, in order to: 1. Obtain normal level indexes according to the age group 2. Correlate the major constriction area of the oropharynx with its sagittal depth and its total volume. Methods: Forty-one scans from the 3D-i-CAT computerized tomograph were evaluated by the software InVivoDental 5. 0. Results: The values of the major constriction areas of the oropharynx were obtained, related to the age. There was a positive strong correlation only for the oropharynx major constriction area and its total volume. The correlation between the oropharynx sagittal depth and its major constriction area was positive and moderate. In relation to its sagittal depth and its total volume, the correlation was positive and weak. Conclusions: 1. To the age group 6-12 years, the values ranged from 52. 03 to 194. 37 mm2; to 13-18 years, ranged from 134. 82 to 264. 18 mm2, and to the age group >19 years, from 95. 87 to 229. 73 mm2; 2. The linear measurement of the sagittal depth of the oropharynx, as performed over lateral cephalometric radiographs, is not much reliable when compared to those achieved from tomographic images

  16. Tomographic Techniques for Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik

    AbstractLow frequency radars, also known as sounders, can be used for subsurfacemeasurements of Earth’s massive ice sheets. Radar data are essential toimproving ice sheet models for better prediction of the response of theseice sheets to global climate change. While airborne sounders are neededfor...... challenge. This dissertation deals with tomographic techniques based on multiphase-center radars that represent state-of-the-art technology within thefield of ice sounding. The use of advanced tomographic processing forclutter suppression is investigated, which up to this point has beenlargely unexplored...... acquired withthe POLarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS), single-passtomographic surface clutter suppression capabilities are demonstratedfor the system. Using repeat-pass POLARIS data, a method based ondata-driven DOA estimation is used to show an along-track variation ofthe effective scattering...

  17. Addition of Tomographic Capabilities to NMIS

    CERN Document Server

    Mullens, J A

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes tomographic capabilities for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). The tomographic capabilities add weapons component spatial and material properties information that result in a more detailed item signature (template) and provide more information for physical attributes analyses. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) is used routinely to confirm the identity of HEU components in sealed containers. It does this through a radiation signature acquired by shining a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source through the container and measuring the radiation at four detectors stacked vertically on the other side. This measurement gives a gamma and neutron radiation transmission profile of the weapons component, mixed with the radiation production due to the induced fissions in the fissile materials. This information is sufficient to match an ''unknown'' weapons component signature to a template signature from a reference item when measuring under controlled conditions. Tomography m...

  18. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  19. Computed tomographic colonography:Hope or hype?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Otto; Schiueh-Tzang; Lin

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a promising emerging technology for imaging of the colon. This concise review discusses the currently available data on CTC technique,test characteristics,acceptance,safety,cost-effectiveness,follow-up strategy,and extracolonic findings. In summary,CTC technique is still evolving,and further research is needed to clarify the role of automated colonic insufflation,smooth-muscle relaxants,intravenous and oral contrast,soft-ware rendering,and patient positioning. Curr...

  20. On the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-07

    We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.

  1. Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    covariance matrix of the sampled models, and adjusts the annealing temperature adaptively to account for parameters with different sensitivities. The method...geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom, including sound speed profiles, densities , attenuations and sediment layer depths, have a significant effect on...sound propagation in shallow water . The long term goal of this work is to develop a new tomographic inversion method based on matched field processing of

  2. On the velocity of ghost particles and the bias errors in Tomographic-PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, G.E.; Westerweel, J.; Scarano, F.; Novara, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses bias errors introduced in Tomographic-PIV velocity measurements by the coherent motion of ghost particles under some circumstances. It occurs when a ghost particle is formed from the same set of actual particles in both reconstructed volumes used in the cross-correlation analysis

  3. KiDS-450 : cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Viola, M.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Kuijken, K.; Blake, C.; Erben, T.; Joachimi, B.; Klaes, D.; Miller, L.; Morrison, C. B.; Nakajima, R.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Amon, A.; Choi, A.; Covone, G.; de Jong, J.T.A.; Dvornik, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Herbonnet, R.; Hoekstra, H.; Köhlinger, F.; McFarland, J.; Mead, A.; Merten, J.; Napolitano, N.; Peacock, J. A.; Radovich, M.; Schneider, P.; Simon, P.; Valentijn, E. A.; van den Busch, J. L.; van Uitert, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ~450deg$^2$ of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a prior on $H_0$ that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find $S_8\\equiv\\sig

  4. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-08-01

    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  5. Algorithms for Computerized Fetal Heart Rate Diagnosis with Direct Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since pattern classification of fetal heart rate (FHR was subjective and enlarged interobserver difference, objective FHR analysis was achieved with computerized FHR diagnosis. Methods: The computer algorithm was composed of an experts’ knowledge system, including FHR analysis and FHR score calculation, and also of an objective artificial neural network system with software. In addition, a FHR frequency spectrum was studied to detect ominous sinusoidal FHR and the loss of baseline variability related to fetal brain damage. The algorithms were installed in a central-computerized automatic FHR monitoring system, which gave the diagnosis rapidly and directly to the attending doctor. Results: Clinically perinatal mortality decreased significantly and no cerebral palsy developed after introduction of the centralized system. Conclusion: The automatic multichannel FHR monitoring system improved the monitoring, increased the objectivity of FHR diagnosis and promoted clinical results.

  6. Bell's inequalities in the tomographic representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita ' Federico II' e sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Man' ko, V I [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita ' Federico II' e sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-10-06

    The tomographic approach to quantum mechanics is revisited as a direct tool to investigate the violation of Bell-like inequalities. Since quantum tomograms are well defined probability distributions, the tomographic approach is emphasized to be the most natural one to compare the predictions of classical and quantum theory. Examples of inequalities for two qubits and two qutrits are considered in the tomographic probability representation of spin states.

  7. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  8. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  9. Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Computerization of Mental Health Integration complexity scores at Intermountain Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniki, Thomas A; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P; Wilcox, Adam B; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare's Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient's mental health complexity as "mild," "medium," or "high" based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer's conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34).

  11. Modified Head Shake Computerized Dynamic Posturography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    form of dizziness (in- cluding complaints of lightheadedness, vertigo , or un- steadiness) lasting longer than 1 hr or recurring for greater than 1...noted limitations. Method: Forty participants ranging in age from 20 to 79 years with no history of dizziness completed Conditions 2 and 5 of the SOT...shake, Sensory Organization Test, computerized dynamic posturography, dizziness Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is anassessment of an

  12. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  13. Computed Tomographic Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Power of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penagaluri, Ashritha; Higgins, Angela Y; Vavere, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) is a validated approach for detection and exclusion of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD), but little data are available on gender-specific performance of these modalities. In this study, w...... REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00934037....

  14. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  15. Computed tomographic findings in acute infantile hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisanaga, M.; Utsumi, S.; Kyoi, K.; Gega, A.; Tanikake, T. (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    The clinical and computed tomographic findings in four cases of acute infantile hemiplegia that were followed for over ten years are described. The most impressive and common findings in four cases are as follows: 1) Unilateral loss of cerebral volume with displacement of the midline structures to the affected side. 2) Unilateral thicked calvarium and dilated frontal and ethmoid sinus and mastoid air cells on affected side. 3) A dilated lateral ventricle in the affected hemisphere. The recognition of these calvarial changes should indicate that the cerebral abnormalities are the result of an atrophic and hypoplastic process that began in early life.

  16. Model-based Tomographic Reconstruction Literature Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Lehman, S K

    2005-11-30

    In the process of preparing a proposal for internal research funding, a literature search was conducted on the subject of model-based tomographic reconstruction (MBTR). The purpose of the search was to ensure that the proposed research would not replicate any previous work. We found that the overwhelming majority of work on MBTR which used parameterized models of the object was theoretical in nature. Only three researchers had applied the technique to actual data. In this note, we summarize the findings of the literature search.

  17. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  18. Tomographic image reconstruction using training images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansen, Per Christian

    2017-01-01

    the framework of sparse learning as a regularized non-negative matrix factorization. Incorporating the dictionary as a prior in a convex reconstruction problem, we then find an approximate solution with a sparse representation in the dictionary. The dictionary is applied to non-overlapping patches of the image......We describe and examine an algorithm for tomographic image reconstruction where prior knowledge about the solution is available in the form of training images. We first construct a non-negative dictionary based on prototype elements from the training images; this problem is formulated within...

  19. Total Variation and Tomographic Imaging from Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide

    2011-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) regularization is a powerful technique for image reconstruction tasks such as denoising, in-painting, and deblurring, because of its ability to produce sharp edges in the images. In this talk we discuss the use of TV regularization for tomographic imaging, where we compute a 2D...... incorporates our prior information about the solution and thus compensates for the loss of accuracy in the data. A consequence is that smaller data acquisition times can be used, thus reducing a patients exposure to X-rays in medical scanning and speeding up non-destructive measurements in materials science....

  20. Computer tomographic investigation of ancient Egyptian mummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.H.; Pahl, W.M.

    1981-08-01

    Radiological and computer tomographic examinations of Egyptian mummies have been carried out at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics from 1975 to 1978. These have demonstrated the value of CT in medical archaeology. It enables one to study the soft tissues, the skin (if bandaged), the muscles and any organs retained in situ for magical or religious reason. Measurements of attenuation values indicate the materials which were used for mummifying the skin and organs. Characteristic examples are described and the early results of these examinations are discussed.

  1. Recovery of fluctuation spectrum evolution from tomographic shear spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonometto, Silvio A.; Mezzetti, Marino, E-mail: bonometto@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: mezzetti@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, Trieste University, Via Tiepolo 11, I 34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Forthcoming large angle surveys are planned to obtain high precision tomographic shear data. In principle, they will allow us to recover the spectra of matter density fluctuation, at various redshift, through the inversion of the expressions yielding shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. This was discussed in previous work, where SVD techniques for matrix inversion were also shown to be the optimal tool to this aim. Here we show the significant improvements obtainable by using a 7 bin tomography, as allowed by future Euclid data, and discuss error propagation from shear to fluctuation spectra. We find that the technique is a promising tool, namely for the analysis of baryon physics through high–l shear spectra and to test the consistency between expansion rate and fluctuation growth.

  2. Recovery of fluctuation spectrum evolution from tomographic shear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonometto, Silvio A.; Mezzetti, Marino

    2013-05-01

    Forthcoming large angle surveys are planned to obtain high precision tomographic shear data. In principle, they will allow us to recover the spectra of matter density fluctuation, at various redshift, through the inversion of the expressions yielding shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. This was discussed in previous work, where SVD techniques for matrix inversion were also shown to be the optimal tool to this aim. Here we show the significant improvements obtainable by using a 7 bin tomography, as allowed by future Euclid data, and discuss error propagation from shear to fluctuation spectra. We find that the technique is a promising tool, namely for the analysis of baryon physics through high-l shear spectra and to test the consistency between expansion rate and fluctuation growth.

  3. Structured illumination for tomographic X-ray diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel A; Hassan, Mehadi; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Brady, David

    2014-02-21

    Tomographic imaging of the molecular structure of an object is important for a variety of applications, ranging from medical and industrial radiography to security screening. X-ray diffraction imaging is the preeminent technique for performing molecular analysis of large volumes. Here we propose and demonstrate a new measurement architecture to improve the source and detector efficiency for diffraction imaging. In comparison with previous techniques, our approach reduces the required overall scan time by 1-2 orders of magnitude, which makes possible real-time scanning of a broad range of materials over a large volume using a table-top setup. This method, which relies on structuring spatially the illumination incident on an object moving relative to the X-ray source, is compatible with existing systems and has the potential to significantly enhance performance in an array of areas, such as medical diagnostic imaging and explosives detection.

  4. Recovery of fluctuation spectrum evolution from tomographic shear spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonometto, Silvio A

    2013-01-01

    Forthcoming large angle surveys are planned to obtain high precision tomographic shear data. In principle, they will allow us to recover the spectra of matter density fluctuation, at various redshift, through the inversion of the expressions yielding shear from fluctuation spectra. This was discussed in previous work, where SVD techniques for matrix inversion were also shown to be the optimal tool to this aim. Here we show the significant improvements obtainable by using a 7 bin tomography, as allowed by future Euclid data, as well as the question of error propagation from shear to fluctuation spectra. We find that the technique is a promising tool, namely for the analysis of baryon physics throug high-l shear spectra and to test the consistency between expansion rate and fluctuation growth.

  5. Resolving vorticity and dissipation in a turbulent boundary layer by tomographic PTV and VIC+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.

    2017-04-01

    The existing time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements by Jodai and Elsinga (J Fluid Mech 795:611-633; Jodai, Elsinga, J Fluid Mech 795:611-633, 2016) in a turbulent boundary layer ( Re θ = 2038) are reprocessed using tomographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and vortex-in-cell-plus (VIC+). The resulting small-scale flow properties, i.e. vorticity and turbulence dissipation, are compared. The VIC+ technique was recently proposed and uses the concept of pouring time into space to increase reconstruction quality of instantaneous velocity. The tomographic PTV particle track measurements are interpolated using VIC+ to a dense grid, making use of both particle velocity and Lagrangian acceleration. Comparison of the vortical structures by visualization of isosurfaces of vorticity magnitude shows that the two methods return similar coherent vortical structures, but their strength in terms of vorticity magnitude is increased when using VIC+, which suggests an improvement in spatial resolution. Further statistical evaluation shows that the root mean square (rms) of vorticity fluctuations from tomographic PIV is approximately 40% lower in comparison to a reference profile available from a DNS simulation, while the VIC+ technique returns rms vorticity fluctuations to within 10% of the reference. The dissipation rate is heavily underestimated by tomographic PIV with approximately 50% damping, whereas the VIC+ analysis yields a dissipation rate to within approximately 5% for y + > 25. The fact that dissipation can be directly measured by a volumetric experiment is novel. It differs from existing approaches that involve 2d measurements combined with isotropic turbulence assumptions or apply corrections based on sub-grid scale turbulence modelling. Finally, the study quantifies the spatial response of VIC+ with a sine-wave lattice analysis. The results indicate a twofold increase of spatial resolution with respect to cross

  6. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  7. An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song; Song Fei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xuhong [Scanpower Risk Management China Inc., Towercrest International Plaza, No. 3 Maizidian West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 (China); Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs.

  8. Advances in Time-Resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis details advanced developments in 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) based on the tomographic PIV technique, with an emphasis on time-resolved experiments. Tomographic PIV is a technique introduced in 2006 to measure the flow velocity in a three-dimensional volume. When measurements are

  9. Terahertz wave tomographic imaging with a Fresnel lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Wang; X.-C. Zhang

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional tomographic imaging using a Fresnel lens with broadband terahertz pulses. Objects at various locations along the beam propagation path are uniquely imaged on the same imaging plane using a Fresnel lens with different frequencies of the imaging beam. This procedure allows the reconstruction of an object's tomographic contrast image by assembling the frequency-dependent images.

  10. Unusual tomographic findings of complicated necrotizing pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Silveira Sigrist

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is a potential life-threatening disease, which originates from inflammatory involvement of the pancreas and surrounding tissues. Serious complications eventuate and treatment is difficult. AP is classified in both interstitial edematous pancreatitis, which occurs in 70-80% of patients, and necrotizing pancreatitis, which occurs in 20-30% of patients. Diagnosis is based on the presence of two of the following criteria: abdominal pain, increased serum determination of amylase and/or lipase more than three times the reference value, and characteristic tomographic findings. Among the latter, there is the pancreatic and surrounding tissue damage as well as that related to distant organ involvement. This case report shows the fatal case of a male patient with a history of heavy alcoholic abuse admitted with the diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis. The authors call attention to the unusual tomographic findings; namely, a huge duodenal hematoma and a large hemoperitoneum, ischemic involvement of the spleen and kidneys, as well as pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis.

  11. The Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Students' Reading Comprehension in Computerized Reading Contexts: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi-Chin; Lo, Yu-Ling; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension is the essence of reading. Finding appropriate and effective reading strategies to support students' reading comprehension has always been a critical issue for educators. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 17 studies of metacognitive strategy instruction on students' reading comprehension in computerized…

  12. Human-eye versus computerized color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U; Sim, C P; Loh, W L; Teo, J H

    1999-01-01

    This project compared the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry. Fifty dental personnel were asked to color match Vita Lumin shade tabs to seven different randomly arranged test tabs from the Z100 shade guide. All evaluators were blinded to the shades of the test tabs and were asked to match only body shade of the Vita Lumin tab to the middle third or body of each test tab. The results obtained were subsequently computed into L*a*b* values and compared with results obtained by computerized colorimetry. Results indicate that the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry is shade dependent. Discrepancy was significant for b* coordinates for shades A1 and B2 and L* and b* coordinates for shade C4. For all shades evaluated, color difference between human-eye and computerized color matching is perceivable under clinical settings, as delta E values are greater than 3. There is a need for correction factors in the formal specification of the color-matching software due to the discrepancy between human-eye and computerized colorimetric color matching.

  13. Tomographic Study of Ionospheric Effects Associated with a Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiong-bin; XuJi-sheng; MaShu-ying; TianMao

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric effects associated with the solar eclipse of October 24th, 1995 by means of Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT). Since the reconstructed profiles from experimental CIT are sporadically located in time, a time domain interpolation method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique is proposed and applied to extract the ionospheric effects. The effects can be extracted by comparison analysis between the interpolated CIT profiles of the eclipse days and that of the reference day that are time-aligned. A series of figs have been obtained showing the attenuation of photonization effect at low altitudes and the weakening of plasma's transportation process at high altitudes, etc. The photonization effect recovered to normal level soon after the last contact. The maximum electron density diminishing is observed about 2 h after the eclipse maximum and the effects seem vanished in the hours followed. Analysis on vertical TEC's latitudinal-temporal variation gives similar conclusions.

  14. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry

    2016-01-01

    radiograph, and CT follow-up. The 1-year and 13-year plain radiographs as well as the CT scans were analyzed for the presence of osteolysis. RESULTS: The 13-year mean ± standard error steady-state wear was 0.05 ± 0.02 mm with no significant increase over time or between the 2 head size groups. Two patients......BACKGROUND: The objective of this 13-year prospective evaluation of highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (HXLPE) was to (1) assess the long-term wear of HXLPE articulating with 2 femoral head sizes using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and to (2) determine if osteolysis...

  15. SPICE benchmark for global tomographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilong; Capdeville, Yann; Maupin, Valerie; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Lebedev, Sergei; Beucler, Eric

    2008-11-01

    The existing global tomographic methods result in different models due to different parametrization, scale resolution and theoretical approach. To test how current imaging techniques are limited by approximations in theory and by the inadequacy of data quality and coverage, it is necessary to perform a global-scale benchmark to understand the resolving properties of each specific imaging algorithm. In the framework of the Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network (SPICE) project, it was decided to perform a benchmark experiment of global inversion algorithms. First, a preliminary benchmark with a simple isotropic model is carried out to check the feasibility in terms of acquisition geometry and numerical accuracy. Then, to fully validate tomographic schemes with a challenging synthetic data set, we constructed one complex anisotropic global model, which is characterized by 21 elastic constants and includes 3-D heterogeneities in velocity, anisotropy (radial and azimuthal anisotropy), attenuation, density, as well as surface topography and bathymetry. The intermediate-period (>32 s), high fidelity anisotropic modelling was performed by using state-of-the-art anisotropic anelastic modelling code, that is, coupled spectral element method (CSEM), on modern massively parallel computing resources. The benchmark data set consists of 29 events and three-component seismograms are recorded by 256 stations. Because of the limitation of the available computing power, synthetic seismograms have a minimum period of 32 s and a length of 10 500 s. The inversion of the benchmark data set demonstrates several well-known problems of classical surface wave tomography, such as the importance of crustal correction to recover the shallow structures, the loss of resolution with depth, the smearing effect, both horizontal and vertical, the inaccuracy of amplitude of isotropic S-wave velocity variation, the difficulty of retrieving the magnitude of azimuthal

  16. Tomographic patient registration and conformal avoidance tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jennifer Stacy

    Development of tomotherapy has led to the emergence of several processes, providing the basis for many unique investigative opportunities. These processes include setup verification, tomographic verification, megavoltage dose reconstruction, and conformal avoidance tomotherapy. Setup verification and conformal avoidance tomotherapy, in particular, are two closely intertwined matters. In order to avoid critical structures located within or adjacent to indistinct tumor regions, accurate patient positioning from fraction to fraction must be ensured. With tomographic patient registration, a higher level of assurance is offered than with traditional positioning methods. Translational and rotational offsets are calculated directly from projection data using cross- correlation or fast Fourier transforms. Experiments assessing the algorithm's ability to calculate individual offsets were conducted using the University of Wisconsin's Tomotherapy Benchtop. These experiments indicate statistical errors within +/-1 mm for offsets up to approximately 20 mm, with maximum offset errors of about +/-2 mm for displacements up to 35 mm. The angular offset component is within +/-2°. To evaluate the registration process as a whole, experimental results from a few multi-parameter examples are also analyzed. With the development of tomographic patient registration in projection space, efforts to promote further sparing of critical structures are justified. Conformal avoidance tomotherapy has as its objective to treat an indistinct tumor region while conformally avoiding any normal critical structures in that region. To demonstrate the advantages of conformal avoidance tomotherapy, conventional and tomotherapy treatments are contrasted for both nasopharyngeal and breast carcinoma cases. For initial research efforts, computed tomography data sets of a human male and female were obtained via the ``Visible Human Project''. Since these data sets are on the order of hundreds of megabytes, both

  17. HER2/neu Expression and Gene Alterations in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Comparative mmunohistochemistry and Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Study Based on Tissue Microarrays and Computerized Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Tsiambas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: HER2/neu overexpression is observed in many cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry remains the basic method for evaluating HER2/neu protein expression, significant information regarding gene status cannot be assessed. Design: Using tissue microarray technology, fifty histologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas were cored twice and re-embedded in one paraffin block. Immunohistochemistry (clone TAB 250 and chromogenic (HER2/neu amplification Spot Light kit in situ hybridization protocols were performed. The immunostained slides were evaluated by conventional eye microscopy and digital image analysis. The chi square test and the kappa statistic were applied by running the SPSS package. Main outcome measures :The levels of staining intensity were estimated by the performance of a semi automated image analysis system. Results :HER2/neu gene amplification was detected in 8/50 cases (16%. Chromosome 17 aneuploidy was detected in 19 cases (38%. Significant improvement in interobserver agreement (kappa=0.76 vs. 0.94 was achieved correlating the immunohistochemical results obtained by conventional eye and digital microscopy, especially in the cases of overexpression (2+, 3+. Finally, 29 (58%, 11 (22%, 6 (12% and 4 (8% cases were characterized as 0, 1+, 2+ and 3+, respectively. HER2/neu protein expression was significantly associated with grade (P=0.019, but not with stage (P=0.466. in addition, chromosome 17 and gene status were not correlated with stage and grade.. Conclusion :Our results indicate that a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas is characterized by HER2/neu gene amplification. In contrast to breast cancer, protein overexpression does not predict this specific gene deregulation mechanism. This event may reflect the different biological role of the molecule in those two solid tumours, affecting the response to novel targeted agents, such as monoclonal anti-HER2/neu

  18. Local tomographic phase microscopy from differential projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, G. N.; Levin, G. G.; Minaev, V. L.; Nekrasov, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is proposed to use local tomography for optical studies of the internal structure of transparent phase microscopic objects, for example, living cells. From among the many local tomography methods that exist, the algorithms of back projection summation (in which partial derivatives of projections are used as projection data) are chosen. The application of local tomography to living cells is reasonable because, using optical phase microscopy, one can easily obtain projection data in the form of first-order derivatives of projections applying the methods of differential interference contrast and shear interferometry. The mathematical fundamentals of local tomography in differential projections are considered, and a computer simulation of different local tomography methods is performed. A tomographic phase microscope and the results of reconstructing a local tomogram of an erythrocyte from a set of experimental differential projections are described.

  19. Tomographic x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, C. G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Gunzler, T. F.; Lengeler, B.; Richwin, M.; Griesebock, B.; Lutzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.; Ziegler, E.; Mashayekhi, A.; Haeffner, D. R.; Grunwaldt, J. -D.; Baiker, A.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); Aachen Univ.; HASYLAB at DESY; Bergische Univ. Wuppertal; ESRF; Inst. for Chemical and Bioengineering

    2004-01-01

    Hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy is combined with scanning microtomography to reconstruct full near edge spectra of an elemental species at each point on an arbitrary virtual section through a sample. These spectra reveal the local concentration of different chemical compounds of the absorbing element inside the sample and give insight into the oxidation state and the local projected free density of states. The method is implemented by combining a quick scanning monochromator and data acquisition system with a scanning microprobe setup based on refractive x-ray lenses. The full XANES spectra reconstructed at each point of the tomographic slice allow one to detect slight variations in concentration of the chemical compounds, such as Cu and Cu(I){sub 2}O.

  20. Seismic traveltime inversion based on tomographic equation without integral terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxing; Nobes, David C.

    2017-07-01

    The Jacobian matrix in the seismic traveltime tomographic equations usually contains several integral terms. These integral expressions not only greatly increase the computational complexity of seismic traveltime tomography, but also increase difficulty for programming these expressions. Therefore, if these integral expressions of the Jacobian matrix can be eliminated, the program of seismic traveltime tomography can be greatly simplified. In order to solve the computational complexity of the traditional seismic traveltime tomography, we found an anisotropic seismic traveltime tomographic equation which does not contain integral expressions. Then, it is degenerated into an isotropic seismic traveltime tomographic equation. In order to verify the effectiveness of this seismic traveltime tomographic equation based on the node network, a program has been coded to execute seismic traveltime inversion. For a crosswell checkerboard velocity model, the same results are obtained by this proposed tomographic method and the traditional method (with integral terms). Besides, two undulating topography velocity models are used as testing models. Numerical simulation results show that this proposed tomographic method can achieve good tomograms. Finally, this proposed tomographic method is used to investigate near surface velocity distribution near a power plant. Tomogram indicates that contaminated liquid diffuses and aggregates along strata at a certain depth. And velocity is lower near pollutant source than that away from it.

  1. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  2. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  3. Ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Paleo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to handle ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction. The correction is part of the reconstruction process, which differs from classical sinogram pre-processing and image post-processing techniques. The principle of compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction is presented. Then, we show that the ring artifacts correction can be integrated in the reconstruction problem formalism. We provide numerical results for both simulated and real data. This technique is included in the PyHST2 code which is used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for tomographic reconstruction.

  4. Submicrometer tomographic resolution examined using a micro-fabricated test object

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Takekoshi, Susumu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the spatial resolution of microtomographs, a test object on the submicrometer scale was prepared by focused ion beam milling and subjected to microtomographic analysis. Since human tissues are composed of cells and extracellular matrices with micrometer and submicrometer structures, it is important to investigate the three-dimensional spatial resolution of microtomographs used to visualize microstructures of human tissues. The resolutions along the direction within the tomographic...

  5. Rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. A case study utilizing computerized tomography examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prando, D. (Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Clemente Filho, A.S.; Secaf, F. (Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    Rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis is a very serious and frequently fatal disease in which accurate analysis will often suggest the diagnosis. The Computerized Tomography (CT) scans are very helpful to establish the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and in the clear demonstration of the typical relationship between the sinus, orbital and cerebral disease. The recognition of the characteristic pattern in the involved areas should be helpful to early diagnosis and surgical treatment. The findings in one patient with craniofacial mucormycosis who underwent five times to CT examination are presented. Special attention is given to the serial CT scans and in the rapid spread to the central nervous system.

  6. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  7. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  8. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  9. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  10. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Grønvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa;

    2014-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item bank...

  11. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  12. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  13. Computerized adaptive testing: overview and introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Nering, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has increased substantially since it was first formulated in the 1970s. This paper provides an overview of CAT and introduces the contributions to this Special Issue. The elements of CAT discussed here include item selection procedures, estimation of the la

  14. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  15. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  16. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

    1983-01-01

    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  17. A field proof-of-concept of tomographic slug tests in an anisotropic littoral aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Lefebvre, René; Giroux, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic tomography is increasingly recognized as a characterization approach that can image pathways or barriers to flow as well as their connectivity. In this study, we assess the performance of a transient analysis of tomographic slug test head data in estimating heterogeneity in horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh), hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (the ratio between vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity - Kv/Kh) and specific storage (Ss) under actual field conditions. The tomographic experiment was carried out between two wells in a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic silt and sand littoral aquifer. In this field proof-of-concept, the inversion of the two-dimensional (2D) head dataset was computed with a 2D radial flow algorithm that considers Kh, Kv/Kh, Ss and wellbore storage effects. This study demonstrated that a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests is able to capture the key features of the littoral environment of the test: the vertical profiles of Kh and Kv are indeed in agreement with those from other field and laboratory tests, and Ss values exhibit physically plausible profiles. Furthermore, the simulation of independent inter-well hydraulic tests (slug and pumping tests screened over the entire aquifer) using resolved Kh, Kv/Kh and Ss tomograms produce responses very close to field observations. This study demonstrates that the effects of fine scale heterogeneity that induces K-anisotropy at larger scales can be captured through a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests, which are very difficult to quantify otherwise with conventional hydraulic tests, thus allowing a better representation of properties controlling flow and transport in aquifer systems.

  18. Computerized Analysis of Nutrients (CAN) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    8 .8 58.8 CEREAL-CORN FLAKES K 808020 113 .7 .7 59.6 ORANGE MINUS SKIN 809203 ill .7 .7 60.3 CUCUMBER -RAW 811205 110 .7 .7 61.0 CRACKERS, SALTINES...RICE 8 9L E00503 29 .2 .2 86.8 LASAGNA 8 4D L02500 29 .2 .2 87.0 PICKLE SWEET 015610 28 .2 .2 87.2 MILK-SKIM 801085 28 .2 .2 87.4 PLUM-FRESH-9% 809279 28...L158LQ 17 .1 .1 94.7 ,MASHED POTATOES 8 1 POTATO 17 .1 .1 94.8 BEANS LIMA, CANNED QG1650 17 .1 .1 94.9 PICKLE -DILL 015580 16 .1 .1 95.0 CHEESE-COTTAGE

  19. Computerized Analysis of Shells - Governing Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    02 Palo Aflto California 943n4 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) June 1981 AF Wright...Morgan (AFOSR) and Dr N. S. Khot (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) The contract work was performed between October 1977 and December 1980. The technical report was

  20. Effects of fractionated doses of fast neutrons or photons on the canine brain: evaluation by computerized tomography and evoked response recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W.; Davis, D.O.; Gaskill, J.W.; Deye, J.A.; Fisher, M.P.; Sloan, G.E.; Rogers, C.C.

    1980-12-01

    The use of fast neutrons in the treatment of cancer necessitates a knowledge of the normal tissue responses. This study was designed to compare the late effects of fractionated doses of fast neutrons with fractionated doses of photons on canine brains by evoked response recording and viewing computerized tomograms (CT). A relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 4 was obtained for normal brain tissue assessed by mortality and onset of neurologic symptoms. Every three months post-irradiation, visual and sensory evoked responses were recorded. Changes over time appeared to be minimal; however, computerized tomographs showed marked brain shrinkage. A method of quantitating cerebrospinal fluid and parenchymal volumes from scans is described and future use of these CT ratios to generate dose response curves and RBE values is postulated.

  1. Reproducibility of tomographic evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Italo Risso Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interobserver agreement of Glassman classification for posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four CT scans from patients who underwent posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine were evaluated by four observers, namely two orthopedic surgeons experienced in spine surgery and two in training in this area. Using the reconstructed tomographic images at oblique coronal plane, 299 operated levels were systematically analyzed looking for arthrodesis signals. The appearance of bone healing in each operated level was classified in five categories as proposed by Glassman to the posterolateral arthrodesis: 1 bilateral solid arthrodesis; 2 unilateral solid arthrodesis; 3 bilateral partial arthrodesis; 4 unilateral partial arthrodesis; 5 absence of arthrodesis. In a second step, the evaluation of each operated level was divided into two categories: fusion (including type 1, 2, 3, and 4 and non fusion (type 5. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the Kappa coefficient considering the paired analysis between the two experienced observers and between the two observers in training.RESULTS: The interobserver reproducibility by the kappa coefficient for arthrodesis consolidation analysis for the classification proposed, divided into 5 types, was 0.729 for both experienced surgeons and training surgeons. Considering only two categories kappa coefficient was 0.745 between experienced surgeons and 0.795 between training surgeons. In all analyzes, we obtained high concordance power.CONCLUSION: Interobserver reproducibility was observed with high concordance in the classification proposed by Glassman for posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine.

  2. String-averaging incremental subgradients for constrained convex optimization with applications to reconstruction of tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massambone de Oliveira, Rafael; Salomão Helou, Elias; Fontoura Costa, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    We present a method for non-smooth convex minimization which is based on subgradient directions and string-averaging techniques. In this approach, the set of available data is split into sequences (strings) and a given iterate is processed independently along each string, possibly in parallel, by an incremental subgradient method (ISM). The end-points of all strings are averaged to form the next iterate. The method is useful to solve sparse and large-scale non-smooth convex optimization problems, such as those arising in tomographic imaging. A convergence analysis is provided under realistic, standard conditions. Numerical tests are performed in a tomographic image reconstruction application, showing good performance for the convergence speed when measured as the decrease ratio of the objective function, in comparison to classical ISM.

  3. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  4. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  5. Use of computerized tests to assess the cognitive impact of interventions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Sanches de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the aging of the population, the possibility of the occurrence of cognitive decline rises. A number of types of intervention seek to attenuate or reverse this impairment. The use of computerized tests helps quantify the effects of interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. The objective of the present review was to analyze studies that have utilized computerized cognitive tests to determine the effects of interventions in the elderly population, describing the batteries and tests employed, the populations studied and reports by authors on the limitations or benefits of employing these tests in older adults. The review was performed on the PubMed database using the descriptors: cognitive computerized test and elderly. We retrieved 530 studies and, following analysis of their abstracts, selected 32 relevant to the subject. The studies utilized 19 different types of computerized tests and batteries to assess the interventions, which were predominantly drug trials. There were no reports on limitations in the use of the computerized tests, suggesting this type of intervention had good applicability, sensitivity, and little or no practice effects in this population.

  6. Computerized tomographic analyses of interscalene brachial plexus block%肌间沟臂丛阻滞的CT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华强; 袁新平; 何绍明; 周宁; 邵艳波; 曹波

    2010-01-01

    目的 臂丛麻醉时将麻醉药注入臂丛鞘内有时不能得到满意的麻醉效果,因此,有必要深入研究臂丛神经阻滞效果与臂丛鞘的关系.文中应用CT观察局麻药在臂丛鞘内的分布与扩散,探讨肌间沟臂丛神经阻滞的效果.方法 60例拟行上肢手术的患者,随机分为非异感(non-paresthesia,NPAR)组和神经刺激器定位(peripheral nerve stimulator,PNS)2组,每组30例,评估感觉和运动神经的阻滞程度、手术过程中的麻醉效果,每组随机选择8例行CT检查,扫描范围自C3至T3平面,并行注药侧的冠、矢状面CT重组成像,测量臂丛上、中、下干周围局麻药物的扩散范围.结果 局麻药局限性分布于臂丛鞘内,肌间沟水平为完整的鞘样结构,其下方有明显的分隔,局麻药的分布范围在臂丛上干、中干2组间无明显差异,下干PNS组麻醉药分布高于NPAR组(P<0.05).2组患者中腋神经、肌皮神经、正中神经、桡神经的感觉及运动评分均无统计学意义差异;前臂内侧皮神经的感觉评分和尺神经的感觉及运动评分NPAR组明显高于PNS组(P<0.05).结论 臂丛鞘是多腔结构,局麻药物注射的位置和深度直接影响阻滞效果,偏向尺侧的手术采用PNS定位效果更好.

  7. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Churl Min; Eun, Chung Kie; Lee, Sun Wha [Kyung Hee Unversity Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Paragonimiasis is widely distributed in Far East and Southeast Asia, particularly in Korea. The central nervous system is the most frequent location for paragonimiasis outside the lungs. We analyzed the computed tomographic findings of 17 cases which were diagnosed pathologically and clinically as cerebral paragonimiasis. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 10 : 7 and about 88% of cases were under the age of 40 years. 2. The common locations of cerebral paragonimiasis were the occipital (12 cases) and temporal (11 cases) lobes. 3. Precontrast CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis were low density with calcifications in 6 cases, low and isodensities in 4 cases, mixed densities in 3 cases, only low density in 2 cases and only calcification in 2 cases. Hydrocephalus (7 cases), mass effect (6 cases), atrophic change (6 cases) and cyst formation (3 cases) were associated. 4. The shape of calcifications in CT scan were soap-bubble or ring in 6 cases, nodular or oval in 6 cases, stipple in 4 cases and amorphous conglomerated in 2 cases. 5. The contrast -enhanced 8 cases were 5 ring or rim like, 2 nodular and 1 irregular enhancements, while 9 cases were not enhanced.

  8. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  9. Computed tomographic findings in orbital Mucor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Lippman, S.M.; Grinnell, V.S.; Colman, M.F.; Edwards, J.E. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important infection in immunocompromised patients; knowledge regarding the variability of its clinical manifestations is expanding steadily. The infection is of paranasal sinus origin and may involve the orbit secondarily via freely communicating foramina and venous channels. Death often ensues when the infection spreads either into the cavernous sinus or the central nervous system. Early diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis is crucial for a successful outcome. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is used to visualize many intraorbital pathologic abnormalities. The patient discussed in this paper had extensive orbital Mucor that appeared minimal on a CT scan. This inability of the scan to reflect the severity of infection prompted a review of the literature describing the use of CT scans for detecting this potentially fatal, opportunistic infection. The search showed that a disparity between scan findings and the severity of the disease is the rule rather than the exception. Recognition of this disparity has significant implications for appropriate diagnosis and management of orbital Mucor.

  10. Tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy using Tikhonov regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Avishek; Schoegl, Ingmar

    2014-12-01

    The application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to flames with nonhomogeneous temperature and concentration fields is an area where only few studies exist. Experimental work explores the performance of tomographic reconstructions of species concentration and temperature profiles from wavelength-modulated TDLAS measurements within the plume of an axisymmetric McKenna burner. Water vapor transitions at 1391.67 and 1442.67 nm are probed using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f). A single collimated laser beam is swept parallel to the burner surface, where scans yield pairs of line-of-sight (LOS) data at multiple radial locations. Radial profiles of absorption data are reconstructed using Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, which suppresses the amplification of experimental noise that is typically observed for reconstructions with high spatial resolution. Based on spectral data reconstructions, temperatures and mole fractions are calculated point-by-point. Here, a least-squares approach addresses difficulties due to modulation depths that cannot be universally optimized due to a nonuniform domain. Experimental results show successful reconstructions of temperature and mole fraction profiles based on two-transition, nonoptimally modulated WMS-2f and Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, and thus validate the technique as a viable diagnostic tool for flame measurements.

  11. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  12. Tomographic Particle Localization and Velocity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirner, S.; Forster, G.; Schein, J.

    2015-01-01

    Wire arc spraying is one of the most common and elementary thermal spray processes. Due to its easy handling, high deposition rate, and relative low process costs, it is a frequently used coating technology for the production of wear and corrosion resistant coatings. In order to produce reliable and reproducible coatings, it is necessary to be able to control the coating process. This can be achieved by analyzing the parameters of the particles deposited. Essential for the coating quality are, for example, the velocity, the size, and the temperature of the particles. In this work, an innovative diagnostic for particle velocity and location determination is presented. By the use of several synchronized CMOS-Cameras positioned around the particle jet, a series of images from different directions is simultaneously taken. The images contain the information that is necessary to calculate the 3D-location-vector of the particles and finally with the help of the exposure time the trajectory can be determined. In this work, the experimental setup of the tomographic diagnostic is presented, the mathematical method of the reconstruction is explained, and first measured velocity distributions are shown.

  13. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  14. Computerized epileptiform transient detection in the scalp electroencephalogram: obstacles to progress and the example of computerized ECG interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jonathan J

    2009-11-01

    Computerized detection of epileptiform transients (ETs), also called spikes and sharp waves, in the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been a research goal for the last 40years. A reliable method for detecting ETs could improve efficiency in reviewing long EEG recordings and assist physicians in interpreting routine EEGs. Computer algorithms developed so far for detecting ETs are not as reliable as human expert interpreters, mostly due to the large number of false positive detections. Typical methods for ET detection include measuring waveform morphology, detecting signal non-stationarity, and power spectrum analysis. Some progress has been made by using more advanced algorithmic approaches including wavelet analysis, artificial neural networks, and dipole analysis. Comparing the performance of different algorithms is difficult since each study uses its own EEG test dataset. In order to overcome this problem, European researchers in the field of computerized electrocardiogram interpretation organized a large multi-center research workgroup to create a standardized dataset of ECG recordings which were interpreted by a large group of cardiologists. EEG researchers need to follow this as a model and seek funding for the creation of a standardized EEG research dataset to develop ET detection algorithms and certify commercial software.

  15. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  16. Cognitive evaluation of the predictors of use of computerized protocols by clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, Shobba; Weir, Charlene R; Morris, Alan H; Warner, Homer R

    2003-01-01

    We describe a cognitive approach to evaluating the factors that motivate clinicians to use computerized protocols. Using Value-Expectancy theories we developed an open-ended interview to assess clinicians' beliefs and experiences about the use of computerized protocols. Using a qualitative methodology, 3 reviewers independently identified key concepts raised by 13 interviewees. These concepts were aggregated and independently sorted into 39 categories. Then final categories were chosen by consensus. Analysis of the concepts showed consistency across clinician specialties of physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists. Inter-rater reliability calculated using Cohen's Kappa was 0.474. Identified constructs from Value-Expectancy and Intrinsic Motivation theories were: Work Importance, Perception of Situation, Role Relevance, Beliefs regarding Control, Beliefs regarding Normative Expectations, Beliefs regarding Self-Efficacy, Attitude, Habit, Environmental Support and Pre-Behavior. This model will form the basis for an instrument to assess the beliefs and expectations of clinical use regarding the use of computerized protocols.

  17. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences].E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  18. Primary Three-Dimensional Analysis with Perspective-Filet View Versus Primary Two-Dimensional Analysis: Evaluation of Lesion Detection by Inexperienced Readers at Computed Tomographic Colonography in Symptomatic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisichella, V.A.; Horvath, S.; Hellstroem, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)); Jaederling, F. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Goerans Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stotzer, P.O.; Kilander, A. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Background: 'Perspective-filet view' is a novel three-dimensional (3D) viewing technique for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Studies with experienced readers have shown a sensitivity for perspective-filet view similar to that of 2D or 3D endoluminal fly-through in detection of colorectal lesions. It is not known whether perspective-filet view, compared to axial images, improves lesion detection by inexperienced readers. Purpose: To compare primary 3D analysis using perspective-filet view (3D Filet) with primary 2D analysis, as used by inexperienced CTC readers. Secondary aims were to compare lesion detection by 3D Filet when used by experienced and inexperienced readers, and to evaluate the effect of combined 3D Filet + 2D analysis. Material and Methods: Fifty symptomatic patients were prospectively enrolled. An experienced reader performed 3D Filet analysis followed by complete 2D analysis (3D Filet + 2D), before colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Two inexperienced readers (readers 2 and 3), blinded to CTC and colonoscopy findings, retrospectively performed 3D Filet analysis and, after 5 weeks, 2D analysis. True positives =6 mm detected by the inexperienced readers with 3D Filet and/or 2D were combined to obtain 3D Filet + 2D. Results: Colonoscopy revealed 116 lesions: 16 lesions =10 mm, 19 lesions 6-9 mm, and 81 lesions =5 mm. For the experienced reader, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 3D Filet + 2D were 77% and 83%, respectively. For the inexperienced readers, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 2D were 51% and 57% (reader 2) and 40% and 43% (reader 3), respectively. There was no significant difference between 3D Filet and 2D regarding sensitivity and reading time. For lesions =6 mm, 3D Filet + 2D improved the sensitivity of reader 2 to 63% and of reader 3 to 51%. Conclusion: Lesion detection by inexperienced readers using perspective-filet view is comparable to that obtained by 2D. Lesion detection improves

  19. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Morita, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at the Large Helical Device. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide profile measurements of the local emissivity, temperature, and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modified Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example, geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  20. Relation of the measuring values in cephalometric radiographs and TMJ tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jin Woo [Kangnung National Univ. College of Dentistry, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To examine whether the maxillofacial skeletal morphology correlates with the condylar position and the anatomic characteristics of articular eminence using measurements of lateral cephalometric radiographs and individualized sagittal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tomographs. I compared measurements of 202 TMJs of 101 orthodontic patients of Kangnung National University Dental Hospital. I used Pearson's correlation for comparison of the measuring values in lateral cephalometric radiographs and individualized sagittal TMJ tomographs. Large occlusal plane angle tendency showed decreased width of posterior eminence slope, decreased depth of articular fossa and decreased posterior slope angle of eminence. Large mandibular plane angle tendency showed decreased superior joint space, decreased superior joint space, decreased depth of articular fossa and decreased posterior slope angle of eminence. Large genial angle tendency showed decreased depth of articular fossa, decreased posterior slope angle of eminence and anterior position of comdylar head. Large anterior facial height and large posterior facial height tendency showed increased width of posterior position of condylar head. Maxillofacial skeletal morphology has correlation with the anatomic characteristics of TMJ. Individualized sagittal TMJ tomographs can provide useful information for anatomical analysis of TMJ.

  1. Comparison of a Two-Lead, Computerized, Resting ECG Signal Analysis Device, the MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG (a.k.a. 3DMP, to Quantitative Coronary Angiography for the Detection of Relevant Coronary Artery Stenosis (>70% - A Meta-Analysis of all Published Trials Performed and Analyzed in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Strobeck, Joseph T. Shen, Binoy Singh, Kotaro Obunai, Charles Miceli, Howard Sacher, Franz Ritucci, Michael Imhoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of, and screening for, coronary artery disease (CAD and restenosis after coronary revascularization has been a challenge due to either low sensitivity/specificity or relevant morbidity associated with current diagnostic modalities. Methods: To assess sensitivity and specificity of a new computerized, multiphase, resting electrocardiogram analysis device (MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG a.k.a. 3DMP for the detection of relevant coronary stenosis (>70%, a meta-analysis of three published prospective trials performed in the US on patient data collected using the US manufactured device and analyzed using the US-based software and New York data analysis center from patients in the US, Germany, and Asia was completed. A total of 1076 patients from the three trials (US - 136; Germany - 751; Asia - 189 (average age 62 ± 11.5, 65 for women, 60 for men scheduled for coronary angiography, were included in the analysis. Patients enrolled in the trials may or may not have had prior angiography and/or coronary intervention. Angiographic results in all studies were classified for hemodynamically relevant stenosis (> 70% by two US based angiographers independently. Results: Hemodynamically relevant stenosis was diagnosed in 467 patients (43.4%. The device, after performing a frequency-domain, computational analysis of the resting ECG leads and computer-database comparison, calculated a coronary ischemia “severity” score from 0 to 20 for each patient. The severity score was significantly higher for patients with relevant coronary stenosis (5.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.7 ± 2.1. The study device (using a cut-off score for relevant stenosis of 4.0 correctly classified 941 of the 1076 patients with or without relevant stenosis (sensitivity-91.2%; specificity-84.6%; NPV 0.942, PPV 0.777. Adjusted positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV were 81.9% and 92.6%, respectively (ROC AUC = 0.881 [95% CI: 0

  2. Computerized Interactive Gaming via Supporting Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Jiang, Jianmin; Palmer, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Computerized interactive gaming requires automatic processing of large volume of random data produced by players on spot, such as shooting, football kicking, and boxing. This paper describes a supporting vector machine-based artificial intelligence algorithm as one of the possible solutions to the problem of random data processing and the provision of interactive indication for further actions. In comparison with existing techniques, such as rule-based and neural networks, and so forth, our S...

  3. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  4. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  5. The Future of Computerized Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    available in digital form -- data such as newspaper articles, video, and books -- and can be searched according to topics and keywords , or sounds and...away from using observational or model- driven data to inform their decisions. At the same time, enhancements to methods for rapidly creating, merging...themselves---and that we need automated ways of reoptimizing as these metamodels evolve over time. Causal computerized decision making: As I discuss

  6. Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428

  7. Changing to computerized documentation--plus!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J

    1993-07-01

    A recent change to a computerized documentation system has had a positive influence on productivity, reliability of documentation, quality assurance, nurse satisfaction and professional practice. This software system combines the care plan and nurses' notes and is standard-based. Each patient's care plan is compiled from Units of Care, which provide a menu covering nursing diagnosis, medical diagnosis, chief complaints and special procedures and events.

  8. The computerized OMAHA system in microsoft office excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaobin; Wong, Frances K Y; Zhang, Peiqiang; Leung, Carenx W Y; Lee, Lai H; Wong, Jessica S Y; Lo, Yim F; Ching, Shirley S Y

    2014-01-01

    The OMAHA System was adopted as the documentation system in an interventional study. To systematically record client care and facilitate data analysis, two Office Excel files were developed. The first Excel file (File A) was designed to record problems, care procedure, and outcomes for individual clients according to the OMAHA System. It was used by the intervention nurses in the study. The second Excel file (File B) was the summary of all clients that had been automatically extracted from File A. Data in File B can be analyzed directly in Excel or imported in PASW for further analysis. Both files have four parts to record basic information and the three parts of the OMAHA System. The computerized OMAHA System simplified the documentation procedure and facilitated the management and analysis of data.

  9. A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

  10. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  11. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.

  12. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armato, Samuel G; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Tourassi, Georgia D; Engelmann, Roger M; Giger, Maryellen L; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin S; Clarke, Laurence P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants' computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. Ten groups applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) that were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists' AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. The continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.

  13. A influência postural do salto alto em mulheres adultas: análise por biofotogrametria computadorizada Postural influence of high heels among adult women: analysis by computerized photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DH Iunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em nossa sociedade, temos observado uma oferta cada vez maior de modelos, cores, estilos, altura e diversos tipos de salto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o uso de calçados de salto alto influencia nas alterações posturais com base em um conjunto de variáveis mensuradas por meio da fotogrametria computadorizada. MÉTODOS: Vinte indivíduos que utilizam salto alto com freqüência (grupo 1 e 20 indivíduos que utilizam salto alto esporadicamente (grupo 2 foram fotografados no plano frontal anterior e sagital em três momentos: a sem utilização de calçado, b utilizando salto agulha e c utilizando salto plataforma, sendo estas fotografias aleatorizadas e analisadas por um experimentador cego por meio da fotogrametria. A análise estatística foi realizada a partir da análise de variância em esquema fatorial 2x3, ou seja, comparando-se a freqüência do uso de salto com o tipo de calçado, com 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: Apenas o ângulo protrusão da cabeça apresentou diferença quando comparados grupo 1 e 2 (pINTRODUCTION: In our society, it is observed an increasing number of models, colors, styles, heights and types of high heels. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of high heel shoes results in postural changes, based on a set of variables measured through computerized photogrammetry. METHODS: Twenty individuals who often used high heels (group 1 and 20 individuals who only used high heels sporadically (group 2 were photographed in the frontal and sagittal planes at three conditions: a without using footwear; b using stiletto heels; and c using high platform heels. These photographs were randomized and analyzed by a blinded examiner, by means of photogrammetry. Statistical analysis was performed, using a 2x3 factorial analysis of variance to compare the frequency of high heel use with the type of shoe, at the 5% significance level. RESULTS: Only the head protrusion angle showed a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0

  14. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Weon Tae; Jung, Min Ki; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam University Medicine School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Authors analyzed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 cases pathologically and clinically proven cerebral paragonimiasis that were performed at Chonnam University Hospital from April 1983 through March 1987. The results were as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 15:4 and the most prevalent age group was 3rd decade (7 cases). The common symptoms were epileptic seizure (16 cases) and headache (12 cases). 2. The multiplicity of cerebral paragonimiasis was 7 of 19 cases and the distributions of lesion were occipital (11 cases), temporal (6 cases), frontal (5 cases) and parietal (5 cases) lobe. 3. The calcification on CT scan were single (7 cases) or multiple (7 cases) and the shape of calcification were nodular (10 cases), soap babble of ring (8 cases), and stippled (6 cases). The pattern of contrast enhancement were ring (5 cases) or nodular (1 case), and along the basal cistern (1 case with arachnoiditis). 4. 12 out of 13 cases, had long clinical symptoms over 3 years with calcifications, could be analyzed according to Valentine's vascular territory; 6 cases in PCA territory, 3 in MCA and 3 in ACA. 5. CT findings were noted according to the duration of symptoms; 5 cases, had symptoms less than 1 year, showed abscess (5 cases) and arachnoiditis (1 case) with brain edema, mass effect, hydrocephalus and contrast enhancement but no calcification in all. One case, had symptom of 1 year and 2 months, showed partially calcified granulomatous lesion with perifocal edema and contrast enhancement, 13 cases, had symptoms over 3 years, showed multiple calcification with brain atrophy (10 cases), but no contrast enhancement in all cases.

  15. [Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, V N; Iurpol'skaia, L A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibility to use CT techniques (SCT and MRT) for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A total of 426 patient aged 0-54 years were examined (171 by MRT and 255 by SCT. SCT of the heart with bolus injection of a contrast medium was performed on an Evolution C-150 superfast tomograph in the step-scanning regime and prospective synchronization with ECG (slice thickness 1.5-3 mm). Fasting SCT was used to examine children in the first year of life during quiet (unforced) breathing. Contrast material (Omnipack-300, 350; Visipack-270, 320) was administered at a dose of 1.5-2.0 ml/ kg b.w. at 0.2-0.6 ml/s. MRT was performed using a conventional MR tomograph with a 1 T field and pulsed spin-echo sequences synchronized with ECG for obtaining the anatomic picture and gradient echo-signals (cine-MRT) for the assessment of functional parameters (slice thickness 4-7 mm). Babies were examined under medicamentous sedation. All images were treated and analysed using an Advantage Windows 2.0 workstation and a program package for heart image analysis. A rational procedure of CT and image analysis was developed in the course of the study. It provided data on the formation of all segments and intercommunications of the heart, mutual localization of its cavities and major vessels, permitted to perform morphometry of selected cardiac structures and detect anatomic defects. The informative and diagnostic value of methods for comprehensive evaluation of the heart and mediastinum in patients with congenital heart disease was assessed. Methods of choice for the diagnosis of abnormalities and follow-up of the patients in different periods after surgery were identified.

  16. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  17. X-ray computerized microtomography: study of micro collimators; Microtomografia computadorizada de raios-x: estudo de microcolimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Marcio Silva da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de [Instituto Politecnico, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1995-12-31

    An experimental station for computerized microtomography is being developed to be used with the very intense, monochromatic and tunable synchrotron X-rays source that will be available in the LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - Campinas - SP). It will be possible to make three-dimensional maps with spatial resolution in the micrometer range of trace elements in the interior of small specimens (of about 1 cm{sup 3}). The spatial resolution is basically determined by collimators and translation step lengths. In this work EGS4 - a code for Monte Carlo simulation of gamma and electrons transport through matter - is used to study and optimize micro collimators for the micro tomograph, varying its composition and the X-ray beam energy. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmon Gil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Methods Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephrine or 2.5 mgr nebulized albuterol. Computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles (PulmoTrack® and a clinical score were performed prior to, 10 minutes post and 30 minutes post treatment. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. Results 15 children received albuterol, 12 received epinephrine. The groups were identical at baseline. Satisfactory lung sounds recording and analysis was achieved in all subjects. There was no significant change in objective quantification of wheezes and crackles or in the total clinical scores either within the groups or between the groups. There was also no difference in oxygen saturation and respiratory distress. Conclusion Computerized lung sound analysis is feasible in young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and provides a non-invasive, quantitative measure of wheezing and crackles in these infants. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00361452

  19. Tomographic Study of Ionospheric Effects Associated with a Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiong-bin; Xu Ji-sheng; Ma Shu-ying; Tian Mao

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric effects associ-ated with the solar eclipse of October 24th, 1995 by means of Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT). Since the re-constructed profiles from experimental CIT are sporadically located in time, a time domain interpolation method based onSingular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique is proposed and applied to extract the ionospheric effects. The effects canbe extracted by comparison analysis between the interpolated CIT profiles of the eclipse days and that of the reference day that are time-aligned. A series of figs have been obtained showing the attenuation of photonization effect at low alti-tudes and the weakening of plasma's transportation process athigh altitudes, etc. The photonization effect recovered to nor-mal level soon after the last contact. The maximum electron density diminishing is observed about 2 h after the eclipse maximum and the effects seem vanished in the hours fol-lowed. Analysis on vertical TEC's latitudinal temporal variation gives similar conclusions.

  20. Cranial computerized tomography and cerebral angiography in diagnosis of infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuelich, K.J.

    1988-08-05

    Discussion of the radiological means to further analysis of the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular alterations up to real stroke with infarction. Today in the first place computer-tomography even with contrast means, moreover in the form of 'angio-CT' are used. Localization, size, form, and the grade of tissue destruction may be analyzed. Furthermore perifocal edema and the stage as also the effect of vascular anastomoses for a collateral circulation may be evaluated. Invasive angiography with puncture of carotid and vertebral arteries is used only in special rare indications. Instead, digital computerized angiography (DSA) can be adopted if particular interest is in the study of intracranial arteries, even with an 'invasive' approach, e.g. by femoral catheter (Seldinger). In summarizing: For the analysis of particular problems radiological methods may assist diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular infarct.

  1. Problems and Causes Analysis of Accounting Professional Ethics in the Context of Computerization%电算化背景下会计职业道德存在的问题及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张院院

    2013-01-01

    伴随我国经济体制和社会的转型,以及会计电算化的发展,会计职业道德发生了深刻的嬗变,同时出现了较严重的会计职业道德失范现象。本文从会计执业环境对会计职业道德的影响、电算化背景下会计职业道德存在的问题和原因分析三个方面分析了当前中国会计职业道德的现状。%Along with the transformation of economy and society IN China and the development of computerized accounting, the accounting professional ethics has the profound change, at the same time the accounting professional ethics anomie phenomenon become more serious. This article analyzes the current status of China's accounting professional ethics from the impact of accounting environment on accounting professional ethics, problems of accounting professional ethics under the background of computerized accounting and the causes.

  2. Correction of ring artifacts in X-ray tomographic images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Johnson, G.; Tafforeau, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ring artifacts are systematic intensity distortions located on concentric circles in reconstructed tomographic X-ray images. When using X-ray tomography to study for instance low-contrast grain boundaries in metals it is crucial to correct for the ring artifacts in the images as they may have...... the same intensity level as the grain boundaries and thus make it impossible to perform grain segmentation. This paper describes an implementation of a method for correcting the ring artifacts in tomographic X-ray images of simple objects such as metal samples where the object and the background...... are separable. The method is implemented in Matlab, it works with very little user interaction and may run in parallel on a cluster if applied to a whole stack of images. The strength and robustness of the method implemented will be demonstrated on three tomographic X-ray data sets: a mono-phase β...

  3. Generalized Row-Action Methods for Tomographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    initial convergence which is desirable in applications where a low-accuracy solution is acceptable. In this paper, we propose relaxed variants of a class of incremental proximal gradient methods, and these variants generalize many existing row-action methods for tomographic imaging. Moreover, they allow......Row-action methods play an important role in tomographic image reconstruction. Many such methods can be viewed as incremental gradient methods for minimizing a sum of a large number of convex functions, and despite their relatively poor global rate of convergence, these methods often exhibit fast...... us to derive new incremental algorithms for tomographic imaging that incorporate different types of prior information via regularization. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach with some numerical examples....

  4. Edema quantification by computerized morphometry as an evaluation parameter for the resistance of colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priolli Denise Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work had the objective of verifying the validity of using computerized morphometry as a method of quantitative analysis of the interference of edema in scar formation following colon anastomosis. METHODS: Forty-five adult female Wistar rats were utilized, divided into three groups of 15 animals according to whether sacrifice was performed on the first, second or seventh postoperative day. Each group was subdivided into a main group consisting of 10 animals, and a control group consisting of five animals. In the main group, in addition to the quantitative computerized morphometric analysis of the edema in the submucosal layer, the resistance of the colon anastomosis to bursting strength was verified. In the control group, edema quantification was studied alone. RESULTS: The results found via the computerized morphometry method showed that there is a 7% decrease in the presence of edema during the first postoperative week. They confirmed that there is an inverse statistically significant relationship (p< 0.001 between edema presence and the resistance of the anastomosis to bursting strength. CONCLUSION: The use of computerized morphometry is a reliable, fast, objective and low-cost methodology for the quantification of edema in colon anastomoses.

  5. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  6. Direct recovery of fluctuation spectra from tomographic shear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Marino; Bonometto, Silvio A.; Casarini, Luciano; Murante, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Forthcoming experiments will enable us to determine high precision tomographic shear spectra. Matter density fluctuation spectra, at various z, should then be recovered from them, in order to constrain the model and determine the DE state equation. Available analytical expressions, however, do the opposite, enabling us to derive shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. Here we find the inverse expression, yielding density fluctuation spectra from observational tomographic shear spectra. The procedure involves SVD techniques for matrix inversion. We show in detail how the approach works and provide a few examples.

  7. Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators; The First Step Towards Computerized Instruction or Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvir, Howard P.

    This document outlines the guidelines and procedures for educators interested in using the Computerized Information System for Nursing Educators (CISNE), a project sponsored by Francophone International Learning Module Systems. In the first of the report's four sections are a brief description of CISNE guidelines for entry procedures and forms for…

  8. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

    2013-05-01

    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  9. Visualization in the age of computerization

    CERN Document Server

    Carusi, Annamaria; Webmoor, Timothy; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Digitalization and computerization are now pervasive in science. This has deep consequences for our understanding of scientific knowledge and of the scientific process, and challenges longstanding assumptions and traditional frameworks of thinking of scientific knowledge. Digital media and computational processes challenge our conception of the way in which perception and cognition work in science, of the objectivity of science, and the nature of scientific objects. They bring about new relationships between science, art and other visual media, and new ways of practicing science and organizing

  10. Computerized documentation systems: blessings or curse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasses, F R

    1993-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that computerized documentation systems will negatively impact knowledge development in nursing. Ideas from three vantage points is presented. First, systems are being developed from theoretical frameworks that are not necessarily grounded in nursing, and these systems, in turn, influence the nurses's ability to process and conceptualize information. Second, computer systems may support the retrieval of empirical data to the elimination of other types of data necessary to the development of nursing knowledge. Third, computers may decrease opportunities for collegial dialogue. These factors together create an atmosphere of "technologic determinism" (Robinson & Robinson, 1990), which can inhibit the development of new ideas in nursing.

  11. Computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): Performance evaluation with independent data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system for pulmonary emboli (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans. The pulmonary vessel tree is extracted using a 3D expectation-maximization segmentation method based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices at multiple scales. A parallel multiprescreening method is applied to the segmented vessels to identify volume of interests (VOIs) that contained suspicious PE. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) ...

  12. On the Feasibility of Multi-kHz Acquisition Rate Tomographic-PIV in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0044 On the Feasibility of multi-kHz Acquisition Rate Tomographic- PIV in Turbulent Flames Isaac Boxx...Tomographic- PIV in Turbulent Flames 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-12-1-2092 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 12-2092 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomographic- PIV ) is a recently

  13. Time-Dependent Computed Tomographic Perfusion Thresholds for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Esterre, Christopher D; Boesen, Mari E; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Pordeli, Pooneh; Najm, Mohamed; Minhas, Priyanka; Davari, Paniz; Fainardi, Enrico; Rubiera, Marta; Khaw, Alexander V; Zini, Andrea; Frayne, Richard; Hill, Michael D; Demchuk, Andrew M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Forkert, Nils D; Goyal, Mayank; Lee, Ting Y; Menon, Bijoy K

    2015-12-01

    Among patients with acute ischemic stroke, we determine computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) thresholds associated with follow-up infarction at different stroke onset-to-CTP and CTP-to-reperfusion times. Acute ischemic stroke patients with occlusion on computed tomographic angiography were acutely imaged with CTP. Noncontrast computed tomography and magnectic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging between 24 and 48 hours were used to delineate follow-up infarction. Reperfusion was assessed on conventional angiogram or 4-hour repeat computed tomographic angiography. Tmax, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume derived from delay-insensitive CTP postprocessing were analyzed using receiver-operator characteristic curves to derive optimal thresholds for combined patient data (pooled analysis) and individual patients (patient-level analysis) based on time from stroke onset-to-CTP and CTP-to-reperfusion. One-way ANOVA and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression was used to test whether the derived optimal CTP thresholds were different by time. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included. Tmax thresholds of >16.2 and >15.8 s and absolute cerebral blood flow thresholds of stroke onset-to-CTP time and the optimal CTP thresholds for all parameters based on discrete or continuous time analysis (P>0.05). A statistically significant relationship existed between CTP-to-reperfusion time and the optimal thresholds for cerebral blood flow (P<0.001; r=0.59 and 0.77 for gray and white matter, respectively) and Tmax (P<0.001; r=-0.68 and -0.60 for gray and white matter, respectively) parameters. Optimal CTP thresholds associated with follow-up infarction depend on time from imaging to reperfusion. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Identification of Porphyra lines using computerized DNA fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis was performed with filaments of 15 Porphyra lines representing four important groups (P. yezoensis, P. haitanensis, P.katadai var. Hemiphylla and P. oligospermatangia ). Eight stable and repeatable RAPD bands am plified with two primers, OPN-02 and OPJ-18, were selected for the construction of DNA fingerprint ing. The RAPD results were scored based on the presence or absence of each of the 8 bands and then converted to computer language expressed with two digitals, 1 and 0, which represented the presence (numbered as 1) or absence (numbered as 0) of each band, respectively. Based on these results, a model DNA fingerprint and a computerized DNA fingerprint were constructed. In the constructed DNA fingerprint, each Porphyra line has its unique fingerprinting pattern and can be easily distinguished from each other. Later, a software, named as PhGI, was designed based on this DNA fingerprinting.It can be used in practical Porphyra line identification.

  15. Tomographic assessment of the spine in children with spondylocostal dysotosis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a detailed tomographic analysis of the skull base, craniocervical junction, and the entire spine in seven patients with spondylocostal dysostosis syndrome. METHOD: Detailed scanning images have been organized in accordance with the most prominent clinical pathology. The reasons behind plagiocephaly, torticollis, short immobile neck, scoliosis and rigid back have been detected. Radiographic documentation was insufficient modality. RESULTS: Detailed computed tomography scans provided excellent delineation of the osseous abnormality pattern in our patients. CONCLUSION: This article throws light on the most serious osseous manifestations of spondylocostal dysostosissyndrome.

  16. Computerized axial tomography in clinical pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D C; Kufta, C; Axelbaum, S P; Schellinger, D

    1977-02-01

    Computerized axial tomography (CAT), a noninvasive radiologie method, provides a new dimension in screening and diagnosis of intracranial pathology. Evaluation of 725 scans in infants and children demonstrates that CAT may be performed with negligible risk, although sedation and restraint are essential to the successful performance of studies in children under 6 years of age. CAT is the preferred initial diagnostic method in suspected hydrocephalls and is accurate in the detection and precise localization of brain tumors. The management of hydrocephalus and brain tumors has been significantly altered by the availability of CAT. Few invasive neuroradiologic procedures are required and pneumography is especially curtailed. Serial scanning is the best available method of monitoring ventricular alterations in hydrocephalus, tumor size during radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and postoperative recurrence of benign neoplasms. Complex intracranial anomalies are detectable with computerized tomography, but complete definition of pathology often requires angiography and air studies. Limited clinical experience in detecting neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage suggests that CAT will be a valuable tool for futlre investigations of that problem.

  17. Predictors of incomplete optical colonoscopy using computed tomographic colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Sachdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Optical colonoscopy (OC is the primary modality for investigation of colonic pathology. Although there is data on demographic factors for incomplete OC, paucity of data exists for anatomic variables that are associated with an incomplete OC. These anatomic variables can be visualized using computed tomographic colonography (CTC. We aim to retrospectively identify variables associated with incomplete OC using CTC and develop a scoring method to predict the outcome of OC. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, 70 cases ( with incomplete OC and 70 controls (with complete OC were identified. CTC images of cases and controls were independently reviewed by a single CTC radiologist. Demographic and anatomical parameters were recorded. Data was examined using descriptive linear statistics and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: On analysis, female gender (80% vs 58.6% P = 0.007, prior abdominal/pelvic surgeries (51.4% vs 14.3% P < 0.001, colonic length (187.6 ± 30.0 cm vs 163.8 ± 27.2 cm P < 0.001, and number of flexures (11.4 ± 3.1 vs 8.4 ± 2.9 P < 0.001 increased the risk for incomplete OC. No significant association was observed for increasing age (P = 0.881 and history of severe diverticulosis (P = 0.867 with incomplete OC. A scoring system to predict the outcome of OC is proposed based on CTC findings. Conclusion: Female gender, prior surgery, and increasing colonic length and tortuosity were associated with incomplete OC, whereas increasing age and history of severe diverticulosis were not. These factors may be used in the future to predict those patients who are at risk of incomplete OC.

  18. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  19. Classical and quantum free motions in the tomographic probability representation

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, Vladimir I

    2011-01-01

    Based on a geometric picture, the example of free particle motion for both classical and quantum domains is considered in the tomographic probability representation. Wave functions and density operators as well as optical and symplectic tomograms are obtained as solutions of kinetic classical and quantum equations for the state tomograms. The difference of tomograms of free particle for classical and quantum states is discussed.

  20. TOMOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF LONGITUDINAL EMITTANCE GROWTH DUE TO STRIPPING FOILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; AHRENS, L.; THIEBERGER, P.

    2005-05-16

    During beam acceleration in the Brookhaven accelerator complex, heavy ions are stripped of their electrons in several steps. Depending on the properties of the stripping foils, this process results in an increased energy spread and longitudinal emittance growth. A tomographic phase space reconstruction technique has been applied to measure the associated emittance growth for different stripping foil materials.

  1. The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

  2. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M

    1990-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  3. Participatory design for computerization of clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Pedersen, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    There have been made many attempts on computerization of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), none have, however achieved any general application in clinical work practice. The objective of this paper is: (1) to raise awareness about the impact the design method used for computerization of CPGs......: PD as a design philosophy, PD as a toolbox and PD as a way to create a shared realm of understanding among IT-designers and health professionals as these are areas of utmost relevance for the design of computerized CPGs. Additionally, the application of PD for computerization of CPGs is illustrated...... by two cases. We conclude that PD is a beneficial approach for design of computerized CPGs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc....

  4. Hydrodynamic Simulations and Tomographic Reconstructions of the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Casey William

    The Intergalactic Medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of matter in the Universe from which the cosmic web and galaxies form. The structure and physical state of the IGM provides insight into the cosmological model of the Universe, the origin and timeline of the reionization of the Universe, as well as being an essential ingredient in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Our primary handle on this information is a signal known as the Lyman-alpha forest (or Ly-alpha forest) -- the collection of absorption features in high-redshift sources due to intervening neutral hydrogen, which scatters HI Ly-alpha photons out of the line of sight. The Ly-alpha forest flux traces density fluctuations at high redshift and at moderate overdensities, making it an excellent tool for mapping large-scale structure and constraining cosmological parameters. Although the computational methodology for simulating the Ly-alpha forest has existed for over a decade, we are just now approaching the scale of computing power required to simultaneously capture large cosmological scales and the scales of the smallest absorption systems. My thesis focuses on using simulations at the edge of modern computing to produce precise predictions of the statistics of the Ly-alpha forest and to better understand the structure of the IGM. In the first part of my thesis, I review the state of hydrodynamic simulations of the IGM, including pitfalls of the existing under-resolved simulations. Our group developed a new cosmological hydrodynamics code to tackle the computational challenge, and I developed a distributed analysis framework to compute flux statistics from our simulations. I present flux statistics derived from a suite of our large hydrodynamic simulations and demonstrate convergence to the per cent level. I also compare flux statistics derived from simulations using different discretizations and hydrodynamic schemes (Eulerian finite volume vs. smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and

  5. Tomographic imagine of ionospheric structures and disturbances in the region of East-Asian equatorial anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Experiments of ionospheric tomography at low latitudes along 120°E meridian and some findings from analyses of such experimental data are presented. An improved reconstruction algorithm of computerized ionospheric tomography is proposed. In this algorithm, both differential Doppler phase and differential Doppler frequency data are jointly used and the integral phase constants are determined in the reconstruction process. Our findings indicate that the reconstructed ionospheric equatorial anomaly crests usually show a tilt in rough alignment with the local geomagnetic field, coinciding with the feature predicted by the fountain mechanism. The crest locations are found to move daily in response to changes in equatorial electrodynamics. When the crest moves from one day to the next day, the tilting angle changes so as to be still aligned with the local magnetic field. It is statistically found that an equator-ward motion of the crests is accompanied with a latitudinal broadening of the crest region. The reconstructed images also indicate that the crest location determined by the maximum electron density often does not coincide with that determined by the vertical total electron content. Besides, a deep depletion of ionospheric electron density appeared just 20 minutes after sudden commencement of a moderate magnetic storm at geomagnetic latitudes around 10°N where equatorial anomaly crests usually sit. The depleted hole extends over both the bottom and top F-region, with a steep wall on its equatorial side. The present study demonstrates that ionospheric tomographic technology is very useful and effective to the investigation of the equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric structures and dynamics.

  6. Combined single photon emission computerized tomography and conventional computerized tomography: Clinical value for the shoulder surgeons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Hirschmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the cases described, we strive to introduce single photon emission computerized tomography in combination with conventional computer tomography (SPECT/CT to shoulder surgeons, illustrate the possible clinical value it may offer as new diagnostic radiologic modality, and discuss its limitations. SPECT/CT may facilitate the establishment of diagnosis, process of decision making, and further treatment for complex shoulder pathologies. Some of these advantages were highlighted in cases that are frequently seen in most shoulder clinics.

  7. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  9. Geometric Computing Based on Computerized Descriptive Geometric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-yan; HE Yuan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD), video games and other computer graphic related technology evolves substantial processing to geometric elements. A novel geometric computing method is proposed with the integration of descriptive geometry, math and computer algorithm. Firstly, geometric elements in general position are transformed to a special position in new coordinate system. Then a 3D problem is projected to new coordinate planes. Finally, according to 2D/3D correspondence principle in descriptive geometry, the solution is constructed computerized drawing process with ruler and compasses. In order to make this method a regular operation, a two-level pattern is established. Basic Layer is a set algebraic packaged function including about ten Primary Geometric Functions (PGF) and one projection transformation. In Application Layer, a proper coordinate is established and a sequence of PGFs is sought for to get the final results. Examples illustrate the advantages of our method on dimension reduction, regulatory and visual computing and robustness.

  10. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  11. Organ doses from computerized tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, J.

    1995-12-31

    Estimates of mean organs doses from five typical computerized tomography (CT) examinations were obtained. Measurements were done using Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). Radiation dose distributions within a phantom has been measured for each examination and results were used for organ dose calculation. Doses to organs specified by ICPR 60 Recommendations were measured for five CT scanners (CT/T8800, CT 9800, CT MAX - made by General Electric; CT 1200 SX - made by Picker; SOMATOM 2 - made by Siemens). Dose distributions from scattered radiation were measured and indicate that scattered radiation dose to thyroid and eye lens can be reduced by proper examination limits setting. The lowest mean organ doses were obtained from CT/T8800 scanner. More advanced scanners using high intensity continuous radiation were giving higher organ doses. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs, 13 tabs.

  12. COMPUTERIZED MODEL OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor MANDU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of risk situation and the manager’s awareness of it are serious threats for the organization and its objectives. Consequently, the manager has to have available, analyze, select and interpret many pieces of information, under stress, before making a decision for avoiding a disaster. Under these circumstances, a computerized model of risk management is the most adequate solution to make the intervention possibilities effective through a quicker and more accurate intervention. The model offers enough confidence and a favorable psychological state for managing risk. In accordance with this model, the risk manager processes the information by means of some operational (mathematical methods and that favors reaching optimum solutions in the shortest delay, based on some estimated anticipations through a rational model.

  13. Sandia computerized shock compression bibliographical database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbeck, J.S.; Anderson, C.E.; Hokanson, J.C.; Asay, J.R.; Grady, D.E.; Graham, R.A.; Kipp, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A searchable and updateable bibliographical database is being developed which will be designed, controlled, and evaluated by working technical experts in the field of shock-compression science. It will emphasize shock-compression properties in the stress region of a few tens of GPa and provide a broad and complete base of bibliographical information on the shock-compression behavior of materials. Through the operation of technical advisors, the database provides authoritative blbliographical and keyword data for use by both the inexperienced and expert user. In its current form, it consists of: (1) a library of journal articles, reports, books, and symposia papers in the areas of shock physics and shock mechanics; and (2) a computerized database system containing complete bibliographical information, exhaustive keyword descriptions, and author abstracts for each of the documents in the database library.

  14. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification testing (CCT is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as - pass- and - fail.- Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion, namely the algorithm that decides whether to classify the examinee and end the test or to continue and administer another item. This paper applies a newly suggested termination criterion, the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR, to CCT. It also explores the role of the indifference region in the specification of likelihood-ratio based termination criteria, comparing the GLR to the sequential probability ratio test. Results from simulation studies suggest that the GLR is always at least as efficient as existing methods.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and maleic acid in the removal of three calcium hydroxide intra-canal dressings: A spiral computerized tomography volumetric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thomas Nainan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and 7% maleic acid in the removal of 3 calcium hydroxide preparations placed as intracanal medicaments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 60 single rooted premolars were prepared with a step back technique and randomly assigned into 3 experimental groups (n = 20. Group A was filled with plain calcium hydroxide mixed with distilled water in which barium sulfate was added for radio opacity, Group B was filled with Apexcal and Group C was filled with Metapex. After 7 days each group was divided into 2 sub groups (n = 10. The medicaments were retrieved with 17% EDTA (first sub group and 7% maleic acid (second sub group. Along with the above irrigants manual and ultrasonic agitation was used. The pre and post removal volume of medicaments in root canals were measured using spiral computerized tomography. The percentage difference was calculated and statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U test. Results: 17% EDTA and 7% maleic acid efficiently removed calcium hydroxide, distilled water mixture (P = 0.218 and Apexcal (P = 0.684, whereas 7% maleic acid showed better retrieval capability of Metapex than 17% EDTA (P = 0.002. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide, distilled water mixture and polyethylene glycol based calcium hydroxide were efficiently removed by 17% EDTA and 7% maleic acid. 7% maleic acid removed silicone oil based calcium hydroxide preparation better than 17% EDTA.

  16. A proposed-standard format to represent and distribute tomographic models and other earth spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postpischl, L.; Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.

    2009-04-01

    ) computational meshes. This approach can exploit the capabilities of the web browser as a computing platform: a series of in-page quick tools for comparative analysis between models will be presented, as well as visualisation techniques for tomographic layers in Google Maps and Google Earth. We are working on tools for conversion into common scientific format like netCDF, to allow easy visualisation in GEON-IDV or gmt.

  17. Developing an evidence base of best practices for integrating computerized systems into the exam room: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Vichich, Jennifer; Lang, Ian; Lin, Jessica; Zheng, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of health information technology systems, electronic health records in particular, is changing the nature of how clinicians interact with patients. Lack of knowledge remains on how best to integrate such systems in the exam room. The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) distill "best" behavioral and communication practices recommended in the literature for clinicians when interacting with patients in the presence of computerized systems during a clinical encounter, (2) weigh the evidence of each recommendation, and (3) rank evidence-based recommendations for electronic health record communication training initiatives for clinicians. We conducted a literature search of 6 databases, resulting in 52 articles included in the analysis. We extracted information such as study setting, research design, sample, findings, and implications. Recommendations were distilled based on consistent support for behavioral and communication practices across studies. Eight behavioral and communication practices received strong support of evidence in the literature and included specific aspects of using computerized systems to facilitate conversation and transparency in the exam room, such as spatial (re)organization of the exam room, maintaining nonverbal communication, and specific techniques that integrate the computerized system into the visit and engage the patient. Four practices, although patient-centered, have received insufficient evidence to date. We developed an evidence base of best practices for clinicians to maintain patient-centered communications in the presence of computerized systems in the exam room. Further work includes development and empirical evaluation of evidence-based guidelines to better integrate computerized systems into clinical care.

  18. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  19. Problems and Solutions of Popularization of Accounting Computerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kan; Fu, YingLi; Gu, CaiDong; Zhang, Liang

    With the integration of China's economy and international markets, accounting computerization, which conducts accounting and accounting control by taking advantage of computer, has become a major component sector of accounting modernization and the main content of accounting reform. The popularization of accounting computerization is beyond question. Only this popularization can meet the requirement of knowledge economy for accounting information. It is the need to deepen accounting reform, to further enhance the level of accounting work and to achieve China's modernization of science and technology as well. This paper discusses problems and relevant solutions in the popularization process of accounting computerization so as to carry out this popularization better.

  20. Tomographic diagnosis of defects in hydraulic concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjie ZHAO; Xibin XU

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonic tomographic technology is applied to diagnose the defects in hydraulic concrete structure. In order to improve the precision of diagnoses, the wavelet transformation is used in the processing of ultrasonic signals. The influences of water, scale and ori-entation of defect, processing methods and theoretical model on image resolution are investigated. The experi-mental results indicate that the result of the tomographic diagnosis of a single defect is sensitive and the boundary can be clearly determined. However, the image resolution of multiple defects is not satisfactory. The water content and scale of a defect may significantly affect the imaging resolution. Defects with the orientation perpendicular to the direction of the diagnosis may have higher precision in diagnosing. The wavelet transformation technology can elevate the imaging resolution. The applied calculation model plays a very important role in improving the accu-racy of detection.

  1. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  2. Progress Update on Iterative Reconstruction of Neutron Tomographic Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gregor, Jens [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    This report satisfies the fiscal year 2016 technical deliverable to report on progress in development of fast iterative reconstruction algorithms for project OR16-3DTomography-PD2Jb, "3D Tomography and Image Processing Using Fast Neutrons." This project has two overall goals. The first of these goals is to extend associated-particle fast neutron transmission and, particularly, induced-reaction tomographic imaging algorithms to three dimensions. The second of these goals is to automatically segment the resultant tomographic images into constituent parts, and then extract information about the parts, such as the class of shape and potentially shape parameters. This report addresses of the component of the project concerned with three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction.

  3. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Adams

    Full Text Available Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea. Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg, are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT] for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation and serves as a single resource of

  4. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Olah, Angela; McCurry, Matthew R; Potze, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum) curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea). Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D) surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg), are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource) or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT]) for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation) and serves as a single resource of high

  5. Spatially variant tomographic imaging: Estimation, identification, and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, John Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This thesis is an investigation of methods for processing multidimensional signals acquired using modern tomography systems that have an anisotropic or spatially variant response function. The main result of this research is the discovery of a new method to obtain better estimators of an unknown spatial intensity distribution by incorporating detailed knowledge about the tomograph system response function and statistical properties of the acquired signal into a mathematical model.

  6. Tomographic imaging and scanning thermal microscopy: thermal impedance tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The application of tomographic imaging techniques developed for medical applications to the data provided by the scanning thermal microscope will give access to true three-dimensional information on the thermal properties of materials on a mm length scale. In principle, the technique involves calculating and inverting a sensitivity matrix for a uniform isotropic material, collecting ordered data at several modulation frequencies, and multiplying the inverse of the matrix with the data vector....

  7. Spatially variant tomographic imaging: Estimation, identification, and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.R.

    1991-11-01

    This thesis is an investigation of methods for processing multidimensional signals acquired using modern tomography systems that have an anisotropic or spatially variant response function. The main result of this research is the discovery of a new method to obtain better estimators of an unknown spatial intensity distribution by incorporating detailed knowledge about the tomograph system response function and statistical properties of the acquired signal into a mathematical model.

  8. Computed tomographic findings of sellar and parasellar tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Dai Young; Seo, Heung Suk [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A total of 42 cases of sellar and parasellar tumors are verified at Seoul National University Hospital from December 1978 through July 1980. They are composed of 25 pituitary adenomas, 5 meningiomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 1 astrocytoma, 1 germinoma, 1 teratoma, 1 epidermoid, 1 arachnoid cyst, 1 chondroma, 1 sphenoid mucocele and 1 chronic epidural hematoma. Authors analyzed and described the computed tomographic findings of them.

  9. Reproducibility of tomographic evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Italo Risso Neto; Guilherme Rebechi Zuiani; Roberto Rossanez; Sylvio Mistro Neto; Augusto Celso Scarparo Amato Filho; Paulo Tadeu Maia Cavali; Ivan Guidolin Veiga; Wagner Pasqualini; Marcos Antônio Tebet; Elcio Landim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interobserver agreement of Glassman classification for posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four CT scans from patients who underwent posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine were evaluated by four observers, namely two orthopedic surgeons experienced in spine surgery and two in training in this area. Using the reconstructed tomographic images at oblique coronal plane, 299 operated levels were systematically analy...

  10. Development of an advanced 3D cone beam tomographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.; Grangeat, Pierre; Morisseau, P.

    Due to its high spatial resolution, the 3D X-ray cone-beam tomograph (CT) maximizes understanding of test object microstructure. In order for the present X-ray CT NDT system to control ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, its spatial resolution must exceed 50 microns. Attention is given to two experimental data reconstructions that have been conducted to illustrate system capabilities.

  11. Arterial Obstruction on Computed Tomographic or Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Response to Intravenous Thrombolytics in Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Grant; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Adami, Alessandro; White, Philip M.; Adams, Matthew E.; Yan, Bernard; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Perry, David; Lindley, Richard I.; Sandercock, Peter A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used increasingly to assess arterial patency in patients with ischemic stroke. We determined which baseline angiography features predict response to intravenous thrombolytics in ischemic stroke using randomized controlled trial data. Methods— We analyzed angiograms from the IST-3 (Third International Stroke Trial), an international, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial of intravenous alteplase. Readers, masked to clinical, treatment, and outcome data, assessed prerandomization computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for presence, extent, location, and completeness of obstruction and collaterals. We compared angiography findings to 6-month functional outcome (Oxford Handicap Scale) and tested for interactions with alteplase, using ordinal regression in adjusted analyses. We also meta-analyzed all available angiography data from other randomized controlled trials of intravenous thrombolytics. Results— In IST-3, 300 patients had prerandomization angiography (computed tomographic angiography=271 and magnetic resonance angiography=29). On multivariable analysis, more extensive angiographic obstruction and poor collaterals independently predicted poor outcome (PHandicap Scale (P≥0.075) in IST-3. In meta-analysis (5 trials of alteplase or desmoteplase, including IST-3, n=591), there was a significantly increased benefit of thrombolytics on outcome (odds ratio>1 indicates benefit) in patients with (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–3.64; P=0.011) versus without (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–1.35; P=0.566) arterial obstruction (P for interaction 0.017). Conclusions— Intravenous thrombolytics provide benefit to stroke patients with computed tomographic angiography or magnetic resonance angiography evidence of arterial obstruction, but the sample was underpowered to demonstrate significant

  12. Voids in Ly{\\alpha} Forest Tomographic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Casey W; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2 - 12 $h^{-1}$Mpc in a large N-body simulation at $z = 2.5$, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Ly{\\alpha} flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogs to the density void catalog and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids ($r > 6 \\, h^{-1}$Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing CLAMATO survey covering 1 deg$^2$ would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshi...

  13. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Alarfaj, Meshal K.

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging by Meshal K Alarfaj, Master of Science King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, 2015 Tomographic Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recent PIV method capable of reconstructing the full 3D velocity field of complex flows, within a 3-D volume. For nearly the last decade, it has become the most powerful tool for study of turbulent velocity fields and promises great advancements in the study of fluid mechanics. Among the early published studies, a good number of researches have suggested enhancements and optimizations of different aspects of this technique to improve the effectiveness. One major aspect, which is the core of the present work, is related to reducing the cost of the Tomographic PIV setup. In this thesis, we attempt to reduce this cost by using an experimental setup exploiting 4 commercial digital still cameras in combination with low-cost Light emitting diodes (LEDs). We use two different colors to distinguish the two light pulses. By using colored shadows with red and green LEDs, we can identify the particle locations within the measurement volume, at the two different times, thereby allowing calculation of the velocities. The present work tests this technique on the flows patterns of a jet ejected from a tube in a water tank. Results from the images processing are presented and challenges discussed.

  14. Three-dimensional illumination system for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Song, Yang; Qu, Xiangju; Ji, Yunjing; Li, Zhenhua; He, Anzhi

    2016-10-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a new developed technique for three-component threedimensional (3C-3D) velocity measurement of the flow field based on the optical tomographic reconstruction method, and has been received extensive attention of the related industries. Three-dimensional light source illuminating the tracer particles of flow field is a critical application for tomographic particle image velocimetry. Three-dimensional light source not only determines the size of measurement volume and the range of the scope of application, but also has a great influence on the image quality. In this work, we propose a rectangular light amplification system using powell lens, prisms and two reflectors. The system can be optimized if given the system parameters based on the theoretical model. The rectangular light amplification system will be verified experimentally by measuring the cross section size of the illuminated light source. A 60mm×25mm cross section of rectangular three-dimensional light source can be obtained by using the rectangular light amplification system. The experiments demonstrate the the feasibility the proposed system.

  15. An introduction to the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V I [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.es, E-mail: manko@na.infn.it, E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it, E-mail: simoni@na.infn.it, E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.it

    2009-06-15

    Starting from the famous Pauli problem on the possibility of associating quantum states with probabilities, the formulation of quantum mechanics in which quantum states are described by fair probability distributions (tomograms, i.e. tomographic probabilities) is reviewed in a pedagogical style. The relation between the quantum state description and the classical state description is elucidated. The difference between those sets of tomograms is described by inequalities equivalent to a complete set of uncertainty relations for the quantum domain and to non-negativity of probability density on phase space in the classical domain. The intersection of such sets is studied. The mathematical mechanism that allows us to construct different kinds of tomographic probabilities like symplectic tomograms, spin tomograms, photon number tomograms, etc is clarified and a connection with abstract Hilbert space properties is established. The superposition rule and uncertainty relations in terms of probabilities as well as quantum basic equations like quantum evolution and energy spectra equations are given in an explicit form. A method to check experimentally the uncertainty relations is suggested using optical tomograms. Entanglement phenomena and the connection with semigroups acting on simplexes are studied in detail for spin states in the case of two-qubits. The star-product formalism is associated with the tomographic probability formulation of quantum mechanics.

  16. A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 ke

  17. A tomographic study of the condyle position in temporomandibular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Youn; Ryu, Young Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether T.M.J. tomographic examination yielded significant difference in condyle positions among asymptomatic, myalgia, derangement, and arthrosis group of T.M.J. disorders. The author obtained sagittal linear tomograms of right and left T.M.Js. of 36 asymptomatic, 22 myalgia, 54 derangement, and 31 arthrosis patients taken at serial lateral, central, and medial sections in the intercuspal position after submentovertex radiographs analyzed. With the dual linear measurements of the posterior and anterior interarticular space, condyle positions were mathematically expressed as proportion. All data from these analysis was recorded and processed statistically. The results were obtained as follows: 1. In asymptomatic group, radiographically concentric condyle position was found in 50.0% to 65.4% of subjects, with a substance range of variability. No significant differences existed between men and women and also between right and left T.M.Js. for condyle position. 2. In women, significant difference for mean condyle position of left lateral section of each diagnostic category existed between derangement and myalgia groups (P< .05). Also that of left central section existed between derangement and myalgia group, and that of left medial section existed between derangement and myalgia groups (P< . 05). 3. In main-symptom side, condyle position in myalgia group was more concentric, and condyle position in derangement and group was more posterior. This showed significant differences between derangement and myalgia groups in lateral, central, and medial sections of main symptom side, and only between derangement and myalgia groups in central section of contra-lateral sides (P< .05). Condyle position in arthrosis group was broadly distributed among all positions. 4. In contra-lateral side, significant difference for mean condyle position of central section of each symptomatic group existed between derangement and myalgia group (P< .05

  18. Minimum Detectable Activity for Tomographic Gamma Scanning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, Ram [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Smith, Susan [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. M. [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For any radiation measurement system, it is useful to explore and establish the detection limits and a minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the radionuclides of interest, even if the system is to be used at far higher values. The MDA serves as an important figure of merit, and often a system is optimized and configured so that it can meet the MDA requirements of a measurement campaign. The non-destructive assay (NDA) systems based on gamma ray analysis are no exception and well established conventions, such the Currie method, exist for estimating the detection limits and the MDA. However, the Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique poses some challenges for the estimation of detection limits and MDAs. The TGS combines high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) with low spatial resolution image reconstruction techniques. In non-imaging gamma ray based NDA techniques measured counts in a full energy peak can be used to estimate the activity of a radionuclide, independently of other counting trials. However, in the case of the TGS each “view” is a full spectral grab (each a counting trial), and each scan consists of 150 spectral grabs in the transmission and emission scans per vertical layer of the item. The set of views in a complete scan are then used to solve for the radionuclide activities on a voxel by voxel basis, over 16 layers of a 10x10 voxel grid. Thus, the raw count data are not independent trials any more, but rather constitute input to a matrix solution for the emission image values at the various locations inside the item volume used in the reconstruction. So, the validity of the methods used to estimate MDA for an imaging technique such as TGS warrant a close scrutiny, because the pair-counting concept of Currie is not directly applicable. One can also raise questions as to whether the TGS, along with other image reconstruction techniques which heavily intertwine data, is a suitable method if one expects to measure samples whose activities

  19. Lq regularization-based unobserved baselines' data estimation method for tomographic synthetic aperture radar inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hui; Zhang, Bingchen; Hong, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The elevation image quality of tomographic synthetic aperture radar (TomoSAR) data depends mainly on the elevation aperture size, number of baselines, and baseline distribution. In TomoSAR, due to the restricted number of baselines with irregular distributions, the elevation imaging quality is always unacceptable using the conventional spectral analysis approach. Therefore, for a given limited number of irregular baselines, the completion of data for the unobserved virtual uniform baseline distribution should be addressed to improve the spectral analysis-based TomoSAR reconstruction quality. We propose an Lq(0optimization problem, before calculating the data for virtual baseline distribution based on the acquisitions and the transformation matrix. Finally, the elevation reflectivity function is recovered using the spectral analysis method based on the estimated data. Compared with the reconstructed results only based on the limited irregular acquisitions, the image recovered using the dataset with a virtual uniform baseline distribution can improve the elevation image quality in an efficient manner.

  20. Assessment of tomographic PIV in wall-bounded turbulence using direct numerical simulation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.M. de; Baidya, R.; Khashehchi, M.; Marusic, I. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-02-15

    Simulations of tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) are performed using direct numerical simulation data of a channel flow at Reynolds number of Re{sub {tau}} = 934, to investigate the influence of experimental parameters such as camera position, seeding density, interrogation volume size and spatial resolution. The simulations employ camera modelling, a Mie scattering illumination model, lens distortion effects and calibration to realistically model a tomographic experiment. Results are presented for camera position and orientation in three-dimensional space, to obtain an optimal reconstruction quality. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis is performed on the accuracy of first and second order flow statistics, at various voxel sizes normalised using the viscous inner length scale. This enables the result to be used as a general reference for wall-bounded turbulent experiments. In addition, a ratio relating seeding density and the interrogation volume size is proposed to obtain an optimal reference value that remains constant. This can be used to determine the required seeding density concentration for a certain interrogation volume size. (orig.)

  1. HFSB-seeding for large-scale tomographic PIV in wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Giuseppe Carlo Alp; Ragni, Daniele; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2016-12-01

    A new system for large-scale tomographic particle image velocimetry in low-speed wind tunnels is presented. The system relies upon the use of sub-millimetre helium-filled soap bubbles as flow tracers, which scatter light with intensity several orders of magnitude higher than micron-sized droplets. With respect to a single bubble generator, the system increases the rate of bubbles emission by means of transient accumulation and rapid release. The governing parameters of the system are identified and discussed, namely the bubbles production rate, the accumulation and release times, the size of the bubble injector and its location with respect to the wind tunnel contraction. The relations between the above parameters, the resulting spatial concentration of tracers and measurement of dynamic spatial range are obtained and discussed. Large-scale experiments are carried out in a large low-speed wind tunnel with 2.85 × 2.85 m2 test section, where a vertical axis wind turbine of 1 m diameter is operated. Time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements are taken over a measurement volume of 40 × 20 × 15 cm3, allowing the quantitative analysis of the tip-vortex structure and dynamical evolution.

  2. KiDS-450: tomographic cross-correlation of galaxy shear with Planck lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Tröster, Tilman; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Heymans, Catherine; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Asgari, Marika; Bilicki, Maciej; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joudaki, Shahab; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Robertson, Naomi; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We present the tomographic cross-correlation between galaxy lensing measured in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) with overlapping lensing measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as detected by Planck 2015. We compare our joint probe measurement to the theoretical expectation for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology, assuming the best-fitting cosmological parameters from the KiDS-450 cosmic shear and Planck CMB analyses. We find that our results are consistent within 1σ with the KiDS-450 cosmology, with an amplitude re-scaling parameter AKiDS = 0.86 ± 0.19. Adopting a Planck cosmology, we find our results are consistent within 2σ, with APlanck = 0.68 ± 0.15. We show that the agreement is improved in both cases when the contamination to the signal by intrinsic galaxy alignments is accounted for, increasing A by ∼0.1. This is the first tomographic analysis of the galaxy lensing - CMB lensing cross-correlation signal, and is based on five photometric redshift bins. We use this measurement as an independent validation of the multiplicative shear calibration and of the calibrated source redshift distribution at high redshifts. We find that constraints on these two quantities are strongly correlated when obtained from this technique, which should therefore not be considered as a stand-alone competitive calibration tool.

  3. New methodology for analysis of diverting agent performance in unconsolidated sandstones with physical simulator using computerized tomography; Nova metodologia para analise de desempenho de agentes divergentes em arenitos inconsolidados com simuladores fsicos utilizando tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joao Luiz Batista [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fundacao COPPETEC. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: jlbr.coppetec@petrobras.com.br; Queiroz Neto, Joao Crisosthomo de; D' Almeida, Arnaldo Rodrigues; Souza, Lenita Rangel de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Pocos], e-mail: joaoqueiroz@petrobras.com.br; e-mail: arda@petrobras.com.br; e-mail: lenita@petrobras.com.br; Bianco, Luis Carlos Baralho [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro. Gerencia de Engenharia de Pocos], e-mail: lbianco@petrobras.com.br; Campo, Elisabete Ferreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Recuperacao e Analise de Reservatorios], e-mail: betefc@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    While oil and gas producer wells have the advantage of being able to naturally expel damaging particles produced during the drilling and/or completion phase, water injectors are prone to accumulating damaging substances during their operation . In order to remove those substances and restore the potential injectivity of these wells, acid jobs are usually required. One of the major challenges of these operations is to achieve successful treatment diversion. If the interval consists of layers with different permeabilities, the acid will preferably penetrate high permeable layers, leaving the zones of minor permeability without treatment. For diversion to occur, a highly effective material quantity and concentration needs to be applied. The diverting agent must also be non-damaging, low-cost and easy-to-use. The diverting agent studied performed well for permeabilities up to 3 Darcy. The main advantage of the product, besides its high divergence capacity, is the specific action of forming channels in the pores of the matrix where only oil can flow. Therefore, due to it's high hygroscopic characteristics, captures the water around the pores. Also , the product is capable of self-removal after treatment, with the oil produced in the treated well, which eliminates the need for subsequent treatments that would increase time and cost of the operation. In this study, an X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) scanner was used to evaluate in real-time the performance of the diverting agent in rock-fluid interactions. A special aluminum cell (physical simulator) was designed to simulate as closely as possible the conditions found in a real oil well. These conditions include, for example, pressure, temperature, fluid pressure injection, permeability, porosity and oil and water saturations of the studied reservoir. A sequence of tests that were performed in different unconsolidated sandstones, which simulated Campos Basin deep water fields, confirmed the system

  4. [Computed tomographic semiotics of chronic subdural hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'-Kadi, Kh A; Likhterman, L B; Kornichenko, V N

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the results of investigation of 72 patients with verified chronic subdural hematomas (CSH) has revealed their CT dense characteristics, the peculiarities of their structure compared with the time of their formation, the patients' age, the clinical stage of disease, and operative findings. Direct and indirect CT signs of uni- and bilateral hemispherical chronic subdural hematomas were described.

  5. Computerized adaptive testing--ready for ambulatory monitoring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Fischer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have abundant theoretical advantages over established static instruments, which could improve ambulatory monitoring of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). However, an empirical demonstration of their practical benefits is warranted....

  6. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    30, 2013. COMPUTERIZED FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN ... School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Addis Ababa ... layout while algorithms such as CORELAP are used to build new ..... Facilities Planning: Layout Optimization.

  7. Computerized Staffing and Scheduling of PRN Nursing Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Veranth, Martha M; Cheson, Christine

    1984-01-01

    A computerized system developed at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah for staffing and scheduling PRN nursing personnel is described. Pre- and post-implementation staffing and scheduling activities are compared.

  8. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction; Reconstrucao tomografica dinamica industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-07-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  9. Working memory test battery for young adults: Computerized working memory assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a battery of computerized working memory (WM) tests and a scoring system suitable for young adult users. The tests comprised five classic tasks derived from Baddeley’s model of WM, reflecting each of the five WM functions. We recruited 115 undergraduate and graduate students from various academic fields and constructed a preliminary WM scoring norm for young adults. The scoring norm was used as a basis for developing a computerized assessment system. The results of correlation analysis show that the fluid intelligence of young adults is related to the memory function of WM, but not to the central executive system. The proposed working memory test battery for young adults comprehensively reflects the WM capacity of adults. PMID:28362867

  10. Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Bartels, Else M.; Krusager, Peter

    2011-01-01

    .99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. CONCLUSION......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison METHODS...... subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. RESULTS: ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0...

  11. Computerized training program usage at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzic, D.H.; Reed, W.H.; Lawton, R.K.; Fluehr, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increased US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) interest in the nuclear power industry training programs resulted in the Omaha Public Power District staff at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station investigating the potential for computerizing their recently accredited training records, student training requirements, and the process of determining student certification status. Additional areas that were desirable were a computerized question data bank with random test generation, maintaining history of question usage, and tracking of the job task analysis process and course objectives. SCI Software's online personnel training information management system (OPTIM) was selected, subsequent to a bid evaluation, to provide these features while operating on the existing corporate IBM mainframe.

  12. [Computerized decision support systems: EBM at the bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobussi, Matteo; Banzi, Rita; Moja, Lorenzo; Bonovas, Stefanos; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Polo Friz, Hernan; Nanni, Oriana; Mangia, Massimo; Ruggiero, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    One of the aims of Evidence-Based Medicine is to improve quality and appropriateness of care by the expedition of the knowledge transfer process. Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) are computer programs that provide alerts to the prescribing doctor directly at the moment of medical examination. In fact, alerts are integrated within the single patient electronic health record. CDSS based on the best available and updated evidence and guidelines may be an efficient tool to facilitate the transfer of the latest results from clinical research directly at the bedside, thus supporting decision-making. The CODES (COmputerized DEcision Support) trial is a research program funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Lombardy Region. It aims to evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of a CDSS at the hospital level and to assess its efficacy in daily clinical practice. The CODES project includes two pragmatic RCTs testing a CDSS (i.e. the EBMeDS - MediDSS) in two large Italian hospitals: the first is a general hospital in Vimercate (Lombardy), the second is an oncologic research center in Meldola (Emilia Romagna). The CDSS supports a full spectrum of decisions: therapy, drug interactions, diagnosis, and management of health care services are covered by a hundreds of reminders. However only few reminders are activated per patient, highlighting crucial problems in the delivery of high-quality care. The two trials have similar design and primary outcome, the rate at which alerts detected by the software are resolved by a decision of the clinicians. The project also includes the assessment of barriers and facilitators in the adoption of these new technologies by hospital staff members and the retrospective evaluation of the repeated risks in prescription habits. The trials are ongoing and currently more than 10,000 patients have been randomized. The qualitative analysis revealed a progressive shift in the perception of the tool. Doctors are now seeing it

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of the Diabetes Care Protocol, a Multifaceted Computerized Decision Support Diabetes Management Intervention That Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleveringa, Frits G. W.; Welsing, Paco M. J.; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J.; Niessen, Louis W.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Redekop, William K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted Computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk Of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -

  14. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes care protocol, a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention that reduces cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.W. Cleveringa (Frits G.); P.M.J. Welsing (Paco); M. van den Donk (Maureen); K.J. Gorter; L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus); G.E.H.M. Rutten (Guy); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  15. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program.

  16. Computerized ionospheric tomography with the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza; Erol, Cemil B.

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a method to estimate ionospheric electron density distribution by using the global positioning system (GPS) signals recorded by the GPS receivers. Ionospheric electron density is a function of latitude, longitude, height and time. A general approach in CIT is to represent the ionosphere as a linear combination of basis functions. In this study, the model of the ionosphere is obtained from the IRI in latitude and height only. The goal is to determine the best representing basis function from the set of Squeezed Legendre polynomials, truncated Legendre polynomials, Haar Wavelets and singular value decomposition (SVD). The reconstruction algorithms used in this study can be listed as total least squares (TLS), regularized least squares, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and a hybrid algorithm where the reconstruction from the TLS algorithm is used as the initial estimate for the ART. The error performance of the reconstruction algorithms are compared with respect to the electron density generated by the IRI-2001 model. In the investigated scenario, the measurements are obtained from the IRI-2001 as the line integral of the electron density profiles, imitating the total electron content estimated from GPS measurements. It has been observed that the minimum error between the reconstructed and model ionospheres depends on both the reconstruction algorithm and the basis functions where the best results have been obtained for the basis functions from the model itself through SVD.

  17. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  18. Radation distribution in head & thorax computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the exposure levels in the computerized tomography (CT practices is necessary to define the respected national reference levels, quality control of CT centers and the risk assessment for radiation induced cancers. Material and Methods: On the basis of this necessity, the radiation exposure distribution due to common CT practices has been investigated at Razi Hospital CT center in Rasht using tissue-equivalent phantoms and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD. The Head and Thorax phantoms were used with the standard dimensions incorporating holes at the center and edges for TLD placement. Dosimetry was carried out using LiF Mg, Cu, P small chips due to their relatively tissue equivalence, high sensitivity convenient annealing procedure and the non-complex glow curve. Results: Results showed that CTDI for Head is 52.85 mGy and for Body is 68.15mGy. CTDLW for Head is 13.67 mGy and for Body is 16.94mGy . Conclusion: In comparison with other radiographical procedures, patient absorbed doses in CT imaging are usually very high. Content of dose is increased by increase of mAs.

  19. Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kok Swee; Chong, Sze Siang; Tso, Chih Ping; Nia, Mohsen Esmaeili; Chong, Aun Kee; Abbas, Siti Fathimah

    2014-01-01

    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Nursing medication administration and workflow using computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Talsma, Akkeneel; Reinemeyer, Nicholas; Belt, Christine; Schoville, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    The benefits of computerized physician order entry systems have been described widely; however, the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow and its potential for error are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a computerized physician order entry system on nursing workflow. Using an exploratory design, nurses employed on an adult ICU (n = 36) and a general pediatric unit (n = 50) involved in computerized physician order entry-based medication delivery were observed. Nurses were also asked questions regarding the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow. Observations revealed total time required for administering medications averaged 8.45 minutes in the ICU and 9.93 minutes in the pediatric unit. Several additional steps were required in the process for pediatric patients, including preparing the medications and communicating with patients and family, which resulted in greater time associated with the delivery of medications. Frequent barriers to workflow were noted by nurses across settings, including system issues (ie, inefficient medication reconciliation processes, long order sets requiring more time to determine medication dosage), less frequent interaction between the healthcare team, and greater use of informal communication modes. Areas for nursing workflow improvement include (1) medication reconciliation/order duplication, (2) strategies to improve communication, and (3) evaluation of the impact of computerized physician order entry on practice standards.

  1. Arterial Obstruction on Computed Tomographic or Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Response to Intravenous Thrombolytics in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Grant; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Adami, Alessandro; White, Philip M; Adams, Matthew E; Yan, Bernard; Demchuk, Andrew M; Farrall, Andrew J; Sellar, Robin J; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Perry, David; Lindley, Richard I; Sandercock, Peter A G; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used increasingly to assess arterial patency in patients with ischemic stroke. We determined which baseline angiography features predict response to intravenous thrombolytics in ischemic stroke using randomized controlled trial data. We analyzed angiograms from the IST-3 (Third International Stroke Trial), an international, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial of intravenous alteplase. Readers, masked to clinical, treatment, and outcome data, assessed prerandomization computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for presence, extent, location, and completeness of obstruction and collaterals. We compared angiography findings to 6-month functional outcome (Oxford Handicap Scale) and tested for interactions with alteplase, using ordinal regression in adjusted analyses. We also meta-analyzed all available angiography data from other randomized controlled trials of intravenous thrombolytics. In IST-3, 300 patients had prerandomization angiography (computed tomographic angiography=271 and magnetic resonance angiography=29). On multivariable analysis, more extensive angiographic obstruction and poor collaterals independently predicted poor outcome (P1 indicates benefit) in patients with (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.64; P=0.011) versus without (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.35; P=0.566) arterial obstruction (P for interaction 0.017). Intravenous thrombolytics provide benefit to stroke patients with computed tomographic angiography or magnetic resonance angiography evidence of arterial obstruction, but the sample was underpowered to demonstrate significant treatment benefit or harm among patients with apparently patent arteries. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN25765518. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Impact of Cn2 profile on tomographic reconstruction performance: application to E-ELT wide field AO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costille, A.; Fusco, T.

    2012-07-01

    New techniques of Adaptive Optics (AO), generically called Wide Field AO, have been developed in the frame of the design study for new instruments for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELI). Concepts such as Multi-Conjugate AO are based on a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent volume followed by a projection onto DM(s) in order to ensure a good correction in a large Field of View. These systems require a 3D phase reconstruction and a statistical representation of the turbulent volume through the knowledge of the Cn2 profile, which has a strong impact on performance. We focus our study on the analysis of the impact of the structure and the parameters, which define the Cn2 profile, on the performance of a given tomographic system for an ELI. In this article, we perform simulation to emphasize the terms which are directly linked to the knowledge of the true input Cn2 profile, which simulates the input turbulent perturbations, and to the Cn2 profile which is used as a model in the reconstruction process. We determine and discuss the level of the accuracy needed on the Cn2 profile to limit the tomographic error term and to ensure a good performance. We show that a good sampling of the input turbulence is required to ensure performance of the system.

  3. 3D flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry for vortex breakdown over a non-slender delta wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChengYue; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Li, Tian; Wang, JinJun

    2016-06-01

    Volumetric measurement for the leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown of a delta wing has been conducted by three-dimensional (3D) flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). The 3D flow visualization is employed to show the vortex structures, which was recorded by four cameras with high resolution. 3D dye streaklines of the visualization are reconstructed using a similar way of particle reconstruction in TPIV. Tomographic PIV is carried out at the same time using same cameras with the dye visualization. Q criterion is employed to identify the LEV. Results of tomographic PIV agree well with the reconstructed 3D dye streaklines, which proves the validity of the measurements. The time-averaged flow field based on TPIV is shown and described by sections of velocity and streamwise vorticity. Combining the two measurement methods sheds light on the complex structures of both bubble type and spiral type of breakdown. The breakdown position is recognized by investigating both the streaklines and TPIV velocity fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to extract a pair of conjugated helical instability modes from TPIV data. Therefore, the dominant frequency of the instability modes is obtained from the corresponding POD coefficients of the modes based on wavelet transform analysis.

  4. Nanoscale tomographic reconstruction of the subsurface mechanical properties of low-k high-aspect ratio patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Mays, Ebony; Yoo, Hui Jae; King, Sean W.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, intermittent contact resonance atomic force microscopy (ICR-AFM) was performed on high-aspect ratio a-SiOC:H patterned fins (100 nm in height and width from 20 to 90 nm) to map the depth and width dependencies of the material stiffness. The spatial resolution and depth sensitivity of the measurements were assessed from tomographic cross-sections over various regions of interest within the 3D space of the measurements. Furthermore, the depth-dependence of the measured contact stiffness over the scanned area was used to determine the sub-surface variation of the elastic modulus at each point in the scan. This was achieved by iteratively adjusting the local elastic profile until the depth dependence of the resulted contact stiffness matched the depth dependence of the contact stiffness measured by ICR-AFM at that location. The results of this analysis were assembled into nanoscale sub-surface tomographic images of the elastic modulus of the investigated SiOC:H patterns. A new 3D structure-property representation emerged from these tomographic images with direct evidence for the alterations sustained by the structures during processing.

  5. Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, T; Steinberg, B; Christensen, B

    1992-01-01

    We used changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to disclose regions involved in central auditory and language processing in the normal brain. rCBF was quantified with a fast-rotating, single-photon emission computerized tomograph (SPECT) and inhalation of 133Xe. rCBF data were obtained...... simultaneously from parallel, transverse slices of the brain. The lower slice was positioned to include both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The upper slice included regions generally regarded by neurobehaviorists as less related to primary auditory or linguistic functions. We presented three types of auditory......'s area (left hemisphere), when subjects listened to narrative speech, compared to white noise (baseline). No significant rCBF differences were detected with this test during dichotic stimulation vs. white noise. A more sophisticated statistical method (factor analysis) disclosed patterns of functionally...

  6. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsap Leonid V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  7. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V

    2004-04-28

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  8. Análise tomográfica para colocação de parafusos em C2 nos pacientes com artrite reumatoide Tomographic analysis for C2 screw placement in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Schroll Astolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A análise morfológica da estrutura óssea de C2, em pacientes com artrite reumatoide, com o objetivo de aumentar a segurança de procedimentos de estabilização desta vértebra. MÉTODOS: Analisamos retrospectivamente 20 tomografias de coluna cervical realizadas em pacientes com artrite reumatoide, foram medidos os seguintes parâmetros: o ângulo espinolaminar, espessura e comprimento da lâmina de C2. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios encontrados são: espessura das lâminas direita 5,92mm e esquerda 5,87mm; comprimento das lâminas direita 27,75mm e esquerda 27,94mm e ângulo espinolaminar 44,7(0. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores obtidos são compatíveis com os de estudos realizados em indivíduos normais publicados por outros autores, não havendo aparente necessidade de alteração na técnica para colocação dos parafusos. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos.OBJECTIVE: A morphological analysis of the bone structure of C2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in order to enhance the security of the stabilization procedures for this vertebra. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 CT scans of the cervical spine performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; the following parameters were measured: espinolaminar angle, thickness and length of C2 lamina. RESULTS: The mean values are: 5.92mm and 5.87mm for thickness of right and left laminae retrospectively, 27.75mm for right lamina lenght and 27.94mm for left lamina lenght, and 44.7º for espinolaminar angle. CONCLUSION: The values obtained are consistent with studies in normal subjects published by other groups, with no apparent need for change in the screw placement technique. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.

  9. Turbulence profiling for adaptive optics tomographic reconstructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Douglas J.; Osborn, James; Wilson, Richard W.; Morris, Timothy J.; Butterley, Timothy; Reeves, Andrew P.; Townson, Matthew J.; Gendron, Éric; Vidal, Fabrice; Morel, Carine

    2016-07-01

    To approach optimal performance advanced Adaptive Optics (AO) systems deployed on ground-based telescopes must have accurate knowledge of atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude. Stereo-SCIDAR is a high-resolution stereoscopic instrument dedicated to this measure. Here, its profiles are directly compared to internal AO telemetry atmospheric profiling techniques for CANARY (Vidal et al. 20141), a Multi-Object AO (MOAO) pathfinder on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), La Palma. In total twenty datasets are analysed across July and October of 2014. Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithms dubbed Direct Fitting and Learn 2 Step (L2S; Martin 20142) are used in the recovery of profile information via covariance matrices - respectively attaining average Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients with stereo-SCIDAR of 0.2 and 0.74. By excluding the measure of covariance between orthogonal Wavefront Sensor (WFS) slopes these results have revised values of 0.65 and 0.2. A data analysis technique that combines L2S and SLODAR is subsequently introduced that achieves a correlation coefficient of 0.76.

  10. Incidence and Tomographic Evaluation of Unilateral Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Oruçoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the parameters of unilateral keratoconus on the basis of Scheimpflug tomography and to compare them with normal controls. Ma te ri al and Met hod: From all patients diagnosed with keratoconus between January 2011 and January 2012, those who had topographic signs of keratoconus in one eye were retrospectively evaluated. Unilateral keratoconus eyes were compared with the normal fellow eyes and control eyes. Anterior and posterior keratometry, topographic astigmatism, axis, asphericity and central corneal thickness, corneal and anterior chamber volume and depth in all cases were evaluated with Pentacam. ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: 22 (14.9% of 147 patients with keratoconus had no topographic evidence of keratoconus in the fellow eye. Statistically significant differences were noted between keratoconic eyes and fellow eyes, and between keratoconic eyes and control eyes in anterior keratometric values, posterior steep and mean keratometry, anterior and posterior astigmatism, anterior and posterior asphericity and central corneal thickness (p=0.05. Posterior flat keratometry and anterior chamber depth were different between keratoconus and control eyes (p=0.004, p=0.006 but similar between keratoconus and fellow normal eyes (p=0.069, p=1.0. Dis cus si on: The Scheimpflug parameters were similar between fellow eyes and control eyes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 83-6

  11. A new Brief computerized cognitive screening battery (CompCogs for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Charchat Fichman

    Full Text Available Abstract Screening tests for early diagnosis of dementia are of great clinical relevance. The ideal test set must be brief and reliable, and should probe cognitive components impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objectives: To develop a new Computerized Cognitive Screening test (CompCogs, and to investigate its validity for the early diagnosis of AD, and evaluate its heuristic value in understanding the processing of information in AD. Methods: The computerized neuropsychological performance battery, originally including six tests, was applied in forty seven patients with probable mild AD and 97 controls matched for age and education. This computerized neuropsychological test battery, developed with MEL Professional, allows control of timing and order of stimuli presentation, as well as recording of response type and latency. A brief-screening version, CompCogs, was selected using the most discriminative neuropsychological test variables derived from logistic regression analysis. Full battery administration lasted about 40 minutes, while the CompCogs took only 15 minutes. Results: CompCogs included the Face test (correct response and Word and Forms with Short term memory tests (reaction time. CompCogs presented 91.8% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity for the diagnosis of AD using ROC analyses of AD diagnosis probability derived by logistic regression. Conclusions: CompCogs showed high validity for AD early diagnosis and, therefore, may be a useful alternative screening instrument.

  12. Instruction manual for the Wahoo computerized database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasota, D.; Watts, K.

    1995-05-01

    As part of our research on the Lisburne Group, we have developed a powerful relational computerized database to accommodate the huge amounts of data generated by our multi-disciplinary research project. The Wahoo database has data files on petrographic data, conodont analyses, locality and sample data, well logs and diagenetic (cement) studies. Chapter 5 is essentially an instruction manual that summarizes some of the unique attributes and operating procedures of the Wahoo database. The main purpose of a database is to allow users to manipulate their data and produce reports and graphs for presentation. We present a variety of data tables in appendices at the end of this report, each encapsulating a small part of the data contained in the Wahoo database. All the data are sorted and listed by map index number and stratigraphic position (depth). The Locality data table (Appendix A) lists of the stratigraphic sections examined in our study. It gives names of study areas, stratigraphic units studied, locality information, and researchers. Most localities are keyed to a geologic map that shows the distribution of the Lisburne Group and location of our sections in ANWR. Petrographic reports (Appendix B) are detailed summaries of data the composition and texture of the Lisburne Group carbonates. The relative abundance of different carbonate grains (allochems) and carbonate texture are listed using symbols that portray data in a format similar to stratigraphic columns. This enables researchers to recognize trends in the evolution of the Lisburne carbonate platform and to check their paleoenvironmental interpretations in a stratigraphic context. Some of the figures in Chapter 1 were made using the Wahoo database.

  13. Method of computerized glow curve deconvolution for analysing thermoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T [Division of General Education, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Omae-cho 268-1, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Gartia, R K [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2003-11-07

    The conventional worldwide accepted method of computerized glow curve deconvolution based on the general order kinetics formalism has two fatal defects in systems where the trapping levels (two or more) have non-zero retrapping probability. The first one is ignoring the thermal connectivity between thermoluminescence (TL) peaks. This arises from the fact that under such a situation electrons trapped at one trapping level, once activated, can be retrapped in another thermally connected level via the conduction band during the recording of the glow curve. The other is the impossibility of obtaining a global minimum, in fitting the experimental TL with the theoretical one with existing techniques. This paper aims to provide answers to these defects. The first one can be overcome by resorting to rigorous analysis using appropriate mathematical rate equations describing the flow of charge carriers. Though the second defect cannot be overcome completely, one can obtain a reasonable fit, which may not be unique. The algorithm is tested for synthetic as well as experimental glow curves.

  14. A statistical model for interpreting computerized dynamic posturography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Paloski, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is widely used for assessment of altered balance control. CDP trials are quantified using the equilibrium score (ES), which ranges from zero to 100, as a decreasing function of peak sway angle. The problem of how best to model and analyze ESs from a controlled study is considered. The ES often exhibits a skewed distribution in repeated trials, which can lead to incorrect inference when applying standard regression or analysis of variance models. Furthermore, CDP trials are terminated when a patient loses balance. In these situations, the ES is not observable, but is assigned the lowest possible score--zero. As a result, the response variable has a mixed discrete-continuous distribution, further compromising inference obtained by standard statistical methods. Here, we develop alternative methodology for analyzing ESs under a stochastic model extending the ES to a continuous latent random variable that always exists, but is unobserved in the event of a fall. Loss of balance occurs conditionally, with probability depending on the realized latent ES. After fitting the model by a form of quasi-maximum-likelihood, one may perform statistical inference to assess the effects of explanatory variables. An example is provided, using data from the NIH/NIA Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

  15. The Art of Tomographic Tracer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Leven, C.; Doro, K. O.; Sanchez-Leon, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    In tracer tomography several tracer tests are performed within an aquifer and breakthrough curves are observed at multiple observation points. In the analysis, hydraulic conductivity is estimated as spatially variable, 3-D field subject to some smoothness constraint. Coupled flow and transport models using this conductivity fields are requested to meet observed tracer data. The approach can be combined with hydraulic tomography.We have performed hydraulic-tomography and tracer-tomography tests using heat and fluorescein as tracers at a field site close to Tübingen, Germany. The aquifer consists of 8-9m alluvials sands and gravels overlain by 1-2m alluvial fines. The hydraulic setup consists of a forced flow field between an injection/extraction well couple, embedded in the forced flow field of another well couple. By turning injection to extraction wells, and vice versa, two different flow fields were considered. Injection wells were separated into several sections by packers, and water was injected into each section proportional to its transmissivity. The water injected into one of the sections contained the tracer. Multi-level observation wells were equiped with thermometers (for heat-tracer tests), on-line fluoremeters (for teh dye tracers), and pressure transducers. Processing of the breakthrough curves included data cleaning, non-parametric deconvolution, and calculation of temperal moments of the estimated transfer functions.The joint inversion of hydraulic-head measurements and temporal moments of heat-tracer transfer functions was done by the quasi-linear geostatistical approach on a computing cluster. As alternative, we directly invert the time series (without temporal moments) by Ensemble-Kalman filtering.The high diffusion coefficient of temperature diminishes the penetration of the heat-tracer into the aquifer, which can partially be compensated by reverting the flow field and repeating the tracer tests. In tests with fluorscent tracers the signal

  16. Tomographic reconstruction of time-bin-entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowierski, Samantha J.; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-10-01

    We describe an experimental implementation to generate and measure high-dimensional time-bin-entangled qudits. Two-photon time-bin entanglement is generated via spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode fiber. Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers transform selected time bins to polarization entanglement, allowing standard polarization-projective measurements to be used for complete quantum state tomographic reconstruction. Here we generate maximally entangled qubits (d =2 ) , qutrits (d =3 ) , and ququarts (d =4 ) , as well as other phase-modulated nonmaximally entangled qubits and qutrits. We reconstruct and verify all generated states using maximum-likelihood estimation tomography.

  17. Non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: clinical-tomographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Campos

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of clinical-tomographic correlation in 111 cases of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes seen between 1984-1988 in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima, Peru. Emphasis is given fundamentally to: (1 the importance of stablishing the or-ganicity of partial and late epilepsy; (2 the high incidence rate of inflammatory infectious processes with CNS compromise in underdeveloping countries; (3 the necessity of making public the importance of two parisitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: free living amebiasis, and toxoplasmosis (especially in association with AIDS.

  18. Tomographic cerebral blood flow measurement during carotid surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Vorstrup, Sidsel; Olsen, K S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to depict regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during carotid cross clamping using 99mTechnetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (TcHMPAO). This tracer rapidly passes the blood-brain barrier and is retained for hours in the brain tissue. Injecting TcHMPAO during...... RESULTS: We found a significant correlation between stump pressure and enhancement of side-to-side asymmetry in rCBF due to carotid cross clamping. Pronounced variations were seen in which regions were deprived of perfusion during clamping. CONCLUSION: TcHMPAO allows tomographic assessment of CBF during...

  19. Electromagnetic Hydrophone with Tomographic System for Absolute Velocity Field Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; 10.1063/1.4726178

    2012-01-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  20. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.