WorldWideScience

Sample records for computer hard drives

  1. Disposal of waste computer hard disk drive: data destruction and resources recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoqing; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-06-01

    An increasing quantity of discarded computers is accompanied by a sharp increase in the number of hard disk drives to be eliminated. A waste hard disk drive is a special form of waste electrical and electronic equipment because it holds large amounts of information that is closely connected with its user. Therefore, the treatment of waste hard disk drives is an urgent issue in terms of data security, environmental protection and sustainable development. In the present study the degaussing method was adopted to destroy the residual data on the waste hard disk drives and the housing of the disks was used as an example to explore the coating removal process, which is the most important pretreatment for aluminium alloy recycling. The key operation points of the degaussing determined were: (1) keep the platter plate parallel with the magnetic field direction; and (2) the enlargement of magnetic field intensity B and action time t can lead to a significant upgrade in the degaussing effect. The coating removal experiment indicated that heating the waste hard disk drives housing at a temperature of 400 °C for 24 min was the optimum condition. A novel integrated technique for the treatment of waste hard disk drives is proposed herein. This technique offers the possibility of destroying residual data, recycling the recovered resources and disposing of the disks in an environmentally friendly manner.

  2. Recycling potential of neodymium: the case of computer hard disk drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Benjamin; Kleijn, Rene; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-08-19

    Neodymium, one of the more critically scarce rare earth metals, is often used in sustainable technologies. In this study, we investigate the potential contribution of neodymium recycling to reducing scarcity in supply, with a case study on computer hard disk drives (HDDs). We first review the literature on neodymium production and recycling potential. From this review, we find that recycling of computer HDDs is currently the most feasible pathway toward large-scale recycling of neodymium, even though HDDs do not represent the largest application of neodymium. We then use a combination of dynamic modeling and empirical experiments to conclude that within the application of NdFeB magnets for HDDs, the potential for loop-closing is significant: up to 57% in 2017. However, compared to the total NdFeB production capacity, the recovery potential from HDDs is relatively small (in the 1-3% range). The distributed nature of neodymium poses a significant challenge for recycling of neodymium.

  3. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  4. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  5. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Methods Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1) orthogonal uniqueness, (2) low level formatting, (3) high level formatting and (4) translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Results Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT) during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating system (OS). Biological

  6. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: an examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, David J; An, Gary

    2010-01-21

    The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1) orthogonal uniqueness, (2) low level formatting, (3) high level formatting and (4) translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT) during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating system (OS). Biological systems do not have an

  7. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Onofrio David J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these properties reside in the computer's hard drive, and for eukaryotic cells they are manifest in the DNA and associated structures. Methods Presented herein is a descriptive framework that compares DNA and its associated proteins and sub-nuclear structure with the structure and function of the computer hard drive. We identify four essential properties of information for a centralized storage and processing system: (1 orthogonal uniqueness, (2 low level formatting, (3 high level formatting and (4 translation of stored to usable form. The corresponding aspects of the DNA complex and a computer hard drive are categorized using this classification. This is intended to demonstrate a functional equivalence between the components of the two systems, and thus the systems themselves. Results Both the DNA complex and the computer hard drive contain components that fulfill the essential properties of a centralized information storage and processing system. The functional equivalence of these components provides insight into both the design process of engineered systems and the evolved solutions addressing similar system requirements. However, there are points where the comparison breaks down, particularly when there are externally imposed information-organizing structures on the computer hard drive. A specific example of this is the imposition of the File Allocation Table (FAT during high level formatting of the computer hard drive and the subsequent loading of an operating

  8. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  9. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Feature Subset Selection in Hard Disk Drive Failure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    Hard disk drives are used in everyday life to store critical data. Although they are reliable, failure of a hard disk drive can be catastrophic, especially in applications like medicine, banking, air traffic control systems, missile guidance systems, computer numerical controlled machines, and more. The use of Self-Monitoring, Analysis and…

  10. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  11. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model its structural responses to free fall drop-impact shock and vibration. Secondly, the hard ... Keywords: Free fall, impact force, Shock, Vibration, Stress, Reliability, Modeling, Simulation External Hard disk drive. 1. ..... on the disk, it could initiate process which could .... [19] Katta, P.: MATLAB Guide to Finite Elements - An.

  12. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  13. A comparative approach for the investigation of biological information processing: An examination of the structure and function of computer hard drives and DNA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Onofrio, David J; An, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The robust storage, updating and utilization of information are necessary for the maintenance and perpetuation of dynamic systems. These systems can exist as constructs of metal-oxide semiconductors and silicon, as in a digital computer, or in the "wetware" of organic compounds, proteins and nucleic acids that make up biological organisms. We propose that there are essential functional properties of centralized information-processing systems; for digital computers these pr...

  14. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  15. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “20min.ch” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “20min.ch” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  16. The Role of the Goal in Solving Hard Computational Problems: Do People Really Optimize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Sarah; Stege, Ulrike; Masson, Michael E. J.

    2018-01-01

    The role that the mental, or internal, representation plays when people are solving hard computational problems has largely been overlooked to date, despite the reality that this internal representation drives problem solving. In this work we investigate how performance on versions of two hard computational problems differs based on what internal…

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Flexural Vibrations in Hard Disk Drive Spindle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, SEUNGCHUL

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the flexural vibration analysis of the hard disk drive (HDD) spindle system by means of the finite element method. In contrast to previous research, every system component is here analytically modelled taking into account its structural flexibility and also the centrifugal effect particularly on the disk. To prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the formulated models, commercial HDD systems with two and three identical disks are selected as examples. Then their major natural modes are computed with only a small number of element meshes as the shaft rotational speed is varied, and subsequently compared with the existing numerical results obtained using other methods and newly acquired experimental ones. Based on such a series of studies, the proposed method can be concluded as a very promising tool for the design of HDDs and various other high-performance computer disk drives such as floppy disk drives, CD ROM drives, and their variations having spindle mechanisms similar to those of HDDs.

  18. Use of Software Programs as Zero Fill Help in Overcoming the Problem Around Hard Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Prasetyo Nugroho; Fivtatianti Fivtatianti, Skom, MM

    2003-01-01

    Zero Fill, is a software tool programs that are designed for hard disk drive specially branded Quantum. This software is a tool programs that function to format the hard drive. Where is the type of format here is the first format or in other words the software to format the hard drive is working under conditions of low- level or commonly referred to as a low- level format. The advantages of this software is able to fix and remove all existing data within the disk, such as files...

  19. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  20. Study of flow induce vibration inside 3.5 inch hard disk drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichitpon Seepangmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on flow induced vibration of head stack assembly (HSA in a 3.5 inch hard disk drive with 5 disks and 10 read/write heads. We studied the effects of air flow on gimbal flex and resonance on arm. The comparison of vibrations on slider between the normal model and the experiment has been done for verifying the model. The peaks of frequency in experiment match the normal model at 1,040 1,320 and 1,400 Hz respectively. After that, the RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulent air flow of 7,200 rpm hard disk drive. The comparison between the normal model and the model with spoiler was investigated by using, computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS and FLUENT. The results shown velocity magnitudes at the arm were decreased by 0.725 - 57.689 % and pressure dropped by 74.028 - 87.222 %. The velocity magnitudes at the gimbal flex were decreased by 5.522 - 14.291 % and pressure dropped by 48.440 - 82.947 %. The peak of vibrations on arm and gimbal flex was occurred at the frequency 1200 Hz. The model with spoiler could reduce vibration at arm by 2.56 - 95.601 % and reduce vibration at gimbal flex by 4.065 - 95.503 %. In the conclusion, the model with a spoiler could decrease the vibration at all surface of the arm and gimbal flex due to the velocity and pressure reduction[1][4].

  1. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.; Joffre, F.; Marceau, M.; Robiolle, M.; Brunet, J.P.; Mijuin, D.

    1993-01-01

    For requirements of nuclear industries, it is necessary to use robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high level safety. The computer developed for french research program SYROCO is presented in this paper. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. Chemoreception drives plastic consumption in a hard coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Austin S; Seymour, Alexander C; Rittschof, Daniel

    2017-11-15

    The drivers behind microplastic (up to 5mm in diameter) consumption by animals are uncertain and impacts on foundational species are poorly understood. We investigated consumption of weathered, unfouled, biofouled, pre-production and microbe-free National Institute of Standards plastic by a scleractinian coral that relies on chemosensory cues for feeding. Experiment one found that corals ingested many plastic types while mostly ignoring organic-free sand, suggesting that plastic contains phagostimulents. Experiment two found that corals ingested more plastic that wasn't covered in a microbial biofilm than plastics that were biofilmed. Additionally, corals retained ~8% of ingested plastic for 24h or more and retained particles appeared stuck in corals, with consequences for energetics, pollutant toxicity and trophic transfer. The potential for chemoreception to drive plastic consumption in marine taxa has implications for conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Smart Structure for Improving Servo Performance of Hard Disk Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Itsuro; Takahashi, Masafumi; Arisaka, Toshihiro

    Head positioning accuracy of the hard disk drive should be improved to meet today's increasing performance demands. Vibration suppression of the arm in the hard disk drive is very important to enhance the servo bandwidth of the head positioning system. In this study, smart structure technology is introduced into the hard disk drive to suppress the vibration of the head actuator. It has been expected that the smart structure technology will contribute to the development of small and light-weight mechatronics devices with the required performance. First, modeling of the system is conducted with finite element method and modal analysis. Next, the actuator location and the control system are simultaneously optimized using genetic algorithm. Vibration control effect with the proposed vibration control mechanisms has been evaluated by some simulations.

  4. Note: A simple vibrating orifice monodisperse droplet generator using a hard drive actuator arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosch, Sebastian, E-mail: skosch@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ashgriz@mie.utoronto.ca; Ashgriz, Nasser, E-mail: skosch@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ashgriz@mie.utoronto.ca [Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    We propose that the rotary voice coil actuators found in magnetic hard drives are fit to supercede loudspeakers as expedient vibration sources in the laboratory setting. A specific use case is the excitation of a liquid jet to induce controlled breakup into monodisperse droplets. Like loudspeakers, which are typically used for prototyping such devices, hard drive actuators are cheap and ubiquitous, but they are less unwieldy and supply greater amplitudes without producing noise. Frequencies between 0 and 17 kHz, and likely beyond, can be reproduced reliably. No machining tools or amplifying electronics are needed for the construction and operation of the presented droplet generator.

  5. [Computer-assisted phacoemulsification for hard cataracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, M; Papadatu, Adriana-Camelia; Sîrbu, Laura-Nicoleta; Avram, Corina

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the efficiency of new torsional phacoemulsification software (Ozil IP system) in hard nucleus cataract extraction. 45 eyes with hard senile cataract (degree III and IV) underwent phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon, using the same technique (stop and chop). Infiniti (Alcon) platform was used, with Ozil IP software and Kelman phaco tip miniflared, 45 degrees. The nucleus was split into two and after that the first half was phacoemulsificated with IP-on (group 1) and the second half with IP-off (group 2). For every group we measured: cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), numbers of tip closure that needed manual desobstruction the amount of BSS used. The mean CDE was the same in group 1 and in group 2 (between 6.2 and 14.9). The incidence of occlusion that needed manual desobstruction was lower in group 1 (5 times) than in group 2 (13 times). Group 2 used more BSS compared to group 1. The new torsional software (IP system) significantly decreased occlusion time and balanced salt solution use over standard torsional software, particularly with denser cataracts.

  6. The Impact of Hard Disk Firmware Steganography on Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Sutherland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hard disk drive is probably the predominant form of storage media and is a primary data source in a forensic investigation. The majority of available software tools and literature relating to the investigation of the structure and content contained within a hard disk drive concerns the extraction and analysis of evidence from the various file systems which can reside in the user accessible area of the disk. It is known that there are other areas of the hard disk drive which could be used to conceal information, such as the Host Protected Area and the Device Configuration Overlay. There are recommended methods for the detection and forensic analysis of these areas using appropriate tools and techniques. However, there are additional areas of a disk that have currently been overlooked.  The Service Area or Platter Resident Firmware Area is used to store code and control structures responsible for the functionality of the drive and for logging failing or failed sectors.This paper provides an introduction into initial research into the investigation and identification of issues relating to the analysis of the Platter Resident Firmware Area. In particular, the possibility that the Platter Resident Firmware Area could be manipulated and exploited to facilitate a form of steganography, enabling information to be concealed by a user and potentially from a digital forensic investigator.

  7. 77 FR 8284 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... business model of the subject firm is to develop new products domestically and carry out the manufacturing... that the new designs are functional. SAR 8, 20, 26. The subject firm stated that prototype creation is... Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at Lake Forest), CA; Notice of...

  8. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  9. Micro-computer cards for hard industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, J M

    1984-03-15

    Approximately 60% of present or future distributed systems have, or will have, operational units installed in hard environments. In these applications, which include canalization and industrial motor control, robotics and process control, systems must be easily applied in environments not made for electronic use. The development of card systems in this hard industrial environment, which is found in petrochemical industry and mines is described. National semiconductor CIM card system CMOS technology allows the real time micro computer application to be efficient and functional in hard industrial environments.

  10. On the Dynamics of Rocking Motion of the Hard-Disk Drive Spindle Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    Excessive rocking motion of the spindle motor system can cause track misregistration resulting in poor throughput or even drive failure. The chance of excessive disk stack rocking increases as a result of decreasing torsional stiffness of spindle motor bearing system due to the market demand for low profile hard drives. As the track density increases and the vibration specification becomes increasingly stringent, rocking motion of a spindle motor system deserves even more attention and has become a primary challenge for a spindle motor system designer. Lack of understanding of the rocking phenomenon combined with misleading paradox has presented a great difficulty in the effort of avoiding the rocking motion in the hard-disk drive industry. This paper aims to provide fundamental understanding of the rocking phenomenon of a rotating spindle motor system, to clarify the paradox in disk-drive industry and to provide a design guide to an optimized spindle system. This paper, theoretically and experimentally, covers a few important areas of industrial interest including the prediction of rocking natural frequencies and mode shape of a rotating spindle, free vibration, and frequency response under common forcing functions such as rotating and fixed-plane forcing functions. The theory presented here meets with agreeable experimental observation.

  11. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samattapapong, N.; Afzulpurkar, N.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a pragmatic system of a production throughput forecasting system for an automated test operation in a hard drive manufacturing plant. The accurate forecasting result is necessary for the management team to response to any changes in the production processes and the resources allocations. In this study, we design a production throughput forecasting system in an automated test operation in hard drive manufacturing plant. In the proposed system, consists of three main stages. In the first stage, a mutual information method was adopted for selecting the relevant inputs into the forecasting model. In the second stage, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was implemented in the forecasting model development phase. Finally, forecasting accuracy was improved by searching the optimal smoothing parameter which selected from comparisons result among three optimization algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), unrestricted search optimization (USO) and interval halving optimization (IHO). The experimental result shows that (1) the developed production throughput forecasting system using GRNN is able to provide forecasted results close to actual values, and to projected the future trends of production throughput in an automated hard disk drive test operation; (2) An IHO algorithm performed as superiority appropriate optimization method than the other two algorithms. (3) Compared with current forecasting system in manufacturing, the results show that the proposed system’s performance is superior to the current system in prediction accuracy and suitable for real-world application. The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for

  12. Low Molecular Weight Z-Tetraol Boundary Lubricant Films in Hard Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Waltman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower molecular weight Z-Tetraol films exhibit increased mechanical spacing in the slider-disk interface due to a lower z-profile. An increased resistance to lubricant disturbance on the disk surface (e.g., lube moguls with decreasing film thickness is attributed to an increasing contribution from the polar component of the disjoining pressure. Evaporative loss at temperatures typically encountered in a hard-disk drive also increases with decreasing molecular weight but is strongly dependent on the initial bonded fraction.

  13. Simultaneous measurements of disk vibration and pressure fluctuation in turbulent flow developing in a model hard disk drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, D.; Naka, Y.; Fukagata, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Obi, S., E-mail: obsn@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    The complex flow features inside hard disk drive models are investigated in an axisymmetric and a semi-open shroud configurations. For the axisymmetric case, we have employed both experimental and computational approaches. The experiment focuses on both flow dynamics and the disk vibration, where measurements of the fluctuating pressure and velocity are undertaken at some representative points. The correlation between the disk vibration and the fluctuating pressure in the turbulent flow between disks is evident from the spectral analysis. The experimentally observed fluctuating pressure and velocity are partly due to the disk vibration and its contribution could be estimated by comparing the experiment with the results of a large eddy simulation. For the semi-open shroud case, although the characteristic peaks attributable to the large-scale vortical structure are still observed in the power spectra, the pressure fluctuation and the disk vibration are suppressed when the arm is inserted.

  14. Continuous-Variable Instantaneous Quantum Computing is Hard to Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T; Markham, D; Kashefi, E; Diamanti, E; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; van Loock, P; Ferrini, G

    2017-02-17

    Instantaneous quantum computing is a subuniversal quantum complexity class, whose circuits have proven to be hard to simulate classically in the discrete-variable realm. We extend this proof to the continuous-variable (CV) domain by using squeezed states and homodyne detection, and by exploring the properties of postselected circuits. In order to treat postselection in CVs, we consider finitely resolved homodyne detectors, corresponding to a realistic scheme based on discrete probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The unavoidable errors stemming from the use of finitely squeezed states are suppressed through a qubit-into-oscillator Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding of quantum information, which was previously shown to enable fault-tolerant CV quantum computation. Finally, we show that, in order to render postselected computational classes in CVs meaningful, a logarithmic scaling of the squeezing parameter with the circuit size is necessary, translating into a polynomial scaling of the input energy.

  15. Neodymium as the main feature of permanent magnets from hard disk drives (HDDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    München, Daniel Dotto; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    As a way to manage neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets wasted in end-of-life hard disk drives (HDDs), a waste characterization is needed prior to a recycling process. Due to their magnetic properties, NdFeB magnets are essential in technological applications nowadays, thus causing an increase in the industrial demand for rare earth metals. However, these metals have a short supply, since they are difficult to obtain from ores, creating a critical market. In this work, a study of the characterization of sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets was undertaken by qualitatively and quantitatively uncovering the neodymium recovery potential from this type of electronic waste. From the collection and disassembly of hard disk drives, in which the magnet represents less than 3% of the total weight, an efficient demagnetization process was proceeded at 320°C. Then, the magnet was ground and screened for an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which showed the Nd 2 Fe 14 B tetragonal phase as the dominant constituent of the sample. An analysis was also carried out in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), where the magnet composition showed 21.5wt% of neodymium and 65.1wt% of iron, among other chemicals. This Nd content is higher than the one found in Nd ores, enhancing the recyclability and the importance of waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viveros-Méndez, P. X.; Aranda-Espinoza, S.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e 2 /Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions L x ≈ L y and L z = 5L x , where L x , L y , and L z are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface

  17. Reliability evaluation of hard disk drive failures based on counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Xie, Min; Tang, Loon-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Reliability assessment for hard disk drives (HDDs) is important yet difficult for manufacturers. Motivated by the fact that the particle accumulation in the HDDs, which accounts for most HDD catastrophic failures, is contributed from the internal and external sources, a counting process with two arrival sources is proposed to model the particle cumulative process in HDDs. This model successfully explains the collapse of traditional ALT approaches for accelerated life test data. Parameter estimation and hypothesis tests for the model are developed and illustrated with real data from a HDD test. A simulation study is conducted to examine the accuracy of large sample normal approximations that are used to test existence of the internal and external sources.

  18. Safety analysis of control rod drive computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberger, W.; Rauch, G.; Schmeil, U.; Maertz, J.; Mainka, E.U.; Nordland, O.; Gloee, G.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the most significant user programmes revealed no errors in these programmes. The evaluation of approximately 82 cumulated years of operation demonstrated that the operating system of the control rod positioning processor has a reliability that is sufficiently good for the tasks this computer has to fulfil. Computers can be used for safety relevant tasks. The experience gained with the control rod positioning processor confirms that computers are not less reliable than conventional instrumentation and control system for comparable tasks. The examination and evaluation of computers for safety relevant tasks can be done with programme analysis or statistical evaluation of the operating experience. Programme analysis is recommended for seldom used and well structured programmes. For programmes with a long, cumulated operating time a statistical evaluation is more advisable. The effort for examination and evaluation is not greater than the corresponding effort for conventional instrumentation and control systems. This project has also revealed that, where it is technologically sensible, process controlling computers or microprocessors can be qualified for safety relevant tasks without undue effort. (orig./HP) [de

  19. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  20. Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viveros-Méndez, P. X., E-mail: xviveros@fisica.uaz.edu.mx; Aranda-Espinoza, S. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, 98060 Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Gil-Villegas, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 León, Guanajuato, México (Mexico)

    2014-07-28

    In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e{sup 2}/Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions L{sub x} ≈ L{sub y} and L{sub z} = 5L{sub x}, where L{sub x}, L{sub y}, and L{sub z} are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface.

  1. What drives the geeks? : Linking computer enthusiasm to achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The personality construct of geekism is introduced as the tendency to act out one's need for cognition in the domain of computing technology. Achievement goal theory is introduced, and we ask, what drives geeks in terms of achievement. In a questionnaire study, it is shown that geekism is related to

  2. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  3. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators for high-precision hard disk drive servo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwong Wah; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2006-03-01

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high data density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. Recently, the idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. The push-pull piezoelectric actuated devices have been developed as micro actuators for fine and fast positioning, while the voice coil motor functions as a large but coarse seeking. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses piezoelectric patches only without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase speed of track seeking but also to improve precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure with enhanced piezoelectric actuators using a composite nonlinear feedback controller.

  4. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium and Partners | Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric -Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Consortium and Partners The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric

  5. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  6. AFFECTIVE COMPUTING AND AUGMENTED REALITY FOR CAR DRIVING SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Datcu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Car simulators are essential for training and for analyzing the behavior, the responses and the performance of the driver. Augmented Reality (AR is the technology that enables virtual images to be overlaid on views of the real world. Affective Computing (AC is the technology that helps reading emotions by means of computer systems, by analyzing body gestures, facial expressions, speech and physiological signals. The key aspect of the research relies on investigating novel interfaces that help building situational awareness and emotional awareness, to enable affect-driven remote collaboration in AR for car driving simulators. The problem addressed relates to the question about how to build situational awareness (using AR technology and emotional awareness (by AC technology, and how to integrate these two distinct technologies [4], into a unique affective framework for training, in a car driving simulator.

  7. What drives the efficiency of hard coal fuelled electricity generation? : an empirical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Tim; Voigt, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of electricity generation in hard coal fired power plants varies considerably from country to country and over time. These differences occur both between developing and developed countries and between industrialised nations. The econometric analysis presented in this paper tests for the reasons of these discrepancies. In this examination abundance of hard coal and the price of hard coal are the two variables of our major interest. We assume that countries with an abundance of h...

  8. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  9. Deep machine learning based Image classification in hard disk drive manufacturing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Chien, Chester

    2018-03-01

    A key sensor element in a Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is the read-write head device. The device is complex 3D shape and its fabrication requires over thousand process steps with many of them being various types of image inspection and critical dimension (CD) metrology steps. In order to have high yield of devices across a wafer, very tight inspection and metrology specifications are implemented. Many images are collected on a wafer and inspected for various types of defects and in CD metrology the quality of image impacts the CD measurements. Metrology noise need to be minimized in CD metrology to get better estimate of the process related variations for implementing robust process controls. Though there are specialized tools available for defect inspection and review allowing classification and statistics. However, due to unavailability of such advanced tools or other reasons, many times images need to be manually inspected. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are different tools differing in software as well. SEM Image inspection and CD-SEM metrology tools are separate tools differing in software and purpose. There have been cases where a significant numbers of CD-SEM images are blurred or have some artefact and there is a need for image inspection along with the CD measurement. Tool may not report a practical metric highlighting the quality of image. Not filtering CD from these blurred images will add metrology noise to the CD measurement. An image classifier can be helpful here for filtering such data. This paper presents the use of artificial intelligence in classifying the SEM images. Deep machine learning is used to train a neural network which is then used to classify the new images as blurred and not blurred. Figure 1 shows the image blur artefact and contingency table of classification results from the trained deep neural network. Prediction accuracy of 94.9 % was achieved in the first model. Paper covers other such applications of the deep neural

  10. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.; Joffre, F.; Marceau, M.; Robiolle, M.; Brunet, J.P.; Mijuin, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear industries require robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high reliability. The SYROCO research program allowed to perform efficient industrial prototypes, build according to MICADO architecture, and to design CADMOS architecture. MICADO architecture uses the auto healing property that have CMOS circuits when being switched off during irradiation. (D.L.). 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  12. Rad-hard embedded computers for nuclear robotics; Calculateurs durcis embarques pour la robotique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, A; Joffre, F; Marceau, M; Robiolle, M; Brunet, J P; Mijuin, D

    1994-12-31

    For requirements of nuclear industries, it is necessary to use robots with embedded rad hard electronics and high level safety. The computer developed for french research program SYROCO is presented in this paper. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Computer Game Play as an Imaginary Stage for Reading: Implicit Spatial Effects of Computer Games Embedded in Hard Copy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study compared books with embedded computer games (via pentop computers with microdot paper and audio feedback) with regular books with maps, in terms of fifth graders' comprehension and retention of spatial details from stories. One group read a story in hard copy with embedded computer games, the other group read it in regular book format…

  14. Enhanced Computer Aided Simulation of Meshing and Contact With Application for Spiral Bevel Gear Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Litvin, F

    1999-01-01

    An integrated tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer program for the simulation of meshing and contact of gear drives that calculates transmission errors and shift of hearing contact for misaligned gear drives has been developed...

  15. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Research | NREL Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Graphic of a 24-cell (bottom). Images: Courtesy of EC Power NREL's work on the U.S. Department of Energy Computer-Aided

  16. Impact of radius and skew angle on areal density in heat assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, Michael; Rea, Chris; Jury, Jason; Rausch, Tim; Hardie, Cal; Gage, Edward; Victora, R. H.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact that factors such as skew, radius, and transition curvature have on areal density capability in heat-assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives. We explore a "ballistic seek" approach for capturing in-situ scan line images of the magnetization footprint on the recording media, and extract parametric results of recording characteristics such as transition curvature. We take full advantage of the significantly improved cycle time to apply a statistical treatment to relatively large samples of experimental curvature data to evaluate measurement capability. Quantitative analysis of factors that impact transition curvature reveals an asymmetry in the curvature profile that is strongly correlated to skew angle. Another less obvious skew-related effect is an overall decrease in curvature as skew angle increases. Using conventional perpendicular magnetic recording as the reference case, we characterize areal density capability as a function of recording position.

  17. Design and Analysis of Shock and Random Vibration Isolation of Operating Hard Disk Drive in Harsh Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Harmoko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective vibration isolation system is important for hard disk drives (HDD used in a harsh mechanical environment. This paper describes how to design, simulate, test and evaluate vibration isolation systems for operating HDD subjected to severe shock and random vibrations based on military specifications MIL-STD-810E. The well-defined evaluation criteria proposed in this paper can be used to effectively assess the performance of HDD vibration isolation system. Design concepts on how to achieve satisfactory shock and vibration isolation for HDD are described. The concepts are tested and further enhanced by the two design case studies presented here. It is shown that an effective vibration isolation system, that will allow a HDD to operate well when subjected to severe shock and random vibration, is feasible.

  18. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  19. The successful of finite element to invent particle cleaning system by air jet in hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai-Ngam, Nualpun; Tangchaichit, Kaitfa

    2018-02-01

    Hard Disk Drive manufacturing has faced very challenging with the increasing demand of high capacity drives for Cloud-based storage. Particle adhesion has also become increasingly important in HDD to gain more reliability of storage capacity. The ability to clean on surfaces is more complicated in removing such particles without damaging the surface. This research is aim to improve the particle cleaning in HSA by using finite element to develop the air flow model then invent the prototype of air cleaning system to remove particle from surface. Surface cleaning by air pressure can be applied as alternative for the removal of solid particulate contaminants that is adhering on a solid surface. These technical and economic challenges have driven the process development from traditional way that chemical solvent cleaning. The focus of this study is to develop alternative way from scrub, ultrasonic, mega sonic on surface cleaning principles to serve as a foundation for the development of new processes to meet current state-of-the-art process requirements and minimize the waste from chemical cleaning for environment safety.

  20. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  1. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  2. Computational search for rare-earth free hard-magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Livas, José A.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Dewhurst, John Kay; Gross, Eberhard; MagMat Team

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to over state the importance of hard magnets for human life in modern times; they enter every walk of our life from medical equipments (NMR) to transport (trains, planes, cars, etc) to electronic appliances (for house hold use to computers). All the known hard magnets in use today contain rare-earth elements, extraction of which is expensive and environmentally harmful. Rare-earths are also instrumental in tipping the balance of world economy as most of them are mined in limited specific parts of the world. Hence it would be ideal to have similar characteristics as a hard magnet but without or at least with reduced amount of rare-earths. This is the main goal of our work: search for rare-earth-free magnets. To do so we employ a combination of density functional theory and crystal prediction methods. The quantities which define a hard magnet are magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and saturation magnetization (Ms), which are the quantities we maximize in search for an ideal magnet. In my talk I will present details of the computation search algorithm together with some potential newly discovered rare-earth free hard magnet. J.A.F.L. acknowledge financial support from EU's 7th Framework Marie-Curie scholarship program within the ``ExMaMa'' Project (329386).

  3. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  4. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Zhang, Baohan [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); and others

    2016-06-15

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  5. A computational model for lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englade, R.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for lower hybrid (LH) current drive in toroidal devices is discussed. This model accounts reasonably well for the magnitude of radio frequency (RF) current observed in the PLT and Alcator C devices. It also reproduces the experimental dependencies of RF current generation on toroidal magnetic field and has provided insights about mechanisms which may underlie the observed density limit of current drive. (author)

  6. A three-dimensional model for lubricant depletion under sliding condition on bit patterned media of hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we model the depletion dynamics of the molecularly thin layer of lubricants on a bit patterned media disk of hard disk drives under a sliding air bearing head. The dominant physics and consequently, the lubricant depletion dynamics on a patterned disk are shown to be significantly different from the well-studied cases of a smooth disk. Our results indicate that the surface tension effect, which is negligible on a flat disk, apparently suppresses depletion by enforcing a bottleneck effect around the disk pattern peak regions to thwart the migration of lubricants. When the disjoining pressure is relatively small, it assists the depletion. But, when the disjoining pressure becomes dominant, the disjoining pressure resists depletion. Disk pattern orientation plays a critical role in the depletion process. The effect of disk pattern orientation on depletion originates from its complex interaction with other intermingled factors of external air shearing stress distribution and lubricant particle trajectory. Patterning a disk surface with nanostructures of high density, large height/pitch ratio, and particular orientation is demonstrated to be one efficient way to alleviate the formation of lubricant depletion tracks.

  7. Runaway electron studies with hard x-ray and microwave diagnostics in the FT-2 lower hybrid current drive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, A. E.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Lashkul, S. I.; Rozhdestvensky, V. V.; Pandya, S. P.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Chugunov, I. N.; Doinikov, D. N.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D. B.; Iliasova, M. V.; Naidenov, V. O.; Polunovsky, I. A.; Sidorov, A. V.; Kiptily, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the super-thermal and runaway electron behavior in ohmic and lower hybrid current drive FT-2 tokamak plasmas have been carried out using information obtained from measurements of hard x-ray spectra and non-thermal microwave radiation intensity at the frequency of 10 GHz and in the range of (53 ÷ 78) GHz. A gamma-ray spectrometer based on a scintillation detector with a LaBr3(Ce) crystal was used, which provides measurements at counting rates up to 107 s-1. Reconstruction of the energy distribution of RE interacting with the poloidal limiter of the tokamak chamber was made with application of the DeGaSum code. Super-thermal electrons accelerated up to 2 MeV by the LH waves at the high-frequency pumping of the plasma with low density ≤ft ~ 2  ×  1013 cm-3 and then up to 7 MeV by vortex electric field have been found. Experimental analysis of the runaway electron beam generation and evolution of their energy distribution in the FT-2 plasmas is presented in the article and compared with the numerical calculation of the maximum energy gained by runaway electrons for given plasma parameters. In addition, possible mechanisms for limiting the maximum energy gained by the runaway electrons are also calculated and described for a FT-2 plasma discharge.

  8. Classroon demonstration: Foucault s currents explored by the computer hard disc (HD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper making an experimental exploration of Foucault s currents (eddy currents through a rotor magnetically coupled to computer hard disc (HD that is no longer being used. The set-up allows to illustrate in a stimulating way electromagnetism classes in High Schools for mean of the qualitative observations of the currents which are created as consequence of the movement of an electric conductor in a region where a magnetic field exists.

  9. Software for a magnetic dick drive unit connected with a computer TPA-1001-i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizarov, O.I.; Mateeva, A.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    The disk drive unit with capacity 1250 K and minimal addressing part of memory 1 sector (128 10 -12-bit words) is connected with a TPA-1001-i computer. The operation regimes of the controller, functions and formats of the commands used are described as well as the software. The data transfer between the computer and magnetic disk drive unit is realized by means of programs relocatable in a binary form. These are inserted in a standard program library with modular structure. The manner of control handling and data transfer betweeen programs stored in the library on a magnetic disk drive are described. The resident program (100sub(8) words) inserted in a monitor takes into account special features of the disk drive unit being used. The algorithms of correction programs for a disk drive unit, programs for rewriting the library from papertape to disk drive unit and of the program for writing and reading the monitor are described

  10. On a hierarchy of Booleanfunctions hard to compute in constant depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bernasconi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to find connections between mathematical properties and complexity has a strong relevance to the field of Complexity Theory. This is due to the lack of mathematical techniques to prove lower bounds for general models of computation. This work represents a step in this direction: we define a combinatorial property that makes Boolean functions `` hard '' to compute in constant depth and show how the harmonic analysis on the hypercube can be applied to derive new lower bounds on the size complexity of previously unclassified Boolean functions.

  11. Computational statistics and biometry: which discipline drives which?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edler, Lutz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A biometrician's work is defined through the biological or medical problem and the mathematical and statistical methods needed for its solution. This requires in most instances statistical data analysis and the use of methods of computational statistics. At first, it seems quite obvious that the computational needs of the biometric problem determine what has to be developed by the discipline of computational statistics. However, viewing the development of biometry and computational statistics in Germany for the past decades in more details reveals an interesting interaction between the activities of the German Region of the International Biometric Society and groups engaged in computational statistics within Germany. Exact methods of statistical inference and permutation tests, simulations and the use of the Bootstrap, and interactive graphical statistical methods are examples of this fruitful reciprocal benefit. This contribution examines therefore relationships between the historical development of biometry and computational statistics in Germany using as sources of information contributions to the scientific literature, presentations and sessions at scientific conferences on biometry and on computational statistics which influenced the development of both disciplines and exhibits a reciprocal dependency. The annual workshops organized on the Reisensburg now for more than 30 years are recognized as an outstanding factor of this interrelationship. This work aims at the definition of the present status of computational statistics in the German Region of the International Biometric Society and intends to guide and to foster the discussion of the future development of this discipline among biometricians.

  12. Driving profile modeling and recognition based on soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, Chai; Tan, Chin Keong; Takeda, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    Advancements in biometrics-based authentication have led to its increasing prominence and are being incorporated into everyday tasks. Existing vehicle security systems rely only on alarms or smart card as forms of protection. A biometric driver recognition system utilizing driving behaviors is a highly novel and personalized approach and could be incorporated into existing vehicle security system to form a multimodal identification system and offer a greater degree of multilevel protection. In this paper, detailed studies have been conducted to model individual driving behavior in order to identify features that may be efficiently and effectively used to profile each driver. Feature extraction techniques based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are proposed and implemented. Features extracted from the accelerator and brake pedal pressure were then used as inputs to a fuzzy neural network (FNN) system to ascertain the identity of the driver. Two fuzzy neural networks, namely, the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFuNN) and the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to demonstrate the viability of the two proposed feature extraction techniques. The performances were compared against an artificial neural network (NN) implementation using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network and a statistical method based on the GMM. Extensive testing was conducted and the results show great potential in the use of the FNN for real-time driver identification and verification. In addition, the profiling of driver behaviors has numerous other potential applications for use by law enforcement and companies dealing with buses and truck drivers.

  13. Effect of police mobile computer terminal interface design on officer driving distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Kaber, David

    2018-02-01

    Several crash reports have identified in-vehicle distraction to be a primary cause of emergency vehicle crashes especially in law enforcement. Furthermore, studies have found that mobile computer terminals (MCTs) are the most frequently used in-vehicle technology for police officers. Twenty police officers participated in a driving simulator-based assessment of visual behavior, performance, workload and situation awareness with current and enhanced MCT interface designs. In general, results revealed MCT use while driving to decrease officer visual attention to the roadway, but usability improvements can reduce the level of visual distraction and secondary-task completion time. Results also suggest that use of MCTs while driving significantly reduces perceived level of driving environment awareness for police officers and increases cognitive workload. These findings may be useful for MCT manufacturers in improving interface designs to increase police officer and civilian safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  15. A prototype system for real time computer animation of slow traffic in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, JBTM; van Delden, MJB; Hin, AJS; van Wolffelaar, PC; Thalmann, NM; Skala,

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Research Centre (TRC) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands has developed a driving simulator with 'intelligent' computer-controlled traffic, consisting at the moment only of saloon cars. The range of possible applications would be greatly enhanced if other traffic

  16. A Prototype System for Real Time Computer Animation of Slow Traffic in a Driving Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Delden, Mattijs J.B. van; Hin, Andrea J.S.; Wolffelaar, Peter C. van

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Research Centre (TRC) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands has developed a driving simulator with ‘intelligent’ computer-controlled traffic, consisting at the moment only of saloon cars. The range of possible applications would be greatly enhanced if other traffic

  17. Real-Time Computer Animation of Bicyclists and Pedestrians in a Driving Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Delden, Mattijs J.B. van; Hin, Andrea J.S.; Wolffelaar, Peter C. van

    1996-01-01

    The Traffic Research Centre (TRC) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands has developed a driving simulator with ‘intelligent’ computer-controlled traffic, consisting at the moment only of saloon cars. The range of possible applications would be greatly enhanced if other traffic

  18. Computer simulation of the influence of the alloying elements on secondary hardness of the high-speed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.; Zaclona, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the method of modelling of high-speed steels' (HSS) properties, being basing on chemical composition and heat treatment parameters, employing neural networks. An example of its application possibility the computer simulation was made of the influence of the particular alloying elements on hardness and obtained results are presented. (author)

  19. Incorporating solid state drives into distributed storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wacha, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    Big data stores are becoming increasingly important in a variety of domains including scientific computing, internet applications, and business applications. For price and performance reasons, such storage is comprised of magnetic hard drives. To achieve the necessary degree of performance and reliability, the drives are configured into storage subsystems based on RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks). Because of their mechanical nature, hard drives are relatively power-hungry and slow ...

  20. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  1. English Writing Teaching Model Dependent on Computer Network Corpus Drive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the mainstream lexicalized English writing methods take only the corpus dependence between words into consideration, without introducing the corpus collocation and other issues. “Drive” is a relatively essential feature of words. And once the drive structure of a word is determined, it will be relatively clear what kinds of words to collocate with, hence the structure of the sentence can be derived relatively directly. In this paper, the English writing model that relies on the computer network corpus drive model is put forward. In this model, rich English corpus is introduced in the decomposition of the rules and the calculation of the probability, which includes not only the corpus dependence information, but also the drive structure and other corpus collocation information. Improved computer network corpus drive model is used to carry out the English writing teaching experiment. The experimental results show that the precision and the recall rate are 88.76% and 87.43%, respectively. The F value of the comprehensive index is improved by 6.65% compared with the Collins headword driven English modes of writing.

  2. Using speech recognition to enhance the Tongue Drive System functionality in computer access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing.

  3. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Time Driving and All‐Cause Mortality: The SUN Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030

  4. Macromolecular 'size' and 'hardness' drives structure in solvent-swollen blends of linear, cyclic, and star polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Thomas E; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2018-01-17

    In this paper, we apply molecular simulation and liquid state theory to uncover the structure and thermodynamics of homopolymer blends of the same chemistry and varying chain architecture in the presence of explicit solvent species. We use hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the Gibbs ensemble to study the swelling of ∼12 000 g mol -1 linear, cyclic, and 4-arm star polystyrene chains in toluene. Our simulations show that the macroscopic swelling response is indistinguishable between the various architectures and matches published experimental data for the solvent annealing of linear polystyrene by toluene vapor. We then use standard MD simulations in the NPT ensemble along with polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory to calculate effective polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ eff ) in these systems. As seen in the macroscopic swelling results, there are no significant differences in the polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer χ eff between the various architectures. Despite similar macroscopic swelling and effective interaction parameters between various architectures, the pair correlation function between chain centers-of-mass indicates stronger correlations between cyclic or star chains in the linear-cyclic blends and linear-star blends, compared to linear chain-linear chain correlations. Furthermore, we note striking similarities in the chain-level correlations and the radius of gyration of cyclic and 4-arm star architectures of identical molecular weight. Our results indicate that the cyclic and star chains are 'smaller' and 'harder' than their linear counterparts, and through comparison with MD simulations of blends of soft spheres with varying hardness and size we suggest that these macromolecular characteristics are the source of the stronger cyclic-cyclic and star-star correlations.

  5. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  6. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  7. Radiation interlocks - The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system? Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper reviews the status of the committee's recommendations, and describes radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional (relay) approach and designs using computers

  8. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  9. Computational modeling of direct-drive fusion pellets and KrF-driven foil experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Schmitt, A.J.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Bodner, S.E.; Obenschain, S.P.; Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.

    1998-01-01

    FAST is a radiation transport hydrodynamics code that simulates laser matter interactions of relevance to direct-drive laser fusion target design. FAST solves the Euler equations of compressible flow using the Flux-Corrected Transport finite volume method. The advection algorithm provides accurate computation of flows from nearly incompressible vortical flows to those that are highly compressible and dominated by strong pressure and density gradients. In this paper we describe the numerical techniques and physics packages. FAST has also been benchmarked with Nike laser facility experiments in which linearly perturbed, low adiabat planar plastic targets are ablatively accelerated to velocities approaching 10 7 cm/s. Over a range of perturbation wavelengths, the code results agree with the measured Rayleigh endash Taylor growth from the linear through the deeply nonlinear regimes. FAST has been applied to the two-dimensional spherical simulation design to provide surface finish and laser bandwidth tolerances for a promising new direct-drive pellet that uses a foam ablator

  10. FLASHRAD: A 3D Rad Hard Memory Module For High Performance Space Computers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The computing capabilities of onboard spacecraft are a major limiting factor for accomplishing many classes of future missions. Although technology development...

  11. Digitized molecular diagnostics: reading disk-based bioassays with standard computer drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchao; Ou, Lily M L; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-01

    We report herein a digital signal readout protocol for screening disk-based bioassays with standard optical drives of ordinary desktop/notebook computers. Three different types of biochemical recognition reactions (biotin-streptavidin binding, DNA hybridization, and protein-protein interaction) were performed directly on a compact disk in a line array format with the help of microfluidic channel plates. Being well-correlated with the optical darkness of the binding sites (after signal enhancement by gold nanoparticle-promoted autometallography), the reading error levels of prerecorded audio files can serve as a quantitative measure of biochemical interaction. This novel readout protocol is about 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than fluorescence labeling/scanning and has the capability of examining multiplex microassays on the same disk. Because no modification to either hardware or software is needed, it promises a platform technology for rapid, low-cost, and high-throughput point-of-care biomedical diagnostics.

  12. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  13. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-04-27

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  14. Hard Real-Time Task Scheduling in Cloud Computing Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Mahmood

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud computing model, virtualized computing resources in the form of virtual machines are provided over the Internet. A user can rent an arbitrary number of computing resources to meet their requirements, making cloud computing an attractive choice for executing real-time tasks. Economical task allocation and scheduling on a set of leased virtual machines is an important problem in the cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a greedy and a genetic algorithm with an adaptive selection of suitable crossover and mutation operations (named as AGA to allocate and schedule real-time tasks with precedence constraint on heterogamous virtual machines. A comprehensive simulation study has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in terms of their solution quality and efficiency. The simulation results show that AGA outperforms the greedy algorithm and non-adaptive genetic algorithm in terms of solution quality.

  15. Ontology and Cloud Computing in Various Applications: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... to emphasize the importance of both ontology and cloud computing in various .... of knowledge management applications and retrieve information using .... above in terms of hard drive space, but any device ordinary computer ...

  16. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  17. Nonpher: computational method for design of hard-to-synthesize structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voršilák, M.; Svozil, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, březen (2017), č. článku 20. ISSN 1758-2946 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : synthetic feasibility * molecular complexity * molecular morphing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 4.220, year: 2016

  18. Progress in 1988 1990 with computer applications in the ``hard-rock'' arena: Geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, and volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Nicholas M. S.

    This review covers rock, mineral and isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, igneous and metamorphic petrology, and volcanology. Crystallography, exploration geochemistry, and mineral exploration are excluded. Fairly extended comments on software availability, and on computerization of the publication process and of specimen collection indexes, may interest a wider audience. A proliferation of both published and commercial software in the past 3 years indicates increasing interest in what traditionally has been a rather reluctant sphere of geoscience computer activity. However, much of this software duplicates the same old functions (Harker and triangular plots, mineral recalculations, etc.). It usually is more efficient nowadays to use someone else's program, or to employ the command language in one of many general-purpose spreadsheet or statistical packages available, than to program a specialist operation from scratch in, say, FORTRAN. Greatest activity has been in mineralogy, where several journals specifically encourage publication of computer-related activities, and IMA and MSA Working Groups on microcomputers have been convened. In petrology and geochemistry, large national databases of rock and mineral analyses continue to multiply, whereas the international database IGBA grows slowly; some form of integration is necessary to make these disparate systems of lasting value to the global "hard-rock" community. Total merging or separate addressing via an intelligent "front-end" are both possibilities. In volcanology, the BBC's videodisk Volcanoes and the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Project use the most up-to-date computer technology in an exciting and innovative way, to promote public education.

  19. Computer-Based Driving in Dementia Decision Tool With Mail Support: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Mark J; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Kiss, Alex; Lee, Linda; Byszewski, Anna; Seitz, Dallas P; Vrkljan, Brenda; Molnar, Frank; Herrmann, Nathan; Tang-Wai, David F; Frank, Christopher; Henry, Blair; Pimlott, Nicholas; Masellis, Mario; Naglie, Gary

    2018-05-25

    Physicians often find significant challenges in assessing automobile driving in persons with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia and deciding when to report to transportation administrators. Care must be taken to balance the safety of patients and other road users with potential negative effects of issuing such reports. The aim of this study was to assess whether a computer-based Driving in Dementia Decision Tool (DD-DT) increased appropriate reporting of patients with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators. The study used a parallel-group cluster nonblinded randomized controlled trial design to test a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention. The intervention included a computer-based decision support system activated by the physician-user, which provides a recommendation about whether to report patients with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators, based on an algorithm derived from earlier work. The intervention also included a mailed educational package and Web-based specialized reporting forms. Specialists and family physicians with expertise in dementia or care of the elderly were stratified by sex and randomized to either use the DD-DT or a control version of the tool that required identical data input as the intervention group, but instead generated a generic reminder about the reporting legislation in Ontario, Canada. The trial ran from September 9, 2014 to January 29, 2016, and the primary outcome was the number of reports made to the transportation administrators concordant with the algorithm. A total of 69 participating physicians were randomized, and 36 of these used the DD-DT; 20 of the 35 randomized to the intervention group used DD-DT with 114 patients, and 16 of the 34 randomized to the control group used it with 103 patients. The proportion of all assessed patients reported to the transportation administrators concordant with recommendation did not differ

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Synthesis of realistic driving cycles with high accuracy and computational speed, including slope information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hereijgers, K.; Peng, Huei; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to synthesize driving cycles, where not only the velocity is considered, yet also the road slope information of the real-world measured driving cycle. Driven by strict emission regulations and tight fuel targets, hybrid or electric vehicle manufacturers aim to

  2. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  3. The evaluation of Computed Tomography hard- and software tools for micropaleontologic studies on foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, D.; Speijer, R.; Masschaele, B.; Dierick, M.; Cnudde, V.; Boone, M.; de Witte, Y.; Dewanckele, J.; van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.

    2009-04-01

    Foraminifera (Forams) are single-celled amoeba-like organisms in the sea, which build a tiny calcareous multi-chambered shell for protection. Their enormous abundance, great variation of shape through time and their presence in all marine deposits made these tiny microfossils the oil companies' best friend by facilitating the detection of new oil wells. Besides the success of forams in the oil and gas industry, they are also a most powerful tool for reconstructing climate change in the past. The shell of a foraminifer is a tiny gold mine of information both geometrical as chemical. However, until recently the best information on this architecture was only obtained through imaging the outside of a shell with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), giving no clues towards internal structures other than single snapshots through breaking a specimen apart. With X-ray computed tomography (CT) it is possible to overcome this problem and uncover a huge amount of geometrical information without destructing the samples. Using the last generation of micro-CT's, called nano-CT, because of the sub-micron resolution, it is now possible to perform adequate imaging even on these tiny samples without needing huge facilities. In this research, a comparison is made between different X-ray sources and X-ray detectors and the resulting image resolution. Both sharpness, noise and contrast are very important parameters that will have important effects on the accuracy of the results and on the speed of data-processing. Combining this tomography technique with specific image processing software, called segmentation, it is possible to obtain a 3D virtual representation of the entire forams shell. This 3D virtual object can then be used for many purposes, from which automatic measurement of the chambers size is one of the most important ones. The segmentation process is a combination of several algorithms that are often used in CT evaluation, in this work an evaluation of those algorithms is

  4. Evaluation of a Dry EEG System for Application of Passive Brain-Computer Interfaces in Autonomous Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Thorsten O; Andreessen, Lena M; Berg, Angela; Bleuel, Maurice; Pawlitzki, Juliane; Zawallich, Lars; Krol, Laurens R; Gramann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We tested the applicability and signal quality of a 16 channel dry electroencephalography (EEG) system in a laboratory environment and in a car under controlled, realistic conditions. The aim of our investigation was an estimation how well a passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) can work in an autonomous driving scenario. The evaluation considered speed and accuracy of self-applicability by an untrained person, quality of recorded EEG data, shifts of electrode positions on the head after driving-related movements, usability, and complexity of the system as such and wearing comfort over time. An experiment was conducted inside and outside of a stationary vehicle with running engine, air-conditioning, and muted radio. Signal quality was sufficient for standard EEG analysis in the time and frequency domain as well as for the use in pBCIs. While the influence of vehicle-induced interferences to data quality was insignificant, driving-related movements led to strong shifts in electrode positions. In general, the EEG system used allowed for a fast self-applicability of cap and electrodes. The assessed usability of the system was still acceptable while the wearing comfort decreased strongly over time due to friction and pressure to the head. From these results we conclude that the evaluated system should provide the essential requirements for an application in an autonomous driving context. Nevertheless, further refinement is suggested to reduce shifts of the system due to body movements and increase the headset's usability and wearing comfort.

  5. System of didactic procedures to drive the teaching-learning of the computation in the half school level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alonso-Berenguer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A system of teaching methods is presented to drive the dynamics of the teaching-learning process of the Computation in the Half School Level, based on an interdisciplinary logic from cognitive nodes. This practical construct was designed using the Systemic-Structural-Functional method and was structured in two procedures, the relative to the appropriation of a computational culture and the concerning to the development of computational thinking, which in turn, are composed of a set of linked actions that are structured logically, that make possible the development of said dynamic. It also has evaluative criteria and patterns of achievement that allow for evaluation of the results obtained. The feasibility and relevance of the system of procedures was validated by conducting a socialization workshop with specialists of territory and through a survey of specialists from other provinces. Its application during the last two years has enabled its improvement.

  6. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  7. Principle for the Validation of a Driving Support using a Computer Vision-Based Driver Modelization on a Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Rouzier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new structure for a driving support designed to compensate for the problems caused by the behaviour of the driver without causing a feeling of unease. This assistance is based on a shared control between the human and an automatic support that computes and applies an assisting torque on the steering wheel. This torque is computed from a representation of the hazards encountered on the road by virtual potentials. However, the equilibrium between the relative influences of the human and the support on the steering wheel are difficult to find and depend upon the situation. This is why this driving support includes a modelization of the driver based on an analysis of several face features using a computer vision algorithm. The goal is to determine whether the driver is drowsy or whether he is paying attention to some specific points in order to adapt the strength of the support. The accuracy of the measurements made on the face features is estimated, and the interest of the proposal as well as the concepts raised by such assistance are studied through simulations.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of a water-jet-drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has an ongoing effort to transfer to industry the technologies developed at MSFC for rocket propulsion systems. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC promotes these efforts and accepts requests for assistance from industry. One such solicitation involves a request from North American Marine Jet, Inc. (NAMJ) for assistance in the design of a water-jet-drive system to fill a gap in NAMJ's product line. NAMJ provided MSFC with a baseline axial flow impeller design as well as the relevant working parameters (rpm, flow rate, etc.). This baseline design was analyzed using CFD, and significant deficiencies identified. Four additional analyses were performed involving MSFC changes to the geometric and operational parameters of the baseline case. Subsequently, the impeller was redesigned by NAMJ and analyzed by MSFC. This new configuration performs significantly better than the baseline design. Similar cooperative activities are planned for the design of the jet-drive inlet.

  9. Studying Driving Risk Factors using Multi-Source Mobile Computing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Hu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the overall research framework used in this research is presented, which mainly includes data collection, data processing, calibration and analysis methodology. A preliminary case study — including data summary statistics and correlation analysis — is also presented. The results of our study will further existing knowledge about driving exposure factors that are closely linked to crash risk, and provide the foundation for advanced forms of Usage Based Insurance.

  10. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Shi Qian; Wang Kuihua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  11. Analysis of the development and performance of hard disks

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of new technologies in the field of hard drives we can witness a significant increase of surface density and transfer rate of interfaces which, as a result, enables greater performance and reliability of hard disks. The reason for this are increasing needs for higher capacities and data transfer rate to or from the hard disk. This thesis presents the structure of hard drives, features, performance and reliability of hard drives and alternative data storage technologies. Par...

  12. Measurement of blood flow from an assist ventricle by computation of pneumatic driving parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X

    1992-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow from an assist ventricle is important but sometimes difficult in artificial heart experiments. Along with the development of a pneumatic cylinder-piston driver coupled with a ventricular assist device, a simplified method for measuring pump flow was established. From driving parameters such as the piston (or cylinder) displacement and air pressure, the pump flow could be calculated by the use of the equation of state for an ideal gas. The results of this method are broadly in agreement with electromagnetic and Doppler measurements.

  13. Computer-assisted acoustic emission analysis in alternating current magnetization and hardness testing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blochwitz, M.; Kretzschmar, F.; Rattke, R.

    1985-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of material characteristics such as nilductility transition temperature is of high importance in component monitoring during long-term operation. An attempt has been made to obtain characteristics correlating with mechanico-technological material characteristics by both acoustic resonance through magnetization (ARDM) and acoustic emission analysis in Vickers hardness tests. Taking into account the excitation mechanism of acoustic emission generation, which has a quasistationary stochastic character in a.c. magnetization and a transient nature in hardness testing, a microcomputerized device has been constructed for frequency analysis of the body sound level in ARDM evaluation and for measuring the pulse sum and/or pulse rate during indentation of the test specimen in hardness evaluation. Prerequisite for evaluating the measured values is the knowledge of the frequency dependence of the sensors and the instrument system. The results obtained are presented. (author)

  14. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU, chipset, random access memory (RAM, and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. "Storage drive" is a term describing a "memory" hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. "Drive interfaces" connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular "input/output devices" used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The "bus" is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated ISA bus. "Ports" are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ′ever increasing′ digital future.

  15. Numerical computation of soliton dynamics for NLS equations in a driving potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Caliari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide numerical computations for the soliton dynamics of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an external potential. After computing the ground state solution r of a related elliptic equation we show that, in the semi-classical regime, the center of mass of the solution with initial datum built upon r is driven by the solution to $ddot x=- abla V(x$. Finally, we provide examples and analyze the numerical errors in the two dimensional case when V is a harmonic potential.

  16. Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today's Computers

    CERN Document Server

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    Every day, we use our computers to perform remarkable feats. A simple web search picks out a handful of relevant needles from the world's biggest haystack: the billions of pages on the World Wide Web. Uploading a photo to Facebook transmits millions of pieces of information over numerous error-prone network links, yet somehow a perfect copy of the photo arrives intact. Without even knowing it, we use public-key cryptography to transmit secret information like credit card numbers; and we use digital signatures to verify the identity of the websites we visit. How do our computers perform these

  17. Assessing accumulated hard-tissue debris using micro-computed tomography and free software for image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Marins, Juliana; Neves, Aline de Almeida; Reis, Claudia; Fidel, Sandra; Versiani, Marco A; Alves, Haimon; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Paciornik, Sidnei

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of debris occurs after root canal preparation procedures specifically in fins, isthmus, irregularities, and ramifications. The aim of this study was to present a step-by-step description of a new method used to longitudinally identify, measure, and 3-dimensionally map the accumulation of hard-tissue debris inside the root canal after biomechanical preparation using free software for image processing and analysis. Three mandibular molars presenting the mesial root with a large isthmus width and a type II Vertucci's canal configuration were selected and scanned. The specimens were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental approaches: (1) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, (2) bidistilled water, and (3) no irrigation. After root canal preparation, high-resolution scans of the teeth were accomplished, and free software packages were used to register and quantify the amount of accumulated hard-tissue debris in either canal space or isthmus areas. Canal preparation without irrigation resulted in 34.6% of its volume filled with hard-tissue debris, whereas the use of bidistilled water or NaOCl followed by EDTA showed a reduction in the percentage volume of debris to 16% and 11.3%, respectively. The closer the distance to the isthmus area was the larger the amount of accumulated debris regardless of the irrigating protocol used. Through the present method, it was possible to calculate the volume of hard-tissue debris in the isthmuses and in the root canal space. Free-software packages used for image reconstruction, registering, and analysis have shown to be promising for end-user application. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. “Storage drive” is a term describing a “memory” hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. “Drive interfaces” connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular “input/output devices” used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The “bus” is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. “Ports” are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ‘ever increasing’ digital future

  19. Simulating solidification in metals at high pressure: The drive to petascale computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitz, Frederick H; Glosli, James N; Patel, Mehul V; Chan, Bor; Yates, Robert K; Supinski, Bronis R de; Sexton, James; Gunnels, John A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate solidification in metal systems ranging in size from 64,000 to 524,288,000 atoms on the IBM BlueGene/L computer at LLNL. Using the newly developed ddcMD code, we achieve performance rates as high as 103 TFlops, with a performance of 101.7 TFlop sustained over a 7 hour run on 131,072 cpus. We demonstrate superb strong and weak scaling. Our calculations are significant as they represent the first atomic-scale model of metal solidification to proceed, without finite size effects, from spontaneous nucleation and growth of solid out of the liquid, through the coalescence phase, and into the onset of coarsening. Thus, our simulations represent the first step towards an atomistic model of nucleation and growth that can directly link atomistic to mesoscopic length scales

  20. Computation of disordered system from the first principles of classical mechanics and ℕℙ hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorkyan, A. S., E-mail: g-ashot@sci.am; Sahakyan, V. V. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems (Armenia)

    2017-03-15

    We study the classical 1D Heisenberg spin glasses in the framework of nearest-neighboring model. Based on the Hamilton equations we obtained the system of recurrence equations which allows to perform node-by-node calculations of a spin-chain. It is shown that calculations from the first principles of classical mechanics lead to ℕℙ hard problem, that however in the limit of the statistical equilibrium can be calculated by ℙ algorithm. For the partition function of the ensemble a new representation is offered in the form of one-dimensional integral of spin-chains’ energy distribution.

  1. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  2. Computer-supported planning on graphic terminals in the staff divisions of hard coal mines. Rechnergestuetzte Planung an grafischen Arbeitsplaetzen in den Stabsstellen von Steinkohlenbergwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, A [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the planning activity in the planning department of German hard coal mines have shown that in some branches of the planning process productivity and creativity of the involved experts can be increased, potentials for rationalization be opened up and the cooperation between different engineering disciplines be improved by using computer network systems in combination with graphic systems. This paper reports about the computer-supported planning system 'Grube', which has been developed at the RWTH (technical university) Aachen, and its applications in mine surveying, electro-technical and mechanical planning as well as in the planning of ventilation systems and detailed mine planning. The software module GRUBE-W, which will be in future the centre of the working place for the mine ventilation planning of the Ruhrkohle AG, is discussed in detail. (orig.).

  3. Soft and hard computing approaches for real-time prediction of currents in a tide-dominated coastal area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charhate, S.B.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.

    . Owing to the complex real sea conditions, such methods may not always yield satisfactory results. This paper discusses a few alternative approaches based on the soft computing tools of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP...

  4. Deaf/hard-of-hearing and other postsecondary learners' retention of STEM content with tablet computer-based notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Michael S; Elliot, Lisa B; Easton, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Four groups of postsecondary students, 25 who were deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH), 25 with a learning disability, 25 who were English language learners (ELLs), and 25 without an identified disability studied notes that included text and graphical information based on a physics or a marine biology lecture. The latter 3 groups were normally hearing. All groups had higher scores on post- than on pretests for each lecture, with each group showing generally similar gains in amount of material learned from the pretest to the posttest. For each lecture, the D/HH students scored lower on the pre- and posttests than the other 3 groups of participants. Results indicated that students acquired measurable amounts of information from studying these types of notes for relatively short periods and that the notes have equal potential to support the acquisition of information by each of these groups of students.

  5. The Downward Causality and the Hard Problem of Consciousness or Why Computer Programs Do not Work in the Dark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldachev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any low-level processes, the sequence of chemical interactions in a living cell, muscle cellular activity, processor commands or neuron interaction, is possible only if there is a downward causality, only due to uniting and controlling power of the highest level. Therefore, there is no special “hard problem of consciousness”, i.e. the problem of relation of ostensibly purely biological materiality and non-causal mentality - we have only the single philosophical problem of relation between the upward and downward causalities, the problem of interrelation between hierarchic levels of existence. It is necessary to conclude that the problem of determinacy of chemical processes by the biological ones and the problem of neuron interactions caused by consciousness are of one nature and must have one solution.

  6. Cloud Computing: Architecture and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ravneet Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid. It is a method for delivering information technology (IT) services where resources are retrieved from the Internet through web-based tools and applications, as opposed to a direct connection to a server. Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage device, cloud-based storage makes it possib...

  7. Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Five-Phase PMBLDC Motor Drive for Low Power High Torque Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Inayathullaah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve high torque at low power with high efficiency, a new five-phase permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC motor design was analyzed and optimized. A similar three-phase motor having the same D/L ratio (inner diameter (D and length of the stator (L is compared for maximum torque and torque ripple of the designed five-phase PMBLDC motor. Maxwell software was used to build finite element simulation model of the motor. The internal complicated magnetic field distribution and dynamic performance simulation were obtained in different positions. No load and load characteristics of the five-phase PMBLDC motor were simulated, and the power consumption of materials was computed. The conformity of the final simulation results indicates that this method can be used to provide a theoretical basis for further optimal design of this new type of motor with its drive so as to improve the starting torque and reduce torque ripple of the motor.

  8. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable.

  9. Digital dissection - using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-04-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft- and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  10. Hard real-time quick EXAFS data acquisition with all open source software on a commodity personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, I.; Siddons, D.P.; Caliebe, W.A.; Khalid, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe here the data acquisition subsystem of the Quick EXAFS (QEXAFS) experiment at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. For ease of future growth and flexibility, almost all software components are open source with very active maintainers. Among them, Linux running on x86 desktop computer, RTAI for real-time response, COMEDI driver for the data acquisition hardware, Qt and PyQt for graphical user interface, PyQwt for plotting, and Python for scripting. The signal (A/D) and energy-reading (IK220 encoder) devices in the PCI computer are also EPICS enabled. The control system scans the monochromator energy through a networked EPICS motor. With the real-time kernel, the system is capable of deterministic data-sampling period of tens of micro-seconds with typical timing-jitter of several micro-seconds. At the same time, Linux is running in other non-real-time processes handling the user-interface. A modern Qt-based controls-frontend enhances productivity. The fast plotting and zooming of data in time or energy coordinates let the experimenters verify the quality of the data before detailed analysis. Python scripting is built-in for automation. The typical data-rate for continuous runs are around 10 M bytes/min

  11. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  12. Computational modeling of distinct neocortical oscillations driven by cell-type selective optogenetic drive: Separable resonant circuits controlled by low-threshold spiking and fast-spiking interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorea Vierling-Claassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective optogenetic drive of fast spiking interneurons (FS leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP power across the traditional gamma frequency band (20-80Hz; Cardin et al., 2009. In contrast, drive to regular-spiking pyramidal cells (RS enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS and low-threshold-spiking (LTS interneurons. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time-constant of GABAA inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing.

  13. Computational cell quantification in the human brain tissues based on hard x-ray phase-contrast tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zanette, Irene; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Cell visualization and counting plays a crucial role in biological and medical research including the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal cell loss is typically determined to measure the extent of the disease. Its characterization is challenging because the cell density and size already differs by more than three orders of magnitude in a healthy cerebellum. Cell visualization is commonly performed by histology and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are limited to resolve complex microstructures in the third dimension. Phase- contrast tomography has been proven to provide sufficient contrast in the three-dimensional imaging of soft tissue down to the cell level and, therefore, offers the basis for the three-dimensional segmentation. Within this context, a human cerebellum sample was embedded in paraffin and measured in local phase-contrast mode at the beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) and the Diamond Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK). After the application of Frangi-based filtering the data showed sufficient contrast to automatically identify the Purkinje cells and to quantify their density to 177 cells per mm3 within the volume of interest. Moreover, brain layers were segmented in a region of interest based on edge detection. Subsequently performed histological analysis validated the presence of the cells, which required a mapping from the two- dimensional histological slices to the three-dimensional tomogram. The methodology can also be applied to further tissue types and shows potential for the computational tissue analysis in health and disease.

  14. Road sign recognition during computer testing versus driving simulator performance for stroke and stroke+aphasia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Driving is essential to maintaining independence. For most Americans preserving personal mobility is a : key element to retaining jobs, friends, activities and the basic necessities to maintain a household. This : is particularly true for older peopl...

  15. Computation of the Coupling Resonance Driving term f1001 and the coupling coefficient C from turn-by-turn single-BPM data.

    CERN Document Server

    Franchi, A; Vanbavinkhove, G; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    In this note we show how to compute the Resonance Driving Term (RDT) f1001, the local resonance term chi 1010 and the coupling coefficient C from the spectrum of turn-by-turn single-BPM data. The harmonic analysis of real coordinate x(y) is model independent, conversely to the the analysis of the complex Courant-Snyder coordinate hx,- = x-ipx. From the computation of f1001 along the ring is closely related to the global coupling coefficient C, but it is affected by an intrinsic error, discussed in this note.

  16. Computer-assisted training of phoneme-grapheme correspondence for children who are deaf and hard of hearing: effects on phonological processing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Wass, Malin; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger

    2013-12-01

    Examine deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children's phonological processing skills in relation to a reference group of children with normal hearing (NH) at two baselines pre intervention. Study the effects of computer-assisted phoneme-grapheme correspondence training in the children. Specifically analyze possible effects on DHH children's phonological processing skills. The study included 48 children who participated in a computer-assisted intervention study, which focuses on phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Children were 5, 6, and 7 years of age. There were 32 DHH children using cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA), or both in combination, and 16 children with NH. The study had a quasi-experimental design with three test occasions separated in time by four weeks; baseline 1 and 2 pre intervention, and 3 post intervention. Children performed tasks measuring lexical access, phonological processing, and letter knowledge. All children were asked to practice ten minutes per day at home supported by their parents. NH children outperformed DHH children on the majority of tasks. All children improved their accuracy in phoneme-grapheme correspondence and output phonology as a function of the computer-assisted intervention. For the whole group of children, and specifically for children with CI, a lower initial phonological composite score was associated with a larger phonological change between baseline 2 and post intervention. Finally, 18 DHH children, whereof 11 children with CI, showed specific intervention effects on their phonological processing skills, and strong effect sizes for their improved accuracy of phoneme-grapheme correspondence. For some DHH children phonological processing skills are boosted relatively more by phoneme-grapheme correspondence training. This reflects the reciprocal relationship between phonological change and exposure to and manipulations of letters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  18. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  19. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  20. Comparative evaluation of soft and hard tissue dimensions in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography and cone beam computed tomography: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess and compare the thickness of gingiva in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography (RVG and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and its correlation with the thickness of underlying alveolar bone. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study included 10 male subjects in the age group of 20–45 years. Materials and Methods: After analyzing the width of keratinized gingiva of the maxillary right central incisor, the radiographic assessment was done using a modified technique for RVG and CBCT, to measure the thickness of both the labial gingiva and labial plate of alveolar bone at 4 predetermined locations along the length of the root in each case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test, with the help of statistical software (SPSS V13. Results: No statistically significant differences were obtained in the measurement made using RVG and CBCT. The results of the present study also failed to reveal any significant correlation between the width of gingiva and the alveolar bone in the maxillary anterior region. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that both CBCT and RVG can be used as valuable tools in the assessment of the soft and hard tissue dimensions.

  1. A Comprehensive study on Cloud Green Computing: To Reduce Carbon Footprints Using Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjeeb Roy Chowdhury, Arindam Chatterjee, Alap Sardar, Shalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing and Green computing are twomostemergent areas in information communicationtechnology (ICT) with immense applications in theentire globe. The future trends of ICT will be moretowards cloud computing and green computing.Due to tremendous improvements in computernetworks now the people prefer the Network-basedcomputing instead of doing something inan in-house based computing.In any business sector dailybusiness and individual computing are nowmigrating from individual hard drives...

  2. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  3. Magnetic hard disks for audio-visual use; AV yo jiki disk baitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tei, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uwazumi, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Computers, consumer, and communications are converging and fusing. The key device in homes in the near future will be an audiovisual hard disk drive (AV-HDD). The reason is that there is no other AV cash memory with high capacity, high speed, and a low price than the HDD. Fuji Electric has early started developing an AV magnetic hard disk, a core-functional element of the AV-HDD, to take the initiative in the market. This paper describes the state of plastic medium development, which is regarded as a next-generation strategic commodity. (author)

  4. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  5. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  6. Pushing hard on the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    The quest for new techniques to drive future generations of particle accelerators has been pushed hard in recent years, efforts having been highlighted by workshops in Europe, organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, and in the US. The latest ECFA Workshop on New Developments in Particle Acceleration Techniques, held at Orsay from 29 June to 4 July, showed how the initial frantic search for innovation is now maturing.

  7. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%. The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

  8. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  9. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  11. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  12. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  13. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  14. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  15. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  16. Selection of personalized patient therapy through the use of knowledge-based computational models that identify tumor-driving signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, Wim; van Ooijen, Henk; Inda, Márcia A; Hatzis, Pantelis; Versteeg, Rogier; Smid, Marcel; Martens, John; Foekens, John; van de Wiel, Paul; Clevers, Hans; van de Stolpe, Anja

    2014-06-01

    Increasing knowledge about signal transduction pathways as drivers of cancer growth has elicited the development of "targeted drugs," which inhibit aberrant signaling pathways. They require a companion diagnostic test that identifies the tumor-driving pathway; however, currently available tests like estrogen receptor (ER) protein expression for hormonal treatment of breast cancer do not reliably predict therapy response, at least in part because they do not adequately assess functional pathway activity. We describe a novel approach to predict signaling pathway activity based on knowledge-based Bayesian computational models, which interpret quantitative transcriptome data as the functional output of an active signaling pathway, by using expression levels of transcriptional target genes. Following calibration on only a small number of cell lines or cohorts of patient data, they provide a reliable assessment of signaling pathway activity in tumors of different tissue origin. As proof of principle, models for the canonical Wnt and ER pathways are presented, including initial clinical validation on independent datasets from various cancer types. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  18. Effect of intruder mass on collisions with hard binaries. II - Dependence on impact parameter and computations of the interaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, J. G.

    1992-06-01

    Over 125,000 encounters between a hard binary with equal mass, components and orbital eccentricity of 0, and intruders with solar masses ranging from 0.01 to 10,000 are simulated. Each encounter was followed up to a maximum of 5 x 10 exp 6 integration steps to allow long-term 'resonances', temporary trinary systems, to break into a binary and a single star. These simulations were done over a range of impact parameters to find the cross sections for various processes occurring in these encounters. A critical impact parameter found in these simulations is the one beyond which no exchange collisions can occur. The energy exchange between the binary and a massive intruder decreases greatly in collisions with Rmin of not less than Rc. The semimajor axes and orbital eccentricity of the surviving binary also drops rapidly at Rc in encounters with massive intruders. The formation of temporary trinary systems is important for all intruder masses.

  19. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  20. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Traub, Cindy M; Webb, Mollie; Stout, Sarah H; Addison, Aaron; Carr, David B; Ott, Brian R; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives : Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS), in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design : The Azuga G2 Tracking Device TM was installed in each participant's vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude) every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting : The Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants : Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements :  Spatial components included Primary Location(s), Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods :  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results : Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions : Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and transmitted high

  1. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  4. Polarization of hard X-rays, a contribution to the measurement of the non-thermal electron distribution function (L.H.C.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray spectrum emitted by a plasma containing non-thermal electrons generated during Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments has already been measured on several tokamaks, but the properties of the bremsstrahlung have not yet been studied. The present study starts with the comparison of tractable analytical expressions of cross-sections with more precise computer-calculated values; then an evaluation of the polarization is carried out under real tokamak current drive situations and finally a proposal of a new diagnostic for the Tore Supra LHCD experiment is presented. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs

  5. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  6. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  7. The Weekly Fab Five: Things You Should Do Every Week To Keep Your Computer Running in Tip-Top Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes five steps that school librarians should follow every week to keep their computers running at top efficiency. Explains how to update virus definitions; run Windows update; run ScanDisk to repair errors on the hard drive; run a disk defragmenter; and backup all data. (LRW)

  8. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  9. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  10. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  11. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  12. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  13. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  15. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. We adapted an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in

  16. Locating phase transitions in computationally hard problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New applications of statistical mechanics; analysis of algorithms; heuristics; phase transitions and critical ...... KGaA, Weinheim, 2005). [12] S Zilberstein, AI Magazine 17, 73 (1996) ... versity Press Inc., New York, 1971). [17] F Baras, G Nicolis, ...

  17. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: a driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction

  18. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: A driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van der Horst, A.R.A.; van Arem, Bart; Brusque, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving behaviour and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  2. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  3. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  4. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  6. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  8. Smooth driving of Moessbauer electromechanical transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, A., E-mail: veiga@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Mayosky, M. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Martinez, N.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    Quality of Moessbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  11. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  12. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  13. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  14. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  15. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  16. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  17. Bringing MapReduce Closer To Data With Active Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Prathapan, S.; Warmka, R.; Wyatt, B.; Halem, M.; Trantham, J. D.; Markey, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Moving computation closer to the data location has been a much theorized improvement to computation for decades. The increase in processor performance, the decrease in processor size and power requirement combined with the increase in data intensive computing has created a push to move computation as close to data as possible. We will show the next logical step in this evolution in computing: moving computation directly to storage. Hypothetical systems, known as Active Drives, have been proposed as early as 1998. These Active Drives would have a general-purpose CPU on each disk allowing for computations to be performed on them without the need to transfer the data to the computer over the system bus or via a network. We will utilize Seagate's Active Drives to perform general purpose parallel computing using the MapReduce programming model directly on each drive. We will detail how the MapReduce programming model can be adapted to the Active Drive compute model to perform general purpose computing with comparable results to traditional MapReduce computations performed via Hadoop. We will show how an Active Drive based approach significantly reduces the amount of data leaving the drive when performing several common algorithms: subsetting and gridding. We will show that an Active Drive based design significantly improves data transfer speeds into and out of drives compared to Hadoop's HDFS while at the same time keeping comparable compute speeds as Hadoop.

  18. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  19. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  7. Development of a software concept for computer-aided technical detail planning for machines in German hard coal mining; Entwicklung eines Softwarekonzeptes fuer rechnergestuetzte maschinentechnische Datailplanung im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borstell, D

    1994-12-31

    CAD systems have long been an aid in German hard coal mining for reducing costs in all technical planning tasks. The use of computers will offer as yet unused possibilities for further cost savings in the future. For this purpose, this book introduces a new software concept for the technical planning for machines in the mines of the Ruhr. By the continued and thorough use of the potential of modern computer techniques, by the application of the knowledge of planning science orientated towards practice and by transferring computer-aided planning applications from other branches of industry, a further contribution is to be made to reducing costs in technical planning. The heart of the future technical planning workplace will be a graphically orientated surface with the three-dimensional representation of the pit structure on the screen. On this surface, after choosing the work area in the pit structure, there is access to the available software tools. These support the planning engineer in information and design work (connection to databank, 2D/3D-CAD, libraries of operating means and standard parts) and give support to the method of procedure (through expert systems, sample specifications, checklists). They will also offer help in inspection and decision-making (by simulation and calculation routines, expert systems) and in supporting publicity activities (text processing, desktop publishing). The computer-aided planning system of the future will develop from the two-dimensional design environment usual today into a comprehensive integrated 3D engineering system. (orig.) [Deutsch] CAD-Systeme sind im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau seit Jahren wichtige Hilfsmittel zur Kostenreduzierung bei allen technischen Planungsaufgaben. Auch in Zukunft wird der Einsatz von Rechnern noch ungenutzte Moeglichkeiten fuer weitere Kosteneinsparungen bieten. Zu diesem Zweck wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit ein neues Softwarekonzept fuer die maschinentechnische Planung in den Stabsstellen

  8. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  15. Emergent spatial patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strengths drive somatotopic representational discontinuities and their plasticity in a computational model of primary sensory cortical area 3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil A. Grajski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying the emergence and plasticity of representational discontinuities in the mammalian primary somatosensory cortical representation of the hand are investigated in a computational model. The model consists of an input lattice organized as a three-digit hand forward-connected to a lattice of cortical columns each of which contains a paired excitatory and inhibitory cell. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and lateral connection weights is implemented as a simple covariance rule and competitive normalization. Receptive field properties are computed independently for excitatory and inhibitory cells and compared within and across columns. Within digit representational zones intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field extents are concentric, single-digit, small, and unimodal. Exclusively in representational boundary-adjacent zones, intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field properties diverge: excitatory cell receptive fields are single-digit, small, and unimodal; and the paired inhibitory cell receptive fields are bimodal, double-digit, and large. In simulated syndactyly (webbed fingers, boundary-adjacent intracolumnar receptive field properties reorganize to within-representation type; divergent properties are reacquired following syndactyly release. This study generates testable hypotheses for assessment of cortical laminar-dependent receptive field properties and plasticity within and between cortical representational zones. For computational studies, present results suggest that concurrent excitatory and inhibitory plasticity may underlie novel emergent properties.

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  17. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  18. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  19. An Introduction to Parallel Cluster Computing Using PVM for Computer Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, VN

    2001-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted regarding the ability of clustered personal computers to improve the performance of executing software simulations for solving engineering problems. The power and utility of personal computers continues to grow exponentially through advances in computing capabilities such as newer microprocessors, advances in microchip technologies, electronic packaging, and cost effective gigabyte-size hard drive capacity. Many engineering problems require significant computing power. Therefore, the computation has to be done by high-performance computer systems that cost millions of dollars and need gigabytes of memory to complete the task. Alternately, it is feasible to provide adequate computing in the form of clustered personal computers. This method cuts the cost and size by linking (clustering) personal computers together across a network. Clusters also have the advantage that they can be used as stand-alone computers when they are not operating as a parallel computer. Parallel computing software to exploit clusters is available for computer operating systems like Unix, Windows NT, or Linux. This project concentrates on the use of Windows NT, and the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) system to solve an engineering dynamics problem in Fortran

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  1. Revisiting the definition of local hardness and hardness kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos A; Franco-Pérez, Marco; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-05-17

    An analysis of the hardness kernel and local hardness is performed to propose new definitions for these quantities that follow a similar pattern to the one that characterizes the quantities associated with softness, that is, we have derived new definitions for which the integral of the hardness kernel over the whole space of one of the variables leads to local hardness, and the integral of local hardness over the whole space leads to global hardness. A basic aspect of the present approach is that global hardness keeps its identity as the second derivative of energy with respect to the number of electrons. Local hardness thus obtained depends on the first and second derivatives of energy and electron density with respect to the number of electrons. When these derivatives are approximated by a smooth quadratic interpolation of energy, the expression for local hardness reduces to the one intuitively proposed by Meneses, Tiznado, Contreras and Fuentealba. However, when one combines the first directional derivatives with smooth second derivatives one finds additional terms that allow one to differentiate local hardness for electrophilic attack from the one for nucleophilic attack. Numerical results related to electrophilic attacks on substituted pyridines, substituted benzenes and substituted ethenes are presented to show the overall performance of the new definition.

  2. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  3. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  4. Sampling from a polytope and hard-disk Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation

  5. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  6. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  7. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  8. Study of Solid State Drives performance in PROOF distributed analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitkin, S. Y.; Ernst, M.; Petkus, R.; Rind, O.; Wenaus, T.

    2010-04-01

    Solid State Drives (SSD) is a promising storage technology for High Energy Physics parallel analysis farms. Its combination of low random access time and relatively high read speed is very well suited for situations where multiple jobs concurrently access data located on the same drive. It also has lower energy consumption and higher vibration tolerance than Hard Disk Drive (HDD) which makes it an attractive choice in many applications raging from personal laptops to large analysis farms. The Parallel ROOT Facility - PROOF is a distributed analysis system which allows to exploit inherent event level parallelism of high energy physics data. PROOF is especially efficient together with distributed local storage systems like Xrootd, when data are distributed over computing nodes. In such an architecture the local disk subsystem I/O performance becomes a critical factor, especially when computing nodes use multi-core CPUs. We will discuss our experience with SSDs in PROOF environment. We will compare performance of HDD with SSD in I/O intensive analysis scenarios. In particular we will discuss PROOF system performance scaling with a number of simultaneously running analysis jobs.

  9. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  10. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  11. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  12. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  13. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  14. Hard processes. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Deep inelastic (hard) processes are now at the epicenter of modern high-energy physics. These processes are governed by short-distance dynamics, which reveals the intrinsic structure of elementary particles. The theory of deep inelastic processes is now sufficiently well settled. The authors' aim was to give an effective tool to theoreticians and experimentalists who are engaged in high-energy physics. This book is intended primarily for physicists who are only beginning to study the field. To read the book, one should be acquainted with the Feynman diagram technique and with some particular topics from elementary particle theory (symmetries, dispersion relations, Regge pole theory, etc.). Theoretical consideration of deep inelastic processes is now based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). At the same time, analysis of relevant physical phenomena demands a synthesis of QCD notions (quarks, gluons) with certain empirical characteristics. Therefore, the phenomenological approaches presented are a necessary stage in a study of this range of phenomena which should undoubtedly be followed by a detailed description based on QCD and electroweak theory. The authors were naturally unable to dwell on experimental data accumulated during the past decade of intensive investigations. Priority was given to results which allow a direct comparison with theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  15. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  16. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  17. Isotropic-nematic transition in a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders: scaled particle theory description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.

  18. Passive cyclotron current drive for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernbichler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The creation of toroidal current using cyclotron radiation in a passive way is, together with the well known bootstrap current, an interesting method for stationary current drive in high-temperature fusion reactors. Here, instead of externally applied RF-waves, fish-scale like structures at the first wall help to create enough asymmetry in the self generated cyclotron radiation intensity to drive a current within the plasma. The problem of computing passive cyclotron current drive consists of actually two linked problems, which are the computation of the electron equilibrium under the presence of self-generated radiation, and the computation of the photon equilibrium in a bounded system with a distorted electron distribution. This system of integro-differential equations cannot be solved directly in an efficient way. Therefore a linearization procedure was developed to decouple both sets of equations, finally linked through a generalized local current drive efficiency. The problem of the exact accounting for the wall profile effects was reduced to the solution of a Fredholm-type integral equation of the 2 nd -kind. Based on all this an extensive computer code was developed to compute the passively driven current as well as radiation losses, radiation transport and overall efficiencies. The results therefrom give an interesting and very detailed insight into the problems related to passive cyclotron current drive

  19. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  20. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and

  2. A driving system for Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslan, M.; Cholmeckij, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Misevic, O.; Fedorov, A.; Zak, D.

    1993-01-01

    The driving system of a Moessbauer spectrometer is described. The system comprises a minivibrator, a digital generator of the reference velocity signal, and circuits for controlling the vibrator. The reference velocity signal is stored by the control computer in an intermediate storage. The feedback in the control circuits includes correction for nonlinearity of the driving facility. A Moessbauer spectrometer which is equipped with this driving system exhibits a velocity scale nonlinearity below 0.1%. The resonance line width for sodium nitroprusside is 0.27 ± 0.01 mm/s. (author). 6 figs., 8 refs

  3. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  4. Friction degradation and set-up effects in hard clays offshore Congo and Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliat, J.L.; Vergobbi, P.; Puech, A.

    1993-01-01

    Piles driven into stiff to hard clays encountered offshore Congo and Angola clearly show both clay-type effects which are (1) friction degradation, with very low driving resistances during continuous driving, and (2) set-up after driving interruptions. Both phenomena were studied by back-analysis of driving records, including results of pile driving monitoring. It allowed one to deduce the friction distribution along the piles during driving; show how the shaft friction at any depth reduces as the pile is driven further into the ground; and show that the shaft friction after driving delays can be close to the estimated static friction capacity of the piles. The SRD calculation method proposed by the authors takes the friction degradation effect into account, leading to improved pile drivability predictions. Four case histories are presented to illustrate the results obtained

  5. DrivingSense: Dangerous Driving Behavior Identification Based on Smartphone Autocalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since pervasive smartphones own advanced computing capability and are equipped with various sensors, they have been used for dangerous driving behaviors detection, such as drunk driving. However, sensory data gathered by smartphones are noisy, which results in inaccurate driving behaviors estimations. Some existing works try to filter noise from sensor readings, but usually only the outlier data are filtered. The noises caused by hardware of the smartphone cannot be removed from the sensor reading. In this paper, we propose DrivingSense, a reliable dangerous driving behavior identification scheme based on smartphone autocalibration. We first theoretically analyze the impact of the sensor error on the vehicle driving behavior estimation. Then, we propose a smartphone autocalibration algorithm based on sensor noise distribution determination when a vehicle is being driven. DrivingSense leverages the corrected sensor parameters to identify three kinds of dangerous behaviors: speeding, irregular driving direction change, and abnormal speed control. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme under realistic environments. The results show that DrivingSense, on average, is able to detect the driving direction change event and abnormal speed control event with 93.95% precision and 90.54% recall, respectively. In addition, the speed estimation error is less than 2.1 m/s, which is an acceptable range.

  6. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of Vickers Hardness Loading Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Vickers testing needs manual works, as a result, it will induce low precision and automatization. So this paper design a new type of loading controlling system, it is based on single chip computer 89S52, used PZT as the force generator in micro Vickers hardness testing. It primarily includes the designing of hardware, software of collecting data and PZT signals by AD667. This article has given the sketch of electrical circuit and controlling software, it also offers the experiment data. The experiments have showed that using this system can exactly control the loading results, and the average tolerance is less than 0.43 %.

  8. On scale dependence of hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorshorov, M.Kh.; Alekhin, V.P.; Bulychev, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of hardness as a structure-sensitive characteristic of a material is considered. It is shown that in conditions of a decreasing stress field under the inventor the hardness function is determined by the average distance, Lsub(a), between the stops (fixed and sessile dislocations, segregation particles, etc.). In the general case, Lsub(a) depends on the size of the impression and explains the great diversity of hardness functions. The concept of average true deformation rate on depression is introduced

  9. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  10. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  12. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  13. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  14. Chaos in electric drive systems analysis control and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T

    2011-01-01

    In Chaos in Electric Drive Systems: Analysis, Control and Application authors Chau and Wang systematically introduce an emerging technology of electrical engineering that bridges abstract chaos theory and practical electric drives. The authors consolidate all important information in this interdisciplinary technology, including the fundamental concepts, mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and hardware implementation. The book provides comprehensive coverage of chaos in electric drive systems with three main parts: analysis, control and application. Corresponding drive systems range from the simplest to the latest types: DC, induction, synchronous reluctance, switched reluctance, and permanent magnet brushless drives.The first book to comprehensively treat chaos in electric drive systemsReviews chaos in various electrical engineering technologies and drive systemsPresents innovative approaches to stabilize and stimulate chaos in typical drivesDiscusses practical application of cha...

  15. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  16. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  17. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  19. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  20. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  1. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  2. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  3. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  4. An overview on polynomial approximation of NP-hard problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschos Vangelis Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that polynomial time algorithm is very unlikely to be devised for an optimal solving of the NP-hard problems strongly motivates both the researchers and the practitioners to try to solve such problems heuristically, by making a trade-off between computational time and solution's quality. In other words, heuristic computation consists of trying to find not the best solution but one solution which is 'close to' the optimal one in reasonable time. Among the classes of heuristic methods for NP-hard problems, the polynomial approximation algorithms aim at solving a given NP-hard problem in poly-nomial time by computing feasible solutions that are, under some predefined criterion, as near to the optimal ones as possible. The polynomial approximation theory deals with the study of such algorithms. This survey first presents and analyzes time approximation algorithms for some classical examples of NP-hard problems. Secondly, it shows how classical notions and tools of complexity theory, such as polynomial reductions, can be matched with polynomial approximation in order to devise structural results for NP-hard optimization problems. Finally, it presents a quick description of what is commonly called inapproximability results. Such results provide limits on the approximability of the problems tackled.

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  7. The limits of quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaronson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Future computers, which work with quantum bits, would indeed solve some special problems extremely fastly, but for the most problems the would hardly be superior to contemporary computers. This knowledge could manifest a new fundamental physical principle

  8. Smooth driving of Mössbauer electromechanical transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Mayosky, M. A.; Martínez, N.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Mössbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  9. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  10. A Review on Fatigue Driving Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Sheng-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socialization of automobile development has brought great convenience to people’s travel. However, the rapid increase in the number of vehicles has also caused a series of problems. The increase in traffic accidents has brought great social casualties and economic losses. Fatigue driving, which is an important factor in the traffic accident, has aroused people’s attention. This paper reviews all kinds of fatigue driving detection methods at present; compares various fatigue driving detection methods in terms of accuracy, real-time and cost; analyses the advantages and disadvantages of various methods; introduces the application of fatigue detection system in automobile; summarizes the current deficiencies and future development trends in the field of fatigue driving detection. The future research of this field will be more to the data fusion, computer vision and deep learning.

  11. Harmonic Coupling Analysis of a Multi-Drive System with Slim DC-link Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    One of the problems with slim dc-link adjustable speed drive is the difficulties to analyze the harmonic coupling when it is integrated into a multi-drive system. The traditional methods analyze this harmonic issue by neglecting the harmonic coupling, and base on the linear time-invariant methods....... Its disadvantages include the time consumption and large computer memory. This paper proposes to do harmonic analysis by using the harmonic state-space modeling method by using the linear time-periodic theory. By using the proposed model, the harmonic couplings, between dc-link and point of common...... coupling in different drives, are all analyzed in the multi-drive system. In the meantime, the effects of the small film dc-link capacitance and the nonlinear characteristic of the diode rectifier are considered. The detailed modeling procedure, the simulations and the lab experiment on a two-drive system...

  12. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  13. Development of a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the period under review, the computer codes required for transients calculation have been completed, as well as the programs for modelling and testing the hot-gas temperature control by means of combined core rod and reflector rod operation. The specification of requirements to be fulfilled by the rod drive computer and the neutron flux measuring system has been done relying essentially on the data obtained by the transients calculations performed and the resulting informations on operating conditions. The work for optimization of the core rod drive with regard to rod driving speeds and the 'three-point switch' with hysteresis for controlled, automatic core rod operation has been concentrating on the case of specified, normal operation of the reactor. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Phase and vacancy behaviour of hard "slanted" cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, R.; van der Meer, B.; van den Broeke, J. J.; Smallenburg, F.; Filion, L.

    2017-01-01

    We use computer simulations to study the phase behaviour for hard, right rhombic prisms as a function of the angle of their rhombic face (the “slant” angle). More specifically, using a combination of eventdriven molecular dynamics simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and free-energy calculations,

  15. Microstructure and macroscopic properties of polydisperse systems of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogarko, V.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of systems of polydisperse smooth hard spheres. This includes the development of a fast contact detection algorithm for computer modelling, the development of macroscopic constitutive laws that are based on microscopic features such as the moments of the

  16. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  17. Heuristics for NP-hard optimization problems - simpler is better!?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerovnik Janez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide several examples showing that local search, the most basic metaheuristics, may be a very competitive choice for solving computationally hard optimization problems. In addition, generation of starting solutions by greedy heuristics should be at least considered as one of very natural possibilities. In this critical survey, selected examples discussed include the traveling salesman, the resource-constrained project scheduling, the channel assignment, and computation of bounds for the Shannon capacity.

  18. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  19. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  20. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  2. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  3. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  4. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  5. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  6. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  7. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  8. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  9. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  11. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  12. Chemical hardness and density functional theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    RALPH G PEARSON. Chemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Abstract. The concept of chemical hardness is reviewed from a personal point of view. Keywords. Hardness; softness; hard & soft acids bases (HSAB); principle of maximum hardness. (PMH) density functional theory (DFT) ...

  13. Hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds under general Markovian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Christopher; Wallman, Joel; Beale, Stefanie; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Quantum error correction is instrumental in protecting quantum systems from noise in quantum computing and communication settings. Pauli channels can be efficiently simulated and threshold values for Pauli error rates under a variety of error-correcting codes have been obtained. However, realistic quantum systems can undergo noise processes that differ significantly from Pauli noise. In this paper, we present an efficient hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds and lowering failure rates of an error-correcting code under general completely positive and trace-preserving (i.e., Markovian) noise. We use our hard decoding algorithm to study the performance of several error-correcting codes under various non-Pauli noise models by computing threshold values and failure rates for these codes. We compare the performance of our hard decoding algorithm to decoders optimized for depolarizing noise and show improvements in thresholds and reductions in failure rates by several orders of magnitude. Our hard decoding algorithm can also be adapted to take advantage of a code's non-Pauli transversal gates to further suppress noise. For example, we show that using the transversal gates of the 5-qubit code allows arbitrary rotations around certain axes to be perfectly corrected. Furthermore, we show that Pauli twirling can increase or decrease the threshold depending upon the code properties. Lastly, we show that even if the physical noise model differs slightly from the hypothesized noise model used to determine an optimized decoder, failure rates can still be reduced by applying our hard decoding algorithm.

  14. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  16. Effect of consecutive driving on accident risk: a comparison between passenger and freight train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Ju, Lai-Shun

    2008-11-01

    This study combined driver-responsible accidents with on-board driving hours to examine the effect of consecutive driving on the accident risk of train operations. The data collected from the Taiwan Railway Administration for the period 1996-2006 was used to compute accident rates for varied accumulated driving hours for passenger and freight trains. The results showed that accident risk grew with increased consecutive driving hours for both passenger and freight trains, and doubled that of the first hour after four consecutive hours of driving. Additional accident risk was found for freight trains during the first hour due to required shunting in the marshalling yards where there are complex track layouts and semi-automatic traffic controls. Also, accident risk for train driving increased more quickly over consecutive driving hours than for automobile driving, and accumulated fatigue caused by high working pressure and monotony of the working environment are considered to be the part of the reason. To prevent human errors accidents, enhancing safety equipment, driver training programs, and establishing a sound auditing system are suggested and discussed.

  17. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  18. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  19. Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve

  20. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion

  1. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated in central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit, hard drive, internal ... change its position. Discussion ... Suzuki, et al. reported that the critical temperature for superficial burn was 37.8°C, for deep dermal burns 41.9°C and ... The laptop should be placed on a hard surface and not on soft surfaces like.

  2. A short proof that phylogenetic tree reconstruction by maximum likelihood is hard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Maximum likelihood is one of the most widely used techniques to infer evolutionary histories. Although it is thought to be intractable, a proof of its hardness has been lacking. Here, we give a short proof that computing the maximum likelihood tree is NP-hard by exploiting a connection between likelihood and parsimony observed by Tuffley and Steel.

  3. A Short Proof that Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction by Maximum Likelihood is Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Roch, S.

    2005-01-01

    Maximum likelihood is one of the most widely used techniques to infer evolutionary histories. Although it is thought to be intractable, a proof of its hardness has been lacking. Here, we give a short proof that computing the maximum likelihood tree is NP-hard by exploiting a connection between likelihood and parsimony observed by Tuffley and Steel.

  4. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  5. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks' duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley

  6. Fifty years of driving safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2008-06-01

    This brief review covers the 50 years of driving-related research published in Human Factors, its contribution to driving safety, and emerging challenges. Many factors affect driving safety, making it difficult to assess the impact of specific factors such as driver age, cell phone distractions, or collision warnings. The author considers the research themes associated with the approximately 270 articles on driving published in Human Factors in the past 50 years. To a large extent, current and past research has explored similar themes and concepts. Many articles published in the first 25 years focused on issues such as driver impairment, individual differences, and perceptual limits. Articles published in the past 25 years address similar issues but also point toward vehicle technology that can exacerbate or mitigate the negative effect of these issues. Conceptual and computational models have played an important role in this research. Improved crash-worthiness has contributed to substantial improvements in driving safety over the past 50 years, but future improvements will depend on enhancing driver performance and perhaps, more important, improving driver behavior. Developing models to guide this research will become more challenging as new technology enters the vehicle and shifts the focus from driver performance to driver behavior. Over the past 50 years, Human Factors has accumulated a large base of driving-related research that remains relevant for many of today's design and policy concerns.

  7. Optimal Control Development System for Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the optimal electrical drive development system is presented. It consists of both electrical drive types: DC and AC. In order to implement the optimal control for AC drive system an Altivar 71 inverter, a Frato magnetic particle brake (as load, three-phase induction machine, and dSpace 1104 controller have been used. The on-line solution of the matrix Riccati differential equation (MRDE is computed by dSpace 1104 controller, based on the corresponding feedback signals, generating the optimal speed reference for the AC drive system. The optimal speed reference is tracked by Altivar 71 inverter, conducting to energy reduction in AC drive. The classical control (consisting of rotor field oriented control with PI controllers and the optimal one have been implemented by designing an adequate ControlDesk interface. The three-phase induction machine (IM is controlled at constant flux. Therefore, the linear dynamic mathematical model of the IM has been obtained. The optimal control law provides transient regimes with minimal energy consumption. The obtained solution by integration of the MRDE is orientated towards the numerical implementation-by using a zero order hold. The development system is very useful for researchers, doctoral students or experts training in electrical drive. The experimental results are shown.

  8. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfy ability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named ”locked” constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfy ability.

  9. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdeborova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an non-deterministic polynomial-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal the question we address in the article is: How to recognize if an non-deterministic polynomial-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named 'locked' constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability (Authors)

  10. Statistical physics of hard optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdeborová, Lenka

    2009-06-01

    Optimization is fundamental in many areas of science, from computer science and information theory to engineering and statistical physics, as well as to biology or social sciences. It typically involves a large number of variables and a cost function depending on these variables. Optimization problems in the non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete class are particularly difficult, it is believed that the number of operations required to minimize the cost function is in the most difficult cases exponential in the system size. However, even in an NP-complete problem the practically arising instances might, in fact, be easy to solve. The principal question we address in this article is: How to recognize if an NP-complete constraint satisfaction problem is typically hard and what are the main reasons for this? We adopt approaches from the statistical physics of disordered systems, in particular the cavity method developed originally to describe glassy systems. We describe new properties of the space of solutions in two of the most studied constraint satisfaction problems - random satisfiability and random graph coloring. We suggest a relation between the existence of the so-called frozen variables and the algorithmic hardness of a problem. Based on these insights, we introduce a new class of problems which we named "locked" constraint satisfaction, where the statistical description is easily solvable, but from the algorithmic point of view they are even more challenging than the canonical satisfiability.

  11. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  13. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  14. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  15. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K.K., E-mail: gan@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  16. Managing Ethiopian Cities II: Informality in Ethiopia: Taxing the Hard to Tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bongwa (Aloysius)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLarge informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal

  17. Probing the equilibrium dynamics of colloidal hard spheres above the mode-coupling glass transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, G.; al Masri, J.H.M.; Pierno, M.; Berthier, L.; Cipelletti, L.

    2010-01-01

    We use dynamic light scattering and computer simulations to study equilibrium dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in concentrated suspensions of colloidal hard spheres. Our study covers an unprecedented density range and spans seven decades in structural relaxation time, , including equilibrium

  18. Predictions of of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve this objective requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems - ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various role of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The paper addresses these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  19. Predictions of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve these objectives requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems--ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various roles of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The authors have addressed these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX

  20. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  1. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  2. Fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere mixtures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Hard-sphere systems are one of the fundamental model systems of statistical physics and represent an important reference system for molecular or colloidal systems with soft repulsive or attractive interactions in addition to hard-core repulsion at short distances. Density functional theory for classical systems, as one of the core theoretical approaches of statistical physics of fluids and solids, has to be able to treat such an important system successfully and accurately. Fundamental measure theory is up to date the most successful and most accurate density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures. Since its introduction fundamental measure theory has been applied to many problems, tested against computer simulations, and further developed in many respects. The literature on fundamental measure theory is already large and is growing fast. This review aims to provide a starting point for readers new to fundamental measure theory and an overview of important developments. (topical review)

  3. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  4. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  5. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  6. CMOS optimization for radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Fossum, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Several approaches to the attainment of radiation-hardened MOS circuits have been investigated in the last few years. These have included implanting the SiO 2 gate insulator with aluminum, using chrome-aluminum layered gate metallization, using Al 2 O 3 as the gate insulator, and optimizing the MOS fabrication process. Earlier process optimization studies were restricted primarily to p-channel devices operating with negative gate biases. Since knowledge of the hardness dependence upon processing and design parameters is essential in producing hardened integrated circuits, a comprehensive investigation of the effects of both process and design optimization on radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits was undertaken. The goals are to define and establish a radiation-hardened processing sequence for CMOS integrated circuits and to formulate quantitative relationships between process and design parameters and the radiation hardness. Using these equations, the basic CMOS design can then be optimized for radiation hardness and some understanding of the basic physics responsible for the radiation damage can be gained. Results are presented

  7. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  8. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  9. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  10. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  11. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  12. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  13. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  14. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  15. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  16. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Kaya, Cemal, E-mail: kaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas 58140 (Turkey); Islam, Nazmul, E-mail: nazmul.islam786@gmail.com [Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Basic Science and Humanities/Chemistry Techno Global-Balurghat, Balurghat, D. Dinajpur 733103 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  17. Maximum hardness and minimum polarizability principles through lattice energies of ionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal; Islam, Nazmul

    2016-01-01

    The maximum hardness (MHP) and minimum polarizability (MPP) principles have been analyzed using the relationship among the lattice energies of ionic compounds with their electronegativities, chemical hardnesses and electrophilicities. Lattice energy, electronegativity, chemical hardness and electrophilicity values of ionic compounds considered in the present study have been calculated using new equations derived by some of the authors in recent years. For 4 simple reactions, the changes of the hardness (Δη), polarizability (Δα) and electrophilicity index (Δω) were calculated. It is shown that the maximum hardness principle is obeyed by all chemical reactions but minimum polarizability principles and minimum electrophilicity principle are not valid for all reactions. We also proposed simple methods to compute the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds. Comparative studies with experimental sets of data reveal that the proposed methods of computation of the percentage of ionic characters and inter nuclear distances of ionic compounds are valid.

  18. Low temperature structural transitions in dipolar hard spheres: The influence on magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.O.; Kantorovich, S.S.; Rovigatti, L.; Tavares, J.M.; Sciortino, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature in a gas of dipolar hard spheres (DHS). Due to the weakening of entropic contribution, ring formation becomes noticeable when the effective dipole–dipole magnetic interaction increases. It results in the redistribution of particles from usually observed flexible chains into flexible rings. The concentration (ρ) of DHS plays a crucial part in this transition: at a very low ρ only chains and rings are observed, whereas even a slight increase of the volume fraction leads to the formation of branched or defect structures. As a result, the fraction of DHS aggregated in defect-free rings turns out to be a non-monotonic function of ρ. The average ring size is found to be a slower increasing function of ρ when compared to that of chains. Both theory and computer simulations confirm the dramatic influence of the ring formation on the ρ-dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) when the temperature decreases. The rings due to their zero total dipole moment are irresponsive to a weak magnetic field and drive to the strong decrease of the initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • Found structural chain-to-ring transition at low temperature sheds the light on the no-man's-land of the phase diagram of dipolar hard sphere gas. • Particle concentration plays a crucial part: at high dilution only chains and rings are observed, otherwise different branched structures occur. • The dramatic influence of the ring formation on the concentration dependence of the initial magnetic susceptibility when temperature decreases

  19. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  20. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  1. Oscillating field current drive for reversed field pinch discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Baker, D.A.

    1984-06-01

    Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), also known as F-THETA pumping, is a steady-state current-drive technique proposed for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Unlike other current-drive techniques, which employ high-technology, invasive, and power intensive schemes using radio frequency or neutral particle injection, F-THETA pumping entails driving the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field circuits with low-frequency (audio) oscillating voltage sources. Current drive by this technique is a consequence of the strong nonlinear plasma coupling in the RFP. Because of its low frequency and efficient plasma coupling, F-THETA pumping shows excellent promise as a reactor-relevant current-drive technique. A conceptual and computational study of this concept, including its experimental and reactor relevance, is explored in this paper

  2. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  3. The control and driving system of the Bonn 3,5 GeV electron stretcher facility ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermelskirchen, C.

    1988-07-01

    The stretcher facility ELSA is the first accelerator of the Physical Institute the guidance of which is completely realized by the application of mini- and microcomputers. In the framework of the present thesis the whole hard- and software of this control system was developed, tested, and taken into operation. The hardware of the ELSA control system consists in the processing level of different interface cards, via which all accelerator components can be connected, and the MACS processors which drive as front-end processors the connected devices. With the transmission cable simultaneously trigger signals for the synchrotron and ELSA components are distributed. By this the MACS processors are synchronized so that all timely correlated events in the guidance of ELSA can be tuned. The modularized software on the driving central computer uses a memory-resident data bank which describes the whole accelerator configuration. In the whole it could be shown that the developed and constructed control system represents a necessary but also very comfortable and reliable instrument for the operation and driving of ELSA. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    is a younger field than centralized fusion. The main issues in distributed fusion that are addressed are distributed classification and distributed tracking. There are several well established methods for performing distributed fusion that are first reviewed. The chapter on distributed fusion concludes with a multiple unmanned vehicle collaborative test involving an unmanned aerial vehicle and an unmanned ground vehicle. The third issue this thesis addresses is that of soft sensor only data fusion. Soft-only fusion is a newer field than centralized or distributed hard sensor fusion. Because of the novelty of the field, the chapter on soft only fusion contains less background information and instead focuses on some new results in soft sensor data fusion. Specifically, it discusses a novel fuzzy logic based soft sensor data fusion method. This new method is tested using both simulations and field measurements. The biggest issue addressed in this thesis is that of combined hard and soft fusion. Fusion of hard and soft data is the newest area for research in the data fusion community; therefore, some of the largest theoretical contributions in this thesis are in the chapter on combined hard and soft fusion. This chapter presents a novel combined hard and soft data fusion method based on random set theory, which processes random set data using a particle filter. Furthermore, the particle filter is designed to be distributed across multiple robots and portable computers (used by human observers) so that there is no centralized failure point in the system. After laying out a theoretical groundwork for hard and soft sensor data fusion the thesis presents practical applications for hard and soft sensor data fusion in simulation. Through a series of three progressively more difficult simulations, some important hard and soft sensor data fusion capabilities are demonstrated. The first simulation demonstrates fusing data from a single soft sensor and a single hard sensor in

  5. A Virtual Environments Editor for Driving Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Mourant

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to enable the rapid creation of three-dimensional virtual driving environments. We designed and implemented a high-level scene editor that allows a user to construct a driving environment by pasting icons that represent 1 road segments, 2 road signs, 3 trees and 4 buildings. These icons represent two- and three-dimensional objects that have been predesigned. Icons can be placed in the scene at specific locations (x, y, and z coordinates. The editor includes the capability of a user to "drive" a vehicle using a computer mouse for steering, accelerating and braking. At any time during the process of building a virtual environment, a user may switch to "Run Mode" and inspect the three-dimensional scene by "driving" through it using the mouse. Adjustments and additions can be made to the virtual environment by going back to "Build Mode". Once a user is satisfied with the threedimensional virtual environment, it can be saved in a file. The file can used with Java3D software that enables the traversing of three-dimensional environments. The process of building virtual environments from predesigned icons can be applied to many other application areas. It will enable novice computer users to rapidly construct and use three-dimensional virtual environments.

  6. Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257

  7. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  8. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  9. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  10. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  11. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  12. Industrial application of a graphics computer-based training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Graphics Computer Based Training (GCBT) roles include drilling, tutoring, simulation and problem solving. Of these, Commonwealth Edison uses mainly tutoring, simulation and problem solving. These roles are not separate in any particular program. They are integrated to provide tutoring and part-task simulation, part-task simulation and problem solving, or problem solving tutoring. Commonwealth's Graphics Computer Based Training program was a result of over a year's worth of research and planning. The keys to the program are it's flexibility and control. Flexibility is maintained through stand alone units capable of program authoring and modification for plant/site specific users. Yet, the system has the capability to support up to 31 terminals with a 40 mb hard disk drive. Control of the GCBT program is accomplished through establishment of development priorities and a central development facility (Commonwealth Edison's Production Training Center)

  13. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  14. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  15. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  18. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  19. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  20. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  1. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  2. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. A NICER Look at the Aql X-1 Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Cackett, Edward M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Guillot, Sebastien; Homan, Jeroen; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Keek, Laurens; Kenyon, Steve; Lamb, Frederick K.; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig; Miller, Jon M.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Uttley, Phil

    2018-05-01

    We report on a spectral-timing analysis of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Aql X-1 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) on the International Space Station (ISS). Aql X-1 was observed with NICER during a dim outburst in 2017 July, collecting approximately 50 ks of good exposure. The spectral and timing properties of the source correspond to that of a (hard) extreme island state in the atoll classification. We find that the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency (soft thermal emission and the power-law emission. Additionally, we measure hard time lags, indicating the thermal emission at 0.5 keV leads the power-law emission at 10 keV on a timescale of ∼100 ms at 0.3 Hz to ∼10 ms at 3 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the thermal emission in the hard state is intrinsically variable, and is driving the modulation of the higher energy power-law. Interpreting the thermal spectrum as disk emission, we find that our results are consistent with the disk propagation model proposed for accretion onto black holes.

  4. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  6. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  7. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  8. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  9. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  10. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  11. Elasticity of Hard-Spheres-And-Tether Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, O.; Kantor, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of a large class of systems ranging from noble gases to polymers and rubber are primarily determined by entropy, while the internal energy plays a minor role. Such systems can be conveniently modeled and numerically studied using ''hard' (i.e., ''infinity-or-zero'') potentials, such as hard sphere repulsive interactions, or inextensible (''tether'') bonds which limit the distance between the bonded monomers, but have zero energy at all permitted distances. The knowledge of elastic constants is very important for understanding the behavior of entropy-dominated systems. Computational methods for determination of the elastic constants in such systems are broadly classified into ''strain'' methods and (fluctuation methods. In the former, the elastic constants are extracted from stress-strain relations, while in the latter they are determined from measurements of stress fluctuations. The fluctuation technique usually enables more accurate and well-controlled determination of the elastic constants since in this method the elastic constants are computed directly from simulations of the un strained system with no need to deform the simulation cell and perform numerical differentiations. For central forces systems, the original ''fluctuation'' formalism can be applied provided the pair potential is twice differentiable. We have extended this formalism to apply to hard-spheres-and-tether models in which this requirement is not fulfilled. We found that for such models the components of the tensor of elastic constants can be related to (two-, three- and four-point) probability densities of contacts between hard spheres and stretched bonds. We have tested our formalism on simple (phantom networks and three-dimensional hard spheres systems

  12. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains.

  13. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  14. Quantum Dots Based Rad-Hard Computing and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, A.; Klimeck, G.; Leon, R.; Qiu, Y.; Toomarian, N.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are solid-state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well-conducting region. Thus, they can be viewed as artificial atoms. They therefore represent the ultimate limit of the semiconductor device scaling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Comparison of driving simulator performance and neuropsychological testing in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterba, Sylvia; Mueller, Nicole; Leidag, Markus; Widdig, Walter; Rasche, Kurt; Malin, Jean-Pierre; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Orth, Maritta

    2004-09-01

    Daytime sleepiness and cataplexy can increase automobile accident rates in narcolepsy. Several countries have produced guidelines for issuing a driving license. The aim of the study was to compare driving simulator performance and neuropsychological test results in narcolepsy in order to evaluate their predictive value regarding driving ability. Thirteen patients with narcolepsy (age: 41.5+/-12.9 years) and 10 healthy control patients (age: 55.1+/-7.8 years) were investigated. By computer-assisted neuropsychological testing, vigilance, alertness and divided attention were assessed. In a driving simulator patients and controls had to drive on a highway for 60 min (mean speed of 100 km/h). Different weather and daytime conditions and obstacles were presented. Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Scores were significantly raised (narcolepsy patients: 16.7+/-5.1, controls: 6.6+/-3.6, P divided attention (56.9+/-25.4) and vigilance (58.7+/-26.8) were in a normal range. There was, however, a high inter-individual difference. There was no correlation between driving performance and neuropsychological test results or ESS Score. Neuropsychological test results did not significantly change in the follow-up. The difficulties encountered by the narcolepsy patient in remaining alert may account for sleep-related motor vehicle accidents. Driving simulator investigations are closely related to real traffic situations than isolated neuropsychological tests. At the present time the driving simulator seems to be a useful instrument judging driving ability especially in cases with ambiguous neuropsychological results.

  16. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  17. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro

  18. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  19. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  20. Cellular Neural Networks for NP-Hard Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ercsey-Ravasz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cellular neural/nonlinear network (CNN is used for NP-hard optimization. We prove that a CNN in which the parameters of all cells can be separately controlled is the analog correspondent of a two-dimensional Ising-type (Edwards-Anderson spin-glass system. Using the properties of CNN, we show that one single operation (template always yields a local minimum of the spin-glass energy function. This way, a very fast optimization method, similar to simulated annealing, can be built. Estimating the simulation time needed on CNN-based computers, and comparing it with the time needed on normal digital computers using the simulated annealing algorithm, the results are astonishing. CNN computers could be faster than digital computers already at 10×10 lattice sizes. The local control of the template parameters was already partially realized on some of the hardwares, we think this study could further motivate their development in this direction.

  1. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  3. ANIMASI IKLAN 3D SAFETY DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusron Aulia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah aplikasi video iklan bertemakan tentang keamanan mengemudi sebagai media edukasi kepada masyarakat tentang pentingnya  keamanan  dalam  mengemudi.  Begitu  pentingnya  keamanan  mengemudi, maka  menjadi  pengemudi  aman  menjadi  keharusan  bagi setiap  anggota  masyarakat. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah observasi, dokumentasi dan studi pustaka. Untuk pengembangan sistem multimedia dilakukan berdasarkan tiga tahapan yaitu: Pra Produksi, Produksi, dan Pasca Produksi. Hasil dari penelitian   ini   berupa   aplikasi   video   iklan   animasi   3D   bertemakan   keamanan mengemudi. Aplikasi yang dihasilkan berekstensi .mpeg untuk CD/DVD, .mkv untuk diputar di computer, dan .mp4 yang diunggah di internet. Selain fungsi iklan animasi ini sebagai penyampaian pesan dan memotivasi masyarakat untuk lebih disiplin, tertib dan aman dalam mengemudi, dan juga sebagai penginspirasi untuk lebih mengembangkan animasi karya asli Indonesia Kata kunci : animasi, iklan, 3D, safety, driving.The purpose of this research  is to create  an  application  video on driving safety themed advertising  as a medium to educate people about the importance of safety in driving. Once the importance of driving safety, becomes a safe driver is a must for every member of the community. Data collection methods used in this study is the observation, documentation and literature.  For the development of multimedia systems is done based on three stages: Pre-Production,  Production,  and Post Production.  The results of this research  is  the  application  of 3D  animation  video ads  themed  driving  safety. The resulting application extension .Mpeg to CD / DVD .Mkv to be played on the computer, and .Mp4 uploaded on the internet. In addition to the function of these animated ads as delivering  a  message  and  motivate people to be more disciplined

  4. Classroom Computer Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John

    1984-01-01

    This article describes a computer network system that connects several microcomputers to a single disk drive and one copy of software. Many schools are switching to networks as a cheaper and more efficient means of computer instruction. Teachers may be faced with copywriting problems when reproducing programs. (DF)

  5. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  6. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Wood

    Full Text Available To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment.Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire.Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability.Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  8. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  9. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Reconfiguration in FPGA-Based Multi-Core Platforms for Hard Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -case execution-time of tasks of an application that determines the systems ability to respond in time. To support this focus, the platform must provide service guarantees for both communication and computation resources. In addition, many hard real-time applications have multiple modes of operation, and each......In general-purpose computing multi-core platforms, hardware accelerators and reconfiguration are means to improve performance; i.e., the average-case execution time of a software application. In hard real-time systems, such average-case speed-up is not in itself relevant - it is the worst...... mode has specific requirements. An interesting perspective on reconfigurable computing is to exploit run-time reconfiguration to support mode changes. In this paper we explore approaches to reconfiguration of communication and computation resources in the T-CREST hard real-time multi-core platform...

  12. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  13. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  14. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  16. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  17. Hazards of the 'hard cash': hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  18. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  19. Photospheric Driving of Non-Potential Coronal Magnetic Field Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-19

    synthesize observable emission . In future, the computational speed of the MF model makes it a potential avenue for near- real time and/or ensemble...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0030 PHOTOSPHERIC DRIVING OF NON-POTENTIAL CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD SIMULATIONS Anthony Yeates UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHOTOSPHERIC DRIVING OF NON-POTENTIAL CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD

  20. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Testing advanced driver assistance systems with the interactive driving simulator; Erprobung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen mit dem Interactive Driving Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, A.; Grosse-Kappenberg, S.; Happe, J. [Zentrum fuer Lern- und Wissensmanagement und Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau ZLW/IMA der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Centre for Learning and Knowledge Management and Department of Computer Science in Engineering of the Technical University Aachen has developed a truck driving simulator which combines a driving simulation as well as traffic flow calculations to the interactive Driving Simulator (InDriveS). In real-time the effects of the driver's behaviour on the surrounding traffic are considered and vice versa. The integrative part of InDriveS is a software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop development environment. By means of this tool, all phases of development (Analysis, Design, Modelling, Simulation, Implementation as well as Testing and Evaluation) of new vehicle technologies, e.g. Information and Assistance Systems, can be realised in consideration of the road traffic and the driver's behaviour. (orig.)

  2. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  3. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the scram operation of a control rod by the reliable detection for the position of control rods. Constitution: A permanent magnet is provided to the lower portion of a connecting rod in engagement with a control rod and a tube having a plurality of lead switches arranged axially therein in a predetermined pitch is disposed outside of the control rod drives. When the control rod moves upwardly in the scram operation, the lead switches are closed successively upon passage of the permanent magnet to operate the electrical circuit provided by way of each of the lead switches. Thus, the position for the control rod during the scram can reliably be determined and the scram characteristic of the control rod can be recognized. (Furukawa, Y.)

  5. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  6. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Toshikatsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To protect bellows against failures due to negative pressure to prevent the loss of pressure balance caused by the expansion of the bellows upon scram. Constitution: An expansion pipe connected to the control rod drive is driven along a guide pipe to insert a control rod into the reactor core. Expansible bellows are provided at the step between the expansion pipe and the guide pipe. Further, a plurality of bore holes or slits are formed on the side wall of the guide pipe corresponding to the expansion portion of the bellows. In such an arrangement, when the expansion pipe falls rapidly and the bellows are expanded upon scram, the volume between each of the pipes of the bellows and the guide pipe is increased to produce a negative pressure, but the effect of the negative pressure on the bellows can be eliminated by the flowing-in of coolants corresponding to that pressure through the bore holes or the slits. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  9. The hardness of train rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, C.E.J.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Modelski, M.S.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    We derive several results on the computational complexity of train rearrangement problems in railway optimization. Our main result states that arranging a departing train in a depot is NP-complete, even if each track in the depot contains only two cars.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  12. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  13. Development of a hard microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measel, P.R.; Sivo, L.L.; Quilitz, W.E.; Davidson, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of commercially available microprocessors to certain systems requiring radiation survival was assessed. A microcontroller was designed and built to perform a monitor and control function of military operational ground equipment, and demonstrated to exceed the radiation hardness goal. The preparation of the microcontroller module required hardware and software design, selection of LSI and other piece part types, development of piece part and module electrical and radiation test techniques, and the performance of radiation tests on the LSI piece parts and the completed module. The microcontroller has a 16-bit central processor unit, a 4096 word read only memory, and a 256 word read-write memory. The module has circumvention circuitry, including a PIN diode radiation detector. The processor device used was the MMI 6701 T 2 L Schottky bipolar 4-bit slice. Electrical exerciser circuits were developed for in-situ electrical testing of microprocessors and memories during irradiation. A test program was developed for a Terradyne J283 microcircuit tester for more complete electrical characterization of the MMI 6701 microprocessor. A simple self-test algorithm was used in the microcontroller for performance testing during irradiation. For the operational demonstration of the microcontroller a TI 960A minicomputer was used to provide the required complex inputs to the module and verify the module outputs

  14. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, François

    2011-05-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  15. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  16. Raytracing and Direct-Drive Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Bates, Jason; Fyfe, David; Eimerl, David

    2013-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of laser imprinting and drive asymmetries in directly driven targets requires the ability to distinguish between raytrace noise and the intensity structure produced by the spatial and temporal incoherence of optical smoothing. We have developed and implemented a smoother raytrace algorithm for our mpi-parallel radiation hydrodynamics code, FAST3D. The underlying approach is to connect the rays into either sheets (in 2D) or volume-enclosing chunks (in 3D) so that the absorbed energy distribution continuously covers the propagation area illuminated by the laser. We will describe the status and show the different scalings encountered in 2D and 3D problems as the computational size, parallelization strategy, and number of rays is varied. Finally, we show results using the method in current NIKE experimental target simulations and in proposed symmetric and polar direct-drive target designs. Supported by US DoE/NNSA.

  17. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  18. H1 antihistamines and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin Dan

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion. Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and visual evoked potentials), experimental simulated driving (driving simulators) and real driving studies (the Highway Driving Test, with the evaluation of the Standard Deviation Lateral Position, and the Car Following Test, with the measurement of the Brake Reaction Time) must be discussed in order to classify a H1 antihistamine as a true non-sedating one.

  19. The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD): A candidate ITER concept with improved technology phase performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Wesley, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD) International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) concept developed by the US ITER team is an alternate to the low-aspect-ratio ITER design developed by the ITER participants during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The CDA design, referred to hereafter as ITER CDA, has an aspect ratio, A, of 2.79, a toroidal magnetic field, B T , of 4.85 T, and a plasma current, I p , of 22 MA for operation with an ignited plasma. In contrast, HARD employs higher aspect ratio, A = 4.0, higher toroidal field, B T = 7.11 T, and lower plasma current, I p = 14.8 MA for ignition operation. The cross sections of the two designs are compared in. The parameters and performance of HARD and ITER CDA for inductively driven ignition operation are compared in. The HARD parameters provide the same ignition performance (ignition margin evaluated against ITER-89P confinement scaling) as ITER CDA in a device with comparable size and cost. However, the reason for advancing HARD rather than ITER CDA as the ITER design concept is not inductively driven ignition performance but HARD's significantly enhanced potential to achieve the technology testing and steady-state operation goals of the ITER objectives with non-inductive current drive

  20. eHXI: a permanently installed, hard x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döppner, T.; Bachmann, B.; Albert, F.; Bell, P.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Chow, R.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E.L.; Huntington, C.M.; Izumi, N.; LaCaille, G.; Landen, O.L.; Palmer, N.; Park, H.-S.; Thomas, C.A.; Hohenberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a multi-pinhole imaging system for high energy x-rays (≥ 50 keV) that is permanently installed in the equatorial plane outside of the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It records absolutely-calibrated, time-integrated x-ray images with the same line-of-sight as the multi-channel, spatially integrating hard x-ray detector FFLEX [McDonald et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75 (2004) 3753], having a side view of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion targets. The equatorial hard x-ray imager (eHXI) has recorded images on the majority of ICF implosion experiments since May 2011. eHXI provides valuable information on hot electron distribution in hohlraum experiments, target alignment, potential hohlraum drive asymmetries and serves as a long term reference for the FFLEX diagnostics.

  1. Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy of flux beam formation in hard disk write heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkass, Robert A. J.; Spicer, Timothy M.; Burgos Parra, Erick; Hicken, Robert J.; Bashir, Muhammad A.; Gubbins, Mark A.; Czoschke, Peter J.; Lopusnik, Radek

    2016-01-01

    To meet growing data storage needs, the density of data stored on hard disk drives must increase. In pursuit of this aim, the magnetodynamics of the hard disk write head must be characterized and understood, particularly the process of “flux beaming.” In this study, seven different configurations of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) write heads were imaged using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy, revealing their detailed dynamic magnetic state during the write process. It was found that the precise position and number of driving coils can significantly alter the formation of flux beams during the write process. These results are applicable to the design and understanding of current PMR and next-generation heat-assisted magnetic recording devices, as well as being relevant to other magnetic devices.

  2. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  3. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  4. Complex technique for materials hardness measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashchenko, V P; Oksametnaya, O B

    1984-01-01

    A review of existing methods of measurement of material hardness in national and foreign practice has been made. A necessity of improving the technique of material hardness measurement in a wide temperature range and insuring load change with indenting, continuity of imprint application, smooth changing of temperatures along a sample length, and deformation rate control has been noted.

  5. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  6. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  7. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  8. Autonomous driving in NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The automatic analysis of NMR data has been a much-desired endeavour for the last six decades, as it is the case with any other analytical technique. This need for automation has only grown as advances in hardware; pulse sequences and automation have opened new research areas to NMR and increased the throughput of data. Full automatic analysis is a worthy, albeit hard, challenge, but in a world of artificial intelligence, instant communication and big data, it seems that this particular fight is happening with only one technique at a time (let this be NMR, MS, IR, UV or any other), when the reality of most laboratories is that there are several types of analytical instrumentation present. Data aggregation, verification and elucidation by using complementary techniques (e.g. MS and NMR) is a desirable outcome to pursue, although a time-consuming one if performed manually; hence, the use of automation to perform the heavy lifting for users is required to make the approach attractive for scientists. Many of the decisions and workflows that could be implemented under automation will depend on the two-way communication with databases that understand analytical data, because it is desirable not only to query these databases but also to grow them in as much of an automatic manner as possible. How these databases are designed, set up and the data inside classified will determine what workflows can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  10. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... posted by the subject firm in Malaysia at the same time as the domestic layoffs. Additionally, the... imports of these articles from Malaysia. In a letter submitted to the Department on June 13, 2011, the... facilities overseas. AR 152, 212-218, 228-231, 244, 245-246, 271-279. After the design and development of the...

  11. A Hard Road: Driving Local Action against Alcohol Related Problems in a Rural Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julaine Allan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context is important in developing strategies to address alcohol related violence. Knowledge of local conditions is critical to action in rural areas. The aim of this study was to gather information about context specific alcohol related problems experienced by frontline workers in a regional centre to inform the local alcohol action plan. Frontline workers were invited to participate in one of five focus group discussions that investigated problems experienced as a result of other people’s alcohol use. Alcohol related problems were more frequently associated with time periods than any single group in the community. Social media was used to incite arguments between groups in different venues during the lock-out periods. The focus groups identified that the location of licensed premises and a taxi rank; and previous relationships between protagonists were the key contextual factors causing alcohol related problems. A second taxi rank was identified as a useful local management strategy. Supply reduction was suggested as a key factor in long term solutions to alcohol related problems in rural towns. The local liquor accord did not want to reduce supply of alcohol by closing late night venues earlier. Local action to reduce alcohol related problems will be limited to pragmatic solutions because supply reduction is unacceptable to those in the business of selling alcohol.

  12. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M

    2009-01-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  13. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  14. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  15. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nematic-smectic A and nematic-solid transitions of parallel hard spherocylinders from density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    University Utrecht

    1992-01-01

    A simple density functional theory for the various liquid-crystalline phases of parallel hard spherocylinders is formulated on the basis of Pynn's ansatz for the direct correlation function of the spherocylinders. Fair agreement with the computer simulations is found.

  17. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  18. Study of the Energy Conversion Process in the Electro-Hydrostatic Drive of a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Grzesikiewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we describe a study of an electro-hydrostatic hybrid drive of a utility van intended for city traffic. In this hybrid drive, the electric drive is periodically accompanied by hydrostatic drive, especially during acceleration and regenerative braking of the vehicle. We present a mathematical model of the hybrid drive as a set of dynamics and regulation equations of the van traveling at a given speed. On this basis, we construct a computer program which we use to simulate the processes of energy conversion in the electro-hydrostatic drive. The main goal of the numerical simulation is to assess the possibility of reducing energy intensity of the electric drive through such a support of the hydrostatic drive. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to reduce the load on elements of the electric system and, therefore, improve energy conversion.

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikakura, Hiroaki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to direct disconnection of control rods upon abnormal temperature rise in the reactor thereby improve the reliability for the disconnecting operation in control rod drives for FBR type reactors upon emergency. Constitution: A diaphragm is disposed to the upper opening of a sealing vessel inserted to the hollow portion of an electromagnet and a rod is secured to the central position of the upper surface. A spring contacts are attached by way of an insulator to the inner surface at the lower portion of an extension pipe and connected with cables for supplying electric power sources respectively to a magnet. If the temperature in the reactor abnormally rises, liquid metals in the sealing vessel are expanded tending to extend the bellows downwardly. However, since they are attracted by the electromagnet, the thermal expansion of the liquid metals exert on the diaphragm prior to the bellows. Thus, the switch between the spring contacts is made open to attain the deenergized state to thereby disconnect the control rod and shutdown the neclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  1. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    In the control rod drive for a BWR type reactor, etc., according to this invention, the lower limit flow rate is set so as to keep the restriction for stability upon spectral shift operation. The setting condition for keeping the restriction is the lowest pump speed and the lower limit for the automatic control of the flow rate, which are considered to be important in view of the stablility from the actual power state. In view of the above, it is possible to keep the reactor core stably even in a case where such a transient phenomenon occurs that the recycling flow rate has to be run back to the lowest pump speed during spectral shift opeeration or in a case where the load demand is reduced and the flow rate is decreased by an automatic mode as in night operation. Accordingly, in the case of conducting the spectral shift operation according to this invention, the operation region capable of keeping the reactor core state stably during operation can be extended. (I.S.)

  2. Adiabatic quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Lobe, Elisabeth; Stollenwerk, Tobias; Tröltzsch, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, the field of adiabatic quantum computing has gained importance due to the advances in the realisation of such machines, especially by the company D-Wave Systems. These machines are suited to solve discrete optimisation problems which are typically very hard to solve on a classical computer. Due to the quantum nature of the device it is assumed that there is a substantial speedup compared to classical HPC facilities. We explain the basic principles of adiabatic ...

  3. Disarming the Trolley Problem –Why Self-driving Cars do not Need to Choose Whom to Kill

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson , Rolf; Nilsson , Jonas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Many claim that the “Trolley problem” is hindering the introduction of self-driving cars. Self-driving cars must, as all safety-critical products, be designed such that the probability of morally hard (“trolley”) situations is acceptably low. In this paper we argue that the introduction of self-driving cars can solve this ethical dilemma. In short the solution to the trolley problem is that a self-driving car must be able to estimate its own operational capability for ...

  4. Control rod drive shaft latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, A.G. II.

    1976-01-01

    A latch mechanism is operated by differential pressure on a piston to engage the drive shaft for a control rod in a nuclear reactor, thereby preventing the control rod from being ejected from the reactor in case of failure of the control rod drive mechanism housing which is subjected to the internal pressure in the reactor vessel. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  5. ECO-DRIVING MODELING ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...

  6. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving

  7. H1 antihistamines and driving

    OpenAIRE

    Florin-Dan, Popescu

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion, Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and...

  8. [Driving and health at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular signature of epistatic selection: interrogating genetic interactions in the sex-ratio meiotic drive of Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Bastide, Héloïse; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine; Hospital, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Fine scale analyses of signatures of selection allow assessing quantitative aspects of a species' evolutionary genetic history, such as the strength of selection on genes. When several selected loci lie in the same genomic region, their epistatic interactions may also be investigated. Here, we study how the neutral polymorphism pattern was shaped by two close recombining loci that cause 'sex-ratio' meiotic drive in Drosophila simulans, as an example of strong selection with potentially strong epistasis. We compare the polymorphism data observed in a natural population with the results of forward stochastic simulations under several contexts of epistasis between the candidate loci for the drive. We compute the likelihood of different possible scenarios, in order to determine which configuration is most consistent with the data. Our results highlight that fine scale analyses of well-chosen candidate genomic regions provide information-rich data that can be used to investigate the genotype-phenotype-fitness map, which can hardly be studied in genome-wide analyses. We also emphasize that initial conditions and time of observation (here, time after the interruption of a partial selective sweep) are crucial parameters in the interpretation of real data, while these are often overlooked in theoretical studies.

  10. The use of mapped network drive to enhance the availability and accessibility of patient archive in ge-elscint Xpert workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau; Kam Hung

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the search and retrieval of patients' past record for clinical purpose. Methods: In the past, patient data was stored by MOD (Magnetic Optical Disk - Write Many Read Many). Its capacity is 327 MByte per side (654 MByte Total). In our department, each disk take up around 10 days of study. To search for patients' past record, we need to pick up a particular disk from a pile of MODs. With the advent of high speed network and high capacity hard disk, we have developed a method to put patients' past record on line so that the search was made easier and faster. The GE-Elscint Xpert Workstation is running on OS/2 Warp Connect Version 3 with inherent TCP/IP support. The current application is Apex Xpert Version 5.13. The Central Archive Unit is a 9 Gbyte Hard Disk which limited the on-line capacity of around 6 months. The Workstation was connected to a Windows NT based PC on the network. A folder was created and shared for network access. To make resources sharing possible. We installed OS/2Warp Connect software - IBM Peer for OS/2 on the Xpert Workstation. In addition, the Xpert based system was configured to be able to initiate communication with remote TCP/IP and ApexNet nodes. On the Xpert Workstation, Ne apply drive mapping by assigning a drive letter to the remote share located on the Windows NT based PC. To map a shared folder to a drive letter, specify the drive letter and the share's name on the Net Use command. For example, net use s: //WinNTPC /DataFilesmaps the DataFiles share on the WinNTPC computer to drive S. If any folder in the share's path contains a space, you must put the entire path, including the opening double backslash (//), in quotation marks. Connections to NT resources can also be made through the OS/2 network browser, the Sharing and Connecting Graphic User Interface on the Desktop. An active user ID and password authorizes the user to browse and use shared drives. With this mapped drive, we can copy patient record to it. The

  11. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2005-10-01

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested.

  12. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, Artur B

    2005-01-01

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested

  13. NP-hardness of the cluster minimization problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, Artur B [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2005-10-07

    The computational complexity of the 'cluster minimization problem' is revisited (Wille and Vennik 1985 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 18 L419). It is argued that the original NP-hardness proof does not apply to pairwise potentials of physical interest, such as those that depend on the geometric distance between the particles. A geometric analogue of the original problem is formulated, and a new proof for such potentials is provided by polynomial time transformation from the independent set problem for unit disk graphs. Limitations of this formulation are pointed out, and new subproblems that bear more direct consequences to the numerical study of clusters are suggested.

  14. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  15. Scheduling of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Soft and Hard Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules for embedded applications with soft and hard real-time constraints. We are interested to guarantee the deadlines for the hard processes even in the case of faults, while maximizing the overall utility. We use time....../utility functions to capture the utility of soft processes. Process re-execution is employed to recover from multiple faults. A single static schedule computed off-line is not fault tolerant and is pessimistic in terms of utility, while a purely online approach, which computes a new schedule every time a process...

  16. Modelling human hard palate shape with Bézier curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Janssen

    Full Text Available People vary at most levels, from the molecular to the cognitive, and the shape of the hard palate (the bony roof of the mouth is no exception. The patterns of variation in the hard palate are important for the forensic sciences and (palaeoanthropology, and might also play a role in speech production, both in pathological cases and normal variation. Here we describe a method based on Bézier curves, whose main aim is to generate possible shapes of the hard palate in humans for use in computer simulations of speech production and language evolution. Moreover, our method can also capture existing patterns of variation using few and easy-to-interpret parameters, and fits actual data obtained from MRI traces very well with as little as two or three free parameters. When compared to the widely-used Principal Component Analysis (PCA, our method fits actual data slightly worse for the same number of degrees of freedom. However, it is much better at generating new shapes without requiring a calibration sample, its parameters have clearer interpretations, and their ranges are grounded in geometrical considerations.

  17. Elastic energy loss and longitudinal straggling of a hard jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.

    2009-01-01

    The elastic energy loss encountered by jets produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is studied in the collinear limit. In close analogy to the case of (nonradiative) transverse momentum broadening, which is dependent on the medium transport coefficient q, a class of medium enhanced higher twist operators which contribute to the nonradiative loss of the forward light-cone momentum of the jet (q - ) are identified and the leading correction in the limit of asymptotically high q - is isolated. Based on these operator products, a new transport coefficient e is motivated which quantifies the energy loss per unit length encountered by the hard jet. These operator products are then computed, explicitly, in the case of a similar hard jet traversing a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in the hard-thermal-loop (HTL) approximation. This is followed by an evaluation of subleading contributions which are suppressed by the inverse light-cone momentum q - , which yields the longitudinal 'straggling', i.e., a slight change in light cone momentum due to the Brownian propagation through a medium with a fluctuating color field.

  18. Prediction of hardness in pieces of quenched and tempered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanzon, Rodolfo Carlos; Rodriguez, Augusto; Sanchez, Arlington Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    diameter. The result from the computer process should be the 'U curve of hardnesses', based on the prediction of the hardness value that the material will have, at points along the radius of a circular piece. So the engineer now has an easy, quick design tool with acceptable margins of error. When selecting the steel to use in producing the mechanical piece, he/she can make a better comparison of the possible offers of treated material, with respect to the data provided by the calculation of requests (CW)

  19. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Molecular Dielectrics for Radiation-Hard Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julian

    The electronic materials research driving Moore's law has provided several decades of increasingly powerful yet simultaneously miniaturized computer technologies. As we approach the physical and practical limits of what can be accomplished with silicon electronics, we look to new materials to drive innovation in future electronic applications. New materials paradigms require the development of understanding from first principles to the demonstration of applications that comes with mature technologies. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), single- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) gate materials have all made significant impacts in the research field of unconventional electronic materials. The materials selection, interfaces between materials, processing steps to assemble them, and their interaction with their environment all have significant bearing on the operation of the overall device. Operating in harsh radiation environments, like those of satellites orbiting the Earth, present unique challenges to the functionality and reliability of electronic devices. Because the future of space-bound electronics is often informed by the technology of terrestrial devices, a proactive approach is adopted to identify and understand the radiation response of new materials systems as they emerge and develop. The work discussed here drives the innovation and development of multiple nanomaterial based electronic technologies while simultaneously exploring their relevant radiation response mechanisms. First, collaborative efforts result in the demonstration of a SWCNT-based circuit technology that is solution processed, large-area, and compatible with flexible substrates. The statistical characterization of SWCNT transistors enables the development of robust doping and encapsulation schemes, which make the SWCNT circuits stable, scalable, and low-power. These SWCNTs are then integrated into static random access

  20. MOLA: a bootable, self-configuring system for virtual screening using AutoDock4/Vina on computer clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Rui MV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual screening of small molecules using molecular docking has become an important tool in drug discovery. However, large scale virtual screening is time demanding and usually requires dedicated computer clusters. There are a number of software tools that perform virtual screening using AutoDock4 but they require access to dedicated Linux computer clusters. Also no software is available for performing virtual screening with Vina using computer clusters. In this paper we present MOLA, an easy-to-use graphical user interface tool that automates parallel virtual screening using AutoDock4 and/or Vina in bootable non-dedicated computer clusters. Implementation MOLA automates several tasks including: ligand preparation, parallel AutoDock4/Vina jobs distribution and result analysis. When the virtual screening project finishes, an open-office spreadsheet file opens with the ligands ranked by binding energy and distance to the active site. All results files can automatically be recorded on an USB-flash drive or on the hard-disk drive using VirtualBox. MOLA works inside a customized Live CD GNU/Linux operating system, developed by us, that bypass the original operating system installed on the computers used in the cluster. This operating system boots from a CD on the master node and then clusters other computers as slave nodes via ethernet connections. Conclusion MOLA is an ideal virtual screening tool for non-experienced users, with a limited number of multi-platform heterogeneous computers available and no access to dedicated Linux computer clusters. When a virtual screening project finishes, the computers can just be restarted to their original operating system. The originality of MOLA lies on the fact that, any platform-independent computer available can he added to the cluster, without ever using the computer hard-disk drive and without interfering with the installed operating system. With a cluster of 10 processors, and a

  1. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  2. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  3. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  4. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard ... hotline to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread. ...

  6. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  9. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without the drug. This video from NIDA ... Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to ...

  10. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  11. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  12. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  13. Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania; Outeiro, José C.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-04-01

    In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change.

  14. Modeling of the flow stress for AISI H13 Tool Steel during Hard Machining Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbrello, Domenico; Rizzuti, Stefania; Outeiro, Jose C.; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    In general, the flow stress models used in computer simulation of machining processes are a function of effective strain, effective strain rate and temperature developed during the cutting process. However, these models do not adequately describe the material behavior in hard machining, where a range of material hardness between 45 and 60 HRC are used. Thus, depending on the specific material hardness different material models must be used in modeling the cutting process. This paper describes the development of a hardness-based flow stress and fracture models for the AISI H13 tool steel, which can be applied for range of material hardness mentioned above. These models were implemented in a non-isothermal viscoplastic numerical model to simulate the machining process for AISI H13 with various hardness values and applying different cutting regime parameters. Predicted results are validated by comparing them with experimental results found in the literature. They are found to predict reasonably well the cutting forces as well as the change in chip morphology from continuous to segmented chip as the material hardness change

  15. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, L.M. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  17. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  18. Hard scattering and gauge/string duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, Joseph; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider high-energy fixed-angle scattering of glueballs in confining gauge theories that have supergravity duals. Although the effective description is in terms of the scattering of strings, we find that the amplitudes are hard (power law). This is a consequence of the warped geometry of the dual theory, which has the effect that in an inertial frame the string process is never in the soft regime. At small angle we find hard and Regge behaviors in different kinematic regions

  19. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  20. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance, and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production o...

  1. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  2. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  3. THE IMPACT OF TEXT DRIVING ON DRIVING SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Motamedi; Jyh-Hone Wang

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly mobile era, the wide availability of technology for texting and the prevalence of hands-free form have introduced a new safety concern for drivers. To assess this concern, a questionnaire was first deployed online to gain an understanding of drivers’ text driving experiences as well as their demographic information. The results from 232 people revealed that the majority of drivers are aware of the associated risks with texting while driving. However, more than one-fourth of...

  4. Semiclassical instability of warp drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, C [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Finazzi, S; Liberati, S, E-mail: carlos@iaa.e, E-mail: finazzi@sissa.i, E-mail: liberati@sissa.i

    2010-05-01

    Warp drives, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to construct them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. In this contribution we will report on the behaviour of the Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor (RSET) in the spacetimes associated with superluminal warp drives. We find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, hence strongly supporting the conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction.

  5. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  6. Driving Safety and Fitness to Drive in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Dyken, Mark Eric

    2017-08-01

    Driving an automobile while sleepy increases the risk of crash-related injury and death. Neurologists see patients with sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and a wide variety of neurologic disorders. When addressing fitness to drive, the physician must weigh patient and societal health risks and regional legal mandates. The Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) provide assistance to clinicians. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea may continue to drive if they have no excessive daytime sleepiness and their apnea-hypopnea index is less than 20 per hour. Those with excessive daytime sleepiness or an apnea-hypopnea index of 20 per hour or more may not drive until their condition is effectively treated. Drivers with sleep disorders amenable to pharmaceutical treatment (eg, narcolepsy) may resume driving as long as the therapy has eliminated excessive daytime sleepiness. Following these guidelines, documenting compliance to recommended therapy, and using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess subjective sleepiness can be helpful in determining patients' fitness to drive.

  7. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  8. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  9. IBM PC based automatic drive system for Bulat setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchaninov, A.A.; Tolok, V.T.

    1999-01-01

    Non-expensive computer drive system for Bulat setup is described. System's hardware consists of IBM PC and conjunction block, providing 12 output channels, Software includes the main program, utilities and technology processes database. System may be used at surface modification processes, especially multilayer multicomponent coatings deposition

  10. Simulation of control drives in a tower crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech SOLARZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a control system for a tower crane is investigated. Underlying the controller design is the theory of optimal linear control. Computer models of a crane and the control systems for the crane drives are developed. Simulation data reveals that the motion of the load can be effectively controlled so that it should follow a predetermined trajectory.

  11. StorageTek RedWood SD-3 tape drive

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A helical scan recording drive, with a high-speed rotating head sweeping across the tape every few micrometers. Based on a professional video recording system, modified to be suitable for digital data recording. These are commonly used with large computer systems, typically in conjunction with a robotic tape library.

  12. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  13. Multidisciplinary design of electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaabjerg, F.; Rasmussen, P.O.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, simulation tools for drives can simulate electrical parameters, torque and different loads. Those parameters are in many cases appropriate. However, power electronics in drives will also influence on torque ripple, temperature, vibration and acoustical noise from the motor and it is necessary to include those phenomena in the next generation of simulation tools for electrical drives. This paper describes a new design program where acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin can be simulated and even be heard by the motor and drives designer. The design program is based on a simple vibrational/acoustic model where the parameters can be calculated based on the geometry of the motor. Examples of vibrational/acoustical modelling are included and verified in both time and frequency domain. Special emphasis is on the switched reluctance motor. (au)

  14. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

  15. A Five-Year Hedonic Price Breakdown for Desktop Personal Computer Attributes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Manoel Martins Dias Fouto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes that discriminate the prices of personal desktop computers. We employ the hedonic price method in evaluating such characteristics. This approach allows market prices to be expressed as a function, a set of attributes present in the products and services offered. Prices and characteristics of up to 3,779 desktop personal computers offered in the IT pages of one of the main Brazilian newspapers were collected from January 2003 to December 2007. Several specifications for the hedonic (multivariate linear regression were tested. In this particular study, the main attributes were found to be hard drive capacity, screen technology, main board brand, random memory size, microprocessor brand, video board memory, digital video and compact disk recording devices, screen size and microprocessor speed. These results highlight the novel contribution of this study: the manner and means in which hedonic price indexes may be estimated in Brazil.

  16. Arranging and finding folders and files on your Windows 7 computer

    CERN Document Server

    Steps, Studio Visual

    2014-01-01

    If you have lots of documents on your desk, it may prove to be impossible to find the document you are looking for. In order to easily find certain documents, they are often stored in a filing cabinet and arranged in a logical order. The folders on your computer serve the same purpose. They do not just contain files; they can also contain other folders. You can create an unlimited number of folders, and each folder can contain any number of subfolders and files. You can use Windows Explorer, also called the folder window, to work with the files and folders on your computer. You can copy, delete, move, find, and sort files, among other things. Or you can transfer files and folders to a USB stick, an external hard drive, a CD, DVD or Blu-Ray disk. In this practical guide we will show you how to use the folder window, and help you arrange your own files.

  17. Driving safety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Cimino, C R; Malek, A R; Gardner, N; Leaverton, P L; Dunne, P B; Hauser, R A

    2002-12-10

    In this study, 39 patients with PD and 25 control subjects without neurologic disease completed testing in a driving simulator. PD patients had more total collisions on the driving simulator than control subjects (t = -3.7, p < 0.01). In PD patients, collisions were associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage (chi(2) = 12.4, p = 0.006) and correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.5, p < 0.01).

  18. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  19. Selective Perception for Robot Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    models are theories of human cognitive activity during driving. Van der Molen and Botticher recently reviewed several of these models [ van der Molen 871...how to represent driving knowledge, how to perceive traffic situations, or how to process information to obtain actions. Van der Molen and Botticher...attempted to compare the operations of various models objectively on the same task [Rothengatter 88, van der Molen 87], but the models could be

  20. Enceladus' 101 Geysers: Phantoms? Hardly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C.; Nimmo, F.; DiNino, D.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery by the Cassini mission of present-day geysering activity capping the southern hemisphere of Saturn's moon Enceladus (eg, Porco, C. C. et al. Science 311, 1393, 2006) and sourced within a subsurface body of liquid water (eg, Postberg, F. et al. Nature 459, 1098, 2009; Porco, C.C. et al. AJ 148, 45, 2014, hereafter PEA], laced with organic compounds (eg, Waite, J.H. et al. Science 311, 1419, 2006), has been a significant one, with far-reaching astrobiological implications. In an extensive Cassini imaging survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT), PEA identified 101 distinct, narrow jets of small icy particles erupting, with varying strengths, from the four major fractures crossing the SPT. A sufficient spread in stereo angles of the 107 images used in that work allowed (in some cases, many) pair-wise triangulations to be computed; precise surface locations were derived for 98 jets. Recently, it has been claimed (Spitale, J.N. et al. Nature 521, 57, 2015) that the majority of the geysers are not true discrete jets, but are "phantoms" that appear in shallow-angle views of a dense continuous curtain of material with acute bends in it. These authors also concluded that the majority of the eruptive material is not in the form of jets but in the form of fissure-style 'curtain' eruptions. We argue below the contrary, that because almost all the moon's geysers were identified by PEA using multiple images with favorable viewing geometries, the vast majority of them, and likely all, are discrete jets. Specifically, out of 98 jets, no fewer than 90 to 95 were identified with viewing geometries that preclude the appearance of phantoms. How the erupting solids (i.e., icy particles) that are seen in Cassini images are partitioned between jets and inter-jet curtains is still an open question.