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Sample records for computed tomography micro-ct

  1. Micro computed tomography (CT) scanned anatomical gateway to insect pest bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international collaboration to establish an interactive Digital Video Library for a Systems Biology Approach to study the Asian citrus Psyllid and psyllid genomics/proteomics interactions is demonstrated. Advances in micro-CT, digital computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pic...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  4. Coronary artery wall imaging in mice using osmium tetroxide and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Vinay M.; Kozlowski, Megan; Donahue, Danielle; Miller, Elishiah; Xiao, Xianghui; Chen, Marcus Y.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Connelly, Patricia; Jeffries, Kenneth; Wen, Han

    2012-01-01

    The high spatial resolution of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is ideal for 3D imaging of coronary arteries in intact mouse heart specimens. Previously, micro-CT of mouse heart specimens utilized intravascular contrast agents that hardened within the vessel lumen and allowed a vascular cast to be made. However, for mouse coronary artery disease models, it is highly desirable to image coronary artery walls and highlight plaques. For this purpose, we describe an ex vivo contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging technique based on tissue staining with osmium tetroxide (OsO 4 ) solution. As a tissue-staining contrast agent, OsO 4 is retained in the vessel wall and surrounding tissue during the fixation process and cleared from the vessel lumens. Its high X-ray attenuation makes the artery wall visible in CT. Additionally, since OsO 4 preferentially binds to lipids, it highlights lipid deposition in the artery wall. We performed micro-CT of heart specimens of 5- to 25-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type mice and 5- to 13-week-old apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE -/- ) mice at 10 μm resolution. The results show that walls of coronary arteries as small as 45 μm in diameter are visible using a table-top micro-CT scanner. Similar image clarity was achieved with 1/2000th the scan time using a synchrotron CT scanner. In 13-week-old apoE mice, lipid-rich plaques are visible in the aorta. Our study shows that the combination of OsO 4 and micro-CT permits the visualization of the coronary artery wall in intact mouse hearts.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  7. MicroComputed Tomography: Methodology and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Stuart R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the availability of commercial laboratory systems and the emergence of user facilities at synchrotron radiation sources, studies of microcomputed tomography or microCT have increased exponentially. MicroComputed Technology provides a complete introduction to the technology, describing how to use it effectively and understand its results. The first part of the book focuses on methodology, covering experimental methods, data analysis, and visualization approaches. The second part addresses various microCT applications, including porous solids, microstructural evolution, soft tissue studies, multimode studies, and indirect analyses. The author presents a sufficient amount of fundamental material so that those new to the field can develop a relative understanding of how to design their own microCT studies. One of the first full-length references dedicated to microCT, this book provides an accessible introduction to field, supplemented with application examples and color images.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special ... the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  14. Computed tomography of von Meyenburg complex simulating micro-abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, P.N.; Ramakrishna, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case is presented of a bile duct hamartoma in a 44 year old man being evaluated for abdominal pain. The computed tomography (CT) findings suggested micro-abscesses in the liver and a CT guided tru-cut biopsy showed von Meyenburg complex. 9 refs., 3 figs

  15. Dimensional measurement of micro-moulded parts by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ontiveros, S.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Jiménez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular for ...... and the analysis of the results provide valuable conclusions about the advantages and drawbacks of using CT metrology in comparison with other measuring systems when these techniques are employed for the quality control of micro-moulded parts.......Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular...... for dimensional metrology applications due to its strategic advantages such as the capability of performing measurements on both the component's surface and volume, allowing inspection possibilities to otherwise non-accessible internal features. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of two micro...

  16. Three-dimensional evaluation of human jaw bone microarchitecture: correlation between the microarchitectural parameters of cone beam computed tomography and micro-computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Eun; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Huh, Kyung-Hoe

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the potential feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Sixty-eight specimens from four pairs of human jaw were scanned using both micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of 19.37-μm voxel size and CBCT of 100-μm voxel size. The correlation of 3-dimensional parameters between CBCT and micro-CT was evaluated. All parameters, except bone-specific surface and trabecular thickness, showed linear correlations between the 2 imaging modalities (P < .05). Among the parameters, bone volume, percent bone volume, trabecular separation, and degree of anisotropy (DA) of CBCT images showed strong correlations with those of micro-CT images. DA showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.693). Most microarchitectural parameters from CBCT were correlated with those from micro-CT. Some microarchitectural parameters, especially DA, could be used as strong predictors of bone quality in the human jaw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  19. Use of micro X-ray computed tomography for development and research into waterjets

    OpenAIRE

    Souček, K. (Kamil); Sitek, L. (Libor); Gurková, L. (Lucie); Georgiovská, L. (Lucie)

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive methods for analysis of various types of materials have been increasingly applied recently. One of these methods is the industrial micro X-ray computed tomography (CT). This paper presents an overview of experience in using the industrial micro X-ray computed tomography during research activities at the Institute of Geonics of the CAS. It discusses possibilities of the nondestructive visualization of the inner structures of a wide range of materials and objects, includin...

  20. In vivo quantitative assessment of myocardial structure, function, perfusion and viability using cardiac micro-computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.D. van Deel (Elza); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); van Vliet, J.N. (J. Nicole); Belenkov, S. (Sasha); J. Essers (Jeroen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe use of Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) for in vivo studies of small animals as models of human disease has risen tremendously due to the fact that MicroCT provides quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) anatomical data non-destructively and longitudinally. Most

  1. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19,2016 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  2. Imaging study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in Syrian hamsters using X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahashi, Tsukasa; Mutoh, Michihiro; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used for diagnoses of human pancreatic cancer. Although micro-CT is a useful approach to evaluate macromorphology of organs/tissue also in animal models, reports on pancreatic tumors are limited. In this study, the utility of micro-CT was assessed in characterizing chemically induced pancreatic tumors in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters treated with or without N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) were injected with the antispasmodic agent, scopolamine butylbromide, and contrast agents, 5 or 10 mL/kg body weight of iopamidol or Fenestra VC at 18-38 weeks, then examined by micro-CT scanning with a respiratory gating system. Both peristaltic and respiratory movements were substantially suppressed by the combination of scopolamine butylbromide treatment and the respiratory gating system, resulting in improvements of image qualities. Iopamidol clearly visualized the pancreatic parenchyma and contrasted the margins among the pancreas and other abdominal organs/tissue. Meanwhile Fenestra VC predominantly contrasted abdominal vascular systems, but the margins among pancreas and other organs/tissue remained obscure. Six pancreatic tumors of 4-13 mm in diameter were detected in four of 15 animals, but not the five tumors of 1-4 mm in diameter. The inner tumor images were heterogeneously or uniformly visualized by iopamidol and Fenestra VC. Overall, iopamidol could clearly contrast between pancreatic parenchyma and the tumors as compared with Fenestra VC. All tumors confirmed were histopathologically diagnosed as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Thus, micro-CT could be useful to evaluate the carcinogenic processes and preventive methods of pancreatic cancer in hamsters and to assess the novel contrast agents for detection of small pancreatic cancer in humans. (author)

  3. Nondestructive analysis of urinary calculi using micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingeman James E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro computed tomography (micro CT has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to identify the mineral composition of urinary stones non-destructively. Methods Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were measured for mineral that was positively identified by infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR. To do this, human urinary stones were sectioned with a diamond wire saw. The cut surface was explored by FT-IR and regions of pure mineral were evaluated by micro CT to correlate x-ray attenuation values with mineral content. Additionally, intact stones were imaged with micro CT to visualize internal morphology and map the distribution of specific mineral components in 3-D. Results Micro CT images taken just beneath the cut surface of urinary stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail that could be correlated with structure visible in the optical image mode of FT-IR. Regions of pure mineral were not difficult to find by FT-IR for most stones and such regions could be localized on micro CT images of the cut surface. This was not true, however, for two brushite stones tested; in these, brushite was closely intermixed with calcium oxalate. Micro CT x-ray attenuation values were collected for six minerals that could be found in regions that appeared to be pure, including uric acid (3515 – 4995 micro CT attenuation units, AU, struvite (7242 – 7969 AU, cystine (8619 – 9921 AU, calcium oxalate dihydrate (13815 – 15797 AU, calcium oxalate monohydrate (16297 – 18449 AU, and hydroxyapatite (21144 – 23121 AU. These AU values did not overlap. Analysis of intact stones showed excellent resolution of structural detail and could discriminate multiple mineral types within heterogeneous stones. Conclusions Micro CT gives excellent structural detail of urinary stones, and these results demonstrate the feasibility

  4. Accuracy and reliability of different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices for structural analysis of alveolar bone in comparison with multislice CT and micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Jeroen; Nicolielo, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro; Huang, Yan; Coudyzer, Walter; Salmon, Benjamin; Lambrichts, Ivo; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be used for clinically reliable alveolar bone quality assessment in comparison to its clinical alternatives, multislice computed tomography and the gold standard (micro-CT). Six dentate mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT devices (ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170, Carestream 9300, Scanora 3D, I-CAT Next generation), one micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174) and one MSCT machine (Somatom Definition Flash) using two protocols (standard and high-resolution). MSCT and CBCT images were automatically spatially aligned on the micro-CT scan of the corresponding sample. A volume of interest was manually delineated on the micro-CT image and overlaid on the other scanning devices. Alveolar bone structures were automatically extracted using the adaptive thresholding algorithm. Based on the resulting binary images, an automatic 3D morphometric quantification was performed in a CT-Analyser (Bruker, Kontich, Belgium). The reliability and measurement errors were calculated for each modality compared to the gold standard micro-CT. Both MSCT and CBCT were associated with a clinically and statistically (P max, bone surface density -0.47 mm-1 min to 0.16 mm-1 max and trabecular thickness 0.15 mm min to 0.31 mm max) were significantly (P max and fractal dimension 0.08 min to 0.17 max) in all scanners compared to micro-CT. However, the structural pattern of the alveolar bone remained similar compared to that of the micro-CT for the ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170 and Carestream 9300. On the other hand, the Scanora 3D, i-CAT Next Generation, standard and high-resolution MSCT displayed an overrated bone quantity and aberrant structural pattern compared to other scanning devices. The calculation of morphometric indices had an overall high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.62 min to 0.99 max), except

  5. The quantitative assessment of peri-implant bone responses using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, C.; Meijer, G.J.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of implant design and surface properties on peri-implant bone response were evaluated with both conventional histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), using two geometrically different dental implants (Screw type, St; Push-in, Pi) either or not

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... is used to evaluate: complications from infections such as pneumonia a tumor that arises in the lung ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...

  8. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  11. The dynamic micro computed tomography at SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Xu, L.; Du, G.; Deng, B.; Xie, H.; Xiao, T.

    2018-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) is a critical technique for quantitative characterizing the 3D internal structure of samples, recently the dynamic SR-μCT has been attracting vast attention since it can evaluate the three-dimensional structure evolution of a sample. A dynamic μCT method, which is based on monochromatic beam, was developed at the X-ray Imaging and Biomedical Application Beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, by combining the compressed sensing based CT reconstruction algorithm and hardware upgrade. The monochromatic beam based method can achieve quantitative information, and lower dose than the white beam base method in which the lower energy beam is absorbed by the sample rather than contribute to the final imaging signal. The developed method is successfully used to investigate the compression of the air sac during respiration in a bell cricket, providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... information about radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will be taken to ... in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  19. Micro-computed tomography of pupal metamorphosis in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect metamorphosis involves a complex change in form and function, but most of these changes are internal and treated as a black box. In this study, we examined development of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata, using micro-computed tomographyCT) and digital volume analysis. We describe deve...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  3. Influence of peri-implant artifacts on bone morphometric analysis with micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin Wook; Cha, Jung Yul; Bechtold, Till Edward; Park, Young Chel

    2013-01-01

    To determine the optimal dilation pixel size distance from the mini-implant interface needed to compensate for the metal artifact on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for bone morphometric analysis. A total of 72 self-drilling mini-implants were placed into the buccal alveolar bone of six male beagle dogs. After 12 weeks of orthodontic loading, specimens were harvested and scanned with micro-CT (Skyscan 1076) at a resolution of 9 μm. Using the reload plug-in and dilation procedure of CTAn, the percentage of bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone volume density (BV/TV, bone volume/total volume), respectively, were measured from one to seven pixels from the metal implant surface. Each pixel size of dilation (PSD) were compared with that of a ground histologic section, and the optimal PSD for bone morphometric analysis using micro-CT was determined. BIC values from micro-CT analysis decreased when the PSD increased (P micro-CT showed the highest correlation coefficient with BIC from histologic slides when the PSD was 5 to 7 (P micro-CT showed a very high correlation with BV/TV from histologic slides in all ranges (P micro-CT, at least 5 PSD from the metal implant surface is needed.

  4. Micro/nano-computed tomography technology for quantitative dynamic, multi-scale imaging of morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chelsea L; Recknagel, Andrew K; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2015-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis and embryonic development are dynamic events challenging to quantify, especially considering the intricate events that happen simultaneously in different locations and time. Micro- and more recently nano-computed tomography (micro/nanoCT) has been used for the past 15 years to characterize large 3D fields of tortuous geometries at high spatial resolution. We and others have advanced micro/nanoCT imaging strategies for quantifying tissue- and organ-level fate changes throughout morphogenesis. Exogenous soft tissue contrast media enables visualization of vascular lumens and tissues via extravasation. Furthermore, the emergence of antigen-specific tissue contrast enables direct quantitative visualization of protein and mRNA expression. Micro-CT X-ray doses appear to be non-embryotoxic, enabling longitudinal imaging studies in live embryos. In this chapter we present established soft tissue contrast protocols for obtaining high-quality micro/nanoCT images and the image processing techniques useful for quantifying anatomical and physiological information from the data sets.

  5. Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 μm. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

  6. Flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2007-01-01

    Flat-panel detectors or, synonymously, flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy with the defined goal to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers by an advanced sensor system. FD technology in comparison to X-ray film and image intensifiers offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Respective efforts date back a few years only, but FD-CT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. FD-CT provides a very efficient way of combining two-dimensional (2D) radiographic or fluoroscopic and 3D CT imaging. In addition, FD technology made its way into a number of dedicated CT scanner developments, such as scanners for the maxillo-facial region or for micro-CT applications. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its full range of applications for CT imaging. A comparison with standard clinical CT is of primary interest. It reveals that FD-CT provides higher spatial resolution, but encompasses a number of disadvantages, such as lower dose efficiency, smaller field of view and lower temporal resolution. FD-CT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations; but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications, offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging in the interventional suite or the operating room. (orig.)

  7. Micro-computed tomography imaging and analysis in developmental biology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L David; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Dogdas, Belma; Bagchi, Ansuman

    2013-06-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a high resolution imaging technique that has expanded and strengthened in use since it was last reviewed in this journal in 2004. The technology has expanded to include more detailed analysis of bone, as well as soft tissues, by use of various contrast agents. It is increasingly applied to questions in developmental biology and developmental toxicology. Relatively high-throughput protocols now provide a powerful and efficient means to evaluate embryos and fetuses subjected to genetic manipulations or chemical exposures. This review provides an overview of the technology, including scanning, reconstruction, visualization, segmentation, and analysis of micro-CT generated images. This is followed by a review of more recent applications of the technology in some common laboratory species that highlight the diverse issues that can be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  10. Complex Odontoma: A Case Report with Micro-Computed Tomography Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. N. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common benign tumors of odontogenic origin. They are normally diagnosed on routine radiographs, due to the absence of symptoms. Histopathologic evaluation confirms the diagnosis especially in cases of complex odontoma, which may be confused during radiographic examination with an osteoma or other highly calcified bone lesions. The micro-CT is a new technology that enables three-dimensional analysis with better spatial resolution compared with cone beam computed tomography. Another great advantage of this technology is that the sample does not need special preparation or destruction in the sectioned area as in histopathologic evaluation. An odontoma with CBCT and microtomography images is presented in a 26-year-old man. It was first observed on panoramic radiographs and then by CBCT. The lesion and the impacted third molar were surgically excised using a modified Neumann approach. After removal, it was evaluated by histopathology and microtomography to confirm the diagnostic hypothesis. According to the results, micro-CT enabled the assessment of the sample similar to histopathology, without destruction of the sample. With further development, micro-CT could be a powerful diagnostic tool in future research.

  11. Agreement and precision of periprosthetic bone density measurements in micro-CT, single and dual energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussmann, Bo; Overgaard, Søren; Torfing, Trine; Traise, Peter; Gerke, Oke; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement between bone mineral density measurements performed in micro CT, single and dual energy computed tomography, to determine how the keV level influences density measurements and to assess the usefulness of quantitative dual energy computed tomography as a research tool for longitudinal studies aiming to measure bone loss adjacent to total hip replacements. Samples from 10 fresh-frozen porcine femoral heads were placed in a Perspex phantom and computed tomography was performed with two acquisition modes. Bone mineral density was calculated and compared with measurements derived from micro CT. Repeated scans and dual measurements were performed in order to measure between- and within-scan precision. Mean density difference between micro CT and single energy computed tomography was 72 mg HA/cm 3 . For dual energy CT, the mean difference at 100 keV was 128 mg HA/cm 3 while the mean difference at 110-140 keV ranged from -84 to -67 mg HA/cm 3 compared with micro CT. Rescanning the samples resulted in a non-significant overall between-scan difference of 13 mg HA/cm 3 . Bland-Altman limits of agreement were wide and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.29 to 0.72, while 95% confidence intervals covered almost the full possible range. Repeating the density measurements for within-scan precision resulted in ICCs >0.99 and narrow limits of agreement. Single and dual energy quantitative CT showed excellent within-scan precision, but poor between-scan precision. No significant density differences were found in dual energy quantitative CT at keV-levels above 110 keV. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1470-1477, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Micro computed tomography features of laryngeal fractures in a case of fatal manual strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Giraudo, Chiara; Viero, Alessia; Miotto, Diego; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco; Montisci, Massimo; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cases of subtle fatal neck compression are often complicated by the lack of specificity of the post-mortem signs of asphyxia and by the lack of clear signs of neck compression. Herein we present a forensic case of a 45-year-old schizophrenic patient found on the floor of the bedroom of a psychiatric ward in cardiopulmonary arrest and who died after two days in a vegetative state. The deposition of the roommate of the deceased, who claimed responsibility for the killing of the victim by neck compression, was considered unreliable by the prosecutor. Autopsy, toxicological analyses, and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT), micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology of the larynx complex were performed. Particularly, micro-CT analysis of the thyroid cartilage revealed the bilateral presence of ossified triticeous cartilages and the complete fragmentation of the right superior horn of the thyroid, but it additionally demonstrated a fracture on the contralateral superior horns, which was not clearly diagnosable at MSCT. On the basis of the evidence of intracartilaginous laryngeal hemorrhages and bilateral microfracture at the base of the superior horns of the larynx, the death was classified as a case of asphyxia due to manual strangulation. Micro-CT was confirmed as a useful tool in cases of subtle fatal neck compression, for the detection of minute laryngeal cartilage fractures, especially in complex cases with equivocal findings on MSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of micro-computed tomography to microstructure studies of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallua, Johannes D; Kuhn, Volker; Pallua, Anton F; Pfaller, Kristian; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, Wolfgang; Pöder, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The potential of 3-D nondestructive imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was evaluated to study morphological patterns of the potential medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides (Basidiomycota). Micro-CT results were correlated with histological information gained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). It is demonstrated that the combination of these imaging methods results in a more distinct picture of the morphology of the edible and potentially medicinal Hericium coralloides basidiomata. In addition we have created 3-D reconstructions and visualizations based on micro-CT imagery from a randomly selected part of the upper region of a fresh H. coralloides basidioma: Analyses for the first time allowed an approximation of the evolutionary effectiveness of this bizarrely formed basidioma type in terms of the investment of tissue biomass and its reproductive output (production of basidiospores). © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Technical aspects of X-ray micro-computed tomography. Initial experience of 27-μm resolution using feldkamp cone-beam reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kohara, Kazushi; Iinuma, Gen; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce the technical utility of micro-computed tomography (CT) with 27-μm resolution by cone-beam CT algorithm. Whole-body micro-CT scans were performed to honeybee. Two- and three-dimensional image analyses were performed by originally developed and available open-source software for acquired images. The original contribution of this work is to describe the technical characteristics of the X-ray micro-CT system, keeping a small experimental insect in a unique condition. Micro-CT may be used as a rapid prototyping tool to research and understand the high-resolution system with Feldkamp cone-beam reconstruction. (author)

  16. Volumetric quantification of bone-implant contact using micro-computed tomography analysis based on region-based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Won; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Kim, Tae-Il; Yi, Won-Jin

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new method of segmenting the areas of absorbable implants and bone using region-based segmentation of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images, which allowed us to quantify volumetric bone-implant contact (VBIC) and volumetric absorption (VA). The simple threshold technique generally used in micro-CT analysis cannot be used to segment the areas of absorbable implants and bone. Instead, a region-based segmentation method, a region-labeling method, and subsequent morphological operations were successively applied to micro-CT images. The three-dimensional VBIC and VA of the absorbable implant were then calculated over the entire volume of the implant. Two-dimensional (2D) bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were also measured based on the conventional histomorphometric method. VA and VBIC increased significantly with as the healing period increased (pimplants using micro-CT analysis using a region-based segmentation method.

  17. Bone quality evaluation at dental implant site using multislice CT, micro-CT, and cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Azin; Ibrahim, Norliza; Hassan, Bassam; van der Stelt, Paul; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and calibrated radiographic bone density Hounsfield units (HU) in human jaws, derived from micro-CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), respectively. The second aim was to assess the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in evaluating trabecular bone density and microstructure using MSCT and micro-CT, respectively, as reference gold standards. Twenty partially edentulous human mandibular cadavers were scanned by three types of CT modalities: MSCT (Philips, Best, the Netherlands), CBCT (3D Accuitomo 170, J Morita, Kyoto, Japan), and micro-CT (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium). Image analysis was performed using Amira (v4.1, Visage Imaging Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA), 3Diagnosis (v5.3.1, 3diemme, Cantu, Italy), Geomagic (studio(®) 2012, Morrisville, NC, USA), and CTAn (v1.11, SkyScan). MSCT, CBCT, and micro-CT scans of each mandible were matched to select the exact region of interest (ROI). MSCT HU, micro-CT BV/TV, and CBCT gray value and bone volume fraction of each ROI were derived. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlations between corresponding measurement parameters. Strong correlations were observed between CBCT and MSCT density (r = 0.89) and between CBCT and micro-CT BV/TV measurements (r = 0.82). Excellent correlation was observed between MSCT HU and micro-CT BV/TV (r = 0.91). However, significant differences were found between all comparisons pairs (P micro-CT BV/TV (P = 0.147). An excellent correlation exists between bone volume fraction and bone density as assessed on micro-CT and MSCT, respectively. This suggests that bone density measurements could be used to estimate bone microstructural parameters. A strong correlation also was found between CBCT gray values and BV/TV and their gold standards, suggesting the potential of this modality in bone quality assessment at implant site. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  18. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Buket; Kamburo?lu, K?van?; Tatar, ?lkan; Ar?kan, Volkan; ?elik, Hakan Hamdi; Y?ksel, Selcen; ?zen, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Materials and Methods Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this s...

  19. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Jin, Xin; Hoffman, Eric A; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  1. Dental imaging using laminar optical tomography and micro CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feixiao; Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva

    2014-02-01

    Dental lesions located in the pulp are quite difficult to identify based on anatomical contrast, and, hence, to diagnose using traditional imaging methods such as dental CT. However, such lesions could lead to functional and/or molecular optical contrast. Herein, we report on the preliminary investigation of using Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) to image the pulp and root canals in teeth. LOT is a non-contact, high resolution, molecular and functional mesoscopic optical imaging modality. To investigate the potential of LOT for dental imaging, we injected an optical dye into ex vivo teeth samples and imaged them using LOT and micro-CT simultaneously. A rigid image registration between the LOT and micro-CT reconstruction was obtained, validating the potential of LOT to image molecular optical contrast deep in the teeth with accuracy, non-invasively. We demonstrate that LOT can retrieve the 3D bio-distribution of molecular probes at depths up to 2mm with a resolution of several hundred microns in teeth.

  2. Early Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography Manifestations and Correlation with Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy for both men and women and adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can significantly improve the survival rate of patients. This study aimed to investigate the micro-computed tomography (micro-CT manifestations of early lung adenocarcinoma (LAC in mice and to provide a new perspective for early clinical diagnosis. Early LAC models in 10 mice were established by subcutaneously injecting 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG solution. Micro-CT scan and multiple planar reconstruction (MPR were used for mouse lungs. Micro-CT features of early LAC, especially the relationships between tumor and bronchus, were analyzed and correlated with pathology. Micro-CT findings of early LAC were divided into three types: non-solid (n = 8, 6%, partly solid (n = 85, 64% and totally solid (n = 39, 30%. Tumor-bronchus relationships, which could be observed in 110 of 132(83% LAC, were classified into four patterns: type I (n = 16, 15%, bronchus was truncated at the margin of the tumor; type II (n = 33, 30%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with tapered narrowing and interruption; type III (n = 38, 35%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with a patent and intact lumen; type IV (n = 99, 90%, bronchus ran at the border of the tumor with an intact or compressed lumen. Micro-CT manifestations of early LAC correlated well with pathological findings. Micro-CT can clearly demonstrate the features of mouse early LAC and bronchus-tumor relationships, and can also provide a new tool and perspective for the study of early LAC.

  3. Volumetric quantification of bone-implant contact using micro-computed tomography analysis based on region-based segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Won; Lee, Woo Jin; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il; Yi, Won Ji [Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    We have developed a new method of segmenting the areas of absorbable implants and bone using region-based segmentation of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images, which allowed us to quantify volumetric bone-implant contact (VBIC) and volumetric absorption (VA). The simple threshold technique generally used in micro-CT analysis cannot be used to segment the areas of absorbable implants and bone. Instead, a region-based segmentation method, a region-labeling method, and subsequent morphological operations were successively applied to micro-CT images. The three-dimensional VBIC and VA of the absorbable implant were then calculated over the entire volume of the implant. Two-dimensional (2D) bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were also measured based on the conventional histomorphometric method. VA and VBIC increased significantly with as the healing period increased (p<0.05). VBIC values were significantly correlated with VA values (p<0.05) and with 2D BIC values (p<0.05). It is possible to quantify VBIC and VA for absorbable implants using micro-CT analysis using a region-based segmentation method.

  4. Volumetric quantification of bone-implant contact using micro-computed tomography analysis based on region-based segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Won; Lee, Woo Jin; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il; Yi, Won Ji

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new method of segmenting the areas of absorbable implants and bone using region-based segmentation of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images, which allowed us to quantify volumetric bone-implant contact (VBIC) and volumetric absorption (VA). The simple threshold technique generally used in micro-CT analysis cannot be used to segment the areas of absorbable implants and bone. Instead, a region-based segmentation method, a region-labeling method, and subsequent morphological operations were successively applied to micro-CT images. The three-dimensional VBIC and VA of the absorbable implant were then calculated over the entire volume of the implant. Two-dimensional (2D) bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were also measured based on the conventional histomorphometric method. VA and VBIC increased significantly with as the healing period increased (p<0.05). VBIC values were significantly correlated with VA values (p<0.05) and with 2D BIC values (p<0.05). It is possible to quantify VBIC and VA for absorbable implants using micro-CT analysis using a region-based segmentation method.

  5. Application of X-ray micro-computed tomography on high-speed cavitating diesel fuel flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroglou, N.; Lorenzi, M.; Gavaises, M. [City University London, School of Mathematics Computer Science and Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Santini, M. [University of Bergamo, Department of Engineering, Bergamo (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The flow inside a purpose built enlarged single-orifice nozzle replica is quantified using time-averaged X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and high-speed shadowgraphy. Results have been obtained at Reynolds and cavitation numbers similar to those of real-size injectors. Good agreement for the cavitation extent inside the orifice is found between the micro-CT and the corresponding temporal mean 2D cavitation image, as captured by the high-speed camera. However, the internal 3D structure of the developing cavitation cloud reveals a hollow vapour cloud ring formed at the hole entrance and extending only at the lower part of the hole due to the asymmetric flow entry. Moreover, the cavitation volume fraction exhibits a significant gradient along the orifice volume. The cavitation number and the needle valve lift seem to be the most influential operating parameters, while the Reynolds number seems to have only small effect for the range of values tested. Overall, the study demonstrates that use of micro-CT can be a reliable tool for cavitation in nozzle orifices operating under nominal steady-state conditions. (orig.)

  6. Application of X-ray micro-computed tomography on high-speed cavitating diesel fuel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroglou, N.; Lorenzi, M.; Santini, M.; Gavaises, M.

    2016-11-01

    The flow inside a purpose built enlarged single-orifice nozzle replica is quantified using time-averaged X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and high-speed shadowgraphy. Results have been obtained at Reynolds and cavitation numbers similar to those of real-size injectors. Good agreement for the cavitation extent inside the orifice is found between the micro-CT and the corresponding temporal mean 2D cavitation image, as captured by the high-speed camera. However, the internal 3D structure of the developing cavitation cloud reveals a hollow vapour cloud ring formed at the hole entrance and extending only at the lower part of the hole due to the asymmetric flow entry. Moreover, the cavitation volume fraction exhibits a significant gradient along the orifice volume. The cavitation number and the needle valve lift seem to be the most influential operating parameters, while the Reynolds number seems to have only small effect for the range of values tested. Overall, the study demonstrates that use of micro-CT can be a reliable tool for cavitation in nozzle orifices operating under nominal steady-state conditions.

  7. Application of X-ray micro-computed tomography on high-speed cavitating diesel fuel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroglou, N.; Lorenzi, M.; Gavaises, M.; Santini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The flow inside a purpose built enlarged single-orifice nozzle replica is quantified using time-averaged X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and high-speed shadowgraphy. Results have been obtained at Reynolds and cavitation numbers similar to those of real-size injectors. Good agreement for the cavitation extent inside the orifice is found between the micro-CT and the corresponding temporal mean 2D cavitation image, as captured by the high-speed camera. However, the internal 3D structure of the developing cavitation cloud reveals a hollow vapour cloud ring formed at the hole entrance and extending only at the lower part of the hole due to the asymmetric flow entry. Moreover, the cavitation volume fraction exhibits a significant gradient along the orifice volume. The cavitation number and the needle valve lift seem to be the most influential operating parameters, while the Reynolds number seems to have only small effect for the range of values tested. Overall, the study demonstrates that use of micro-CT can be a reliable tool for cavitation in nozzle orifices operating under nominal steady-state conditions. (orig.)

  8. The microstructure of capsule containing self-healing materials: A micro-computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Stappen, Jeroen, E-mail: Jeroen.Vanstappen@ugent.be [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); SIM vzw, Technologiepark 935, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Bultreys, Tom [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Gilabert, Francisco A. [Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); SIM vzw, Technologiepark 935, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Hillewaere, Xander K.D. [Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Dept. of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); SIM vzw, Technologiepark 935, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Gómez, David Garoz [Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); SIM vzw, Technologiepark 935, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Van Tittelboom, Kim [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Dhaene, Jelle [UGCT/Radiation Physics, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Belie, Nele [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Van Paepegem, Wim [Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Du Prez, Filip E. [Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Dept. of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-09-15

    Autonomic self-healing materials are materials with built-in (micro-) capsules or vessels, which upon fracturing release healing agents in order to recover the material's physical and mechanical properties. In order to better understand and engineer these materials, a thorough characterization of the material's microstructural behavior is essential and often overlooked. In this context, micro-computed tomographyCT) can be used to investigate the three dimensional distribution and (de)bonding of (micro-) capsules in their native state in a polymer system with self-healing properties. Furthermore, in-situ μCT experiments in a self-healing polymer and a self-healing concrete system can elucidate the breakage and leakage behavior of (micro-) capsules at the micrometer scale. While challenges related to image resolution and contrast complicate the characterization in specific cases, non-destructive 3D imaging with μCT is shown to contribute to the understanding of the link between the microstructure and the self-healing behavior of these complex materials. - Highlights: • μCT imaging allows for the analysis of microcapsule distribution patterns in self-healing materials. • μCT allows for qualitative and quantitative measurements of healing agent release from carriers in self-healing materials. • Experimental set-ups can be optimized by changing chemical compounds in the system to ensure maximum quality imaging.

  9. Validation of Optical Coherence Tomography against Micro-computed Tomography for Evaluation of Remaining Coronal Dentin Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, Patrycja; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality to obtain in-depth images of biological structures. A dental OCT system has become available for chairside application. This in vitro study hypothesized that swept-source OCT can be used to measure the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) at the roof of the dental pulp chamber during excavation of deep caries. Human molar teeth with deep occlusal caries were investigated. After obtaining 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional OCT scans using a swept-source OCT system at a 1330-nm center wavelength, RDT was evaluated by image analysis software. Microfocus x-ray computed tomographic (micro-CT) images were obtained from the same cross sections to confirm OCT findings. The smallest RDT values at the visible pulp horn were measured on OCT and micro-CT imaging and compared using the Pearson correlation. Pulpal horns and pulp chamber roof observation under OCT and micro-CT imaging resulted in comparable images that allowed the measurement of coronal dentin thickness. RDT measured by OCT showed optical values range between 140 and 2300 μm, which corresponded to the range of 92-1524 μm on micro-CT imaging. A strong correlation was found between the 2 techniques (r = 0.96, P structures during deep caries excavation. Exposure of the vital dental pulp because of the removal of very thin remaining coronal dentin can be avoided with this novel noninvasive technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  11. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO 4 :Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Biomaterials Using Micro-Computerized Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torris, A. T. Arun; Columbus, K. C. Soumya; Saaj, U. S.; Krishnan, Kalliyana V.; Nair, Manitha B.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography or Micro-CT is a high resolution, non-invasive, x-ray scanning technique that allows precise three-dimensional imaging and quantification of micro-architectural and structural parameters of objects. Tomographic reconstruction is based on a cone-beam convolution-back-projection algorithm. Micro-architectural and structural parameters such as porosity, surface area to volume ratio, interconnectivity, pore size, wall thickness, anisotropy and cross-section area of biomaterials and bio-specimens such as trabecular bone, polymer scaffold, bio-ceramics and dental restorative were evaluated through imaging and computer aided manipulation of the object scan data sets.

  13. Stereological measures of trabecular bone structure: comparison of 3D micro computed tomography with 2D histological sections in human proximal tibial bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Laib, A.; Koller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Stereology applied on histological sections is the 'gold standard' for obtaining quantitative information on cancellous bone structure. Recent advances in micro computed tomography (microCT) have made it possible to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data non-destructively. However, before the 3D...... methods can be used as a substitute for the current 'gold standard' they have to be verified against the existing standard. The aim of this study was to compare bone structural measures obtained from 3D microCT data sets with those obtained by stereology performed on conventional histological sections...... tibial metaphysis. The biopsies were embedded in methylmetacrylate before microCT scanning in a Scanco microCT 40 scanner at a resolution of 20 x 20 x 20 microm3, and the 3D data sets were analysed with a computer program. After microCT scanning, 16 sections were cut from the central 2 mm of each biopsy...

  14. Cone-beam micro computed tomography dedicated to the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Cesarelli, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Russo, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We developed a scanner for micro computed tomography dedicated to the breast (BµCT) with a high resolution flat-panel detector and a microfocus X-ray tube. We evaluated the system spatial resolution via the 3D modulation transfer function (MTF). In addition to conventional absorption-based X-ray imaging, such a prototype showed capabilities for propagation-based phase-contrast and related edge enhancement effects in 3D imaging. The system limiting spatial resolution is 6.2mm -1 (MTF at 10%) in the vertical direction and 3.8mm -1 in the radial direction, values which compare favorably with the spatial resolution reached by mini focus breast CT scanners of other groups. The BµCT scanner was able to detect both microcalcification clusters and masses in an anthropomorphic breast phantom at a dose comparable to that of two-view mammography. The use of a breast holder is proposed in order to have 1-2min long scan times without breast motion artifacts. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Y; Li, S B; Gu, L J; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of micro-computed tomography (CT) in marginal leakage detection of Class V restorations. Standardized Class V preparations with cervical margins in dentin and occlusal margins in enamel were made in 20 extracted human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and resin composite. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by a developing solution for eight hours. Each restoration was scanned by micro-CT, the depth of marginal silver leakage in the central scanning section was measured, and the three-dimensional images of the silver leakage around each restoration were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were cut through the center and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by the micro-CT and the microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depth in cervical walls observed by micro-CT and microscope showed no significant difference; however, in certain cases the judgment of leakage depth in the occlusal wall in micro-CT image was affected by adjacent enamel structure, providing less leakage depth than was observed with the microscope (pleakage around the Class V restorations with clear borders only in the dentin region. It can be concluded that micro-CT can detect nondestructively the leakage around a resin composite restoration in two and three dimensions, with accuracy comparable to that of the conventional microscope method in the dentin region but with inferior accuracy in the enamel region.

  16. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: Assessed by micro-computed tomography and pathologic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min; Chung, Myung Ja; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kim, So Ri; Lee, Yong Chul

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists exhibit potent anti-fibrotic effects in the lung and other tissues. Recently, micro-computed tomography (CT) has been a useful tool for the investigation of lung diseases in small animals and is now increasingly applied to visualize and quantify the pulmonary structures. However, there is little information on the assessment for therapeutic effects of PPARγ agonists on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice using micro-CT. This study was aimed to determine the capability of micro-CT in examining the effects of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis. We used a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to evaluate the feasibility of micro-CT in evaluating the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis, comparing with pathologic scores. On micro-CT findings, ground glass opacity (80%) and consolidation (20%) were observed predominantly at 3 weeks after the instillation of bleomycin, and the radiologic features became more complex at 6 weeks. In bleomycin-instilled mice treated with rosiglitazone, the majority (80%) showed normal lung features on micro-CT. Radiological-pathologic correlation analyses revealed that ground glass opacity and consolidation were correlated closely with acute inflammation, while reticular opacity was well correlated with histological honeycomb appearance. These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis in mice and that the visualization of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using micro-CT is satisfactory to assess the effects of rosiglitazone. It implies that micro-CT can be applied to evaluate therapeutic efficacies of a variety of candidate drugs for lung diseases.

  17. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: Assessed by micro-computed tomography and pathologic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min [Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Ja [Department of Pathology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Department of Radiology, Iksan Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Ri [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul, E-mail: leeyc@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists exhibit potent anti-fibrotic effects in the lung and other tissues. Recently, micro-computed tomography (CT) has been a useful tool for the investigation of lung diseases in small animals and is now increasingly applied to visualize and quantify the pulmonary structures. However, there is little information on the assessment for therapeutic effects of PPAR{gamma} agonists on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice using micro-CT. This study was aimed to determine the capability of micro-CT in examining the effects of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis. We used a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to evaluate the feasibility of micro-CT in evaluating the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis, comparing with pathologic scores. On micro-CT findings, ground glass opacity (80%) and consolidation (20%) were observed predominantly at 3 weeks after the instillation of bleomycin, and the radiologic features became more complex at 6 weeks. In bleomycin-instilled mice treated with rosiglitazone, the majority (80%) showed normal lung features on micro-CT. Radiological-pathologic correlation analyses revealed that ground glass opacity and consolidation were correlated closely with acute inflammation, while reticular opacity was well correlated with histological honeycomb appearance. These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis in mice and that the visualization of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using micro-CT is satisfactory to assess the effects of rosiglitazone. It implies that micro-CT can be applied to evaluate therapeutic efficacies of a variety of candidate drugs for lung diseases.

  18. Detecting and visualizing internal 3D oleoresin in agarwood by means of micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Roslan Yahya; Mat Rosol Awang

    2012-01-01

    Detection and analysis of oleoresin is particularly significant since the commercial value of agarwood is related to the quantity of oleoresins that are present. A modern technique of non-destructive may reach the interior region of the wood. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of high resolution non-destructive 3D visualization technique, X-ray micro-computed tomography, as imaging tools to visualize micro-structure oleoresin in agarwood. Investigations involving desktop X-ray micro-tomography system on high grade agarwood sample, performed at the Centre of Tomography in Nuclear Malaysia, demonstrate the applicability of the method. Prior to experiments, a reference test was conducted to stimulate the attenuation of oleoresin in agarwood. Based on the experiment results, micro-CT imaging with voxel size 7.0 μm is capable to of detecting oleoresin and pores in agarwood. This imaging technique, although sophisticated can be used for standard development especially in grading of agarwood for commercial activities. (author)

  19. Bone quality evaluation at dental implant site using multislice CT, micro-CT, and cone beam CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The first purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and calibrated radiographic bone density Hounsfield units (HU) in human jaws, derived from micro-CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), respectively. The second aim was to assess the

  20. In vitro ceramic scaffold mineralization: comparison between histological and micro-computed topographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thimm, B.W.; Wechsler, O.; Bohner, M.; Müller, R.; Hofmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    The porous structure of beta-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) scaffolds was assessed by conventional histomor- phometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the substitutability of time-consuming histomor- phometry by rapid micro-CT. Extracellular matrix mineral- ization on human

  1. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  2. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Seshadri, Srivatsan; Havrilla, George J.; Yuan, Xiaoli; Feser, Michael; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  3. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seshadri, Srivatsan, E-mail: srivatsan.seshadri@zeiss.com [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yuan, Xiaoli [Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Feser, Michael [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  4. Prediction of primary breast cancer size and T-stage using micro-computed tomography in lumpectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa M Sarraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathology is the only accepted method to measure and stage the breast tumor size. However, there is a need to find another method to measure and stage the tumor size when the pathological assessment is not available. Micro-computed tomography. (micro-CT has the ability to measure tumor in three dimensions in an intact lumpectomy specimen. In this study, we aimed to determine the accuracy of micro-CT to measure and stage the primary tumor size in breast lumpectomy specimens, as compared to the histopathology. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two women who underwent lumpectomy surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Surgery from June 2011 to September 2011, and from August 2013 to December 2013 participated in this study. The lumpectomy specimens were scanned using micro-CT followed by routine pathological processing. The maximum dimension of the invasive breast tumor was obtained from the micro-CT image and was compared to the corresponding pathology report for each subject. Results: The invasive tumor size measurement by micro-CT was underestimated in 24. cases. (33%, overestimated in 37. cases. (51%, and matched it exactly in 11. cases. (15% compared to the histopathology measurement for all the cases. However, micro-CT T.stage classification differed from histopathology in only 11. (15.2% with 6. cases. (8.3% classified as a higher stage by micro-CT, and 5. cases. (6.9% classified as lower compared to histopathology. In addition, micro-CT demonstrated a statically significant strong agreement (κ =0.6, P < 0.05 with pathological tumor size and staging for invasive ductal carcinoma. (IDC group. In contrast, there was no agreement. (κ = .2, P = 0.67 between micro-CT and pathology in estimating and staging tumor size for invasive lobular carcinoma. (ILC group. This could be explained by a small sample size. (7 for ILC group. Conclusions: Micro-CT is a promising modality for measuring and staging the IDC.

  5. Comparison of the accuracy of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography and micro-computed tomography reconstructions by using different voxel sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Delphine; Peters, Ove A; Galibourg, Antoine; Dumoncel, Jean; Esclassan, Rémi; Kahn, Jean-Luc; Sixou, Michel; Telmon, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data are, in principle, metrically exact. However, clinicians need to consider the precision of measurements of dental morphology as well as other hard tissue structures. CBCT spatial resolution, and thus image reconstruction quality, is restricted by the acquisition voxel size. The aim of this study was to assess geometric discrepancies among 3-dimensional CBCT reconstructions relative to the micro-CT reference. A total of 37 permanent teeth from 9 mandibles were scanned with CBCT 9500 and 9000 3D and micro-CT. After semiautomatic segmentation, reconstructions were obtained from CBCT acquisitions (voxel sizes 76, 200, and 300 μm) and from micro-CT (voxel size 41 μm). All reconstructions were positioned in the same plane by image registration. The topography of the geometric discrepancies was displayed by using a color map allowing the maximum differences to be located. The maximum differences were mainly found at the cervical margins and on the cusp tips or incisal edges. Geometric reconstruction discrepancies were significant at 300-μm resolution (P = .01, Wilcoxon test). To study hard tissue morphology, CBCT acquisitions require voxel sizes smaller than 300 μm. This experimental study will have to be complemented by studies in vivo that consider the conditions of clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual-Energy Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of Radiation-Induced Vascular Changes in Primary Mouse Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moding, Everett J.; Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi; Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan; Ghaghada, Ketan; Johnson, G. Allan; Kirsch, David G.; Badea, Cristian T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials: Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4) with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results: Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4 (P 2 =0.53) and dextran accumulation (R 2 =0.63) on day 4, respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P<.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 4.0-fold. Conclusions: DE micro-CT is an effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment

  7. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Tatar, İlkan; Arıkan, Volkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi; Yüksel, Selcen; Özen, Tuncer

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this study. The specimens were classified into three groups: maxillary molars, mandibular molars with three canals, and mandibular molars with four canals. Differences between the gold standard and the observations made using the imaging methods were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient test. The presence of accessory canals in micro-CT images of maxillary and mandibular root canals showed a statistically significant correlation with the stereomicroscopic images used as a gold standard. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CBCT findings and the stereomicroscopic images. Although micro-CT is not suitable for clinical use, it provides more detailed information about minor anatomical structures. However, CBCT is convenient for clinical use but may not be capable of adequately analyzing the internal anatomy of primary teeth.

  8. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi

    1992-01-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author)

  9. The reliability of cone-beam computed tomography to assess bone density at dental implant recipient sites: a histomorphometric analysis by micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Monje, Florencio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess the reliability of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool to pre-operatively determine radiographic bone density (RBD) by the density values provided by the system, analyzing its relationship with histomorphometric bone density expressed as bone volumetric fraction (BV/TV) assessed by micro-CT of bone biopsies at the site of insertion of dental implants in the maxillary bones. Thirty-nine bone biopsies of the maxillary bones at the sites of 39 dental implants from 31 edentulous healthy patients were analyzed. The NobelGuide™ software was used for implant planning, which also allowed fabrication of individual stereolithographic surgical guides. The analysis of CBCT images allowed pre-operative determination of mean density values of implant recipient sites along the major axis of the planned implants (axial RBD). Stereolithographic surgical guides were used to guide implant insertion and also to extract cylindrical bone biopsies from the core of the exact implant site. Further analysis of several osseous micro-structural variables including BV/TV was performed by micro-CT of the extracted bone biopsies. Mean axial RBD was 478 ± 212 (range: 144-953). A statistically significant difference (P = 0.02) was observed among density values of the cortical bone of the upper maxilla and mandible. A high positive Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.858, P micro-CT at the site of dental implants in the maxillary bones. Pre-operative estimation of density values by CBCT is a reliable tool to objectively determine bone density. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Micro-computed tomography and bond strength analysis of different root canal filling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Nhata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and bond strength of three root filling techniques (lateral compaction, continuous wave of condensation and Tagger′s Hybrid technique [THT] using micro-computed tomography (CT images and push-out tests, respectively. Materials and Methods: Thirty mandibular incisors were prepared using the same protocol and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10: Lateral condensation technique (LCT, continuous wave of condensation technique (CWCT, and THT. All specimens were filled with Gutta-percha (GP cones and AH Plus sealer. Five specimens of each group were randomly chosen for micro-CT analysis and all of them were sectioned into 1 mm slices and subjected to push-out tests. Results: Micro-CT analysis revealed less empty spaces when GP was heated within the root canals in CWCT and THT when compared to LCT. Push-out tests showed that LCT and THT had a significantly higher displacement resistance (P < 0.05 when compared to the CWCT. Bond strength was lower in apical and middle thirds than in the coronal thirds. Conclusions: It can be concluded that LCT and THT were associated with higher bond strengths to intraradicular dentine than CWCT. However, LCT was associated with more empty voids than the other techniques.

  11. In-situ, real time micro-CT imaging of pore scale processes, the next frontier for laboratory based micro-CT scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Marijn; Bultreys, Tom; Masschaele, Bert; Van Loo, Denis; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, laboratory based X-ray computed micro-tomography (micro-CT) has given unique insights in the internal structure of complex reservoir rocks, improving the understanding of pore scale processes and providing crucial information for pore scale modelling. Especially in-situ imaging using X-ray optimized Hassler type cells has enabled the direct visualization of fluid distributions at the pore scale under reservoir conditions. While sub-micrometre spatial resolutions are achi...

  12. X-ray micro computed tomography characterization of cellular SiC foams for their applications in chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xiaoxia [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xun; Lowe, Tristan [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Blanc, Remi [FEI, 3 Impasse Rudolf Diesel, BP 50227, 33708 Mérignac (France); Rad, Mansoureh Norouzi [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wang, Ying [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Batail, Nelly; Pham, Charlotte [SICAT SARL, 20 Place des Halles, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Shokri, Nima; Garforth, Arthur A. [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, Philip J. [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fan, Xiaolei, E-mail: xiaolei.fan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Open-cell SiC foams clearly are promising materials for continuous-flow chemical applications such as heterogeneous catalysis and distillation. X-ray micro computed tomography characterization of cellular β-SiC foams at a spatial voxel size of 13.6{sup 3} μm{sup 3} and the interpretation of morphological properties of SiC open-cell foams with implications to their transport properties are presented. Static liquid hold-up in SiC foams was investigated through in-situ draining experiments for the first time using the μ-CT technique providing thorough 3D information about the amount and distribution of liquid hold-up inside the foam. This will enable better modeling and design of structured reactors based on SiC foams in the future. In order to see more practical uses, μ-CT data of cellular foams must be exploited to optimize the design of the morphology of foams for a specific application. - Highlights: •Characterization of SiC foams using novel X-ray micro computed tomography. •Interpretation of structural properties of SiC foams regarding to their transport properties. •Static liquid hold-up analysis of SiC foams through in-situ draining experiments.

  13. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and CT for N staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegar Zubović, Sandra; Kristić, Spomenka; Hadžihasanović, Besima

    2017-08-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and CT, in clinical N staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Retrospective clinical study included 50 patients with diagnosed NSCLC who have undergone PET/CT for the purpose of disease staging. The International association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) nodal mapping system was used for analysis of nodal disease. Data regarding CT N-staging and PET/CT Nstaging were recorded. Two methods were compared using χ2 test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Statistical analysis showed that although there were some differences in determining the N stage between CT and PET/CT, these methods were in significant correlation. CT and PET/CT findings established the same N stage in 74% of the patients. In five patients based on PET/CT findings the staging was changed from operable to inoperable, while in four patients staging was changed from inoperable to operable. Conclusion PET/CT and CT are noninvasive methods that can be reliably used for N staging of NSCLC. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  14. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi (Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author).

  15. Cochlear implant-related three-dimensional characteristics determined by micro-computed tomography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yusu; Dai, Peidong; Dai, Chunfu; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the structural characteristics of the cochlea in three-dimensional (3D) detail using 3D micro-computed tomography (mCT) image reconstruction of the osseous labyrinth, with the aim of improving the structural design of electrodes, the selection of stimulation sites, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Three temporal bones were selected from among adult donors' temporal bone specimens. A micro-CT apparatus (GE eXplore) was used to scan three specimens with a voxel resolution of 45 μm. We obtained about 460 slices/specimen, which produced abundant data. The osseous labyrinth images of three specimens were reconstructed from mCT. The cochlea and its spiral characteristics were measured precisely using Able Software 3D-DOCTOR. The 3D images of the osseous labyrinth, including the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals, were reconstructed. The 3D models of the cochlea showed the spatial relationships and surface structural characteristics. Quantitative data concerning the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics were analyzed with regard to cochlear implantation. The 3D reconstruction of mCT images clearly displayed the detailed spiral structural characteristics of the osseous labyrinth. Quantitative data regarding the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics could help to improve electrode structural design, signal processing, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Clin. Anat. 30:39-43, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Construction of three-dimensional tooth model by micro-computed tomography and application for data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A; Ohno, N

    2009-03-01

    The study of dental morphology is essential in terms of phylogeny. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) measurement devices have enabled us to make 3D images of teeth without destruction of samples. However, raw fundamental data on tooth shape requires complex equipment and techniques. An online database of 3D teeth models is therefore indispensable. We aimed to explore the basic methodology for constructing 3D teeth models, with application for data sharing. Geometric information on the human permanent upper left incisor was obtained using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Enamel, dentine, and pulp were segmented by thresholding of different gray-scale intensities. Segmented data were separately exported in STereo-Lithography Interface Format (STL). STL data were converted to Wavefront OBJ (OBJect), as many 3D computer graphics programs support the Wavefront OBJ format. Data were also applied to Quick Time Virtual Reality (QTVR) format, which allows the image to be viewed from any direction. In addition to Wavefront OBJ and QTVR data, the original CT series were provided as 16-bit Tag Image File Format (TIFF) images on the website. In conclusion, 3D teeth models were constructed in general-purpose data formats, using micro-CT and commercially available programs. Teeth models that can be used widely would benefit all those who study dental morphology.

  17. Automatic quantitative micro-computed tomography evaluation of angiogenesis in an axially vascularized tissue-engineered bone construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus Patrick; Pryymachuk, Galyna; Hoereth, Tobias; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Polykandriotis, Elias; Hess, Andreas; Gulle, Heinz; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    We invented an automatic observer-independent quantitative method to analyze vascularization using micro-computed tomography (CT) along with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction in a tissue engineering model. An arteriovenous loop was created in the medial thigh of 30 rats and was placed in a particulated porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate matrix, filled with fibrin (10 mg/mL fibrinogen and 2 IU/mL thrombin) without (group A) or with (group B) application of fibrin-gel-immobilized angiogenetic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF¹⁶⁵) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The explantation intervals were 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Specimens were investigated by means of micro-CT followed by an automatic 3D analysis, which was correlated to histomorphometrical findings. In both groups, the arteriovenous loop led to generation of dense vascularized connective tissue with differentiated and functional vessels inside the matrix. Quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT showed to be superior to histological analysis. The micro-CT analysis also allows the assessment of different other, more complex vascularization parameters within 3D constructs, demonstrating an early improvement of vascularization by application of fibrin-gel-immobilized VEGF¹⁶⁵ and bFGF. In this study quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT along with 3D reconstruction and automatic analysis exhibit to be a powerful method superior to histological evaluation of cross sections.

  18. Quality assurance of computed tomography (CT) scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.; Sanu, K.K. . Email : a_sankaran@vsnl.com

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the present status of research work and development of various test objects, phantoms and detector/instrumentation systems for quality assurance (QA) of computed tomography (CT) scanners, carried out in advanced countries, with emphasis on similar work done in this research centre. CT scanner is a complex equipment and routine quality control procedures are essential to the maintenance of image quality with optimum patient dose. Image quality can be ensured only through correlation between prospective monitoring of system components and tests of overall performance with standard phantoms. CT examinations contribute a large share to the population dose in advanced countries. The unique dosimetry problems in CT necessitate special techniques. This article describes a comprehensive kit developed indigenously for the following QA and type approval tests as well as for research studies on image quality/dosimetry on CT scanners

  19. Dual-Energy Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of Radiation-Induced Vascular Changes in Primary Mouse Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moding, Everett J. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ghaghada, Ketan [The Edward B. Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Johnson, G. Allan [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Badea, Cristian T., E-mail: cristian.badea@duke.edu [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials: Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4) with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results: Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4 (P<.05). There was a positive correlation between CT measurement of tumor FBV on day 1 and extravasated iodine on day 4 with microvascular density (MVD) on day 4 (R{sup 2}=0.53) and dextran accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.63) on day 4, respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P<.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 4.0-fold. Conclusions: DE micro-CT is an effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment.

  20. Investigation of water and CO2 (carbon dioxide) flooding using micro-CT (micro-computed tomography) images of Berea sandstone core using finite element simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunde, Akshay C.; Bera, Bijoyendra; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports a numerical investigation of water and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) flooding at the pore scale of a porous medium. We use high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of Berea sandstone core to obtain the pore geometry. The numerical solution used for the simulation was carried out by a finite element based software package. Level Set method is used to determine the position of the interface between two immiscible fluids when oil is displaced by water and CO 2 , respectively. The present formulation is validated against single-phase flow through the porous structure. It is found that, fluid flow inside the pore space takes place through preferential inlet and outlet pores. For two-phase flow, it is observed that continuous displacement of oil occurs during water flooding but CO 2 is able to displace oil at certain locations in the pores. Also, the separation of flow front is observed in the case of CO 2 flooding. A quantitative comparison of the results obtained in two types of flooding simulations suggests that water displaces a higher volume of oil than CO 2 in the time period for which the simulations are performed.

  1. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoglu, Kivanc [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Tatar, Ilkan [Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Arikan, Volkan [Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Celik, Hakan Hamid [Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale Unversity, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Yuksel, Selcen [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ozen, Tuncer [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Gulhane Military Hospital, Dental Clinics, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this study. The specimens were classified into three groups: maxillary molars, mandibular molars with three canals, and mandibular molars with four canals. Differences between the gold standard and the observations made using the imaging methods were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient test. The presence of accessory canals in micro-CT images of maxillary and mandibular root canals showed a statistically significant correlation with the stereomicroscopic images used as a gold standard. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CBCT findings and the stereomicroscopic images.Although micro-CT is not suitable for clinical use, it provides more detailed information about minor anatomical structures. However, CBCT is convenient for clinical use but may not be capable of adequately analyzing the internal anatomy of primary teeth.

  2. Comparison of micro-computerized tomography and cone-beam computerized tomography in the detection of accessory canals in primary molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Tatar, Ilkan; Arikan, Volkan; Celik, Hakan Hamid; Yuksel, Selcen; Ozen, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the accuracy of micro-computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting accessory canals in primary molars. Forty-one extracted human primary first and second molars were embedded in wax blocks and scanned using micro-CT and CBCT. After the images were taken, the samples were processed using a clearing technique and examined under a stereomicroscope in order to establish the gold standard for this study. The specimens were classified into three groups: maxillary molars, mandibular molars with three canals, and mandibular molars with four canals. Differences between the gold standard and the observations made using the imaging methods were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient test. The presence of accessory canals in micro-CT images of maxillary and mandibular root canals showed a statistically significant correlation with the stereomicroscopic images used as a gold standard. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CBCT findings and the stereomicroscopic images.Although micro-CT is not suitable for clinical use, it provides more detailed information about minor anatomical structures. However, CBCT is convenient for clinical use but may not be capable of adequately analyzing the internal anatomy of primary teeth

  3. A comparison of micro-CT, microradiography and histomorphometry in bone research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Schortinghuis, Jurjen; de Jong, Johan R.; Huysmans, Marie Charlotte D. N. J. M.; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    Objective: Intraobserver reliability and agreement were determined for microradiography (MR), micro-computed tomography (mu CT) and histomorphometry (HM). These three modalities were compared for quantitative measurements of bone formation and graft modelling in rat mandibular defects and grafts.

  4. Reducing image noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography: effect of an integrated circuit CT detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Michalak, Gregory J; Vrieze, Thomas J; Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Shiung, Maria M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the integrated circuit (IC) detector results in reduced noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC). Three hundred sixty-six consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CTC using the same CT scanner system, except for a difference in CT detectors (IC or conventional). Image noise, patient size, and scanner radiation output (volume CT dose index) were quantitatively compared between patient cohorts using each detector system, with separate comparisons for the abdomen and pelvis. For the abdomen and pelvis, despite significantly larger patient sizes in the IC detector cohort (both P 0.18). Based on the observed image noise reduction, radiation dose could alternatively be reduced by approximately 20% to result in similar levels of image noise. Computed tomography colonography images acquired using the IC detector had significantly lower noise than images acquired using the conventional detector. This noise reduction can permit further radiation dose reduction in CTC.

  5. Segmentation of Synchrotron Radiation micro-Computed Tomography Images using Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Anderson A.M.; Giusti, Alessandro; Almeida, André P. de; Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos E. de; Barroso, Regina C.

    2012-01-01

    The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray micro-Computed Tomography (SR-μCT) is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images, such as the phase contrast effect. The Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm represents state-of-art segmentation algorithm, presenting an enormous potential of application in SR-μCT imaging. We describe the application of the algorithm EMvGC with swap move for the segmentation of bone images acquired at the ELETTRA Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). - Highlights: ► Microstructures of Wistar rats' ribs are investigated with Synchrotron Radiation μCT imaging. ► The present work is part of a research on the effects of radiotherapy on the thoracic region. ► Application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts algorithm for segmentation is described.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Ex-Vivo Three-Dimensional Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of Primary Nonhematopoietic Human Bone Tumors: Osteosarcoma versus Chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langheinrich, A. C.; Stolle, C.; Kampschulte, M.; Lommel, D.; Rau, W. S.; Bassaly, B. (Depts. of Radiology and Pathology, Univ. of Giessen, Giessen (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma are the most common nonhematopoietic primary malignancies of bone. However, unusual radiographic appearances can lead to delay in diagnosis and confusion with benign diseases. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of micro-computed tomography (CT) for the analysis of primary, nonhematopoietic human bone tumors ex vivo. Material and Methods: Samples from 12 human bone specimens (osteosarcoma, n=6; chondrosarcoma, n=6) obtained for diagnostic purposes were scanned using industrial X-ray film without amplifier foil and scanned with micro-CT (7- and 12-mum-cubic voxels). Trabecular bone CT 'density' and tumor matrix CT 'density' were determined, and results were compared with those obtained from a detailed conventional histopathologic analysis of corresponding cross-sections. The significance of differences in grayscale measurements was tested with analysis of variance. Results: Micro-CT provided quantitative information on bone morphology equivalent to histopathological analysis. We established grayscale measurements by which tumor matrices of chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma could be radiographically categorized following histological classifications (P<0.001). Conclusion: Micro-CT is feasible for the analysis and differentiation of human osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  9. Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star, Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Masanori; Fujita, Toshihiko; Maekawa, Yu; Sasaki, Takenori

    2017-01-01

    The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni , using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomographyCT) was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5-15.4 µm) was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid's body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

  10. Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star, Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massanori Okanishi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomographyCT was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5–15.4 µm was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid’s body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

  11. Visualization of haemophilic arthropathy in F8(-/-) rats by ultrasonography and micro-computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K R; Roepstorff, K; Petersen, M

    2017-01-01

    opportunities. Recently, a F8(-/-) rat model of HA was developed. The size of the rat allows for convenient and high resolution imaging of the joints, which could enable in vivo studies of HA development. AIM: To determine whether HA in the F8(-/-) rat can be visualized using ultrasonography (US) and micro......-computed tomographyCT). METHODS: Sixty F8(-/-) and 20 wild-type rats were subjected to a single or two induced knee bleeds. F8(-/-) rats were treated with either recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII) or vehicle before the induction of knee bleeds. Haemophilic arthropathy was visualized using in vivo US and ex vivo μCT......, and the observations correlated with histological evaluation. RESULTS: US and μCT detected pathologies in the knee related to HA. There was a strong correlation between disease severity determined by μCT and histopathology. rhFVIII treatment reduced the pathology identified with both imaging techniques. CONCLUSION: US...

  12. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.; Davis, J.; Morgan, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-sectional images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography. This review article presents a brief historical perspective on CT, its current status and the underlying physics. The mathematical fundamentals of computed tomography are developed for the simplest transmission CT modality. A description of CT scanner instrumentation is provided with an emphasis on radiation sources and systems. Examples of CT images are shown indicating the range of materials that can be scanned and the spatial and contrast resolutions that may be achieved. Attention is also given to the occurrence, interpretation and minimisation of various image artefacts that may arise. A final brief section is devoted to the principles and potential of a range of more recently developed tomographic modalities including diffraction CT, positron emission CT and seismic tomography. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  13. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four...

  14. Target localization on standard axial images in computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis for functional neurosurgery - a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.-A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique for marking functional neurosurgery target on computed tomography (CT) axial image is described. This permits the use of standard axial image for computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis in functional neurosurgery. (Author)

  15. Segmentation of Synchrotron Radiation micro-Computed Tomography Images using Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Anderson A.M. [Federal University of Western Para (Brazil); Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Almeida, Andre P. de, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.com [Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos E. de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Barroso, Regina C. [Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray micro-Computed Tomography (SR-{mu}CT) is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images, such as the phase contrast effect. The Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm represents state-of-art segmentation algorithm, presenting an enormous potential of application in SR-{mu}CT imaging. We describe the application of the algorithm EMvGC with swap move for the segmentation of bone images acquired at the ELETTRA Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures of Wistar rats' ribs are investigated with Synchrotron Radiation {mu}CT imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present work is part of a research on the effects of radiotherapy on the thoracic region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts algorithm for segmentation is described.

  16. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I tube x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml -1 at 1.2 ml min -1 ) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel (∼85 μm) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid arteries and major cerebral blood vessels

  17. In vivo microCT imaging of rodent cerebral vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Youngho; Hasegawa, Bruce H [Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Hashimoto, Tomoki; Nuki, Yoshitsugu [Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: youngho.seo@radiology.ucsf.edu

    2008-04-07

    Computed tomography (CT) remains a critical diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular disease, and the advent of specialized systems for imaging rodents has extended these techniques to small animal models of these diseases. We therefore have evaluated in vivo methods of imaging rat models of hemorrhagic stroke using a high resolution compact computed tomography ('microCT') system (FLEX(tm) X-O(tm), Gamma Medica-Ideas, Northridge, CA). For all in vivo studies, the head of the anesthetized rat was secured in a custom immobilization device for microCT imaging with 512 projections over 2 min at 60 kVp and 0.530 mA (I{sub tube} x t/rotation = 63.6 mAs). First, imaging without iodinated contrast was performed (a) to differentiate the effect of contrast agent in contrast-enhanced CT and (b) to examine the effectiveness of the immobilization device between two time points of CT acquisitions. Then, contrast-enhanced CT was performed with continuous administration of iopromide (300 mgI ml{sup -1} at 1.2 ml min{sup -1}) to visualize aneurysms and other vascular formations in the carotid and cerebral arteries that may precede subarachnoid hemorrhage. The accuracy of registration between the noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images with the immobilization device was compared against the images aligned with normalized mutual information using FMRIB's linear image registration tool (FLIRT). Translations and rotations were examined between the FLIRT-aligned noncontrast CT image and the nonaligned noncontrast CT image. These two data sets demonstrated translational and rotational differences of less than 0.5 voxel ({approx}85 {mu}m) and 0.5 deg., respectively. Noncontrast CT demonstrated a very small volume (0.1 ml) of femoral arterial blood introduced surgically into the rodent brain. Continuous administration of iopromide during the CT acquisition produced consistent vascular contrast in the reconstructed CT images. As a result, carotid

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  20. Physical characterization and performance evaluation of an x-ray micro-computed tomography system for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Jochen; Maisl, Michael; Reindl, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents physical and metrological characterization measurements conducted for an industrial x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) system. As is well known in CT metrology, many factors, e.g., in the scanning and reconstruction process, the image processing, and the 3D data evaluation...... components of a CT scanner, i.e. the x-ray tube and the flat-panel detector, are characterized. The contrast and noise transfer property of the scanner is obtained using image-processing methods based on linear systems theory. A long-term temperature measurement in the scanner cabinet has been carried out....... The dimensional measurement property has been quantified by using a calibrated ball-bar and uncertainty budgeting. Information about the performance of a CT scanner system in terms of contrast and noise transmission and sources of geometrical errors will help plan CT scans more efficiently. In particular...

  1. In Vivo Respiratory-Gated Micro-CT Imaging in Small-Animal Oncology Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Cavanaugh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is becoming an accepted research tool for the noninvasive examination of laboratory animals such as mice and rats, but to date, in vivo scanning has largely been limited to the evaluation of skeletal tissues. We use a commercially available micro-CT device to perform respiratory gated in vivo acquisitions suitable for thoracic imaging. The instrument is described, along with the scan protocol and animal preparation techniques. Preliminary results confirm that lung tumors as small as 1 mm in diameter are visible in vivo with these methods. Radiation dose was evaluated using several approaches, and was found to be approximately 0.15 Gy for this respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging protocol. The combination of high-resolution CT imaging and respiratory-gated acquisitions appears well-suited to serial in vivo scanning.

  2. Comparative micro computed tomography study of a vertebral body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Susanne; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Brunke, Oliver; Salmon, Phil; Friess, Sebastian; Laib, Andres; Koller, Bruno; Hemberger, Thomas; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Investigations of bony tissues are often performed using micro computed tomography based on X-rays, since the calcium distribution leads to superior contrast. Osteoporotic bone, for example, can be well compared with healthy one with respect to density and morphology. Degenerative and rheumatoid diseases usually start, however, at the bone-cartilage-interface, which is hardly accessible. The direct influence on the bone itself becomes only visible at later stage. For the development of suitable therapies against degenerative cartilage damages the exact three-dimensional description of the bone-cartilage interface is vital, as demonstrated for transplanted cartilage-cells or bone-cartilage-constructs in animal models. So far, the morphological characterization was restricted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with poor spatial resolution or to time-consuming histological sectioning with appropriate spatial resolution only in two rather arbitrarily chosen directions. Therefore, one should develop μCT to extract the features of low absorbing cartilage. The morphology and the volume of the inter-vertebral cartilage disc of lumbar motion segments have been determined for one PMMA embedded specimen. Tomograms were recorded using nanotom® (Phoenix|x-ray, Wunstorf, Germany), μCT 35TM (Scanco Medical, Brütisellen, Switzerland), 1172TM and 1174TM (both Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium), as well as using the SRμCT at HASYLAB/DESY. Conventional and SRμCT can provide the morphology and the volume of cartilage between bones. Increasing the acquisition time, the signal-to-noise ratio becomes better and better but the prominent artifacts in conventional μCT as the result of inhomogeneously distributed bony tissue prevents the exact segmentation of cartilage. SRμCT allows segmenting the cartilage but requires long periods of expensive beam-time to obtain reasonable contrast.

  3. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Weise Kuno; Pereira Philippe L; Dietz Klaus; Eingartner Christoph; Schmal Hagen; Südkamp Norbert P; Rolauffs Bernd; Bahrs Christian; Lingenfelter Erich; Helwig Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT) in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X...

  4. Computed tomography from photon statistics to modern cone-beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Buzug, T M

    2008-01-01

    Tis book provides an overview of X-ray technology, the historic developmental milestones of modern CT systems, and gives a comprehensive insight into the main reconstruction methods used in computed tomography. Te basis of reconstr- tion is, undoubtedly, mathematics. However, the beauty of computed tomography cannot be understood without a detailed knowledge of X-ray generation, photon- matter interaction, X-ray detection, photon statistics, as well as fundamental signal processing concepts and dedicated measurement systems. Terefore, the reader will ?nd a number of references to these basic d

  5. The CT Scanner Facility at Stellenbosch University: An open access X-ray computed tomography laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anton; le Roux, Stephan Gerhard; Guelpa, Anina

    2016-10-01

    The Stellenbosch University CT Scanner Facility is an open access laboratory providing non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and a high performance image analysis services as part of the Central Analytical Facilities (CAF) of the university. Based in Stellenbosch, South Africa, this facility offers open access to the general user community, including local researchers, companies and also remote users (both local and international, via sample shipment and data transfer). The laboratory hosts two CT instruments, i.e. a micro-CT system, as well as a nano-CT system. A workstation-based Image Analysis Centre is equipped with numerous computers with data analysis software packages, which are to the disposal of the facility users, along with expert supervision, if required. All research disciplines are accommodated at the X-ray CT laboratory, provided that non-destructive analysis will be beneficial. During its first four years, the facility has accommodated more than 400 unique users (33 in 2012; 86 in 2013; 154 in 2014; 140 in 2015; 75 in first half of 2016), with diverse industrial and research applications using X-ray CT as means. This paper summarises the existence of the laboratory's first four years by way of selected examples, both from published and unpublished projects. In the process a detailed description of the capabilities and facilities available to users is presented.

  6. The CT Scanner Facility at Stellenbosch University: An open access X-ray computed tomography laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, Anton du, E-mail: anton2@sun.ac.za [CT Scanner Facility, Central Analytical Facilities, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Roux, Stephan Gerhard le, E-mail: lerouxsg@sun.ac.za [CT Scanner Facility, Central Analytical Facilities, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Guelpa, Anina, E-mail: aninag@sun.ac.za [CT Scanner Facility, Central Analytical Facilities, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2016-10-01

    The Stellenbosch University CT Scanner Facility is an open access laboratory providing non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and a high performance image analysis services as part of the Central Analytical Facilities (CAF) of the university. Based in Stellenbosch, South Africa, this facility offers open access to the general user community, including local researchers, companies and also remote users (both local and international, via sample shipment and data transfer). The laboratory hosts two CT instruments, i.e. a micro-CT system, as well as a nano-CT system. A workstation-based Image Analysis Centre is equipped with numerous computers with data analysis software packages, which are to the disposal of the facility users, along with expert supervision, if required. All research disciplines are accommodated at the X-ray CT laboratory, provided that non-destructive analysis will be beneficial. During its first four years, the facility has accommodated more than 400 unique users (33 in 2012; 86 in 2013; 154 in 2014; 140 in 2015; 75 in first half of 2016), with diverse industrial and research applications using X-ray CT as means. This paper summarises the existence of the laboratory’s first four years by way of selected examples, both from published and unpublished projects. In the process a detailed description of the capabilities and facilities available to users is presented.

  7. Prospective evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (FDG-PET/CT) for axillary staging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahide; Noguchi, Akinori; Tani, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-two patients from 2005 October to 2007 February with operative breast cancer underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (FDG-PET/CT) of chest and body, ultrasound scan (US) and enhanced computed tomography scan (CT) followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The results of PET/CT were compared with histopathological diagnosis of SLNB and ALND. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT for detection of axillary lymph node metastases were 61%, 96% and 88%, respectively. Seven false-negative and two false-positive of PET/CT results were found. In patients with false-negative of PET/CT results there are two skin-invasive breast cancer patients and axillary lymph node metastases were detected in three patients with US, in one with CT and in four with SLNB. In clinical method for diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases SLNB should be recommended because sensitivity of PET/CT for early breast cancer patients were low and positive diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases with PET needs more than 1 cm size of lesion. PET/CT is useful for not-early breast cancer patients. To decide the operation of axillary lymph node disection needs total diagnosis of US, CT, SLNB and clinical findings. (author)

  8. Study of bony trabecular characteristics using bone morphometry and micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Han; Lee, Wan; Lee, Chang Jin; Ji, Jung Hyun; Lee, Byung Do

    2007-01-01

    The research was done to investigate the effectiveness of 2D bony morphometry and microstructure of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) on the osteoporotic bony change. We performed the bone morphometric analysis of proximal femur in ovariectomized rabbits with BMD and micro-CT examination. Twenty-one female (Newzeland, about 16 weeks old, 2.9-3.4 kg) rabbits were used. Three rabbits were sacrificed on the day when experiment began (Basline). The remaining 18 rabbits were divided into two groups. One group was ovariectomized bilaterally (OVX) and the other animals were subjected to sham operation (Sham). Bone specimens were obtained from the right and left femur of sacrificed rabbits. At intervals of 1,2,3,5,6 months respectively, BMD tests were performed on the proximal on the proximal femur by using PIXImus 2 (GE Lunar Co. USA), 2-dimensional bone morphometric analysis by custom computer program and 2D / 3D bone structure analysis by micro-CT (Skyscan1072, Antwerpen, Belgium). Statistical analysis was carried out for the correlation between bone morphometry, micro-CT and BMD. BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N of micro-CT parameters showed higher values in sham group than OVX group. N.Nd/Ar.RI, N.NdNd, N.NdTm, N. TmTm, PmB/Ar.RI, 3-D BoxSlope of 2D morphometric parameters showed higher values in Sham group than OVX group. The micro-CT parameters of Tb.Sp. Tb.N were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several 2D morphometric parameters were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several parameters of 2D bony morphometry and micro-CT showed effective aspects on the osteoporotic bony change

  9. Measurements of computed tomography dose index for axial and spiral CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiki, G; Abbas, Y.; Diab, H.M.; Gomaa, M

    2007-01-01

    The energy deposited in the patient by the rotating x-ray beam in computed tomography produces more uniform absorbed dose values within the section of imaged tissue than those produced in conventional radiological procedures. The dose values within a specific section are determined by factors such as voltage, current, scan field, rotation angle, filtration, collimation, and section thickness and spacing. This study is a part of extensive project, aiming to investigate practice of computed tomography at various hospitals and to implement a Reference Dose Levels (RDLs) to routine CT examinations in Egypt. The dosimetric quantities proposed in the European Guidelines (EG) for CT are weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ) for a single slice and dose-length product (DLP) for a complete examination. Patient-related data as well as technical parameters for head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations were collected for seven CT scanners in public and private hospitals.Dose measurements were performed for both axial and spiral models for a range of CT examinations using CT dosimetry head and body phantoms, and ion chamber designed for CT dosimetry. The determined CTDI w and DLP values were compared with the European Commission reference dose levels (ECRDLs) and also with some international survey results. Mean values of CTDI w had a range of 36-69 m Gy with average 55 m Gy for head, and 11-35 mGy with average 23 mGy for chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations. The current reference CTDI w values are 60 m Gy for adult head and 25 m Gy for adult Abdomen

  10. Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of root canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ki; Ha, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Heo, Seok-Mo; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2006-10-01

    In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT (502 image slices/tooth, 1024 X 1024 pixels, voxel size of 19.5 x 19.5 x 39.0 microm) and their canals reconstructed by 3D modeling software. The intersection of major and minor axes in the canal space of each image slice were connected to create an imaginary central axis for each canal. The radius of curvature of the tangential circle was measured and inverted as a measure of curvature using custom-made mathematical modeling software. Root canal curvature was greatest in the apical third and least in the middle third for all canals. The greatest curvatures were in the mesiobuccal (MB) canal (0.76 +/- 0.48 mm(-1)) with abrupt curves, and the least curvatures were in the palatal (P) canal (0.38 +/- 0.34 mm(-1)) with a gradual curve. This study has measured the 3D curvature of root canals in maxillary first molars and reinforced the value of microCT with mathematical modeling.

  11. Micro-Computed Tomography Evaluation of Human Fat Grafts in Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T.; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D.; Montoro, Daniel T.; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Levi, Benjamin; Januszyk, Michael; Longaker, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis. Methods Human fat grafts were prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique. Fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of 10 adult Crl:NU-Foxn1nu CD-1 male mice. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately following injection and then weekly thereafter. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) surface through cubic-spline interpolation. Specimens were also harvested at various time points and sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for macrophages using CD68 and for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Finally, samples were explanted at 8- and 12-week time points to validate calculated micro-CT volumes. Results Weekly CT scanning demonstrated progressive volume loss over the time course. However, volumetric analysis at the 8- and 12-week time points stabilized, showing an average of 62.2% and 60.9% survival, respectively. Gross analysis showed the fat graft to be healthy and vascularized. H&E analysis and staining for CD68 showed minimal inflammatory reaction with viable adipocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CB1 antibodies confirmed human origin of the adipocytes. Conclusions Studies assessing the fate of autologous fat grafts in animals have focused on nonimaging modalities, including histological and biochemical analyses, which require euthanasia of the animals. In this study, we have demonstrated the ability to employ micro-CT for 3D reconstruction and volumetric analysis of human fat grafts in a mouse model. Importantly

  12. The clinical usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in follow-up of curatively resected pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woohyun; Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Chang, Ye Rim; Shin, Yong Chan; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography and serum tumor markers have limited value in detecting recurrence after curative surgery of pancreatic cancer. This study evaluated the clinical utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in diagnosing recurrence. One hundred ten patients underwent curative resection of pancreatic cancer were enrolled. The diagnostic value of abdominal computed tomography (CT), PET-CT and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 concentration were compared. The prognostic value of SUVmax on PET-CT was evaluated. PET-CT showed relatively higher sensitivity (84.5% vs. 75.0%) and accuracy (84.5% vs. 74.5%) than CT, whereas PET-CT plus CT showed greater sensitivity (97.6%) and accuracy (90.0%) than either alone. In detecting distant recurrences, PET-CT showed higher sensitivity (83.1% vs. 67.7%) than CT. Nineteen patients showed recurrences only on PET-CT, with eleven having invisible or suspected benign lesions on CT, and eight had recurrences in areas not covered by CT. SUVmax over 3.3 was predictive of poor survival after recurrence. PET-CT in combination with CT improves the detection of recurrence. PET-CT was especially advantageous in detecting recurrences in areas not covered by CT. If active post-operative surveillance after curative resection of pancreatic cancer is deemed beneficial, then it should include PET-CT combined with CT. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Micro-CT of Carotid Arteries: A Tool for Experimental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Andreas; Wenke, Ruediger; Roemer, Frank W.; Lynch, John A.; Gatzka, Christian; Priebe, Markus; Guermazi, Ali; Grigorian, Mikayel; Heller, Martin; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a high-resolution, nondestructive tool for two- and three-dimensional imaging and quantification. The ability of this technique to assess atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was evaluated in three human cadaver samples based on the original axial acquisitions, multiplanar reconstructions and volume rendering techniques. Quantitative analysis included the calculation of: (1) the original lumen perimeter, original lumen area, plaque area, residual lumen area, calcified area and gross sectional area reduction of the vascular lumen from two-dimensional slices; (2) the total tissue volume, soft tissue volume and calcified tissue volume from the three-dimensional data set. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of micro-CT as a supplementary method for the two- and three-dimensional ex vivo evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis

  14. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striggaris, K.; Gouliamos, A.; Garmatis, C.; Kaklamanis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Pontifex, G.

    1982-01-01

    The extensive recent literature on computed tomography (CT) includes several reports demonstrating the usefulness of body scanners in radiotherapy treatment planning. This followed earlier experience indicating the potential application of the technique in chest disease. The fast scan-times, possible with newer CT systems, eliminate motion degradation and provide accurate localization of thoracic tumors. This paper reports the authors' experience with CT in treatment planning of 38 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma after pretherapy evaluation by CT. They conclude that the availability of CT-scan data helps to define accurately the target volume and provides the information needed for treatment planning computers in order to estimate the desired dose. (Auth.)

  15. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cademartiri (Filippo)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield

  16. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  17. Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: A methodological and comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombke, Andy; Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter; Uhl, Gabriele; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Classical histology or immunohistochemistry combined with fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy are common techniques in arthropod neuroanatomy, and these methods often require time-consuming and difficult dissections and sample preparations. Moreover, these methods are prone to artifacts due to compression and distortion of tissues, which often result in information loss and especially affect the spatial relationships of the examined parts of the nervous system in their natural anatomical context. Noninvasive approaches such as X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can overcome such limitations and have been shown to be a valuable tool for understanding and visualizing internal anatomy and structural complexity. Nevertheless, knowledge about the potential of this method for analyzing the anatomy and organization of nervous systems, especially of taxa with smaller body size (e.g., many arthropods), is limited. This study set out to analyze the brains of selected arthropods with micro-CT, and to compare these results with available histological and immunohistochemical data. Specifically, we explored the influence of different sample preparation procedures. Our study shows that micro-CT is highly suitable for analyzing arthropod neuroarchitecture in situ and allows specific neuropils to be distinguished within the brain to extract quantitative data such as neuropil volumes. Moreover, data acquisition is considerably faster compared with many classical histological techniques. Thus, we conclude that micro-CT is highly suitable for targeting neuroanatomy, as it reduces the risk of artifacts and is faster than classical techniques. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1281–1295, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728683

  18. A Micro-Computed Tomography Technique to Study the Quality of Fibre Optics Embedded in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of embedment of optical fibre sensors in carbon fibre-reinforced polymers plays an important role in the resultant properties of the composite, as well as for the correct monitoring of the structure. Therefore, availability of a tool able to check the optical fibre sensor-composite interaction becomes essential. High-resolution 3D X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or Micro-CT, is a relatively new non-destructive inspection technique which enables investigations of the internal structure of a sample without actually compromising its integrity. In this work the feasibility of inspecting the position, the orientation and, more generally, the quality of the embedment of an optical fibre sensor in a carbon fibre reinforced laminate at unit cell level have been proven.

  19. Analysis of micro computed tomography images; a look inside historic enamelled metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Veerle; van de Casteele, Elke; Thomas, Mienke Simon; de Vos, Annemie; Janssen, Elsje; Janssens, Koen

    2010-02-01

    In this study the usefulness of micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) for the in-depth analysis of enamelled metal objects was tested. Usually investigations of enamelled metal artefacts are restricted to non-destructive surface analysis or analysis of cross sections after destructive sampling. Radiography, a commonly used technique in the field of cultural heritage studies, is limited to providing two-dimensional information about a three-dimensional object (Lang and Middleton, Radiography of Cultural Material, pp. 60-61, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam-Stoneham-London, 2005). Obtaining virtual slices and information about the internal structure of these objects was made possible by CT analysis. With this technique the underlying metal work was studied without removing the decorative enamel layer. Moreover visible defects such as cracks were measured in both width and depth and as of yet invisible defects and weaker areas are visualised. All these features are of great interest to restorers and conservators as they allow a view inside these objects without so much as touching them.

  20. Prediction of sentinel lymph node status using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiguchi, Mai; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fujisue, Mamiko; Shiraishi, Shinya; Inao, Touko; Murakami, Kei-ichi; Honda, Yumi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2016-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) improves the anatomical identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs). We aimed to evaluate the possibility of predicting the SN status using SPECT/CT. SN mapping using a SPECT/CT system was performed in 381 cases of clinically node-negative, operable invasive breast cancer. We evaluated and compared the values of SN mapping on SPECT/CT, the findings of other modalities and clinicopathological factors in predicting the SN status. Patients with SNs located in the Level I area were evaluated. Of the 355 lesions (94.8 %) assessed, six cases (1.6 %) were not detected using any imaging method. According to the final histological diagnosis, 298 lesions (78.2 %) were node negative and 83 lesions (21.7 %) were node positive. The univariate analysis showed that SN status was significantly correlated with the number of SNs detected on SPECT/CT in the Level I area (P = 0.0048), total number of SNs detected on SPECT/CT (P = 0.011), findings of planar lymphoscintigraphy (P = 0.011) and findings of a handheld gamma probe during surgery (P = 0.012). According to the multivariate analysis, the detection of multiple SNs on SPECT/CT imaging helped to predict SN metastasis. The number of SNs located in the Level I area detected using the SPECT/CT system may be a predictive factor for SN metastasis.

  1. Effect of micro-computed tomography voxel size and segmentation method on trabecular bone microstructure measures in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaine A. Christiansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomographyCT is currently the gold standard for determining trabecular bone microstructure in small animal models. Numerous parameters associated with scanning and evaluation of μCT scans can strongly affect morphologic results obtained from bone samples. However, the effect of these parameters on specific trabecular bone outcomes is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of μCT scanning with nominal voxel sizes between 6–30 μm on trabecular bone outcomes quantified in mouse vertebral body trabecular bone. Additionally, two methods for determining a global segmentation threshold were compared: based on qualitative assessment of 2D images, or based on quantitative assessment of image histograms. It was found that nominal voxel size had a strong effect on several commonly reported trabecular bone parameters, in particular connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and bone tissue mineral density. Additionally, the two segmentation methods provided similar trabecular bone outcomes for scans with small nominal voxel sizes, but considerably different outcomes for scans with larger voxel sizes. The Qualitatively Selected segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV and trabecular thickness across different voxel sizes, but the Histogram segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular number, trabecular separation, and structure model index. Altogether, these results suggest that high-resolution scans be used whenever possible to provide the most accurate estimation of trabecular bone microstructure, and that the limitations of accurately determining trabecular bone outcomes should be considered when selecting scan parameters and making conclusions about inter-group variance or between-group differences in studies of trabecular bone microstructure in small animals. Keywords: Trabecular bone, Microstructure, Micro-computed tomography, Voxel size, Resolution

  2. Comparison of surface extraction techniques performance in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba, Marta; Jiménez, Roberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2018-01-01

    micro-geometries as well (i.e., in the sub-mm dimensional range). However, there are different factors that may influence the CT process performance, being one of them the surface extraction technique used. In this paper, two different extraction techniques are applied to measure a complex miniaturized......The number of industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology in 100–103 mm range has been continuously increasing, especially in the last years. Due to its specific characteristics, CT has the potential to be employed as a viable solution for measuring 3D complex...... dental file by CT in order to analyze its contribution to the final measurement uncertainty in complex geometries at the mm to sub-mm scales. The first method is based on a similarity analysis: the threshold determination; while the second one is based on a gradient or discontinuity analysis: the 3D...

  3. Application of X-ray computed micro-tomography to the study of damage and oxidation kinetics of thermostructural composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caty, Olivier, E-mail: caty@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Ibarroule, Philippe; Herbreteau, Mathieu; Rebillat, Francis [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Maire, Eric [MATEIS Laboratory, INSA Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vignoles, Gérard L. [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-04-01

    Thermostructural composites are three-dimensionally (3D) structured materials. Weakening phenomena (mechanical and chemical) take place inside the material following its 3D structure and are thus hard to describe accurately. X-ray computed micro-tomographyCT) is a recent solution that allows their experimental investigation. The technique is applied here to the study of failure under tensile loading and to the self healing processes during oxidation. Results are useful data to verify or invalidate hypotheses or estimations made in current models.

  4. Micro-CT image reconstruction based on alternating direction augmented Lagrangian method and total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Varun P; Palanisamy, P; Wahid, Khan A; Babyn, Paul; Cooper, David

    2013-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) plays an important role in pre-clinical imaging. The radiation from micro-CT can result in excess radiation exposure to the specimen under test, hence the reduction of radiation from micro-CT is essential. The proposed research focused on analyzing and testing an alternating direction augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) algorithm to recover images from random projections using total variation (TV) regularization. The use of TV regularization in compressed sensing problems makes the recovered image quality sharper by preserving the edges or boundaries more accurately. In this work TV regularization problem is addressed by ADAL which is a variant of the classic augmented Lagrangian method for structured optimization. The per-iteration computational complexity of the algorithm is two fast Fourier transforms, two matrix vector multiplications and a linear time shrinkage operation. Comparison of experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is stable, efficient and competitive with the existing algorithms for solving TV regularization problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CT crown for on-machine scale calibration in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A novel artefact for on-machine calibration of the scale in 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is presented. The artefact comprises an invar disc on which several reference ruby spheres are positioned at different heights using carbon fibre rods. The artefact is positioned and scanned together...

  6. Micro-computed tomographyCT) as a novel method in ecotoxicology--determination of morphometric and somatic data in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Rizzo, Larissa Y; Lammers, Twan; Gremse, Felix; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kiessling, Fabian; Hollert, Henner

    2016-02-01

    Fish are important sentinel organisms for the assessment of water quality and play a central role in ecotoxicological research. Of particular importance to the assessment of health and fitness of fish stocks in response to environmental conditions or pollution are morphometric (e.g. Fulton's condition index) and somatic indices (e.g. hepatosomatic, and gonadosomatic index). Standard measurements of somatic indices are invasive and require, by definition, the sacrifice of examined animals, thus prohibiting longitudinal studies and relocation of animals captured in the field. As a potential solution, in the present study, we propose the use of micro-computed tomographyCT) as imaging modality to non-invasively tomographically image rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to different sediment suspensions. We here demonstrate that μCT can be used as a tool to reliably measure the volumes of different organs, which could then be applied as a substitute of their weights in calculation of somatic indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the results of μCT analyses in the context of ecotoxicological research in rainbow trout. It has the potential to greatly increase the information value of experiments conducted with fish and also to potentially reduce the number of animals required for studying temporal effects through facilitating longitudinal studies within the same individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  8. [(18) F]fluoromethylcholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for lymph node staging of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads H; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F

    2012-01-01

    recurrence. Therefore, one may question whether surgical lymph node dissection (LND) is sufficiently reliable for staging of these patients. Several imaging methods for primary LN staging of patients with prostate cancer have been tested. Acceptable detection rates have not been achieved by CT or MRI...... this procedure. However, we did detect several bone metastases with [(18) F]FCH PET/CT that the normal bone scans had missed, and this might be worth pursuing. OBJECTIVES: •  To assess the value of [(18) F]fluoromethylcholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for lymph node (LN...

  9. Quantitative in vivo micro-computed tomography for assessment of age-dependent changes in murine whole-body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Beaucage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is used routinely to quantify skeletal tissue mass in small animal models. Our goal was to evaluate repeated in vivo micro-CT imaging for monitoring whole-body composition in studies of growth and aging in mice. Male mice from 2 to 52 weeks of age were anesthetized and imaged using an eXplore Locus Ultra and/or eXplore speCZT scanner. Images were reconstructed into 3D volumes, signal-intensity thresholds were used to classify each voxel as adipose, lean or skeletal tissue, and tissue masses were calculated from known density values. Images revealed specific changes in tissue distribution with growth and aging. Quantification showed biphasic increases in total CT-derived body mass, lean and skeletal tissue masses, consisting of rapid increases to 8 weeks of age, followed by slow linear increases to 52 weeks. In contrast, bone mineral density increased rapidly to a stable plateau at ~14 weeks of age. On the other hand, adipose tissue mass increased continuously with age. A micro-CT-derived total mass was calculated for each mouse and compared with gravimetrically measured mass, which differed on average by <3%. Parameters were highly reproducible for mice of the same age, but variability increased slightly with age. There was also good agreement in parameters for the same group of mice scanned on the eXplore Locus Ultra and eXplore speCZT systems. This study provides reference values for normative comparisons; as well, it demonstrates the usefulness of in vivo single-energy micro-CT scans to quantify whole-body composition in high-throughput studies of growth and aging in mice. Keywords: Adipose tissue, Bone mineral content, Bone mineral density, Growth, Lean tissue, Skeletal tissue

  10. The quantitative assessment of peri-implant bone responses using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Corinne; Meijer, Gert J; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Spauwen, Paul H M; Jansen, John A

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of implant design and surface properties on peri-implant bone response were evaluated with both conventional histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), using two geometrically different dental implants (Screw type, St; Push-in, Pi) either or not surface-modified (non-coated, CaP-coated, or CaP-coated+TGF-beta1). After 12 weeks of implantation in a goat femoral condyle model, peri-implant bone response was evaluated in three different zones (inner: 0-500 microm; middle: 500-1000 microm; and outer: 1000-1500 microm) around the implant. Results indicated superiority of conventional histomorphometry over micro-CT, as the latter is hampered by deficits in the discrimination at the implant/tissue interface. Beyond this interface, both analysis techniques can be regarded as complementary. Histomorphometrical analysis showed an overall higher bone volume around St compared to Pi implants, but no effects of surface modification were observed. St implants showed lowest bone volumes in the outer zone, whereas inner zones were lowest for Pi implants. These results implicate that for Pi implants bone formation started from two different directions (contact- and distance osteogenesis). For St implants it was concluded that undersized implantation technique and loosening of bone fragments compress the zones for contact and distant osteogenesis, thereby improving bone volume at the interface significantly.

  11. Longitudinal in vivo evaluation of bone regeneration by combined measurement of multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Philipp S.; Metzger, Stéphanie; Kiveliö, Anna-Sofia; Blanc, Alain; Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Astolfo, Alberto; Pinzer, Bernd R.; Cinelli, Paolo; Weber, Franz E.; Schibli, Roger; Béhé, Martin; Ehrbar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decades, great strides were made in the development of novel implants for the treatment of bone defects. The increasing versatility and complexity of these implant designs request for concurrent advances in means to assess in vivo the course of induced bone formation in preclinical models. Since its discovery, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has excelled as powerful high-resolution technique for non-invasive assessment of newly formed bone tissue. However, micro-CT fails to provide spatiotemporal information on biological processes ongoing during bone regeneration. Conversely, due to the versatile applicability and cost-effectiveness, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would be an ideal technique for assessing such biological processes with high sensitivity and for nuclear imaging comparably high resolution (designed poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels that release bone morphogenetic protein to guide the healing of critical sized calvarial bone defects. By combined in vivo longitudinal multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT evaluations we determine the spatiotemporal course of bone formation and remodeling within this synthetic hydrogel implant. End point evaluations by high resolution micro-CT and histological evaluation confirm the value of this approach to follow and optimize bone-inducing biomaterials.

  12. Micro-computed tomographyCT) as a novel method in ecotoxicology — determination of morphometric and somatic data in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Rizzo, Larissa Y.; Lammers, Twan; Gremse, Felix; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kiessling, Fabian; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-01

    Fish are important sentinel organisms for the assessment of water quality and play a central role in ecotoxicological research. Of particular importance to the assessment of health and fitness of fish stocks in response to environmental conditions or pollution are morphometric (e.g. Fulton's condition index) and somatic indices (e.g. hepatosomatic, and gonadosomatic index). Standard measurements of somatic indices are invasive and require, by definition, the sacrifice of examined animals, thus prohibiting longitudinal studies and relocation of animals captured in the field. As a potential solution, in the present study, we propose the use of micro-computed tomographyCT) as imaging modality to non-invasively tomographically image rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to different sediment suspensions. We here demonstrate that μCT can be used as a tool to reliably measure the volumes of different organs, which could then be applied as a substitute of their weights in calculation of somatic indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the results of μCT analyses in the context of ecotoxicological research in rainbow trout. It has the potential to greatly increase the information value of experiments conducted with fish and also to potentially reduce the number of animals required for studying temporal effects through facilitating longitudinal studies within the same individuals. - Highlights: • μCT was used for volumetric imaging sediment-exposed and unexposed rainbow trout • Liver volumes determined by μCT were highly correlated with liver weights. • The perfusion of organs in fish could also be studied by means of μCT. • It was shown that μCT is a useful tool in context of ecotoxicological research.

  13. Resolution, sensitivity, and in vivo application of high-resolution computed tomography for titanium-coated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Anil, S.; Al Farraj Aldosari, A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (i) to determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of micro- versus nano-computed tomography (CT) techniques and (ii) to validate micro- versus nano-CT in a dog dental implant model, comparative to histological analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine

  14. Evaluation of ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography in microPET/CT laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Daniele Martins

    2016-01-01

    Micro PET/CT scanner is an essential tool generally used for small animal molecular imaging. Fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose is the most widely used radioisotope in this technique. The present study aimed to evaluate the radiation levels in a micro PET/CT research laboratory of the Radiopharmacy Center at IPEN-CNEN / SP, in order to accomplish both national standards and international recommendations. The radioprotection team has classified the laboratory as supervised area; even this laboratory does not require the adoption of specific measures for protection and safety, should be done regular re-evaluation of the conditions of occupational exposures. Workplace monitoring and individual control assessment were carried out to ensure the radiological protection of all workers directly involved in handling the scanner. Initially, there was conducted a radiometric survey, as well as measurements of the external radiation level in the workplace and its surroundings. To achieve this goal, there were placed nine thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy in preselected locations. Monthly evaluations of the occupationally exposed individuals were carried out through the use of TL dosimeters, ported in the workers' chest. Moreover, whole body measurements were performed every six months. The study period was about two-years which started in April 2014. All tests to evaluate micro PET/CT performance were based on the standard protocol of the equipment in accordance with the standard developed by the Animal PET Standard Task Force. Present study's results demonstrated that the ambient radiation levels (ambient and effective estimated radiation dose), as well as the effective shielding equipment are both adequate. This study emphasizes that it is essential to strictly follow the principles of radioprotection in workplace, whenever researches involve radioactive unsealed sources. (author)

  15. Improved method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Erin B; Panda, Kunal; Bankson, James A; Brown, Ellana; Cody, Dianna D [Department of Imaging Physics, Unit 56, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2004-09-07

    The presence of motion artifacts is a typical problem in thoracic imaging. However, synchronizing the respiratory cycle with computed tomography (CT) image acquisition can reduce these artifacts. We currently employ a method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging for small laboratory animals (mice). This procedure involves the use of a ventilator that controls the respiratory cycle of the animal and provides a digital output signal that is used to trigger data acquisition. After inspection of the default respiratory trigger timing, we hypothesized that image quality could be improved by moving the data-acquisition window to a portion of the cycle with less respiratory motion. For this reason, we developed a simple delay circuit to adjust the timing of the ventilator signal that initiates micro-CT data acquisition. This delay circuit decreases motion artifacts and substantially improves image quality.

  16. Improved method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Erin B; Panda, Kunal; Bankson, James A; Brown, Ellana; Cody, Dianna D

    2004-01-01

    The presence of motion artifacts is a typical problem in thoracic imaging. However, synchronizing the respiratory cycle with computed tomography (CT) image acquisition can reduce these artifacts. We currently employ a method of in vivo respiratory-gated micro-CT imaging for small laboratory animals (mice). This procedure involves the use of a ventilator that controls the respiratory cycle of the animal and provides a digital output signal that is used to trigger data acquisition. After inspection of the default respiratory trigger timing, we hypothesized that image quality could be improved by moving the data-acquisition window to a portion of the cycle with less respiratory motion. For this reason, we developed a simple delay circuit to adjust the timing of the ventilator signal that initiates micro-CT data acquisition. This delay circuit decreases motion artifacts and substantially improves image quality

  17. Micro-computed tomography of pulmonary fibrosis in mice induced by adenoviral gene transfer of biologically active transforming growth factor-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauldie Jack

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is a novel tool for monitoring acute and chronic disease states in small laboratory animals. Its value for assessing progressive lung fibrosis in mice has not been reported so far. Here we examined the importance of in vivo micro-CT as non-invasive tool to assess progression of pulmonary fibrosis in mice over time. Methods Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal delivery of an adenoviral gene vector encoding biologically active TGF-ß1 (AdTGF-ß1. Respiratory gated and ungated micro-CT scans were performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post pulmonary adenoviral gene or control vector delivery, and were then correlated with respective histopathology-based Ashcroft scoring of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Visual assessment of image quality and consolidation was performed by 3 observers and a semi-automated quantification algorithm was applied to quantify aerated pulmonary volume as an inverse surrogate marker for pulmonary fibrosis. Results We found a significant correlation between classical Ashcroft scoring and micro-CT assessment using both visual assessment and the semi-automated quantification algorithm. Pulmonary fibrosis could be clearly detected in micro-CT, image quality values were higher for respiratory gated exams, although differences were not significant. For assessment of fibrosis no significant difference between respiratory gated and ungated exams was observed. Conclusions Together, we show that micro-CT is a powerful tool to assess pulmonary fibrosis in mice, using both visual assessment and semi-automated quantification algorithms. These data may be important in view of pre-clinical pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of lung fibrosis in small laboratory animals.

  18. Nano-computed tomography. Technique and applications; Nanocomputertomografie. Technik und Applikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampschulte, M.; Sender, J.; Litzlbauer, H.D.; Althoehn, U.; Schwab, J.D.; Alejandre-Lafont, E.; Martels, G.; Krombach, G.A. [University Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Langheinirch, A.C. [BG Trauma Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-02-15

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is an emerging, high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique and represents a technical advancement of the established micro-CT technology. Based on the application of a transmission target X-ray tube, the focal spot size can be decreased down to diameters less than 400 nanometers (nm). Together with specific detectors and examination protocols, a superior spatial resolution up to 400 nm (10 % MTF) can be achieved, thereby exceeding the resolution capacity of typical micro-CT systems. The technical concept of nano-CT imaging as well as the basics of specimen preparation are demonstrated exemplarily. Characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications) in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE{sub (-/-)}/LDLR{sub (-/-)} double knockout mouse) are demonstrated in the context of superior spatial resolution in comparison to micro-CT. Furthermore, this article presents the application of nano-CT for imaging cerebral microcirculation (murine), lung structures (porcine), and trabecular microstructure (ovine) in contrast to micro-CT imaging. This review shows the potential of nano-CT as a radiological method in biomedical basic research and discusses the application of experimental, high resolution CT techniques in consideration of other high resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques.

  19. Trabecular bone structural parameters evaluated using dental cone-beam computed tomography: cellular synthetic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jung-Ting; Wu, Jay; Huang, Heng-Li; Chen, Michael Y c; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2013-11-09

    This study compared the adequacy of dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT) in evaluating the structural parameters of trabecular bones. The cellular synthetic bones in 4 density groups (Groups 1-4: 0.12, 0.16, 0.20, and 0.32 g/cm3) were used in this study. Each group comprised 8 experimental specimens that were approximately 1 cm3. Dental CBCT and micro-CT scans were conducted on each specimen to obtain independent measurements of the following 4 trabecular bone structural parameters: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), specific bone surface (BS/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to compare the measurement variations between the dental CBCT and micro-CT scans. A Spearman analysis was conducted to calculate the correlation coefficients (r) of the dental CBCT and micro-CT measurements. Of the 4 groups, the BV/TV and Tb.Th. measured using dental CBCT were larger compared with those measured using micro-CT. By contrast, the BS/BV measured using dental CBCT was significantly less compared with those measured using micro-CT. Furthermore, in the low-density groups (Groups 1 and 2), the Tb.Sp. measured using dental CBCT was smaller compared with those measured using micro-CT. However, the Tb.Sp. measured using dental CBCT was slightly larger in the high-density groups (Groups 3 and 4) than it was in the low density groups. The correlation coefficients between the BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th., and Tb.Sp. values measured using dental CBCT and micro-CT were 0.9296 (p < .001), 0.8061 (p < .001), 0.9390 (p < .001), and 0.9583 (p < .001), respectively. Although the dental CBCT and micro-CT approaches exhibited high correlations, the absolute values of BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th., Tb.Sp. differed significantly between these measurements. Additional studies must be conducted to evaluate using dental CBCT in clinical practice.

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  2. Investigation of a pre-clinical mandibular bone notch defect model in miniature pigs: clinical computed tomography, micro-computed tomography, and histological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Patricia L; Guda, Teja; Silliman, David T; Lien, Wen; Hale, Robert G; Brown Baer, Pamela R

    2016-02-01

    To validate a critical-size mandibular bone defect model in miniature pigs. Bilateral notch defects were produced in the mandible of dentally mature miniature pigs. The right mandibular defect remained untreated while the left defect received an autograft. Bone healing was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) at 4 and 16 weeks, and by micro-CT and non-decalcified histology at 16 weeks. In both the untreated and autograft treated groups, mineralized tissue volume was reduced significantly at 4 weeks post-surgery, but was comparable to the pre-surgery levels after 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, CT analysis indicated that significantly greater bone was regenerated in the autograft treated defect than in the untreated defect (P=0.013). Regardless of the treatment, the cortical bone was superior to the defect remodeled over 16 weeks to compensate for the notch defect. The presence of considerable bone healing in both treated and untreated groups suggests that this model is inadequate as a critical-size defect. Despite healing and adaptation, the original bone geometry and quality of the pre-injured mandible was not obtained. On the other hand, this model is justified for evaluating accelerated healing and mitigating the bone remodeling response, which are both important considerations for dental implant restorations.

  3. Computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma: Usefulness of dynamic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruki; Oda, Junro [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-04-01

    Dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans in 65 hepatocellular carcinomas were analyzed and compared to plain and drip infusion contrast CT scans of those. Scans were obtained before, 10, 30, and 50 seconds after an intravenous bolus injection of 50ml 65% Angiografin. By this method, 49 hepatomas had moderate to marked enhancement at the arterial phase while the enhancement of normal liver parenchyma was only slight at the arterial phase and peaked at the portal phase. Compared to a drip infusion contrast CT, a dynamic CT had advantages to detect an isodense hepatoma in 4 and daughter tumors in 16 both of which were not appreciated by a plain and a drip infusion contrast CT. The tumor extension was also better delineated by a dynamic CT because a part of hepatoma had an isodense area. An arterio-portal shunt was visualized in one. Tumor thrombus in the portal vein was clearly demonstrated in 6 at the portal phase of a dynamic CT. Since a dynamic CT is convenient to perform without any special program or soft wear and gives us very useful information, we believe that it should be routinely employed as a part of a liver CT examination.

  4. Ground-glass opacity: High-resolution computed tomography and 64-multi-slice computed tomography findings comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergiacomi, Gianluigi; Ciccio, Carmelo; Boi, Luca; Velari, Luca; Crusco, Sonia; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Comparative evaluation of ground-glass opacity using conventional high-resolution computed tomography technique and volumetric computed tomography by 64-row multi-slice scanner, verifying advantage of volumetric acquisition and post-processing technique allowed by 64-row CT scanner. Methods: Thirty-four patients, in which was assessed ground-glass opacity pattern by previous high-resolution computed tomography during a clinical-radiological follow-up for their lung disease, were studied by means of 64-row multi-slice computed tomography. Comparative evaluation of image quality was done by both CT modalities. Results: It was reported good inter-observer agreement (k value 0.78-0.90) in detection of ground-glass opacity with high-resolution computed tomography technique and volumetric Computed Tomography acquisition with moderate increasing of intra-observer agreement (k value 0.46) using volumetric computed tomography than high-resolution computed tomography. Conclusions: In our experience, volumetric computed tomography with 64-row scanner shows good accuracy in detection of ground-glass opacity, providing a better spatial and temporal resolution and advanced post-processing technique than high-resolution computed tomography.

  5. 3D printing from microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) in human specimens: education and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Simcock, Ian C; Hutchinson, John Ciaran; Aughwane, Rosalind; Melbourne, Andrew; Nikitichev, Daniil I; Ong, Ju-Ling; Borghi, Alessandro; Cole, Garrard; Kingham, Emilia; Calder, Alistair D; Capelli, Claudio; Akhtar, Aadam; Cook, Andrew C; Schievano, Silvia; David, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastian; Sebire, Neil J; Arthurs, Owen J

    2018-06-14

    Microfocus CT (micro-CT) is an imaging method that provides three-dimensional digital data sets with comparable resolution to light microscopy. Although it has traditionally been used for non-destructive testing in engineering, aerospace industries and in preclinical animal studies, new applications are rapidly becoming available in the clinical setting including post-mortem fetal imaging and pathological specimen analysis. Printing three-dimensional models from imaging data sets for educational purposes is well established in the medical literature, but typically using low resolution (0.7 mm voxel size) data acquired from CT or MR examinations. With higher resolution imaging (voxel sizes below 1 micron, printing of micro-CT imaged specimens can provide insight into craniofacial surgical applications, developmental cardiac anatomy, placental imaging, archaeological remains and high-resolution bone imaging. We conclude with other potential future usages of this emerging technique.

  6. Micro- and nano-X-ray computed-tomography: A step forward in the characterization of the pore network of a leached cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossa, Nathan; Chaurand, Perrine; Vicente, Jérôme; Borschneck, Daniel; Levard, Clément; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Rose, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Pore structure of leached cement pastes (w/c = 0.5) was studied for the first time from micro-scale down to the nano-scale by combining micro- and nano-X-ray computed tomography (micro- and nano-CT). This allowed assessing the 3D heterogeneity of the pore network along the cement profile (from the core to the altered layer) of almost the entire range of cement pore size, i.e. from capillary to gel pores. We successfully quantified an increase of porosity in the altered layer at both resolutions. Porosity is increasing from 1.8 to 6.1% and from 18 to 58% at the micro-(voxel = 1.81 μm) and nano-scale (voxel = 63.5 nm) respectively. The combination of both CT allowed to circumvent weaknesses inherent of both investigation scales. In addition the connectivity and the channel size of the pore network were also evaluated to obtain a complete 3D pore network characterization at both scales

  7. Attenuating trabecular morphology associated with low magnesium diet evaluated using micro computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Tu

    Full Text Available The literature shows that bone mineral density (BMD and the geometric architecture of trabecular bone in the femur may be affected by inadequate dietary intake of Mg. In this study, we used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT to characterize and quantify the impact of a low-Mg diet on femoral trabecular bones in mice.Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups and supplied either a normal or low-Mg diet for 8weeks. Samples of plasma and urine were collected for biochemical analysis, and femur tissues were removed for micro-CT imaging. In addition to considering standard parameters, we regarded trabecular bone as a cylindrical rod and used computational algorithms for a technical assessment of the morphological characteristics of the bones. BMD (mg-HA/cm3 was obtained using a standard phantom.We observed a decline in the total tissue volume, bone volume, percent bone volume, fractal dimension, number of trabecular segments, number of connecting nodes, bone mineral content (mg-HA, and BMD, as well as an increase in the structural model index and surface-area-to-volume ratio in low-Mg mice. Subsequently, we examined the distributions of the trabecular segment length and radius, and a series of specific local maximums were identified. The biochemical analysis revealed a 43% (96% decrease in Mg and a 40% (71% decrease in Ca in plasma (urine excretion.This technical assessment performed using micro-CT revealed a lower population of femoral trabecular bones and a decrease in BMD at the distal metaphysis in the low-Mg mice. Examining the distributions of the length and radius of trabecular segments showed that the average length and radius of the trabecular segments in low-Mg mice are similar to those in normal mice.

  8. Basics principles of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Y.; Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.; Kalender, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers (II). In comparison to X-ray film and II, FD technology offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. FDCT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. Additionally, the introduction of FD technology was a milestone for soft-tissue CT imaging in the interventional suite which was not possible with II systems in the past. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its wide range of applications for CT imaging. FDCT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations, but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging during an intervention. (orig.) [de

  9. Micro-computed tomographyCT) as a novel method in ecotoxicology — determination of morphometric and somatic data in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus, E-mail: markus.brinkmann@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Rizzo, Larissa Y.; Lammers, Twan; Gremse, Felix [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Schiwy, Sabrina [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, 1 Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University (China)

    2016-02-01

    Fish are important sentinel organisms for the assessment of water quality and play a central role in ecotoxicological research. Of particular importance to the assessment of health and fitness of fish stocks in response to environmental conditions or pollution are morphometric (e.g. Fulton's condition index) and somatic indices (e.g. hepatosomatic, and gonadosomatic index). Standard measurements of somatic indices are invasive and require, by definition, the sacrifice of examined animals, thus prohibiting longitudinal studies and relocation of animals captured in the field. As a potential solution, in the present study, we propose the use of micro-computed tomographyCT) as imaging modality to non-invasively tomographically image rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to different sediment suspensions. We here demonstrate that μCT can be used as a tool to reliably measure the volumes of different organs, which could then be applied as a substitute of their weights in calculation of somatic indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the results of μCT analyses in the context of ecotoxicological research in rainbow trout. It has the potential to greatly increase the information value of experiments conducted with fish and also to potentially reduce the number of animals required for studying temporal effects through facilitating longitudinal studies within the same individuals. - Highlights: • μCT was used for volumetric imaging sediment-exposed and unexposed rainbow trout • Liver volumes determined by μCT were highly correlated with liver weights. • The perfusion of organs in fish could also be studied by means of μCT. • It was shown that μCT is a useful tool in context of ecotoxicological research.

  10. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Micro-computed tomography (CT) based assessment of dental regenerative therapy in the canine mandible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, P.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Andreana, S.; Dziak, R.; Sunkara, S. K.; Sunkara, S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution 3D bone-tissue structure measurements may provide information critical to the understanding of the bone regeneration processes and to the bone strength assessment. Tissue engineering studies rely on such nondestructive measurements to monitor bone graft regeneration area. In this study, we measured bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness through micro-CT slices for different grafts and controls. Eight canines underwent surgery to remove a bone volume (defect) in the canine's jaw at a total of 44 different locations. We kept 11 defects empty for control and filled the remaining ones with three regenerative materials; NanoGen (NG), a FDA-approved material (n=11), a novel NanoCalcium Sulfate (NCS) material (n=11) and NCS alginate (NCS+alg) material (n=11). After a minimum of four and eight weeks, the canines were sacrificed and the jaw samples were extracted. We used a custombuilt micro-CT system to acquire the data volume and developed software to measure the bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness. The software used a segmentation algorithm based on histograms derived from volumes of interest indicated by the operator. Using bone yield and fractal dimension as indices we are able to differentiate between the control and regenerative material (p<0.005). Regenerative material NCS showed an average 63.15% bone yield improvement over the control sample, NCS+alg showed 55.55% and NanoGen showed 37.5%. The bone regeneration process and quality of bone were dependent upon the position of defect and time period of healing. This study presents one of the first quantitative comparisons using non-destructive Micro-CT analysis for bone regenerative material in a large animal with a critical defect model. Our results indicate that Micro-CT measurement could be used to monitor invivo bone regeneration studies for greater regenerative process understanding.

  12. Dimensional quality control of Ti-Ni dental file by optical coordinate metrology and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Ontiveros, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic dental files usually present complex 3D geometries, which make the complete measurement of the component very challenging with conventional micro metrology tools. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile...... techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, to verify the quality of the CT dimensional measurements, the dental file has been measured both with a μCT system and an optical CMM (OCMM). The uncertainty...

  13. A quality assurance phantom for the performance evaluation of volumetric micro-CT systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Louise Y [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Umoh, Joseph [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Nikolov, Hristo N [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Pollmann, Steven I [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Holdsworth, David W [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2007-12-07

    Small-animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. As a result, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems are becoming more common in research laboratories, due to their ability to achieve spatial resolution as high as 10 {mu}m, giving highly detailed anatomical information. Most recently, a volumetric cone-beam micro-CT system using a flat-panel detector (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare, London, ON) has been developed that combines the high resolution of micro-CT and the fast scanning speed of clinical CT, so that dynamic perfusion imaging can be performed in mice and rats, providing functional physiological information in addition to anatomical information. This and other commercially available micro-CT systems all promise to deliver precise and accurate high-resolution measurements in small animals. However, no comprehensive quality assurance phantom has been developed to evaluate the performance of these micro-CT systems on a routine basis. We have designed and fabricated a single comprehensive device for the purpose of performance evaluation of micro-CT systems. This quality assurance phantom was applied to assess multiple image-quality parameters of a current flat-panel cone-beam micro-CT system accurately and quantitatively, in terms of spatial resolution, geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.5 mm{sup -1} and noise of {+-}35 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 s at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy.

  14. A quality assurance phantom for the performance evaluation of volumetric micro-CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Louise Y; Umoh, Joseph; Nikolov, Hristo N; Pollmann, Steven I; Lee, Ting-Yim; Holdsworth, David W

    2007-01-01

    Small-animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. As a result, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems are becoming more common in research laboratories, due to their ability to achieve spatial resolution as high as 10 μm, giving highly detailed anatomical information. Most recently, a volumetric cone-beam micro-CT system using a flat-panel detector (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare, London, ON) has been developed that combines the high resolution of micro-CT and the fast scanning speed of clinical CT, so that dynamic perfusion imaging can be performed in mice and rats, providing functional physiological information in addition to anatomical information. This and other commercially available micro-CT systems all promise to deliver precise and accurate high-resolution measurements in small animals. However, no comprehensive quality assurance phantom has been developed to evaluate the performance of these micro-CT systems on a routine basis. We have designed and fabricated a single comprehensive device for the purpose of performance evaluation of micro-CT systems. This quality assurance phantom was applied to assess multiple image-quality parameters of a current flat-panel cone-beam micro-CT system accurately and quantitatively, in terms of spatial resolution, geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.5 mm -1 and noise of ±35 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 s at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy

  15. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  16. Low-dose computed tomography scans with automatic exposure control for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tu, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Shu-Hsin

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of automatic exposure control (AEC) in order to optimize low-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). One PET/CT and one SPECT/CT were used to acquire CT images for four anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-year-old, 5-year-old and 10-year-old children and an adult. For the hybrid systems investigated in this study, the radiation dose and image quality of cardiac CT scans performed with AEC activated depend mainly on the selection of a predefined image quality index. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyse image data from anthropomorphic phantom studies to investigate the effects of body size and predefined image quality index on CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT scans. The regression relationships have a coefficient of determination larger than 0.9, indicating a good fit to the data. According to the regression models, low-dose protocols using the AEC technique were optimized for patients of different ages. In comparison with the standard protocol with AEC activated for adult cardiac examinations used in our clinical routine practice, the optimized paediatric protocols in PET/CT allow 32.2, 63.7 and 79.2% CT dose reductions for anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 10-year-old, 5-year-old and 1-year-old children, respectively. The corresponding results for cardiac SPECT/CT are 8.4, 51.5 and 72.7%. AEC is a practical way to reduce CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT, but the AEC settings should be determined properly for optimal effect. Our results show that AEC does not eliminate the need for paediatric protocols and CT examinations using the AEC technique should be optimized for paediatric patients to reduce the radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  17. Assessment of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation using digital dental impressions and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Nassr; Patel, Shanon; Foschi, Federico; Mannocci, Francesco; Austin, Rupert S

    To evaluate the in vitro accuracy of digital impressions for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric measurement of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation, with reference to micro-computed tomographyCT). Quantification of the accuracy and precision of the intraoral digital scanner (3M True Definition Scanner - IOS) was performed using a metrology gauge block and a profilometric calibration model. Thirty-four human extracted molars with endodontic access cavities were scanned using both intraoral scanning (test scanner) in high-resolution mode, and µCT (reference scanner: GE Locus SP μCT scanner) in high- (HiResCT) and low- (LoResCT) resolution modes. Comparisons of volumetric accuracy and 3D profilometric deviations were performed using surface metrology software. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), in combination with the Bonferroni post hoc test, was implemented to compare the differences in volume measurements between scanning methods. Digital scanning revealed smaller volume measurements by 1.36% and 0.68% compared to HiResCT and LoResCT, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the volumetric measurements obtained from the IOS scanner and both HiResCT and LoResCT scans (P digital scanner was able to reliably measure the extra- and intracoronal aspect of the endodontically accessed tooth.

  18. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What is Computed Tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging What is Computed Tomography? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Chest X ray Image back to top Computed Tomography (CT) Although also based on the variable absorption ...

  20. X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A

    2006-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  1. Micro-computed tomography-based phenotypic approaches in embryology: procedural artifacts on assessments of embryonic craniofacial growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric J; Parsons, Trish E; Jamniczky, Heather A; Gitelman, Julian; Trpkov, Cvett; Boughner, Julia C; Logan, C Cairine; Sensen, Christoph W; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-17

    Growing demand for three dimensional (3D) digital images of embryos for purposes of phenotypic assessment drives implementation of new histological and imaging techniques. Among these micro-computed tomography (microCT) has recently been utilized as an effective and practical method for generating images at resolutions permitting 3D quantitative analysis of gross morphological attributes of developing tissues and organs in embryonic mice. However, histological processing in preparation for microCT scanning induces changes in organ size and shape. Establishing normative expectations for experimentally induced changes in size and shape will be an important feature of 3D microCT-based phenotypic assessments, especially if quantifying differences in the values of those parameters between comparison sets of developing embryos is a primary aim. Toward that end, we assessed the nature and degree of morphological artifacts attending microCT scanning following use of common fixatives, using a two dimensional (2D) landmark geometric morphometric approach to track the accumulation of distortions affecting the embryonic head from the native, uterine state through to fixation and subsequent scanning. Bouin's fixation reduced average centroid sizes of embryonic mouse crania by approximately 30% and substantially altered the morphometric shape, as measured by the shift in Procrustes distance, from the unfixed state, after the data were normalized for naturally occurring shape variation. Subsequent microCT scanning produced negligible changes in size but did appear to reduce or even reverse fixation-induced random shape changes. Mixtures of paraformaldehyde + glutaraldehyde reduced average centroid sizes by 2-3%. Changes in craniofacial shape progressively increased post-fixation. The degree to which artifacts are introduced in the generation of random craniofacial shape variation relates to the degree of specimen dehydration during the initial fixation. Fixation methods that

  2. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DOSE INDEX MEASUREMENT FOR Hi-ART MEGAVOLTAGE HELICAL CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Wang, Yunlai; Liao, Xiongfei

    2016-11-01

    On-line megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images are used to verify patient daily set-up in Hi-ART helical TomoTherapy unit. To evaluate the patient dose from MVCT scanning in image guidance, weighted computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDI w ) was measured with PTW TM30009 CT pencil chamber in head and body phantoms for slice thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6 mm with different scan lengths. Dose length products (DLPs) were subsequently calculated. The CTDI w and DLP were compared with XVI kV CBCT and Brilliance simulator CT for routine clinical protocols. It was shown that CTDI and DLP had close relationship with the slice thickness and the scan length. The dose distribution in the transversal plane was very inhomogeneous due to the attenuation of the couch. Patient dose from MVCT was lower than XVI CBCT for the head scan, while larger for body scan. CTDI w , which is measured easily and reproducibly, can be used to assess the patient dose in MVCT. Regular measurement should be performed in QA & QC programmes. Appropriate slice thickness and scan range should be chosen to reduce the patient dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Value of micro-CT as an Investigative Tool for Osteochondritis Dissecans. A preliminary study with comparison to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, A.; Bergmann, I.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Heiss, C.; Schrader, C.; Roemer, F.W.; Lynch, J.A.; Genant, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate micro computed tomography (micro-CT) for the assessment of osteochondritis dissecans in comparison with histology. Material and Methods: Osteochondritis dissecans lesions of 3 patients were evaluated using micro-CT (0.125 mA, 40 keV, 60 m slice thickness, 60 m isotropic resolution, entire sample) and light microscopy (toluidine blue, 3-5 m slice thickness). The methods were compared regarding preparation time, detectability of tissue types and morphologic features of bone and cartilage. Results: Non-destructive micro-CT imaging of the entire sample was faster than histologic preparation of a single slice for light microscopy. Morphologic features of bone and cartilage could be imaged in a comparable way to histology. It was not possible to image cells or different tissue types of bone and cartilage with micro-CT. Conclusion: Micro-CT is a fast, non-destructive tool that may be a supplement or, if detailed histologic information is not necessary, an alternative to light microscopy for the investigation of osteochondritis dissecans. Osteochondritis dissecans micro-CT histology comparative investigation

  4. Radiation dose reduction through combining positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and diagnostic CT in children and young adults with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhihua; Gates, Erica L; O'Brien, Maureen M; Trout, Andrew T

    2018-02-01

    Both [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) and diagnostic CT are at times required for lymphoma staging. This means some body segments are exposed twice to X-rays for generation of CT data (diagnostic CT + localization CT). To describe a combined PET/diagnostic CT approach that modulates CT tube current along the z-axis, providing diagnostic CT of some body segments and localization CT of the remaining body segments, thereby reducing patient radiation dose. We retrospectively compared total patient radiation dose between combined PET/diagnostic CT and separately acquired PET/CT and diagnostic CT exams. When available, we calculated effective doses for both approaches in the same patient; otherwise, we used data from patients of similar size. To confirm image quality, we compared image noise (Hounsfield unit [HU] standard deviation) as measured in the liver on both combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images. We used t-tests for dose comparisons and two one-sided tests for image-quality equivalence testing. Mean total effective dose for the CT component of the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT exams were 6.20±2.69 and 8.17±2.61 mSv, respectively (PCT effective dose. Image noise was not statistically significantly different between approaches (12.2±1.8 HU vs. 11.7±1.5 HU for the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images, respectively). A combined PET/diagnostic CT approach as described offers dose savings at similar image quality for children and young adults with lymphoma who have indications for both PET and diagnostic CT examinations.

  5. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations

  6. Trabecular bone structure parameters from 3D image processing of clinical multi-slice and cone-beam computed tomography data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klintstroem, Eva; Smedby, Oerjan [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); UHL County Council of Oestergoetland, Department of Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH)/Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moreno, Rodrigo [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH)/Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Brismar, Torkel B. [KUS Huddinge, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet and Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Bone strength depends on both mineral content and bone structure. The aim of this in vitro study was to develop a method of quantitatively assessing trabecular bone structure by applying three-dimensional image processing to data acquired with multi-slice and cone-beam computed tomography using micro-computed tomography as a reference. Fifteen bone samples from the radius were examined. After segmentation, quantitative measures of bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, trabecular nodes, and trabecular termini were obtained. The clinical machines overestimated bone volume and trabecular thickness and underestimated trabecular nodes and number, but cone-beam CT to a lesser extent. Parameters obtained from cone beam CT were strongly correlated with μCT, with correlation coefficients between 0.93 and 0.98 for all parameters except trabecular termini. The high correlation between cone-beam CT and micro-CT suggest the possibility of quantifying and monitoring changes of trabecular bone microarchitecture in vivo using cone beam CT. (orig.)

  7. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micro-computed tomography characterization of tissue engineering scaffolds: effects of pixel size and rotation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ibrahim Fatih; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Reis, Rui L

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of micro-structure of materials is of key importance in many fields including tissue engineering, biology, and dentistry. Micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) is an intensively used non-destructive technique. However, the acquisition parameters such as pixel size and rotation step may have significant effects on the obtained results. In this study, a set of tissue engineering scaffolds including examples of natural and synthetic polymers, and ceramics were analyzed. We comprehensively compared the quantitative results of µ-CT characterization using 15 acquisition scenarios that differ in the combination of the pixel size and rotation step. The results showed that the acquisition parameters could statistically significantly affect the quantified mean porosity, mean pore size, and mean wall thickness of the scaffolds. The effects are also practically important since the differences can be as high as 24% regarding the mean porosity in average, and 19.5 h and 166 GB regarding the characterization time and data storage per sample with a relatively small volume. This study showed in a quantitative manner the effects of such a wide range of acquisition scenarios on the final data, as well as the characterization time and data storage per sample. Herein, a clear picture of the effects of the pixel size and rotation step on the results is provided which can notably be useful to refine the practice of µ-CT characterization of scaffolds and economize the related resources.

  9. Micro-Scale Distribution of CA4+ in Ex Vivo Human Articular Cartilage Detected with Contrast-Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Freedman, Jonathan D.; Kauppinen, Sami; Valkealahti, Maarit; Lehenkari, Petri; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Snyder, Brian D.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEµCT) with cationic and anionic contrast agents reveals glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and distribution in articular cartilage (AC). The advantage of using cationic stains (e.g. CA4+) compared to anionic stains (e.g. Hexabrix®), is that it distributes proportionally with GAGs, while anionic stain distribution in AC is inversely proportional to the GAG content. To date, studies using cationic stains have been conducted with sufficient resolution to study its distributions on the macro-scale, but with insufficient resolution to study its distributions on the micro-scale. Therefore, it is not known whether the cationic contrast agents accumulate in extra/pericellular matrix and if they interact with chondrocytes. The insufficient resolution has also prevented to answer the question whether CA4+ accumulation in chondrons could lead to an erroneous quantification of GAG distribution with low-resolution µCT setups. In this study, we use high-resolution µCT to investigate whether CA4+ accumulates in chondrocytes, and further, to determine whether it affects the low-resolution ex vivo µCT studies of CA4+ stained human AC with varying degree of osteoarthritis. Human osteochondral samples were immersed in three different concentrations of CA4+ (3 mgI/ml, 6mgI/ml, and 24 mgI/ml) and imaged with high-resolution µCT at several timepoints. Different uptake diffusion profiles of CA4+ were observed between the segmented chondrons and the rest of the tissue. While the X-ray -detected CA4+ concentration in chondrons was greater than in the rest of the AC, its contribution to the uptake into the whole tissue was negligible and in line with macro-scale GAG content detected from histology. The efficient uptake of CA4+ into chondrons and surrounding territorial matrix can be explained by the micro-scale distribution of GAG content. CA4+ uptake in chondrons occurred regardless of the progression stage of osteoarthritis in the samples

  10. Micro-Scale Distribution of CA4+ in Ex vivo Human Articular Cartilage Detected with Contrast-Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari S. Karhula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT with cationic and anionic contrast agents reveals glycosaminoglycan (GAG content and distribution in articular cartilage (AC. The advantage of using cationic stains (e.g., CA4+ compared to anionic stains (e.g., Hexabrix®, is that it distributes proportionally with GAGs, while anionic stain distribution in AC is inversely proportional to the GAG content. To date, studies using cationic stains have been conducted with sufficient resolution to study its distributions on the macro-scale, but with insufficient resolution to study its distributions on the micro-scale. Therefore, it is not known whether the cationic contrast agents accumulate in extra/pericellular matrix and if they interact with chondrocytes. The insufficient resolution has also prevented to answer the question whether CA4+ accumulation in chondrons could lead to an erroneous quantification of GAG distribution with low-resolution μCT setups. In this study, we use high-resolution μCT to investigate whether CA4+ accumulates in chondrocytes, and further, to determine whether it affects the low-resolution ex vivo μCT studies of CA4+ stained human AC with varying degree of osteoarthritis. Human osteochondral samples were immersed in three different concentrations of CA4+ (3 mgI/ml, 6 mgI/ml, and 24 mgI/ml and imaged with high-resolution μCT at several timepoints. Different uptake diffusion profiles of CA4+ were observed between the segmented chondrons and the rest of the tissue. While the X-ray -detected CA4+ concentration in chondrons was greater than in the rest of the AC, its contribution to the uptake into the whole tissue was negligible and in line with macro-scale GAG content detected from histology. The efficient uptake of CA4+ into chondrons and surrounding territorial matrix can be explained by the micro-scale distribution of GAG content. CA4+ uptake in chondrons occurred regardless of the progression stage of osteoarthritis

  11. Analysis of the enamel hypoplasia using micro-CT scanner versus classical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Justyna; Skrzat, Janusz; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates the use of micro-CT scanning of the teeth surface for recognizing and evaluating severity of the enamel hypoplasia. To test capabilities of the microtomography versus classical method of evaluation hypoplastic defects of the enamel we selected two human teeth (C, M(2)) showing different types of enamel hypoplasia: linear, pits, and groove. Examined samples derive from archeological material dated on XVII-XVIII AD and excavated in Poland. In the current study we proved that micro-CT scanning is a powerful technique not only for imaging all kinds of the enamel hypoplasia but also allows to perform accurate measurements of the enamel defects. We figure out that contrary to the classical method of scoring enamel defects, the micro-computed tomography yields adequate data which serve for estimating the length of stress episode and length of interval between them.

  12. Radiation dose reduction through combining positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and diagnostic CT in children and young adults with lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhihua; Gates, Erica L.; Trout, Andrew T.; O'Brien, Maureen M.

    2018-01-01

    Both [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) and diagnostic CT are at times required for lymphoma staging. This means some body segments are exposed twice to X-rays for generation of CT data (diagnostic CT + localization CT). To describe a combined PET/diagnostic CT approach that modulates CT tube current along the z-axis, providing diagnostic CT of some body segments and localization CT of the remaining body segments, thereby reducing patient radiation dose. We retrospectively compared total patient radiation dose between combined PET/diagnostic CT and separately acquired PET/CT and diagnostic CT exams. When available, we calculated effective doses for both approaches in the same patient; otherwise, we used data from patients of similar size. To confirm image quality, we compared image noise (Hounsfield unit [HU] standard deviation) as measured in the liver on both combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images. We used t-tests for dose comparisons and two one-sided tests for image-quality equivalence testing. Mean total effective dose for the CT component of the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT exams were 6.20±2.69 and 8.17±2.61 mSv, respectively (P<0.0001). Average dose savings with the combined approach was 24.8±17.8% (2.60±2.51 mSv [range: 0.32-4.72 mSv]) of total CT effective dose. Image noise was not statistically significantly different between approaches (12.2±1.8 HU vs. 11.7±1.5 HU for the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images, respectively). A combined PET/diagnostic CT approach as described offers dose savings at similar image quality for children and young adults with lymphoma who have indications for both PET and diagnostic CT examinations. (orig.)

  13. Radiation dose reduction through combining positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and diagnostic CT in children and young adults with lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhihua; Gates, Erica L.; Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); O' Brien, Maureen M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Oncology, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Both [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and diagnostic CT are at times required for lymphoma staging. This means some body segments are exposed twice to X-rays for generation of CT data (diagnostic CT + localization CT). To describe a combined PET/diagnostic CT approach that modulates CT tube current along the z-axis, providing diagnostic CT of some body segments and localization CT of the remaining body segments, thereby reducing patient radiation dose. We retrospectively compared total patient radiation dose between combined PET/diagnostic CT and separately acquired PET/CT and diagnostic CT exams. When available, we calculated effective doses for both approaches in the same patient; otherwise, we used data from patients of similar size. To confirm image quality, we compared image noise (Hounsfield unit [HU] standard deviation) as measured in the liver on both combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images. We used t-tests for dose comparisons and two one-sided tests for image-quality equivalence testing. Mean total effective dose for the CT component of the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT exams were 6.20±2.69 and 8.17±2.61 mSv, respectively (P<0.0001). Average dose savings with the combined approach was 24.8±17.8% (2.60±2.51 mSv [range: 0.32-4.72 mSv]) of total CT effective dose. Image noise was not statistically significantly different between approaches (12.2±1.8 HU vs. 11.7±1.5 HU for the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images, respectively). A combined PET/diagnostic CT approach as described offers dose savings at similar image quality for children and young adults with lymphoma who have indications for both PET and diagnostic CT examinations. (orig.)

  14. Ceramic and polymeric dental onlays evaluated by photo-elasticity, optical coherence tomography, and micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Negru, Radu; Fabriky, Mihai; Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Marsavina, Liviu; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Dental onlays are restorations used to repair rear teeth that have a mild to moderate amount of decay. They can also be used to restore teeth that are cracked or fractured if the damage is not severe enough to require a dental crown. The use of onlays requires less tooth reduction than does the use of metal fillings. This allows dentists to conserve more of a patient's natural tooth structure in the treatment process. The aims of this study are to evaluate the biomechanical comportment of the dental onlays, by using the 3D photo elasticity method and to investigate the integrity of the structures and their fitting to the dental support. For this optical coherence tomography and micro-computed tomography were employed. Both methods were used to investigate 37 dental onlays, 17 integral polymeric and 20 integral ceramic. The results permit to observe materials defects inside the ceramic or polymeric onlays situate in the biomechanically tensioned areas that could lead to fracture of the prosthetic structure. Marginal fitting problems of the onlays related to the teeth preparations were presented in order to observe the possibility of secondary cavities. The resulted images from the optical coherence tomography were verified by the micro-computed tomography. In conclusion, the optical coherence tomography can be used as a clinical method in order to evaluate the integrity of the dental ceramic and polymeric onlays and to investigate the quality of the marginal fitting to the teeth preparations.

  15. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Carole T

    2013-11-01

    As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction.

  16. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV bw ) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV bw , background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake

  17. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Samuel L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org [Division of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Shulkin, Barry L. [Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  18. Direct estimation of human trabecular bone stiffness using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintström, Eva; Klintström, Benjamin; Pahr, Dieter; Brismar, Torkel B; Smedby, Örjan; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of estimating the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone through finite element simulations by using dental cone beam computed tomography data. Fourteen human radius specimens were scanned in 3 cone beam computed tomography devices: 3-D Accuitomo 80 (J. Morita MFG., Kyoto, Japan), NewTom 5 G (QR Verona, Verona, Italy), and Verity (Planmed, Helsinki, Finland). The imaging data were segmented by using 2 different methods. Stiffness (Young modulus), shear moduli, and the size and shape of the stiffness tensor were studied. Corresponding evaluations by using micro-CT were regarded as the reference standard. The 3-D Accuitomo 80 (J. Morita MFG., Kyoto, Japan) showed good performance in estimating stiffness and shear moduli but was sensitive to the choice of segmentation method. NewTom 5 G (QR Verona, Verona, Italy) and Verity (Planmed, Helsinki, Finland) yielded good correlations, but they were not as strong as Accuitomo 80 (J. Morita MFG., Kyoto, Japan). The cone beam computed tomography devices overestimated both stiffness and shear compared with the micro-CT estimations. Finite element-based calculations of biomechanics from cone beam computed tomography data are feasible, with strong correlations for the Accuitomo 80 scanner (J. Morita MFG., Kyoto, Japan) combined with an appropriate segmentation method. Such measurements might be useful for predicting implant survival by in vivo estimations of bone properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Promising role of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in Meckel's scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anurag; Chauhan, MS; Pandit, AG; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Meckel's scan is a common procedure performed in nuclear medicine. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in a suspected case of heterotopic location of gastric mucosa can increase the accuracy of its anatomic localization. We present two suspected cases of Meckel's diverticulum in, which SPECT/CT co-registration has helped in better localization of the pathology

  20. Use of Micro-Computed Tomography for Dental Studies in Modern and Fossil Odontocetes: Potential Applications and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are important elements in studies of modern and fossil Cetacea (whales, dolphins, providing information on feeding habits, estimations of age and phylogenetic relationships. The growth layer groups (GLGs recorded in dentine have demonstrated application for aging studies, but also have the potential to elucidate life history phenomena such as metabolic or physiologic events. Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT is a non-invasive and non-destructive technique that allows 3-dimensional study of mineralized tissues, such as human teeth, and their physical properties. Teeth from extant dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and some fossil odontocetes were scanned in a Skyscan 1172 Micro-CT desktop system. X-rays were generated at 100 kV and 100 µA for extant samples, and at 80kV and 124 µA for fossils. 0.5 mm thick aluminum and copper filters were used in the beam. Reconstructed images were informative for most extant species, showing a good resolution of the enamel layer, dentine and pulp cavity. Greyscale changes in the dentinal layers were not resolved enough to show GLGs. Visualization of the internal structure in fossil cetacean teeth depended on the degree of diagenetic alteration in the specimen; undifferentiated enamel and dentine regions probably reflect secondary mineralization. However, internal details were finely resolved for one fossil specimen, showing the enamel, internal layers of dentine and the pulp cavity. Micro-CT has been proven to be a useful tool for resolving the internal morphology of fossil and extant teeth of cetaceans before they are sectioned for other morphological analyses; however some methodological refinements are still necessary to allow better resolution of dentine for potential application in non-destructive age determination studies.

  1. High Dose MicroCT Does Not Contribute Toward Improved MicroPET/CT Image Quantitative Accuracy and Can Limit Longitudinal Scanning of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. McDougald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining accurate quantitative measurements in preclinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT imaging is of paramount importance in biomedical research and helps supporting efficient translation of preclinical results to the clinic. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the effects of different CT acquisition protocols on PET/CT image quality and data quantification; and (2 to evaluate the absorbed dose associated with varying CT parameters.Methods: An air/water quality control CT phantom, tissue equivalent material phantom, an in-house 3D printed phantom and an image quality PET/CT phantom were imaged using a Mediso nanoPET/CT scanner. Collected data was analyzed using PMOD software, VivoQuant software and National Electric Manufactures Association (NEMA software implemented by Mediso. Measured Hounsfield Unit (HU in collected CT images were compared to the known HU values and image noise was quantified. PET recovery coefficients (RC, uniformity and quantitative bias were also measured.Results: Only less than 2 and 1% of CT acquisition protocols yielded water HU values < −80 and air HU values < −840, respectively. Four out of 11 CT protocols resulted in more than 100 mGy absorbed dose. Different CT protocols did not impact PET uniformity and RC, and resulted in <4% overall bias relative to expected radioactive concentration.Conclusion: Preclinical CT protocols with increased exposure times can result in high absorbed doses to the small animals. These should be avoided, as they do not contributed toward improved microPET/CT image quantitative accuracy and could limit longitudinal scanning of small animals.

  2. Potential Bone to Implant Contact Area of Short Versus Standard Implants: An In Vitro Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; DʼIsidoro, Orlando; Bambini, Fabrizio; Putignano, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    To compare the available potential bone-implant contact (PBIC) area of standard and short dental implants by micro-computed tomographyCT) assessment. Three short implants with different diameters (4.5 × 6 mm, 4.1 × 7 mm, and 4.1 × 6 mm) and 2 standard implants (3.5 × 10 mm and 3.3 × 9 mm) with diverse design and surface features were scanned with μCT. Cross-sectional images were obtained. Image data were manually processed to find the plane that corresponds to the most coronal contact point between the crestal bone and implant. The available PBIC was calculated for each sample. Later on, the cross-sectional slices were processed by a 3-dimensional (3D) software, and 3D images of each sample were used for descriptive analysis and display the microtopography and macrotopography. The wide-diameter short implant (4.5 × 6 mm) showed the higher PBIC (210.89 mm) value followed by the standard (178.07 mm and 185.37 mm) and short implants (130.70 mm and 110.70 mm). Wide-diameter short implants show a surface area comparable with standard implants. Micro-CT analysis is a promising technique to evaluate surface area in dental implants with different macrodesign, microdesign, and surface features.

  3. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  4. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  5. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  6. Verification of computed tomographic estimates of cochlear implant array position: a micro-CT and histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Jessica; Hullar, Timothy E; Holden, Timothy A; Chole, Richard A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of clinical computed tomographic (CT) imaging to verify postoperative electrode array placement in cochlear implant (CI) patients. Nine fresh cadaver heads underwent clinical CT scanning, followed by bilateral CI insertion and postoperative clinical CT scanning. Temporal bones were removed, trimmed, and scanned using micro-CT. Specimens were then dehydrated, embedded in either methyl methacrylate or LR White resin, and sectioned with a diamond wafering saw. Histology sections were examined by 3 blinded observers to determine the position of individual electrodes relative to soft tissue structures within the cochlea. Electrodes were judged to be within the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, or in an intermediate position between scalae. The position of the array could be estimated accurately from clinical CT scans in all specimens using micro-CT and histology as a criterion standard. Verification using micro-CT yielded 97% agreement, and histologic analysis revealed 95% agreement with clinical CT results. A composite, 3-dimensional image derived from a patient's preoperative and postoperative CT images using a clinical scanner accurately estimates the position of the electrode array as determined by micro-CT imaging and histologic analyses. Information obtained using the CT method provides valuable insight into numerous variables of interest to patient performance such as surgical technique, array design, and processor programming and troubleshooting.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  9. Processing of microCT implant-bone systems images using Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, A; Pastore, J; Colabella, L; Omar, S; Ballarre, J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between a metallic implant and the existing bone in a surgical permanent prosthesis is of great importance since the fixation and osseointegration of the system leads to the failure or success of the surgery. Micro Computed Tomography is a technique that helps to visualize the structure of the bone. In this study, the microCT is used to analyze implant-bone systems images. However, one of the problems presented in the reconstruction of these images is the effect of the iron based implants, with a halo or fluorescence scattering distorting the micro CT image and leading to bad 3D reconstructions. In this work we introduce an automatic method for eliminate the effect of AISI 316L iron materials in the implant-bone system based on the application of Compensatory Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology for future investigate about the structural and mechanical properties of bone and cancellous materials. (paper)

  10. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Carole T.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • Methods: MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • Results: If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • Conclusions: This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction. PMID:25202495

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd. Aziz, Azian

    2010-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. T...

  12. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  13. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  14. Brain abscess in a Japanese Black calf: Utility of computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khodery, S.; Yamada, K.; Aoki, D.; Kamio, K.; Kishimoto, M.; Shimizu, J.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ishii, M.; Inokuma, H.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsui, T.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for diagnosis of brain abscess in a 6-month-old, Japanese Black calf presented with neurological dysfunction, compulsive circling and vision disturbance. CT images showed asymmetric lateral ventricles, and presence of intra-cranial multiple low absorption lesions surrounded by capsule suggestive of abscess in the right cerebral hemisphere. Postmortem examination revealed marked swelling of right cerebral hemisphere and olfactory bulb. Multilocular large abscess containing creamy pus was found to occupy most area of periventricular and lateral ventricle. Fusobacterium necrophrum was isolated from the abscess contents as the causative agent. These results demonstrate that CT is useful tool for tentative diagnosis of bovine brain abscess

  15. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in...... development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. Material and methods. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section...... phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling...

  16. Micro-computed tomography of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone using a barium sulfate contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiang; Ross, Ryan D; Niebur, Glen L; Roeder, Ryan K

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage during fatigue can lead to increased fracture susceptibility in bone. Current techniques for imaging microdamage in bone are inherently destructive and two-dimensional. Therefore, the objective of this study was to image the accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) contrast agent. Two symmetric notches were machined on the tensile surface of bovine cortical bone beams in order to generate damage ahead of the stress concentrations during four-point bending fatigue. Specimens were loaded to a specified number of cycles or until one notch fractured, such that the other notch exhibited the accumulation of microdamage prior to fracture. Microdamage ahead of the notch was stained in vitro by precipitation of BaSO(4) and imaged using micro-CT. Reconstructed images showed a distinct region of bright voxels around the notch tip or along propagating cracks due to the presence of BaSO(4), which was verified by backscattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The shape of the stained region ahead of the notch tip was consistent with principal strain contours calculated by finite element analysis. The relative volume of the stained region was correlated with the number of loading cycles by non-linear regression using a power-law. This study demonstrates new methods for the non-destructive and three-dimensional detection of fatigue microdamage accumulation in cortical bone in vitro, which may be useful to gain further understanding into the role of microdamage in bone fragility.

  17. X-ray micro computed tomography for the visualization of an atherosclerotic human coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matviykiv, Sofiya; Buscema, Marzia; Deyhle, Hans; Pfohl, Thomas; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis refers to narrowing or blocking of blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain or stroke. Constricted segments of diseased arteries exhibit considerably increased wall shear stress, compared to the healthy ones. One of the possibilities to improve patient’s treatment is the application of nano-therapeutic approaches, based on shear stress sensitive nano-containers. In order to tailor the chemical composition and subsequent physical properties of such liposomes, one has to know precisely the morphology of critically stenosed arteries at micrometre resolution. It is often obtained by means of histology, which has the drawback of offering only two-dimensional information. Additionally, it requires the artery to be decalcified before sectioning, which might lead to deformations within the tissue. Micro computed tomographyCT) enables the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of soft and hard tissues at micrometre level. μCT allows lumen segmentation that is crucial for subsequent flow simulation analysis. In this communication, tomographic images of a human coronary artery before and after decalcification are qualitatively and quantitatively compared. We analyse the cross section of the diseased human coronary artery before and after decalcification, and calculate the lumen area of both samples.

  18. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  19. Roles of computed tomography and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the characterization of multiple solitary solid lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, LL; Trifirò, G; Vigna, PD; Veronesi, G; De Pas, TM; Spaggiari, L; Paganelli, G; Bellomi, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of multidetector computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of multiple solitary lung nodules in 14 consecutive patients with suspicious lung cancer. CT and PET/CT findings were reviewed by a radiologist and nuclear medicine physician, respectively, blinded to the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer, considering nodule size, shape, and location (CT) and maximum st...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  2. Micro-computed tomography newly developed for in vivo small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yoshinori; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Kato, Takafumi; Masuda, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a newly developed micro-computed tomography system for in vivo use. The system was composed of a micro-focus X-ray tube and an image intensifier (I.I.), both of which rotated around the object stage. A guinea pig and a rat were examined. The anesthetized animal was set on the secure object stage. Images of the head of the guinea pig and the tibia knee joint of the rat were taken. In addition, an image of the rat's tail was taken. The reconstruction and the image viewing were carried out using I-View software. The voxel matrix was 512 x 512 x 384. The voxel sizes ranged from 10 x 10 x 10 μm to 100 x 100 x 100 μm. The exposure time was 17 s, and the reconstruction time was 150 s. The head of the guinea pig and the tibia/knee joint of the rat were observed clearly under 100-μm and 30μm voxels, respectively. The trabecular bone of the tail was also observed clearly under a 10 μm voxel. The newly developed micro-computed tomography system makes it possible to obtain images of anesthetized animals set on a secure object stage. Clear bone images of the small animals could be obtained within a short time. (author)

  3. From the sample preparation to the volume rendering images of small animals: A step by step example of a procedure to carry out the micro-CT study of the leafhopper insect Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in micro-CT, digital computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body. Combining micro-CT with Digital Video Library systems, and linking this to Big Data, will change the way researchers, entomologist, and the public search and use anato...

  4. Morphological Characterisation of Unstained and Intact Tissue Micro-architecture by X-ray Computed Micro- and Nano-Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lucy A.; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Newton, Victoria L.; Watson, Rachel E. B.; Austin, Clare; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    Characterisation and quantification of tissue structures is limited by sectioning-induced artefacts and by the difficulties of visualising and segmenting 3D volumes. Here we demonstrate that, even in the absence of X-ray contrast agents, X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) and nanotomography (nanoCT) can circumvent these problems by rapidly resolving compositionally discrete 3D tissue regions (such as the collagen-rich adventitia and elastin-rich lamellae in intact rat arteries) which in turn can be segmented due to their different X-ray opacities and morphologies. We then establish, using X-ray tomograms of both unpressurised and pressurised arteries that intra-luminal pressure not only increases lumen cross-sectional area and straightens medial elastic lamellae but also induces profound remodelling of the adventitial layer. Finally we apply microCT to another human organ (skin) to visualise the cell-rich epidermis and extracellular matrix-rich dermis and to show that conventional histological and immunohistochemical staining protocols are compatible with prior X-ray exposure. As a consequence we suggest that microCT could be combined with optical microscopy to characterise the 3D structure and composition of archival paraffin embedded biological materials and of mechanically stressed dynamic tissues such as the heart, lungs and tendons.

  5. Exploring miniature insect brains using micro-CT scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan B.; Bernhardt, Galina; Raine, Nigel E.; Abel, Richard L.; Sykes, Dan; Ahmed, Farah; Pedroso, Inti; Gill, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to explore soft tissue structures in detail is important in understanding animal physiology and how this determines features such as movement, behaviour and the impact of trauma on regular function. Here we use advances in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology to explore the brain of an important insect pollinator and model organism, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). Here we present a method for accurate imaging and exploration of insect brains that keeps brain tissue free from trauma and in its natural stereo-geometry, and showcase our 3D reconstructions and analyses of 19 individual brains at high resolution. Development of this protocol allows relatively rapid and cost effective brain reconstructions, making it an accessible methodology to the wider scientific community. The protocol describes the necessary steps for sample preparation, tissue staining, micro-CT scanning and 3D reconstruction, followed by a method for image analysis using the freeware SPIERS. These image analysis methods describe how to virtually extract key composite structures from the insect brain, and we demonstrate the application and precision of this method by calculating structural volumes and investigating the allometric relationships between bumblebee brain structures. PMID:26908205

  6. Use of Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Staging of Local Extent in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Frauenfelder, Thomas; Kestenholz, Peter; Hunziker, Roger; Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh; Fries, Martina; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Husmann, Lars; Stahel, Rolf; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. METHODS Sixty-two patients (median age, 61 years; female: n = 9) with proven MPM underwent CT after induction chemotherapy. Of these, 28 underwent additional PET/CT. Extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed for pathological TNM staging. Clinical TNM s...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... of the Sinuses? CT is usually the first test ordered when a sinus tumor is suspected. If ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  16. Comparison of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Conventional Planar Lymphoscintigraphy for Sentinel Node Localization in Patients with Cutaneous Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Matthew P; Yamamoto, Maki; Applebaum, Matthew A; Patel, Nupur U; Jaime Montilla-Soler, M; Sarnaik, Amod A; Wayne Cruse, C; Sondak, Vernon K; Zager, Jonathan S

    2017-02-01

    Accurate preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is vital to performing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for cutaneous malignancies. Potential advantages of single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) include the ability to readily identify aberrant drainage patterns as well as provide the surgeon with three-dimensional anatomic landmarks not seen on conventional planar lymphoscintigraphy (PLS). Patients with cutaneous malignancies who underwent SLNB with preoperative imaging using both SPECT/CT and PLS from 2011 to 2014 were identified. Both SPECT/CT and PLS were obtained in 351 patients (median age, 69 years; range, 5-94 years) with cutaneous malignancies (melanoma = 300, Merkel cell carcinoma = 33, squamous cell carcinoma = 8, other = 10) after intradermal injection of 99m technetium sulfur colloid (median dose 300 µCi). A mean of 4.3 hot spots were identified on SPECT/CT compared to 3.0 on PLS (p CT and PLS, while 172 (49 %) had additional hot spots identified on SPECT/CT compared to only 24 (6.8 %) additional on PLS. SPECT/CT demonstrated additional nodal basins in 103 patients (29.4 %), compared to only 11 patients (3.1 %) with additional basins on PLS. SPECT/CT is a useful adjunct that can help with sentinel node localization in challenging cases. It identified additional hot spots not seen on PLS in almost 50 % of patients. Because PLS identified hot spots not seen on SPECT/CT in 6.8 % of patients, we recommend using both modalities jointly. Long-term follow-up will be required to validate the clinical significance of the additional hot spots identified by SPECT/CT.

  17. Micro-computed tomography visualization of the vestigial alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vega, D; Garbout, A; Ahmed, F; Ferrer, L M; Lucientes, J; Colwell, D D; Hall, M J R

    2018-02-16

    Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Both O. ovis and H. lineatum adults showed significant reductions of the cardia and the diameter of the digestive tract, an absence of the helicoidal portion of the midgut typical of other cyclorrhaphous flies, and a lack of crop and salivary glands. Given the current interest in the alimentary canal in adult dipterans in biomedical and developmental biology studies, further understanding of the morphology and development of this organ system in adult oestrids may provide valuable new insights in several areas of research. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Characterization of the porous structures of the green body and sintered biomedical titanium scaffolds with micro-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifvianto, B., E-mail: b.arifvianto@tudelft.nl; Leeflang, M.A.; Zhou, J.

    2016-11-15

    The present research was aimed at gaining an understanding of the porous structure changes from the green body through water leaching and sintering to titanium scaffolds. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was performed to generate 3D models of titanium scaffold preforms containing carbamide space-holding particles and sintered scaffolds containing macro- and micro-pores. The porosity values and structural parameters were determined by means of image analysis. The result showed that the porosity values, macro-pore sizes, connectivity densities and specific surface areas of the titanium scaffolds sintered at 1200 °C for 3 h did not significantly deviate from those of the green structures with various volume fractions of the space holder. Titanium scaffolds with a maximum specific surface area could be produced with an addition of 60–65 vol% carbamide particles to the matrix powder. The connectivity of pores inside the scaffold increased with rising volume fraction of the space holder. The shrinkage of the scaffolds prepared with > 50 vol% carbamide space holder, occurring during sintering, was caused by the reductions of macro-pore sizes and micro-pore sizes as well as the thickness of struts. In conclusion, the final porous structural characteristics of titanium scaffolds could be estimated from those of the green body. - Highlights: •Porous structures of green body and sintered titanium scaffolds was studied. •Porous structures of both samples were quantitatively characterized with micro-CT. •Porous structures of scaffolds could be controlled from the green body. •Shrinkage mechanisms of titanium scaffolds during sintering was established.

  19. X-ray Micro-Tomography of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Ferguson, Joseph; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is a non-destructive characterization technique that allows imaging of materials structures with voxel sizes in the micrometer range. This level of resolution makes the technique very attractive for imaging porous ablators used in hypersonic entry systems. Besides providing a high fidelity description of the material architecture, micro-tomography enables computations of bulk material properties and simulations of micro-scale phenomena. This presentation provides an overview of a collaborative effort between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aimed at developing micro-tomography experiments and simulations for porous ablative materials. Measurements are carried using x-rays from the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley Lab on different classes of ablative materials used in NASA entry systems. Challenges, strengths and limitations of the technique for imaging materials such as lightweight carbon-phenolic systems and woven textiles are discussed. Computational tools developed to perform numerical simulations based on micro-tomography are described. These enable computations of material properties such as permeability, thermal and radiative conductivity, tortuosity and other parameters that are used in ablator response models. Finally, we present the design of environmental cells that enable imaging materials under simulated operational conditions, such as high temperature, mechanical loads and oxidizing atmospheres.Keywords: Micro-tomography, Porous media, Ablation

  20. Comparison of radiation absorbed dose in target organs in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjnoush M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The objective of this study was to measure and compare the tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, salivary glands, eye and skin in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and computed tomography (CT."nMaterials and Methods: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were implanted in 14 sites of RANDO phantom to measure average tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual gland, lenses and buccal skin. The Promax (PLANMECA, Helsinki, Finland unit was selected for Panoramic, conventional linear tomography and cone beam computed tomography examinations and spiral Hispeed/Fxi (General Electric,USA was selected for CT examination. The average tissue absorbed doses were used for the calculation of the equivalent and effective doses in each organ."nResults: The average absorbed dose for Panoramic ranged from 0.038 mGY (Buccal skin to 0.308 mGY (submandibular gland, linear tomography ranged from 0.048 mGY (Lens to 0.510 mGY (submandibular gland,CBCT ranged from 0.322 mGY (thyroid glad to 1.144 mGY (Parotid gland and in CT ranged from 2.495 mGY (sublingual gland to 3.424 mGY (submandibular gland. Total effective dose in CBCT is 5 times greater than Panoramic and 4 times greater than linear tomography, and in CT, 30 and 22 times greater than Panoramic and linear tomography, respectively. Total effective dose in CT is 6 times greater than CBCT."nConclusion: For obtaining 3-dimensional (3D information in maxillofacial region, CBCT delivers the lower dose than CT, and should be preferred over a medical CT imaging. Furthermore, during maxillofacial imaging, salivary glands receive the highest dose of radiation.

  1. The Comparison of Computed Tomography Perfusion, Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography and Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for the Detection of Primary Esophageal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Berhan; Kantarci, Mecit; Sade, Recep; Orsal, Ebru; Ogul, Hayri; Okur, Aylin; Aydin, Yener; Karaca, Leyla; Eroğlu, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of computed tomography perfusion (CTP), contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET/CT) in the diagnosis of esophageal cancer. This prospective study consisted of 33 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer, 2 of whom had an esophageal abscess. All the patients underwent CTP, CECT and PET/CT imaging and the imaging findings were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each of the 3 imaging modalities relative to the histological diagnosis. Thirty-three tumors were visualized on CTP, 29 on CECT and 27 on PET/CT. Six tumors were stage 1, and 2 and 4 of these tumors were missed on CECT and PET/CT, respectively. Significant differences between CTP and CECT (p = 0.02), and between CTP and PET/CT (p = 0.04) were found for stage 1 tumors. Values for the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values on CTP were 100, 100, 100 and 100%, respectively. Corresponding values on CECT were 93.94, 0, 93.94 and 0%, respectively, and those on PET/CT were 87.88, 0, 93.55 and 0%, respectively. Hence, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of CTP were better than those of CECT and PET/CT. CTP had an advantage over CECT and PET/CT in detecting small lesions. CTP was valuable, especially in detecting stage 1 tumors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Comparison of effectiveness and safety between Twisted File technique and ProTaper Universal rotary full sequence based on micro-computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Chen; Liang, Yu-hong

    2016-02-18

    To evaluate the efficacy and security of two type of rotary nickel titanium system (Twisted File and ProTaper Universal) for root canal preparation based on micro-computed tomography(micro-CT). Twenty extracted molars (including 62 canals) were divided into two experimental groups and were respectively instrumented using Twisted File rotary nickel titanium system (TF) and ProTaper Universal rotary nickel titanium system (PU) to #25/0.08 following recommended protocol. Time for root canal instrumentation (accumulation of time for every single file) was recorded. The 0-3 mm root surface from apex was observed under an optical stereomicroscope at 25 × magnification. The presence of crack line was noted. The root canals were scanned with micro-CT before and after root canal preparation. Three-dimensional shape images of canals were reconstructed, calculated and evaluated. The amount of canal central transportation of the two groups was calculated and compared. The shorter preparation time [(0.53 ± 0.14) min] was observed in TF group, while the preparation time of PU group was (2.06 ± 0.39) min (Pvs. (0.097 ± 0.084) mm, P<0.05]. No instrument separation was observed in both the groups. Cracks were not found in both the groups either based in micro-CT images or observation under an optical stereomicroscope at 25 × magnification. Compared with ProTaper Universal, Twisted File took less time in root canal preparation and exhibited better shaping ability, and less canal transportation.

  3. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (protary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  4. Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of Computed Tomography (CT images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration.

  5. Detection of freeze-thaw weathering effect using X-ray micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Hyun, C.; Park, H.

    2011-12-01

    Physical weathering caused by repeated freeze-thaw action of water inside rock pores or cracks was artificially simulated in laboratory. The tests were conducted on three rock types, i.e. diorite, basalt, and tuff, which are the major rock types around King Sejong Station of Korea located in Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The temperature of freeze-thaw cycle was also set with simulated the air temperature of the station, i.e. the maximum temperature was + 10 °C and the minimum temperature was - 20 °C. Three cylindrical specimens composed of one for each rock type with 24.6 mm diameter and 14.5 ~ 17.7 mm length were prepared, and 2 mm diameter and 7 mm shallow depth hole was drilled on the center of the specimens. To exaggerate the effect of the freeze-thaw weathering, all tests were conducted under completely saturated condition. 50 cycles of the freeze-thaw test was carried, and X-ray micro computed tomography (CT) images of each rock specimen were obtained after every 10 cycles. Using X-ray micro CT images, 3D structure was rendered and pore and crack structures were extracted. The changes of porosity, absorption rate and pore and crack structure were detected. Porosity of all specimens was decreased linearly and absorption rate of all specimens was increased linearly as weathering processes; the pore connection and crack propagation was detected in 3D rendering pore and crack structure. The change of tuff specimen is the most remarkable among three rock types used in the research, because of its relatively high initial absorption rate and low strength. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0027520).

  6. Estimation of skull table thickness with clinical CT and validation with microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Weaver, Ashley A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Brain injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further insight into the mechanism of head injury resulting from blunt trauma. In particular, skull thickness is thought be a very important factor governing deformation of the skull and its propensity for fracture. Current computed tomography (CT) technology is limited in its ability to accurately measure cortical thickness using standard techniques. A method to evaluate cortical thickness using cortical density measured from CT data has been developed previously. This effort validates this technique for measurement of skull table thickness in clinical head CT scans using two postmortem human specimens. Bone samples were harvested from the skulls of two cadavers and scanned with microCT to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated cortical thickness measured from clinical CT. Clinical scans were collected at 0.488 and 0.625 mm in plane resolution with 0.625 mm thickness. The overall cortical thickness error was determined to be 0.078 ± 0.58 mm for cortical samples thinner than 4 mm. It was determined that 91.3% of these differences fell within the scanner resolution. Color maps of clinical CT thickness estimations are comparable to color maps of microCT thickness measurements, indicating good quantitative agreement. These data confirm that the cortical density algorithm successfully estimates skull table thickness from clinical CT scans. The application of this technique to clinical CT scans enables evaluation of cortical thickness in population-based studies. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  7. Micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography with absorption and phase contrast for materials characterization; Mikro-Radiografie und Mikro-Computertomografie mit Absorptions- und Phasenkontrast fuer die Materialcharakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Johann [FH Oberoesterreich, Wels (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    The contribution describes modern techniques in micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography for materials characterization using absorption and phase contrast. Using micro- and nano-focus tubes and adequate high.-resolution detectors it is possible to reach resolutions significantly below 1 micron. The CT technology allows in-situ deformation testing to study the damaging mechanism of materials. The application of the Talbot-Lau interferometer with CT a differential phase contrast tomography is available. Dark-field tomography is used to study individual carbon fiber bundles in carbon fiber reinforced laminates.

  8. The influence of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets of ovariectomized rats assessed by in vivo micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2010-08-01

    Many dental patients take bisphosphonates to reduce the risk of hip and vertebral fractures. In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to examine the longitudinal inhibitory effect of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets in ovariectomized rats. Twenty 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 5), and 2 ovariectomized (OVX) groups: saline treated (0.1 mL/100 g/d, n = 7) and alendronate treated (1 mg/kg/d, n = 8). Before micro-CT scanning, the left maxillary first molars of the rats were extracted. In vivo micro-CT (spatial resolution 50 x 50 mum) of the jaw was performed at baseline and at 2-week intervals for 6 weeks. Alveolar-bone radiographic densities and dimensions were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. The bony healing patterns of the extraction sockets were also evaluated in each group. The radiographic socket densities of the sham-treated and OVX-alendronate groups significantly increased during the first 4 weeks after extraction (P sockets in the OVX-saline group increased, but the increase was significantly lower than for the other groups at 4 weeks (P sockets in all groups 2 to 6 weeks after extraction. There was a significant loss of alveolar ridge height at the second week postextraction compared with baseline, and at the fourth week compared with the second week (P sockets in estrogen-deficient rats and helps resist the loss of alveolar bone adjacent to extraction sockets. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. X-ray computed tomography using curvelet sparse regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Matthias; Frikel, Jürgen; Vogel, Jakob; Eggl, Elena; Kopp, Felix; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz; Demaret, Laurent; Lasser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Reconstruction of x-ray computed tomography (CT) data remains a mathematically challenging problem in medical imaging. Complementing the standard analytical reconstruction methods, sparse regularization is growing in importance, as it allows inclusion of prior knowledge. The paper presents a method for sparse regularization based on the curvelet frame for the application to iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography. In this work, the authors present an iterative reconstruction approach based on the alternating direction method of multipliers using curvelet sparse regularization. Evaluation of the method is performed on a specifically crafted numerical phantom dataset to highlight the method's strengths. Additional evaluation is performed on two real datasets from commercial scanners with different noise characteristics, a clinical bone sample acquired in a micro-CT and a human abdomen scanned in a diagnostic CT. The results clearly illustrate that curvelet sparse regularization has characteristic strengths. In particular, it improves the restoration and resolution of highly directional, high contrast features with smooth contrast variations. The authors also compare this approach to the popular technique of total variation and to traditional filtered backprojection. The authors conclude that curvelet sparse regularization is able to improve reconstruction quality by reducing noise while preserving highly directional features.

  10. [The value of multimodal imaging by single photon emission computed tomography associated to X ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: about 156 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhiri, Aida; El Bez, Intidhar; Slim, Ihsen; Meddeb, Imène; Yeddes, Imene; Ghezaiel, Mohamed; Gritli, Saïd; Ben Slimène, Mohamed Faouzi

    2013-10-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography combined with a low dose computed tomography (SPECT-CT), is a hybrid imaging integrating functional and anatomical data. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the contribution of the SPECTCT over traditional planar imaging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Post therapy 131IWhole body scan followed by SPECTCT of the neck and thorax, were performed in 156 patients with DTC. Among these 156 patients followed for a predominantly papillary, the use of fusion imaging SPECT-CT compared to conventional planar imaging allowed us to correct our therapeutic approach in 26.9 % (42/156 patients), according to the protocols of therapeutic management of our institute. SPECT-CT is a multimodal imaging providing better identification and more accurate anatomic localization of the foci of radioiodine uptake with impact on therapeutic management.

  11. Impact of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vicenty, Irma L; Santiago-Sánchez, Michelaldemar; Vélez-Miró, Iván; Motta-Valencia, Keryl

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings. We report the case of a 30-year-old Hispanic male veteran who, after 2 traumatic brain injury events, developed cognitive and neuropsychological problems with no clear etiology in the presence of negative computed tomography (CT) findings.

  12. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierick, Manuel, E-mail: Manuel.Dierick@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Loo, Denis, E-mail: info@XRE.be [XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Masschaele, Bert [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Bulcke, Jan [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Acker, Joris, E-mail: Joris.VanAcker@UGent.be [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle, E-mail: Veerle.Cnudde@UGent.be [UGCT-SGIG, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc, E-mail: Luc.VanHoorebeke@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV{sub max}) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  13. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV max ) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2010-04-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. This paper presents examples of various injuries in trauma patients depicted in abdominal CT images. We hope these images provide a resource for radiologists, surgeons and medical officers, as well as a learning tool for medical students.

  15. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  16. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of the effects of platelet-rich fibrin on bone regeneration in the rabbit calvarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Yolcu, Ümit; Gül, Mehmet; Keleş, Ali; Erdem, Necip Fazıl; Altundag Kahraman, Sevil

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on bone regeneration when used alone or in combination with hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP). In this study, 20 New Zealand white rabbits were used and four calvarial defects were prepared in each animal. PRF, Straumann(®) Bone Ceramic (SBC), or PRF+SBC was applied to the defects; one defect was left untreated as a control. Ten rabbits were sacrificed at week 4 (T1) and 10 at week 8 (T2). After micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning, the samples were sent for histological and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate and compare the volume and area of regenerated bone. Histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis showed that both PRF and SBC significantly increased bone regeneration at T1 and T2 (P<0.01). When PRF was used in combination with HA/βTCP, a further significant increase in new bone formation was observed at T1 and T2 compared with that when PRF or SBC was used alone (P<0.01). PRF has a positive effect on bone formation when used alone and in combination with HA/βTCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Iodide and xenon enhancement of computed tomography (CT) in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, E.W.; Kendall, B.E.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristic findings on computed tomography (CT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are discussed. In a series of 49 cases plain CT was normal in 21 (43%), cerebral atrophy alone was present in 17 (35%) and plaques were visible in 11 (23%). These were most often adjacent to the lateral ventricles (14 plaques) and in the parietal white matter (10 plaques). CT was performed after the intravenous administration of iodide in 16 of these cases. Two patients with low attenuation plaques were scanned with xenon enhancement; the plaques absorbed less xenon than the corresponding contralateral brain substance and additional, previously isodense plaques were revealed. In one case the white matter absorbed much less xenon than normal and its uptake relative to grey matter was reduced. (orig.) [de

  18. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of pericardial heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isner, J.M.; Carter, B.L.; Bankoff, M.S.; Konstam, M.A.; Salem, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pericardial heart disease, 53 patients were prospectively studied by computed tomography of the chest and cardiac ultrasound. A diagnostic-quality CT study was done for all patients; a technically satisfactory ultrasound examination was not possible in six patients. Of 47 patients in whom both chest scans and satisfactory ultrasound studies were obtained, computed tomography showed pericardial thickening not shown by ultrasound in five patients. Estimated size of pericardial effusion was the same for both computed tomography and ultrasound. Computed tomography provided quantifiable evaluation of the composition of pericardial fluid in seven patients with either hemopericardium or purulent pericarditis. Neoplastic pericardial heart disease was detected by CT scan in four of the 53 patients. Computed tomography of the chest provides a sensitive evaluation of the pericardium and quality of pericardial effusion, and is a valuable adjunct in patients in whom cardiac ultrasound is technically unsatisfactory

  19. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment

  20. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment.

  1. Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is the most common paraneoplastic neurological syndrome of childhood, associated with occult neuroblastoma in 20%-50% of all cases. OMA is the initial presentation of neuroblastoma in 1%-3% of children. Conventional radiological imaging approaches include chest radiography and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Nuclear medicine techniques, in form of 123 I/ 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy have been incorporated in various diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of OMA. We describe use of somatostatin receptor PET/CT with 68 Gallium- DOTA-DPhe 1 , Tyr 3 -octreotate (DOTATATE) in diagnosis of neuroblastoma in two cases of OMA

  2. Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-04-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is the most common paraneoplastic neurological syndrome of childhood, associated with occult neuroblastoma in 20%-50% of all cases. OMA is the initial presentation of neuroblastoma in 1%-3% of children. Conventional radiological imaging approaches include chest radiography and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Nuclear medicine techniques, in form of (123)I/(131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy have been incorporated in various diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of OMA. We describe use of somatostatin receptor PET/CT with (68)Gallium- DOTA-DPhe(1), Tyr(3)-octreotate (DOTATATE) in diagnosis of neuroblastoma in two cases of OMA.

  3. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  4. Usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Yoshihiko

    1984-01-01

    This study assesses the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis. Seventy-eight patients with liver cirrhosis underwent both CT and angiography. Comparison was made between CT and angiography on eleven types of collaterals, and many of them were demonstrated on CT scans better than angio. Especially, esophageal varices, paraesophageal varices, umbilical pathway and caput medusa were diagnostic on CT scans. Gastrorenal collaterals, splenorenal collaterals, retroperitoneal pathway are also well demonstrated. Dilatation of azygos systems and small veins in the liver surface are only observed on CT scans. However, coronary varices and short gastric varices are well diagnostic in angiography. But considering all types of collaterals, it was stressed that angiography can be eliminated by CT in evaluation of collaterals in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of rodent paranasal sinus cavities from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E.; Ji, Lunan; Rivelli, Maria A.; Chapman, Richard W.; Corboz, Michel R.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous isometric microfocal X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired from an AKR/J mouse, Brown-Norway rat, and Hartley guinea pig. The anatomy and volume of the paranasal sinus cavities were defined from 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) CT images. Realistic 3-D images were reconstructed and used to determine the anterior maxillary, posterior maxillary, and ethmoid sinus cavity airspace volumes (mouse: 0.6, 0.7, and 0.7 mm3, rat: 8.6, 7.7, and 7.0 mm3, guinea pig: 63.5, 46.6 mm3, and no ethmoid cavity, respectively). The mouse paranasal sinus cavities are similar to the corresponding rat cavities, with a reduction in size, while the corresponding maxillary sinus cavities in the guinea pig are different in size, location, and architecture. Also, the ethmoid sinus cavity is connected by a common drainage pathway to the posterior maxillary sinus in mouse and rat while a similar ethmoid sinus was not present in the guinea pig. We conclude that paranasal sinus cavity airspace opacity (2-D) or volume (3-D) determined by micro-CT scanning may be used to conduct longitudinal studies on the patency of the maxillary sinus cavities of rodents. This represents a potentially useful endpoint for developing and testing drugs in a small animal model of sinusitis. PMID:19794893

  6. 3D CT versus axial helical CT versus conventional tomography in the classification of acetabular fractures: A ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickuth, Ralph; Laufer, Ulf; Hartung, Guido; Gruening, Christian; Stueckle, Christoph; Kirchner, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic power of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT), axial helical computed tomography (CT) and conventional tomography in the classification of acetabular fractures by interdisciplinary review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were assessed for two radiologists and two surgeons blinded to the presence of acetabular fractures in an animal model (a total of 62 porcine hips, 40 of them with artificial acetabular fractures). Main target parameter was the diagnostic accuracy in the classification of the artificial fractures following Judet et al. RESULTS: ROC analysis for radiologists showed A z values of 0·83 for 3D CT, 0·81 for axial helical CT, and 0·78 for conventional tomography; differences between the three techniques were not significant (P = 0·46-0·73). A z values for the surgeons were 0·87 for 3D CT, 0·68 for axial helical CT, and 0·60 for conventional tomography; 3D CT was significantly better than axial helical CT (P = 0·01) and conventional tomography (P = 0·001). The differences between axial helical CT and conventional tomography were not significant (P = 0·37). CONCLUSION: Acetabular fractures are best classified by 3D CT, followed by axial helical CT and conventional tomography when assessed by surgeons. 3D CT did not provide any additional significant benefit in the classification performed by radiologists. Kickuth, R. et al. (2002)

  7. Quantitative pre-clinical screening of therapeutics for joint diseases using contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, N J; Thote, T; Hart, M; Moran, S; Guldberg, R E; Kamath, R V

    2016-09-01

    The development of effective therapies for cartilage protection has been limited by a lack of efficient quantitative cartilage imaging modalities in pre-clinical in vivo models. Our objectives were two-fold: first, to validate a new contrast-enhanced 3D imaging analysis technique, equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent-micro computed tomography (EPIC-μCT), in a rat medial meniscal transection (MMT) osteoarthritis (OA) model; and second, to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of EPIC-μCT to detect the effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPi) therapy on cartilage degeneration. Rats underwent MMT surgery and tissues were harvested at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-surgery or rats received an MMPi or vehicle treatment and tissues harvested 3 weeks post-surgery. Parameters of disease progression were evaluated using histopathology and EPIC-μCT. Correlations and power analyses were performed to compare the techniques. EPIC-μCT was shown to provide simultaneous 3D quantification of multiple parameters, including cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation. In MMT animals treated with MMPi, OA progression was attenuated, as measured by 3D parameters such as lesion volume and osteophyte size. A post-hoc power analysis showed that 3D parameters for EPIC-μCT were more sensitive than 2D parameters requiring fewer animals to detect a therapeutic effect of MMPi. 2D parameters were comparable between EPIC-μCT and histopathology. This study demonstrated that EPIC-μCT has high sensitivity to provide 3D structural and compositional measurements of cartilage and bone in the joint. EPIC-μCT can be used in combination with histology to provide a comprehensive analysis to screen new potential therapies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of hand and semiautomatic tracing methods for creating maxillofacial artificial organs using sequences of computed tomography (CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bence T; Aksoy, Seçil; Repassy, Gabor; Csomo, Krisztian; Dobo-Nagy, Csaba; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to compare the paranasal sinus volumes obtained by manual and semiautomatic imaging software programs using both CT and CBCT imaging. 121 computed tomography (CT) and 119 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations were selected from the databases of the authors' institutes. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images were imported into 3-dimensonal imaging software, in which hand mode and semiautomatic tracing methods were used to measure the volumes of both maxillary sinuses and the sphenoid sinus. The determined volumetric means were compared to previously published averages. Isometric CBCT-based volume determination results were closer to the real volume conditions, whereas the non-isometric CT-based volume measurements defined coherently lower volumes. By comparing the 2 volume measurement modes, the values gained from hand mode were closer to the literature data. Furthermore, CBCT-based image measurement results corresponded to the known averages. Our results suggest that CBCT images provide reliable volumetric information that can be depended on for artificial organ construction, and which may aid the guidance of the operator prior to or during the intervention.

  9. Electronic cleansing for computed tomography (CT) colonography using a scale-invariant three-material model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Iwo W. O.; Vos, Frans M.; Truyen, Roel; Post, Frits H.; Stoker, Jaap; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2010-01-01

    A well-known reading pitfall in computed tomography (CT) colonography is posed by artifacts at T-junctions, i.e., locations where air-fluid levels interface with the colon wall. This paper presents a scale-invariant method to determine material fractions in voxels near such T-junctions. The proposed

  10. Detecting metastasis of gastric carcinoma using high-resolution micro-CT system: in vivo small animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junting; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin; Li, Xiangsi; Yang, Xiang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yuanfang; Wang, Xiaorui

    2011-03-01

    Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining are used for identifying the characteristics of metastasis in traditional ways. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a useful tool for monitoring and longitudinal imaging of tumor in small animal in vivo. In present study, we evaluated the feasibility of the detection for metastasis of gastric carcinoma by high-resolution micro-CT system with omnipaque accumulative enhancement method in the organs. Firstly, a high-resolution micro-CT ZKKS-MCT-sharp micro-CT was developed by our research group and Guangzhou Zhongke Kaisheng Medical Technology Co., Ltd. Secondly, several gastric carcinoma models were established through inoculating 2x106 BGC-823 gastric carcinoma cells subcutaneously. Thirdly, micro-CT scanning was performed after accumulative enhancement method of intraperitoneal injection of omnipaque contrast agent containing 360 mg iodine with a concentration of 350 mg I/ml. Finally, we obtained high-resolution anatomical information of the metastasis in vivo in a BALB/c NuNu nude mouse, the 3D tumor architecture is revealed in exquisite detail at about 35 μm spatial resolution. In addition, the accurate shape and volume of the micrometastasis as small as 0.78 mm3 can be calculated with our software. Overall, our data suggest that this imaging approach and system could be used to enhance the understanding of tumor proliferation, metastasis and could be the basis for evaluating anti-tumor therapies.

  11. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  12. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-06-20

    Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal.

  13. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome; Kardiale CT beim akuten Koronarsyndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlett, C.L. [Universitaetsklinikum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bamberg, F. [Universitaetsklinikum, Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-09-15

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) Immediately after CT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Aspiration Biopsy as a Predictor of Overt Pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Tae June; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kang, Young Ae; Kwon, Sung-Youn; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyung Won; Lee, Jae Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims This study examined the correlation between pneumothorax detected by immediate post-transthoracic needle aspiration-biopsy (TTNB) chest computed tomography (CT) and overt pneumothorax detected by chest PA, and investigated factors that might influence the correlation. Methods Adult patients who had undergone CT-guided TTNB for lung lesions from May 2003 to June 2007 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were included. Immediate post-TTNB CT and chest PA follow-up at 4 and 16 hours after CT-guided TTNB were performed in 934 patients. Results Pneumothorax detected by immediate chest CT (CT-pneumothorax) was found in 237 (25%) and overt pneumothorax was detected by chest PA follow-up in 92 (38.8%) of the 237 patients. However, overt pneumothorax was found in 18 (2.6%) of the 697 patients without CT-pneumothorax. The width and depth of CT-pneumothorax were predictive risk factors for overt pneumothorax. Conclusions CT-pneumothorax is very sensitive for predicting overt pneumothorax, and the width and depth on CT-pneumothorax are reliable risk factors for predicting overt pneumothorax. PMID:19949733

  15. Diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography of breast cancer in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis. Comparison with ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Suzuki, Kayo; Hirokaga, Koichi; Takao, Shintaro; Sakuma, Toshiko; Hanioka, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in comparison with that of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Fifty patients with invasive breast cancer were recruited. They had received no neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent PET/CT, ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT before mastectomy. The clinical stage was I in 34 patients, II in 15 patients, and III in one patient. The images of these modalities were interpreted in usual practice before surgery and the diagnostic reports were reviewed for analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each modality were obtained taking histopathological results of axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy as the reference standard. Axillary lymph node metastasis was confirmed in 15 of 50 patients by histopathological studies. PET/CT identified lymph node metastasis in three of these 15 patients. The overall sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis were 20, 97, 75, and 74%, and those of ultrasonography were 33, 94, 71, and 77% and those of contrast-enhanced CT were 27, 97, 80, and 76%, respectively. PET/CT showed poor sensitivity and high specificity in the detection of axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. Diagnostic performance of PET/CT was not superior to that of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT. (author)

  16. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Gonzales Freire

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomographyCT. Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections, teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT, teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA, and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA. Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05. The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm (p = 0.0012. The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  17. In Depth Analyses of LEDs by a Combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Light Microscopy (LM) Correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jörg; Thomas, Christian; Tappe, Frank; Ogbazghi, Tekie

    2016-06-16

    In failure analysis, device characterization and reverse engineering of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and similar electronic components of micro-characterization, plays an important role. Commonly, different techniques like X-ray computed tomography (CT), light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used separately. Similarly, the results have to be treated for each technique independently. Here a comprehensive study is shown which demonstrates the potentials leveraged by linking CT, LM and SEM. In depth characterization is performed on a white emitting LED, which can be operated throughout all characterization steps. Major advantages are: planned preparation of defined cross sections, correlation of optical properties to structural and compositional information, as well as reliable identification of different functional regions. This results from the breadth of information available from identical regions of interest (ROIs): polarization contrast, bright and dark-field LM images, as well as optical images of the LED cross section in operation. This is supplemented by SEM imaging techniques and micro-analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Possible Radiation-Induced Damage to the Molecular Structure of Wooden Artifacts Due to Micro-Computed Tomography, Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Kozachuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to ascertain whether radiation produced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, micro-computed tomographyCT and/or portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF equipment might damage wood artifacts during analysis. Changes at the molecular level were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. No significant changes in FTIR spectra were observed as a result of μCT or handheld XRF analysis. No substantial changes in the collected FTIR spectra were observed when XPS analytical times on the order of minutes were used. However, XPS analysis collected over tens of hours did produce significant changes in the FTIR spectra.

  19. Multi-scale X-ray computed tomography to detect and localize metal-based nanomaterials in lung tissues of in vivo exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurand, Perrine; Liu, Wei; Borschneck, Daniel; Levard, Clément; Auffan, Mélanie; Paul, Emmanuel; Collin, Blanche; Kieffer, Isabelle; Lanone, Sophie; Rose, Jérôme; Perrin, Jeanne

    2018-03-13

    In this methodological study, we demonstrated the relevance of 3D imaging performed at various scales for the ex vivo detection and location of cerium oxide nanomaterials (CeO 2 -NMs) in mouse lung. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a voxel size from 14 µm to 1 µm (micro-CT) was combined with X-ray nano-computed tomography with a voxel size of 63 nm (nano-CT). An optimized protocol was proposed to facilitate the sample preparation, to minimize the experimental artifacts and to optimize the contrast of soft tissues exposed to metal-based nanomaterials (NMs). 3D imaging of the NMs biodistribution in lung tissues was consolidated by combining a vast variety of techniques in a correlative approach: histological observations, 2D chemical mapping and speciation analysis were performed for an unambiguous detection of NMs. This original methodological approach was developed following a worst-case scenario of exposure, i.e. high dose of exposure with administration via intra-tracheal instillation. Results highlighted both (i) the non-uniform distribution of CeO 2 -NMs within the entire lung lobe (using large field-of-view micro-CT) and (ii) the detection of CeO 2 -NMs down to the individual cell scale, e.g. macrophage scale (using nano-CT with a voxel size of 63 nm).

  20. Thoracic CT in the ED: a study of thoracic computed tomography utilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of thoracic Computed Tomography (CT) in the Emergency Department of a Dublin Academic Teaching Hospital over a six month period. Data was retrieved using the hospital\\'s computerised information system. There were 202 referrals in total for thoracic CT from the Emergency Department during this time period. The most common indication for thoracic CT referral was for the investigation of pulmonary embolism with 127 (63%) referrals. There were 40 (25%) referrals for suspected malignancy and lung disease, whilst 8 (4%) of the referrals were for investigation of thoracic aortic dissection, 8 (4%) for infection, and 6 (3%) were for investigation of thoracic injury. Only 8 (4%) of all referrals were for investigation of injury as a result of chest trauma.

  1. Contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography resolves the 3-dimensional morphology of the cardiac conduction system in mammalian hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Stephenson

    Full Text Available The general anatomy of the cardiac conduction system (CCS has been known for 100 years, but its complex and irregular three-dimensional (3D geometry is not so well understood. This is largely because the conducting tissue is not distinct from the surrounding tissue by dissection. The best descriptions of its anatomy come from studies based on serial sectioning of samples taken from the appropriate areas of the heart. Low X-ray attenuation has formerly ruled out micro-computed tomography (micro-CT as a modality to resolve internal structures of soft tissue, but incorporation of iodine, which has a high molecular weight, into those tissues enhances the differential attenuation of X-rays and allows visualisation of fine detail in embryos and skeletal muscle. Here, with the use of a iodine based contrast agent (I(2KI, we present contrast enhanced micro-CT images of cardiac tissue from rat and rabbit in which the three major subdivisions of the CCS can be differentiated from the surrounding contractile myocardium and visualised in 3D. Structures identified include the sinoatrial node (SAN and the atrioventricular conduction axis: the penetrating bundle, His bundle, the bundle branches and the Purkinje network. Although the current findings are consistent with existing anatomical representations, the representations shown here offer superior resolution and are the first 3D representations of the CCS within a single intact mammalian heart.

  2. SedCT: MATLAB™ tools for standardized and quantitative processing of sediment core computed tomography (CT) data collected using a medical CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, B. T.; Stoner, J. S.; Wiest, J.

    2017-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of sediment cores allows for high-resolution images, three-dimensional volumes, and down core profiles. These quantitative data are generated through the attenuation of X-rays, which are sensitive to sediment density and atomic number, and are stored in pixels as relative gray scale values or Hounsfield units (HU). We present a suite of MATLAB™ tools specifically designed for routine sediment core analysis as a means to standardize and better quantify the products of CT data collected on medical CT scanners. SedCT uses a graphical interface to process Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files, stitch overlapping scanned intervals, and create down core HU profiles in a manner robust to normal coring imperfections. Utilizing a random sampling technique, SedCT reduces data size and allows for quick processing on typical laptop computers. SedCTimage uses a graphical interface to create quality tiff files of CT slices that are scaled to a user-defined HU range, preserving the quantitative nature of CT images and easily allowing for comparison between sediment cores with different HU means and variance. These tools are presented along with examples from lacustrine and marine sediment cores to highlight the robustness and quantitative nature of this method.

  3. The accuracy of after-hour registrar computed tomography (CT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... tomography (CT) reporting in a South African tertiary teaching hospital. Authors: ... The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of after-hour registrar CT reporting, to identify possible factors that may .... The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have ...

  4. The value of positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluating metastatic disease in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Jong Kyun; Ku, Bon-Ho; Oh, Cho-Rong; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Choi, Dong Wook

    2012-08-01

    Routine application of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for pancreatic cancer staging remains a controversial approach. The purpose of this study was to reassess the clinical impact of PET/CT for the detection of distant metastasis of pancreatic cancer. From January 2006 to June 2009, 125 patients with histologically proven pancreatic cancer that had undergone PET/CT at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of PET/CT on the management plan, the post-PET/CT management plans were compared with the pre-PET/CT management plans. After the conventional staging workup, we determined that 76 patients (60.8%) had resectable lesions, whereas 48 patients had unresectable lesions. One patient underwent explorative laparotomy due to equivocal resectability. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosed distant metastasis in only 2 (2.6%) of the 76 patients with resectable lesions, and these patients did not undergo unnecessary surgical treatment. Complete resection was not performed in 8 of the 74 operative patients because they had distant metastasis detected during the operative procedure. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosed distant metastasis in 32 of the 44 patients with metastatic lesions that were histologically shown to have sensitivity of 72.7%. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of metastatic disease from pancreatic cancer.

  5. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Three-dimensional quantification of orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed imaging of micro-computed tomography in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongshi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Despite various X-ray approaches have been widely used to monitor root resorption after orthodontic treatment, a non-invasive and accurate method is highly desirable for long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to build a non-invasive method to quantify longitudinal orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed images of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in a rodent model. Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g) were used in this study. A 25 g orthodontic force generated by nickel-titanium coil spring was applied to the right maxillary first molar for each rat, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. Micro-CT scan was performed at day 0 (before orthodontic load) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after orthodontic load. Resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molars at bilateral sides was calculated from micro-CT images with registration algorithm via reconstruction, superimposition and partition operations. Obvious resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molar can be detected at day 14 and day 28 at orthodontic side. Most of the resorption occurred in the apical region at distal side and cervical region at mesiolingual side. Desirable development of molar root of rats was identified from day 0 to day 28 at control side. The development of root concentrated on apical region. This non-invasive 3D quantification method with registration algorithm can be used in longitudinal study of root resorption. Obvious root resorption in rat molar can be observed three-dimensionally at day 14 and day 28 after orthodontic load. This indicates that registration algorithm combined with time-lapsed images provides clinic potential application in detection and quantification of root contour.

  7. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  8. Hybrid Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Sulphur Colloid Scintigraphy in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Amit; Gayana, Shankramurthy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    It is important to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign condition of liver most commonly affecting women, from other neoplasm such as hepatic adenoma and metastasis. The functional reticuloendothelial features of FNH can be demonstrated by scintigraphy. We present a case of breast cancer in whom fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) showed a homogenous hyperdense lesion in liver, which on Tc99m sulfur colloid single-photon emission computed tomography/CT was found to have increased focal tracer uptake suggestive of FNH

  9. In vivo micro-CT assessment of airway remodeling in a flexible OVA-sensitized murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lederlin

    Full Text Available Airway remodeling is a major pathological feature of asthma. Up to now, its quantification still requires invasive methods. In this study, we aimed at determining whether in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is able to demonstrate allergen-induced airway remodeling in a flexible mouse model of asthma. Sixty Balb/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin or saline at 3 different endpoints (Days 35, 75, and 110. All mice underwent plethysmography at baseline and just prior to respiratory-gated micro-CT. Mice were then sacrificed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. From micro-CT images (voxel size = 46×46×46 µm, the numerical values of total lung attenuation, peribronchial attenuation (PBA, and PBA normalized by total lung attenuation were extracted. Each parameter was compared between OVA and control mice and correlation coefficients were calculated between micro-CT and histological data. As compared to control animals, ovalbumin-sensitized mice exhibited inflammation alone (Day 35, remodeling alone (Day 110 or both inflammation and remodeling (Day 75. Normalized PBA was significantly greater in mice exhibiting bronchial remodeling either alone or in combination with inflammation. Normalized PBA correlated with various remodeling markers such as bronchial smooth muscle size or peribronchial fibrosis. These findings suggest that micro-CT may help monitor remodeling non-invasively in asthmatic mice when testing new drugs targeting airway remodeling in pre-clinical studies.

  10. Computed tomography of the iliopsoas muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino-Murcia, M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal method for the imaging of the psoas muscle. The authors present 13 cases of patients with psoas abnormalities diagnosed by CT. The CT features of the different pathologic entities and comparison of CT with other imaging modalities are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Efficacy of 3D-positron emission tomography/computed tomography for upper abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Nakahara, Tadaki

    2014-04-01

    Recent advancement in computed tomography (CT) enables us to obtain high spatial resolution image and made it possible to construct extensive high-definition three-dimensional (3D) images. But a lack of contrast resolution in CT alone is still remained problem. Meanwhile, as fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) can visualize tumors in high contrast, we can create 3D images fusing the accumulation in tumors on PET/CT images. Such images can play the role of a "map of body" which makes it easy to understand the anatomical information before surgery. We also try to evaluate segmental liver function by using PET/CT fusion images. By using (11) C-methionine PET/contrast-enhanced CT, superior image quality compared to single photon emission computed tomography/CT can be obtained. CT, especially with contrast enhancement for obtaining anatomical imaging information plus PET for obtaining functional imaging information is a highly compatible combination, and adding these two types information will further increase clinical usefulness. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography evaluation of pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Buelund, Lene Elisabeth; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2009-01-01

    Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present.......Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present....

  13. Morphometric analysis - Cone beam computed tomography to predict bone quality and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlweg-Majert, B; Metzger, M C; Kummer, T; Schulze, D

    2011-07-01

    Modified quantitative computed tomography is a method used to predict bone quality and quantify the bone mass of the jaw. The aim of this study was to determine whether bone quantity or quality was detected by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) combined with image analysis. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES: Different measurements recorded on two phantoms (Siemens phantom, Comac phantom) were evaluated on images taken with the Somatom VolumeZoom (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and the NewTom 9000 (NIM s.r.l., Verona, Italy) in order to calculate a calibration curve. The spatial relationships of six sample cylinders and the repositioning from four pig skull halves relative to adjacent defined anatomical structures were assessed by means of three-dimensional visualization software. The calibration curves for computer tomography (CT) and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) using the Siemens phantom showed linear correlation in both modalities between the Hounsfield Units (HU) and bone morphology. A correction factor for CBCT was calculated. Exact information about the micromorphology of the bone cylinders was only available using of micro computer tomography. Cone-beam computer tomography is a suitable choice for analysing bone mass, but, it does not give any information about bone quality. 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  15. TH-AB-209-01: Making Benchtop X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) Practical for in Vivo Imaging by Integration of a Dedicated High-Performance X-Ray Source in Conjunction with Micro-CT Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, N; Cho, S; Reynoso, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To make benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) practical for routine preclinical imaging tasks with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by deploying, integrating, and characterizing a dedicated high-performance x-ray source and addition of simultaneous micro-CT functionality. Methods: Considerable research effort is currently under way to develop a polychromatic benchtop cone-beam XFCT system capable of imaging GNPs by stimulation and detection of gold K-shell x-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons. Recently, an ad hoc high-power x-ray source was incorporated and used to image the biodistribution of GNPs within a mouse, postmortem. In the current work, a dedicated x-ray source system featuring a liquid-cooled tungsten-target x-ray tube (max 160 kVp, ∼3 kW power) was deployed. The source was operated at 125 kVp, 24 mA. The tube’s compact dimensions allowed greater flexibility for optimizing both the irradiation and detection geometries. Incident x-rays were shaped by a conical collimator and filtered by 2 mm of tin. A compact “OEM” cadmium-telluride x-ray detector was implemented for detecting XRF/scatter spectra. Additionally, a flat panel detector was installed to allow simultaneous transmission CT imaging. The performance of the system was characterized by determining the detection limit (10-second acquisition time) for inserts filled with water/GNPs at various concentrations (0 and 0.010–1.0 wt%) and embedded in a small-animal-sized phantom. The phantom was loaded with 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 wt% inserts and imaged using XFCT and simultaneous micro-CT. Results: An unprecedented detection limit of 0.030 wt% was experimentally demonstrated, with a 33% reduction in acquisition time. The reconstructed XFCT image accurately localized the imaging inserts. Micro-CT imaging did not provide enough contrast to distinguish imaging inserts from the phantom under the current conditions. Conclusion: The system is immediately capable of in vivo preclinical XFCT

  16. TH-AB-209-01: Making Benchtop X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) Practical for in Vivo Imaging by Integration of a Dedicated High-Performance X-Ray Source in Conjunction with Micro-CT Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar, N; Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reynoso, F [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To make benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) practical for routine preclinical imaging tasks with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by deploying, integrating, and characterizing a dedicated high-performance x-ray source and addition of simultaneous micro-CT functionality. Methods: Considerable research effort is currently under way to develop a polychromatic benchtop cone-beam XFCT system capable of imaging GNPs by stimulation and detection of gold K-shell x-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons. Recently, an ad hoc high-power x-ray source was incorporated and used to image the biodistribution of GNPs within a mouse, postmortem. In the current work, a dedicated x-ray source system featuring a liquid-cooled tungsten-target x-ray tube (max 160 kVp, ∼3 kW power) was deployed. The source was operated at 125 kVp, 24 mA. The tube’s compact dimensions allowed greater flexibility for optimizing both the irradiation and detection geometries. Incident x-rays were shaped by a conical collimator and filtered by 2 mm of tin. A compact “OEM” cadmium-telluride x-ray detector was implemented for detecting XRF/scatter spectra. Additionally, a flat panel detector was installed to allow simultaneous transmission CT imaging. The performance of the system was characterized by determining the detection limit (10-second acquisition time) for inserts filled with water/GNPs at various concentrations (0 and 0.010–1.0 wt%) and embedded in a small-animal-sized phantom. The phantom was loaded with 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 wt% inserts and imaged using XFCT and simultaneous micro-CT. Results: An unprecedented detection limit of 0.030 wt% was experimentally demonstrated, with a 33% reduction in acquisition time. The reconstructed XFCT image accurately localized the imaging inserts. Micro-CT imaging did not provide enough contrast to distinguish imaging inserts from the phantom under the current conditions. Conclusion: The system is immediately capable of in vivo preclinical XFCT

  17. Utility of the computed tomography indices on cone beam computed tomography images in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential use of the computed tomography indices (CTI) on cone beam CT (CBCT) images for an assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Twenty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women and 21 postmenopausal healthy women were enrolled as the subjects. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were calculated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a DXA scanner. The CBCT images were obtained from the unilateral mental foramen region using a PSR-9000N Dental CT system. The axial, sagittal, and coronal images were reconstructed from the block images using OnDemend3D. The new term 'CTI' on CBCT images was proposed. The relationship between the CT measurements and BMDs were assessed and the intra-observer agreement was determined. There were significant differences between the normal and osteoporotic groups in the computed tomography mandibular index superior (CTI(S)), computed tomography mandibular index inferior (CTI(I)), and computed tomography cortical index (CTCI). On the other hand, there was no difference between the groups in the computed tomography mental index (CTMI: inferior cortical width). CTI(S), CTI(I), and CTCI on the CBCT images can be used to assess the osteoporotic women.

  18. Use of computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography for staging of local extent in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Thomas; Kestenholz, Peter; Hunziker, Roger; Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh; Fries, Martina; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Husmann, Lars; Stahel, Rolf; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. Sixty-two patients (median age, 61 years; female: n = 9) with proven MPM underwent CT after induction chemotherapy. Of these, 28 underwent additional PET/CT. Extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed for pathological TNM staging. Clinical TNM stage was assessed by 3 independent readers. Relative and absolute underestimation and overestimation were compared with pathological tumor stage. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for differentiation between stages T2 and T3 were assessed. Interobserver agreement between the readers was analyzed (κ). Positron emission tomography/CT and CT underestimated T stage in up to 30% of the cases. Positron emission tomography/CT had a higher accuracy for tumor extent compared with CT (PET/CT: 0.92; CT: 0.84). The accuracy for nodal staging was higher for CT than for PET/CT (PET/CT: 0.78; CT: 0.87). Concerning International Mesothelioma Interest Group classification, PET/CT improved the accuracy of preoperative staging compared with CT (PET/CT: 0.91; CT: 0.82). Interobserver agreement was moderate for CT (0.48-0.62) and good for PET/CT (0.64-0.83) for T staging. For nodal staging, interobserver agreement was fair to moderate for CT and good for PET/CT (CT: 0.37-0.51; PET/CT: 0.73-0.76). Positron emission tomography/CT is more accurate and has a lower interobserver variability for clinical intrathoracic staging of MPM compared with CT. Nevertheless PET/CT underestimated tumor stage in a substantial number of cases, showing the need for a more accurate imaging technology or approach.

  19. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  1. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex (France); Ranouil, Julien [Landauer Europe, 33 avenue du Général Leclerc, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92266 Cedex (France); Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier [Oncodesign, 20 rue Jean Mazen, Dijon 21076 Cedex (France); Walker, Paul [LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Brunotte, François [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex, France and LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  2. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E.; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD.• Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity.• CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe.• DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low-to-intermediate pretest...

  3. Progress in analysis of computed tomography (CT) images of hardwood logs for defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatically detecting internal defects in logs using computed tomography (CT) images. The overall purpose is to assist in breakdown optimization. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if defect locations are known in advance, and if this information is used to make...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  6. Micro-CT analyses of historical bone samples presenting with osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, C.; Pietschmann, P. [Medical University Vienna (MUV), Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Vienna (Austria); Dockner, M.; Weber, G.W. [University of Vienna, Department of Anthropology, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Core Facility for Micro-Computed Tomography, Vienna (Austria); Pospischek, B.; Winter, E.; Patzak, B. [Museum of Natural History (NHM), Collection of Anatomical Pathology in the Madhouse Tower, Vienna (Austria); Pretterklieber, M. [Medical University of Vienna (MUV), Department of Applied Anatomy, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone marrow mainly caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. It typically affects long bones, e.g. femora, tibiae and humeri. Recently micro-computed tomographyCT) techniques offer the opportunity to investigate bone micro-architecture in great detail. Since there is no information on long bone microstructure in osteomyelitis, we studied historic bone samples with osteomyelitis by μCT. We investigated 23 femora of 22 individuals suffering from osteomyelitis provided by the Collection of Anatomical Pathology, Museum of Natural History, Vienna (average age 44 ±19 years); 9 femora from body donors made available by the Department of Applied Anatomy, Medical University of Vienna (age range, 56-102 years) were studied as controls. Bone microstructure was assessed by μCT VISCOM X 8060 II with a minimal resolution of 18 μm. In the osteomyelitic femora, most prominent alterations were seen in the cortical compartment. In 71.4 % of the individuals with osteomyelitis, cortical porosity occurred. 57.1 % of the individuals showed cortical thinning. In 42.9 % trabecularisation of cortical bone was observed. Osteomyelitis is associated with severe alterations of cortical bone structure otherwise typically observed at old age such as cortical porosity and cortical thinning. (orig.)

  7. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  8. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Nuclear Medicine, Montreal (Canada); Carret, Anne-Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Hemato-Oncology, Montreal (Canada); Dubois, Josee [CHU Sainte-Justine, Radiology, Montreal (Canada); Buteau, Chantal [CHU Sainte-Justine, Infectious Diseases, Montreal (Canada); Patey, Natalie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Pathology, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis. (orig.)

  9. Novel Application of Micro-Computerized Tomography for Morphologic Characterization of the Murine Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Marisol; Huang, Gene O; Lamb, Dolores J

    2017-12-01

    The murine penis model has enriched our understanding of anomalous penile development. The morphologic characterization of the murine penis using conventional serial sectioning methods is labor intensive and prone to errors. To develop a novel application of micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) with iodine staining for rapid, non-destructive morphologic study of murine penis structure. Penises were dissected from 10 adult wild-type mice and imaged using micro-CT with iodine staining. Images were acquired at 5-μm spatial resolution on a Bruker SkyScan 1272 micro-CT system. After images were acquired, the specimens were washed of any remaining iodine and embedded in paraffin for conventional histologic examination. Histologic and micro-CT measurements for all specimens were made by 2 independent observers. Measurements of penile structures were made on virtual micro-CT sections and histologic slides. The Lin concordance correlation coefficient demonstrated almost perfect strength of agreement for interobserver variability for histologic section (0.9995, 95% CI = 0.9990-0.9997) and micro-CT section (0.9982, 95% CI = 0.9963-0.9991) measurements. Bland-Altman analysis for agreement between the 2 modalities of measurement demonstrated mean differences of -0.029, 0.022, and -0.068 mm for male urogenital mating protuberance, baculum, and penile glans length, respectively. There did not appear to be a bias for overestimation or underestimation of measured lengths and limits of agreement were narrow. The enhanced ability offered by micro-CT to phenotype the murine penis has the potential to improve translational studies examining the molecular pathways contributing to anomalous penile development. The present study describes the first reported use of micro-CT with iodine staining for imaging the murine penis. Producing repeated histologic sections of identical orientation was limited by inherent imperfections in mounting and tissue sectioning, but this was

  10. Determination of strain fields in porous shape memory alloys using micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Therese; Friess, Sebastian; de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to 'intelligent' materials since the metal alloy can change its macroscopic shape as the result of the temperature-induced, reversible martensite-austenite phase transition. SMAs are often applied for medical applications such as stents, hinge-less instruments, artificial muscles, and dental braces. Rapid prototyping techniques, including selective laser melting (SLM), allow fabricating complex porous SMA microstructures. In the present study, the macroscopic shape changes of the SMA test structures fabricated by SLM have been investigated by means of micro computed tomographyCT). For this purpose, the SMA structures are placed into the heating stage of the μCT system SkyScan 1172™ (SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium) to acquire three-dimensional datasets above and below the transition temperature, i.e. at room temperature and at about 80°C, respectively. The two datasets were registered on the basis of an affine registration algorithm with nine independent parameters - three for the translation, three for the rotation and three for the scaling in orthogonal directions. Essentially, the scaling parameters characterize the macroscopic deformation of the SMA structure of interest. Furthermore, applying the non-rigid registration algorithm, the three-dimensional strain field of the SMA structure on the micrometer scale comes to light. The strain fields obtained will serve for the optimization of the SLM-process and, more important, of the design of the complex shaped SMA structures for tissue engineering and medical implants.

  11. High pressure-elevated temperature x-ray micro-computed tomography for subsurface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan; Lebedev, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO 2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e.g. mineral dissolution and/or precipitation over geological times), geo-mechanical rock behaviour (e.g. rock compaction during diagenesis) or fines migration during water production, which can dramatically reduce reservoir permeability (and thus reservoir performance). All above examples are 3D processes, and 2D experiments (as traditionally done for micro-scale investigations) will thus only provide qualitative information; for instance the percolation threshold is much lower in 3D than in 2D. However, with the advent of x-ray micro-computed tomographyCT) - which is now routinely used - this limitation has been overcome, and such pore-scale processes can be observed in 3D at micrometer-scale. A serious complication is, however, the fact that in the subsurface high pressures and elevated temperatures (HPET) prevail, due to the hydrostatic and geothermal gradients imposed upon it. Such HPET-reservoir conditions significantly change the above mentioned physical and chemical processes, e.g. gas density is much higher at high pressure, which strongly affects buoyancy and wettability and thus gas distributions in the subsurface; or chemical reactions are significantly accelerated at increased temperature, strongly affecting fluid-rock interactions and thus diagenesis and deposition of valuable minerals. It is thus necessary to apply HPET conditions to the aforementioned μCT experiments, to be able to mimic subsurface

  12. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  13. Role of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in diagnostic iodine-131 scintigraphy before initial radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the incremental value of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar radioiodine imaging before radioiodine ablation in the staging, management and stratification of risk of recurrence (ROR) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Totally, 83 patients (21 male, 62 female) aged 17–75 (mean 39.9) years with DTC were included consecutively in this prospective study. They underwent postthyroidectomy planar and SPECT/CT scans after oral administration of 37–114 MBq iodine-131 (I-131). The scans were interpreted as positive, negative or suspicious for tracer uptake in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes and sites outside the neck. In each case, the findings on planar images were recorded first, without knowledge of SPECT/CT findings. Operative and pathological findings were used for postsurgical tumor–node–metastasis staging. The tumor staging was reassessed after each of these two scans. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography localized radioiodine uptake in the thyroid bed in 9/83 (10.8%) patients, neck nodes in 24/83 (28.9%) patients and distant metastases in 8/83 (9.6%) patients in addition to the planar study. Staging was changed in 8/83 (9.6%), ROR in 11/83 (13.2%) and management in 26/83 (31.3%) patients by the pretherapy SPECT/CT in comparison to planar imaging. SPECT/CT had incremental value in 32/83 patients (38.5%) over the planar scan. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography is feasible during a diagnostic I-131 scan with a low amount of radiotracer. It improved the interpretation of pretherapy I-131 scintigraphy and changed the staging and subsequent patient management

  14. Computed tomography in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations of 7 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type were reviewed and correlated with clinical stages. The findings of CT were also compared with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There was no positive correlation between the degree of cerebral atrophy on CT and clinical stage. Cerebral atrophy seemed to be influenced by aging, ill duration, and the degree of dementia. The cerebral/cerebellar uptake ratio of RI on SPECT was significantly decreased with the progression of clinical stage. SPECT seemed to reflect the degree of dementia, irrespective of ages and ill duration. (N.K.)

  15. Computed tomography of chest wall abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Morimoto, Shizuo; Akira, Masanori

    1986-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions of the chest wall become less common because of the improvement of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Over a 5-year period, 7 patients with chest wall inflammatory diseases underwent chest computed tomography. These were 2 tuberculous pericostal abscesses, 2 empyema necessitatis, 1 spinal caries, and 2 bacterial chest wall abscesses (unknown organisms). Computed tomography (CT) helped in demonstrating the density, border, site, and extent of the lesions. CT images also demonstrated the accompaning abnormalities which included bone changes, pleural calcification, or old tuberculous changes of the lung. CT was very effective to demonstrate the communicating portions from the inside of the bony thorax to the outside of the bony thorax in 2 empyema necessitatis. (author)

  16. Availability of perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB) emulsion used as agent in the liver tumor imaging of computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Takachika

    1986-01-01

    We carried out a fundamental study on the availability of perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB) emulsion used as an agent in the liver tumor imaging of computed tomography (CT). For this study, we used emulsified yolk phospolipid as a surfactant for PFOB emulsion because it is generally considered to have higher safety relative to the administration to the humans. In the rabbits' liver tumor model in which VX 2 tumor cell was implanted into their livers, we observed increases in the CT values of the livers when 5 to 10 ml/kg of PFOB emulsion (20 % w/v) was administered into the vein, and also ringlike enhancement and increases in the CT values on the tumor rim when 20 ml/kg of PFOB emulsion was administered. In addition, in the chemical analysis of a gas chromatography, we also observed significant increases in the PFOB concentration on the tumor rim, compared with those of normal liver parenchyma, when 20 ml/kg of PFOB emulsion was given. In the finding of CT values in the human liver tumor by means of organ perfusion system, we recognized increases in the CT values (induced by the accumulation of PFOB emulsion) on the rim of the metastatic tumor of colon cancer. These results suggest that PFOB emulsion has certain availability as an agent for the liver tumor imaging of computed tomography (CT). (author)

  17. Computed tomography (CT) as a nondestructive test method used for composite helicopter components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Reinhold

    1991-09-01

    The first components of primary helicopter structures to be made of glass fiber reinforced plastics were the main and tail rotor blades of the Bo105 and BK 117 helicopters. These blades are now successfully produced in series. New developments in rotor components, e.g., the rotor blade technology of the Bo108 and PAH2 programs, make use of very complex fiber reinforced structures to achieve simplicity and strength. Computer tomography was found to be an outstanding nondestructive test method for examining the internal structure of components. A CT scanner generates x-ray attenuation measurements which are used to produce computer reconstructed images of any desired part of an object. The system images a range of flaws in composites in a number of views and planes. Several CT investigations and their results are reported taking composite helicopter components as an example.

  18. Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) for detecting pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Markus; Zeich, Katrin; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven N.; Karges, Wolfram; Pauls, Sandra; Verburg, Frederik A.; Dralle, Henning; Neumaier, Bernd; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2010-01-01

    In detecting pheochromocytoma (PHEO), positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabelled amine precursor 18 F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ( 18 F-DOPA) offers excellent specificity, while computed tomography (CT) provides high sensitivity and ability to localize lesions; therefore, the combination of these modalities could be advantageous in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined 18 F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately detects and localizes PHEO lesions than does each modality alone. 18 F-DOPA PET, CT and 18 F-DOPA PET/CT images of 25 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic scanning of suspected sporadic or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome-associated PHEO were reviewed retrospectively in randomized sequence. Two blinded observers scored the images regarding the likelihood of PHEO being present and localizable. Results were correlated with subsequent clinical history and, when available, histology. Of the 19 lesions detected by all three modalities, PET identified each as positive for PHEO, but was unable to definitively localize 15 of 19 (79%). CT could definitively localize all 19 lesions, but could not definitively diagnose or exclude PHEO in 18 of 19 (95%) lesions. Furthermore, CT falsely identified as negative for PHEO one lesion which was judged to be positive for this tumor by both PET and PET/CT. Only in PET/CT scans were all 19 lesions accurately characterized and localized. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of 18 F-DOPA PET/CT for PHEO was 100% and the specificity 88%, with a 100% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. 18 F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately diagnoses and localizes adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious for PHEO than do 18 F-DOPA PET or CT alone. (orig.)

  19. Inside marginal adaptation of crowns by X-ray micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, T. M.; Lima, I.; Lopes, R. T.; Author, S. B. Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to access dental arcade by using X-ray micro-computed tomography. For this purpose high resolution system was used and three groups were studied: Zirkonzahn CAD-CAM system, IPS e.max Press, and metal ceramic. The three systems assessed in this study showed results of marginal and discrepancy gaps clinically accepted. The great result of 2D and 3D evaluations showed that the used technique is a powerful method to investigate quantitative characteristics of dental arcade. (authors)

  20. Inside marginal adaptation of crowns by X-ray micro-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, T. M.; Lima, I.; Lopes, R. T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brazil); Author, S. B. Jr. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to access dental arcade by using X-ray micro-computed tomography. For this purpose high resolution system was used and three groups were studied: Zirkonzahn CAD-CAM system, IPS e.max Press, and metal ceramic. The three systems assessed in this study showed results of marginal and discrepancy gaps clinically accepted. The great result of 2D and 3D evaluations showed that the used technique is a powerful method to investigate quantitative characteristics of dental arcade. (authors)

  1. Computed tomography and/or ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, S.; Kishikawa, T.; Huewel, N.; Kazner, E.; Grumme, T.; Lanksch, W.

    1982-01-01

    It is discussed if in intracranial tumors, especially in tumors of the posterior cranial fossa, a CT and/or a ventriculography should be practiced. We have made investigations of 134 patients, 93 of whom were children up to 14 years of age. Each case was undertaken computed tomography as well as ventriculography. The results are clearly demonstrating the superiority of computed tomography compared with ventriculography. Ventriculography is a surgical intervention stressing the patients, side-effects may occur, and sometimes serious complications are caused. Modern computed tomography is producing pictures of high quality, which are highly sufficient for neurosurgical intervention. Very rarely additional angiography has to be performed. The diagnosis of intracranial tumors can fully be established by computed tomography, whereas ventriculography is no longer necessary. (orig.) [de

  2. Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis of the Root Canal Morphology of Palatal Roots of Maxillary First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceliano-Alves, Marília; Alves, Flávio Rodrigues Ferreira; Mendes, Daniel de Melo; Provenzano, José Claudio

    2016-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy is critical for successful root canal treatments. This study evaluated the internal anatomy of the palatal roots of maxillary first molars with micro-computed tomography (microCT). The palatal roots of extracted maxillary first molars (n = 169) were scanned with microCT to determine several anatomic parameters, including main canal classification, lateral canal occurrence and location, degree of curvature, main foramen position, apical constriction presence, diameters 1 and 2 mm from the apex and 1 mm from the foramen, minor dentin thickness in those regions, canal volume, surface area, and convexity. All canals were classified as Vertucci type I. The cross sections were oval in 61% of the canals. Lateral canals were found in 25% of the samples. The main foramen did not coincide with the root apex in 95% of the cases. Only 8% of the canals were classified as straight. Apical constriction was identified in 38% of the roots. The minor and major canal diameters and minor dentin thickness were decreased near the apex. The minor dentin thickness 1 mm from the foramen was 0.82 mm. The palatal canals exhibited a volume of 6.91 mm(3) and surface area of 55.31 mm(2) and were rod-shaped. The root canals of the palatal roots were classified as type I. However, some factors need to be considered during the treatment of these roots, including the frequent ocurrence of moderate/severe curvatures, oval-shaped cross-sections, and lateral canals, noncoincidence of the apical foramen with the root apex, and absence of apical constriction in most cases. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  4. Use of micro computed-tomography and 3D printing for reverse engineering of mouse embryo nasal capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesařová, M.; Zikmund, T.; Kaiser, J.; Kaucká, M.; Adameyko, I.; Jaroš, J.; Paloušek, D.; Škaroupka, D.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of increasingly complex cartilage in vertebrate embryos is one of the key tasks of developmental biology. This is especially important to study shape-organizing processes during initial skeletal formation and growth. Advanced imaging techniques that are reflecting biological needs give a powerful impulse to push the boundaries of biological visualization. Recently, techniques for contrasting tissues and organs have improved considerably, extending traditional 2D imaging approaches to 3D . X-ray micro computed tomographyCT), which allows 3D imaging of biological objects including their internal structures with a resolution in the micrometer range, in combination with contrasting techniques seems to be the most suitable approach for non-destructive imaging of embryonic developing cartilage. Despite there are many software-based ways for visualization of 3D data sets, having a real solid model of the studied object might give novel opportunities to fully understand the shape-organizing processes in the developing body. In this feasibility study we demonstrated the full procedure of creating a real 3D object of mouse embryo nasal capsule, i.e. the staining, the μCT scanning combined by the advanced data processing and the 3D printing

  5. Application of X-ray Computed Tomography to Cultural Heritage diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morigi, M.P.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; D'Errico, V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical methods of diagnosis are more and more frequently applied in the field of Cultural Heritage either for scientific investigations or for restoration and conservation purposes. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most powerful non-destructive testing techniques for the full-volume inspection of an object, as it is able to give morphological and physical information on the inner structure of the investigated sample. The great variety of size and composition that characterizes archaeological findings and art objects requires the development of tomographic systems specifically designed for Cultural Heritage analysis. In the last few years our research group has developed several acquisition systems for Digital Radiography and X-ray CT. We are able to perform high resolution micro-tomography of small objects (voxel size of few microns) as well as CT of large objects (up to 2 m of size). In this paper we will mainly focus the attention on the results of the investigation recently performed on two Japanese wooden statues with our CT system for large works of art. The CT analysis was carried out on site at the Conservation and Restoration Center ''La Venaria Reale'', where the statues have been restored before their exposition at the Oriental Art Museum in Turin. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pyrexia of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Kumar, Uma; Sood, Rita

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in patients presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Forty-seven patients (31 males and 16 females; mean age of 42.7 ± 19.96 years) presenting as PUO to the Department of Medicine at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi over a period of 2 years underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT. PET ⁄ CT was considered supportive when its results correlated with the final definitive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of combined evaluation of history, clinical findings, investigations, and response to treatment. Thirty-five PET/CT studies (74.5%) were positive. However, only 18 (38.3%) were supportive of the final diagnosis. In three patients (6.4%), PET/CT was considered diagnostic as none of the other investigations including contrast-enhanced computed tomography of chest and abdomen, and directed tissue sampling could lead to the final diagnosis. All these three patients were diagnosed as aortoarteritis. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is an important emerging modality in the workup of PUO. It supported the final diagnosis in 38% of our patients and was diagnostic in 6.4% of patients. Thus, PET/CT should only be considered as second-line investigation for the diagnostic evaluation of PUO; especially in suspected noninfectious inflammatory disorders

  7. Role of computed tomography (CT scan in staging of cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Staging of cervical carcinoma is done clinically using International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO guidelines. It is based on physical examination findings and also includes results of biopsy, endoscopy and conventional radiological tests like chest radiograph, intravenous urography and barium enema. These conventional radiological investigations have largely been replaced by computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at present. FIGO staging system does not consider CT and MRI mandatory; however, use of these modalities are encouraged. This prospective study was conducted to determine the role of CT in staging work up in women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. Methods: Fifty three women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma were evaluated with contrast enhanced CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. CT scan images were especially evaluated to determine tumour size, invasion of parmetrium, pelvic walls, rectum, urinary bladder and ureters, pelvic or retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and distant metastases. CT findings were associated with clinical findings and staging, including findings from cystoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. Results: There was a poor agreement between clinical and CT staging of cervical carcinoma. Primary tumour was demonstrated on CT in 36 (70% of 53 patients. CT underestimated the parametrial, vaginal and pelvic wall invasion when compared with physical examination. CT overestimated the urinary bladder and rectal invasion when compared with cysto-sigmoidoscopy, however, CT had 100 per cent negative predictive value (NPV to exclude bladder and rectal involvement. CT detection of lymph node enlargement and lung metastases influenced the management. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that CT scan does not reliably correlate with clinical FIGO staging of cervical cancer. However, it can detect urinary obstruction as well as nodal or distant metastases and thus improves the

  8. Mathematical filtering minimizes metallic halation of titanium implants in MicroCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jee; Osher, Stanley J; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Microcomputed tomography (MicroCT) images containing titanium implant suffer from x-rays scattering, artifact and the implant surface is critically affected by metallic halation. To improve the metallic halation artifact, a nonlinear Total Variation denoising algorithm such as Split Bregman algorithm was applied to the digital data set of MicroCT images. This study demonstrated that the use of a mathematical filter could successfully reduce metallic halation, facilitating the osseointegration evaluation at the bone implant interface in the reconstructed images.

  9. Computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), and ultrasound (US) in oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    This review will summarize the effectiveness of computed tomography, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging procedures in several different disease processes. The results indicate: (1) CT is clearly better than ultrasound for diseases of the adrenal gland and pancreas; (2) for patients with gynecologic malignancies, CT and ultrasound are approximately equivalent in their ability to define treatment options effectively; (3) in the liver, the differences among the three modalities are less marked and are disease specific. For example, for patients with colon cancer the increased effectiveness of CT relative to ultrasound or nuclear medicine is small. For patients with breast cancer, the difference is greater; (4) for patients suspected to have a focal source of sepsis, CT is slightly better than ultrasound or nuclear medicine. In these patients, however, when nuclear medicine images are obtained on a rectilinear scanner, the results are significantly worse compared to nuclear medicine images on a LFOV gamma camera or to ultrasound. As a result of the above studies and concommitant statistical analyses, several conclusions can be drawn about optimum experimental design and statistical approaches for comparing imaging modalities

  10. Quantification of bone quality using different cone beam computed tomography devices: Accuracy assessment for edentulous human mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Jeroen; Nicolielo, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro; Huang, Yan; Slagmolen, Pieter; Politis, Constantinus; Lambrichts, Ivo; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    To determine the accuracy of the latest cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) machines in comparison to multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT) for objectively assessing trabecular and cortical bone quality prior to implant placement. Eight edentulous human mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT scanners (3D Accuitomo 170, i-CAT Next Generation, ProMax 3D Max, Scanora 3D, Cranex 3D, Newtom GiANO and Carestream 9300) and one MSCT system (Somatom Definition Flash) using the clinical exposure protocol with the highest resolution. Micro-CT (SkyScan 1174) images served as a gold standard. A volume of interest (VOI) comprising trabecular and cortical bone only was delineated on the micro-CT. After spatial alignment of all scan types, micro-CT VOIs were overlaid on the CBCT and MSCT images. Segmentation was applied and morphometric parameters were calculated for each scanner. CBCT and MSCT morphometric parameters were compared with micro-CT using mixed-effect models. Intraclass correlation analysis was used to grade the accuracy of each scanner in assessing trabecular and cortical quality in comparison with the gold standard. Bone structure patterns of each scanner were compared with micro-CT in 2D and 3D to facilitate the interpretation of the morphometric analysis. Morphometric analysis showed an overestimation of the cortical and trabecular bone quantity during CBCT and MSCT evaluation compared to the gold standard micro-CT. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) was found to be significantly (P 3D Max (180 µm), followed by the 3D Accuitomo 170 (200 µm), Carestream 9300 (220 µm), Newtom GiANO (240 µm), Cranex 3D (280 µm), Scanora 3D (300 µm), high resolution MSCT (310 µm), i-CAT Next Generation (430 µm) and standard resolution MSCT (510 µm). The underestimation of the cortical thickness (Ct.Th) in ProMax 3D Max (-10 µm), the overestimation in Newtom GiANO (10 µm) and the high resolution

  11. Computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, T.W.; Blake, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to computed tomography and is particularly concerned with determining the CT numbers of zones of interest in an image displayed on a cathode ray tube which zones lie in the so-called level or center of the gray scale window. (author)

  12. Regional Diagnostic Reference Levels and Collective Effective Doses from Computed Tomography (CT) Scanners in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, R.S.; Dinakaran, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic examinations performed using computed tomography (CT) are on the increase, and the use of this modality needs to be monitored periodically. The aim of this study was to formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and assess collective effective doses from CT scanners in Tamil Nadu, India. In-site CT dose measurements were performed for 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) funded project for a period of two years. Regional DRLs were formulated at third quartile level for three CT protocols such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis and were found to be 557 mGy.cm, 521 mGy.cm and 294 mGy.cm, respectively. The collective effective dose in Tamil Nadu was found to be 14.93 man Sv per day. (author)

  13. Contrast Agents for Micro-Computed Tomography of Microdamage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    However, cracks in the enamel were readily detected by micro-CT both with and without the use of a con- trast agent (Fig. 2(b)) due to the relatively low x...ray attenua- tion of the fluid space in the crack compared to the enamel . Therefore, the main limitation of the difficulty distinguishing BaSO4 from...Roeder, 2011). Moreover, cracks in whole human molars were also imaged by contrast-enhanced micro-CT (Appendix 5, Landrigan et al., 2010). KEY

  14. Quantification of lung fibrosis and emphysema in mice using automated micro-computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Langhe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography allows for longitudinal image-based measurements in animal models of lung disease. The combination of repetitive high resolution imaging with fully automated quantitative image analysis in mouse models of lung fibrosis lung benefits preclinical research. This study aimed to develop and validate such an automated micro-computed tomography analysis algorithm for quantification of aerated lung volume in mice; an indicator of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema severity. METHODOLOGY: Mice received an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (n = 8, elastase (0.25 U elastase n = 9, 0.5 U elastase n = 8 or saline control (n = 6 for fibrosis, n = 5 for emphysema. A subset of mice was scanned without intervention, to evaluate potential radiation-induced toxicity (n = 4. Some bleomycin-instilled mice were treated with imatinib for proof of concept (n = 8. Mice were scanned weekly, until four weeks after induction, when they underwent pulmonary function testing, lung histology and collagen quantification. Aerated lung volumes were calculated with our automated algorithm. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our automated image-based aerated lung volume quantification method is reproducible with low intra-subject variability. Bleomycin-treated mice had significantly lower scan-derived aerated lung volumes, compared to controls. Aerated lung volume correlated with the histopathological fibrosis score and total lung collagen content. Inversely, a dose-dependent increase in lung volume was observed in elastase-treated mice. Serial scanning of individual mice is feasible and visualized dynamic disease progression. No radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Three-dimensional images provided critical topographical information. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a high resolution in vivo micro-computed tomography image analysis algorithm that runs fully automated and allows quantification of aerated lung volume in mice. This

  15. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    1985-06-01

    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  16. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.D.; Ritman, E.L.; Robb, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  17. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  18. Adaptation Measurement of CAD/CAM Dental Crowns with X-Ray Micro-CT: Metrological Chain Standardization and 3D Gap Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tapie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing systems are increasingly used to produce dental prostheses, but the parts produced suffer from a lack of evaluation, especially concerning the internal gap of the final assembly, that is, the space between the prepared tooth and the prosthesis. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT is a noninvasive imaging technique enabling the internal inspection of the assembly. It has proved to be an efficient tool for measuring the gap. In this study, a critical review of the protocols using micro-CT to quantify the gap is proposed as an introduction to a new protocol aimed at minimizing errors and enabling comparison between CAD/CAM systems. To compare different systems, a standardized protocol is proposed including two reference geometries. Micro-CT is used to acquire the reference geometries. A new 3D method is then proposed and a new indicator is defined (Gap Size Distribution (GSD. In addition, the usual 2D measurements are described and discussed. The 3D gap measurement method proposed can be used in clinical case geometries and has the considerable advantage of minimizing the data processing steps before performing the measurements.

  19. Lung Hot Spot Without Corresponding Computed Tomography Abnormality on Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Artifactual or Real, Iatrogenic or Pathologic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan

    Focal lung uptake without corresponding lesions or abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scan poses a dilemma in the interpretation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). A limited number of case reports have previously suggested an artifactual or iatrogenic nature of the uptake. In the present study, 8 relevant cases were included within a retrospective search of the database. Medical records were reviewed for follow-up radiological and pathologic information. In 7 of 8 cases with focal increased FDG uptake but no corresponding lesions or abnormalities on CT scan, the lung hot spots were artifactual or iatrogenic upon follow-up diagnostic chest CT or repeated PET/CT or both the scans. Microemboli were most likely a potential cause of the pulmonary uptake, with or without partial paravenous injection. One case in the series had a real pulmonary lesion demonstrated on follow-up PET/CT scans and on surgical pathology, although the initial integrated CT and follow-up diagnostic chest CT scans revealed negative findings to demonstrate pulmonary abnormalities corresponding to the hot spot on the PET scan. In conclusion, the finding of a lung hot spot in the absence of anatomical abnormality on FDG PET/CT was most likely artifactual or iatrogenic, but it might also represent a real pulmonary lesion. Nonvisualization of anatomical abnormality could be because of its small size and position directly overlying a segmental vessel. Further image follow-up is necessary and important to clarify the nature of the uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed tomography in osteoid osteoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, J.L.; Aubspin, D.; Buchon, R.; Schoenenberger, P.; Flageat, J.

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of suspected osteoid osteoma were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). The role of CT was related, as a key diagnostic tool: radionuclide imaging is helpful in directing subsequent CT scans, which allows the study of complex anatomical sites (spine) or the analysis of atypical lesions (invisible nidus, sclerosis or lytic lesions, double nidus...). CT provides the surgeon with the exact location and extent of the lesion, and thus, CT may allow a more limited surgical resection of the involved bone [fr

  1. False-positive uptake on 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in oncological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culverwell, A.D.; Scarsbrook, A.F.; Chowdhury, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing utilization of integrated positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in oncological imaging, it is important for radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians to be aware that FDG uptake is not specific for malignancy, as many different physiological variants and benign pathological conditions can also exhibit increased glucose metabolism. Such false-positive FDG uptake often arises outside the area of primary interest and may mimic malignant disease, thereby confounding accurate interpretation of PET/CT studies. With the use of illustrative clinical cases, this article will provide a systematic overview of potential interpretative pitfalls and illustrate how such unexpected findings can be appropriately evaluated.

  2. A study of effective sequences on micro-CT in the dent-maxillo-facial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masataka; Mori, Shintaro; Sakayanagi, Masashi; Fujita, Yuzo; Kaneda, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) using cone-beam scan is becoming widely used for various studies of oral structures. However, this machine has not been used to evaluate the effective parameters for two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) images. This study evaluated the effective parameters of micro-CT for 2D or 3D images of oral hard tissue structures. We evaluated the CT value of 5 human teeth (upper first molars) to determine suitable CT value examined according to several X-ray parameters using conformal radiotherapy (CRT) on a work station. CT information from the specimens was obtained using a micro-CT (Toscaner-31300 μ, Toshiba ITC), under the conditions of tube voltage of 75 kV, tube current of 120 μA, 100∼1600 views, the number of times of addition, 512 x 512 pixel matrix, and 0.2 slice thickness. We made 3D-reconstruction images from the micro-CT data. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using 2D images processed by the volume-rendering method using 3D-reconstruction software (TRI/3D BON, RATOC system engineering). Then, we evaluate the 3D tooth images. In the assessment of images, three dental radiologists evaluated several 3D tooth images using 3D-reconstruction images. Each image was scored on a five-level scale by Scheffe one-pair comparison method as follows: 5: much easier to evaluate, 4: easier to evaluate, 3: equivalent, 2: harder to evaluate, 1: much harder to evaluate. In scoring, each of the three dental radiologists made an individual assessment, and when differences among individual scores occurred, the score was ultimately assigned by consensus among the three individuals. Statistical analysis of the scores assigned by the three dental radiologists as described above was carried out using Stat View-J 5.0 (Abacus Concepts, Inc, USA) statistical software and Tukey-Kramer multiple-comparison testing. The optimal CT value for evaluating the human tooth by micro-CT is 600 on 2D images. On 3D images, the optimal

  3. Micro-CTvlab: A web based virtual gallery of biological specimens using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Michalakis, Nikitas; Filiopoulou, Irene; Minadakis, Nikos; Panteri, Emmanouela; Perantinos, George; Gougousis, Alexandros; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) has seen an increasing use in biological research areas, such as functional morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary biology and developmental research. Micro-CT is a technology which uses X-rays to create sub-micron resolution images of external and internal features of specimens. These images can then be rendered in a three-dimensional space and used for qualitative and quantitative 3D analyses. However, the online exploration and dissemination of micro-CT datasets are rarely made available to the public due to their large size and a lack of dedicated online platforms for the interactive manipulation of 3D data. Here, the development of a virtual micro-CT laboratory (Micro-CT vlab ) is described, which can be used by everyone who is interested in digitisation methods and biological collections and aims at making the micro-CT data exploration of natural history specimens freely available over the internet. The Micro-CT vlab offers to the user virtual image galleries of various taxa which can be displayed and downloaded through a web application. With a few clicks, accurate, detailed and three-dimensional models of species can be studied and virtually dissected without destroying the actual specimen. The data and functions of the Micro-CT vlab can be accessed either on a normal computer or through a dedicated version for mobile devices.

  4. Multi-scale characteristics of coal structure by x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting-ting; Feng, Zeng-chao; Zhou, Dong

    2018-02-01

    It is of great benefit to study the material and structural heterogeneity of coal for better understanding the coalbed methane (CBM) storage and enrichment. In this paper, multi-scale X-ray computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) at multi scales were conducted to thoroughly study the material distribution, heterogeneity, pore development, porosity and permeability of coal. It is suitable and reasonable to divide the testing samples into three structural categories by average density and heterogeneity degree, and the meso structure in the three categories accords with the morphology on SEM images. The pore size distribution and pore development of each subsample cannot be correspondingly related to their respective structure category or morphology due to different observation scales, while the macro pore size development, accumulated macro pore volume and macro pores porosity accord with the meso structure category and morphology information by CT and SEM at the same scale very well. Given the effect of macro pores on permeability and the contribution of micro pores to CBM storage capacity, reservoirs with developed micro pores and macro pores may be the most suitable coal reservoir for CBM exploitation.

  5. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mari Aparici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results.

  6. TU-A-9A-10: Verification of Photoacoustic Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Using DCE-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A; Krutulis, M; Verleker, A; Stantz, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We propose to verify quantifiable perfusion information generated by a Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PCT) scanner using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT (DCE-CT), and to investigate physicsbased models of acoustic properties of tissue and photon transport to improve quantification. These corrections first necessitate a skin identifying algorithms to reduce speed-of-sound blurring and empirical photon correction methods. Methods: Xenograft mice (n=5) of breast cancer was imaged using DCE-CT which was followed by DCE-PCT. To obtain CT perfusion data, each mouse was i.v. injected (0.2mL Isovue @0.5mL/min) and subsequent radio-opaque time curves fit to a 2-compartmental model on a voxel-wise basis. For DCE-PCT, different concentrations of ICG (250, 125, and 62.5 micro-Molar) were injected at the same rate, but also acquired at different sampling rates (3, 6, and 12 seconds). The time intensity curves from PCT were fit to a 1-compartmental model on a voxel by voxel basis. The images were coregistered (Oncentra) based on the structural similarities of the tumor vasculature after which we compared both the contrastenhanced dynamics and the vascular physiology. Results: Moderate to high doses of ICG impact the washin phase of the PCT contrast due to photon losses as a function of depth. A semi-automatic algorithm has been developed to identify the skin margin, and subsequent MC and empirical models of photon transport and variations in speed-of-sound are being evaluated. Conclusion: From our results we find that there is a need to apply photon and speed-of-sound corrections to our PCT data to improve the quantifiable image data at depth in the tumor for PCT. The dose and injection rate may help in reducing large systematic effects. Our project is partially funded by a NIH SBIR grant

  7. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  8. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  9. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N [Medical Imaging Division, Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F [Data Analysis and Information Systems, Applied Research and Analysis Directorate, Strategic Policy Branch, Health Canada (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  10. Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography does not improve the diagnostic value of parathyroid dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine B; Aleksyniene, Ramune; Boldsen, Søren K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) to the localization of parathyroid adenomas compared with the dual-phase Tc-99m MIBI SPECT with low-dose CT (LD-CT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included...... consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent a preoperative dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT followed by surgical resection. The standard of care was dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT, acquired with LD-CT in the early phase and CE-CT in the late phase (SPECT/CE-CT). The presence and localization...... of positive sites were extracted from study reports. To examine the role of CE-CT, patient cases were independently re-reviewed, with the early LD-CT fused with early and late SPECT (SPECT/LD-CT). The two SPECT/CT methods were compared for sensitivity, and the positive predictive value and histopathology were...

  12. Computed tomography - old ideas and new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Dominik; Boas, F.E. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Several recently introduced 'new' techniques in computed tomography - iterative reconstruction, gated cardiac CT, multiple-source, and dual-energy CT - actually date back to the early days of CT. We review the historic origins and evolution of these techniques, which may provide some insight into the latest innovations in commercial CT systems. (orig.)

  13. A method for three-dimensional analysis of the root canal system, before and after mechanical instrumentation, using X-ray Micro-computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars; Larsen, Per

    . Extracted molar teeth were embedded in resin and kept moisturized. Each root canal was instrumented with NiTi instruments to #40. The teeth were scanned before and after instrumentation, using a microCT40 micro-tomography (SCANCO Medical AG, Bassersdorf, Switzerland). The reconstructed slices were imported......Clinical studies have shown a connection between the reduction of micro-organisms in the root canal and the degree of apical enlargement. The aim of this study was to create a non-invasive 3D model for monitoring the apical enlargement in molar teeth before and after mechanical instrumentation...

  14. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has matured into a reliable and prominent tool for study of the muscoloskeletal system. When it was introduced in 1973, it was unique in many ways and posed a challenge to interpretation. It is in these unique features, however, that its advantages lie in comparison with conventional techniques. These advantages will be described in a spectrum of important applications in orthopedics and rheumatology

  15. Industrial applications of computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Kanglong; Qiang Yujun; Yang Fujia

    1992-01-01

    Industrial computer tomography (CT) and its application is a rapidly developing field of high technology. CT systems have been playing important roles in nondestructive testing (NDT) of products and equipment for a number of industries. Recently, the technique has advanced into the area of industrial process control, bringing even greater benefit to mankind. The basic principles and typical structure of an industrial CT system Descriptions are given of some successful CT systems for either NDT application or process control purposes

  16. Computed tomography in renal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, W.; Eisenberger, F.; Buck, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a group of 19 patients suffering from flank trauma and gross hematuria the diagnostic value of angiography was compared with that of computed tomography. The cases that underwent both tests were found to have the some diagnosis of rupture of the kidney. Typical CT-findings in kidney rupture are demonstrated. Whereas angiography presents an exact picture of the arterial system of the kidney, including its injures computed tomography reveals the extent of organ lesons by showing extra- and intrarenal hematomas. If surgery is planned angiography is still mandatory, whereby the indication is largely determined by the clinical findings. Computed tomography as a non-invasive method is equally suitable for follow-ups. (orig.) [de

  17. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, I.; Antoun, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  18. Internal structures of scaffold-free 3D cell cultures visualized by synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamli, Belma; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Tübel, Jutta; Schauwecker, Johannes; Burgkart, Rainer; Jürgens, Philipp; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Sader, Robert; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Recently the importance of the third dimension in cell biology has been better understood, resulting in a re-orientation towards three-dimensional (3D) cultivation. Yet adequate tools for their morphological characterization have to be established. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) allows visualizing such biological systems with almost isotropic micrometer resolution, non-destructively. We have applied SRμCT for studying the internal morphology of human osteoblast-derived, scaffold-free 3D cultures, termed histoids. Primary human osteoblasts, isolated from femoral neck spongy bone, were grown as 2D culture in non-mineralizing osteogenic medium until a rather thick, multi-cellular membrane was formed. This delicate system was intentionally released to randomly fold itself. The folded cell cultures were grown to histoids of cubic milli- or centimeter size in various combinations of mineralizing and non-mineralizing osteogenic medium for a total period of minimum 56 weeks. The SRμCT-measurements were performed in the absorption contrast mode at the beamlines BW 2 and W 2 (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany), operated by the GKSS-Research Center. To investigate the entire volume of interest several scans were performed under identical conditions and registered to obtain one single dataset of each sample. The histoids grown under different conditions exhibit similar external morphology of globular or ovoid shape. The SRμCT-examination revealed the distinctly different morphological structures inside the histoids. One obtains details of the histoids that permit to identify and select the most promising slices for subsequent histological characterization.

  19. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: ameneses@ieee.org [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cely Barroso, Regina [Laboratory of Applied Physics on Biomedical Sciences, Physics Department, Rio de Janeiro State University, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, CEP 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed Tomography ({mu}CT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-{mu}CT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-{mu}CT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  20. Automated segmentation of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography biomedical images using Graph Cuts and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson; Giusti, Alessandro; Pereira de Almeida, André; Parreira Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson; Cely Barroso, Regina; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) X-ray micro-Computed TomographyCT) enables magnified images to be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique with a high space resolution for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biomedical samples. The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to SR-μCT is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images for visualization, such as the high resolution and the phase contrast effect. In this article, we describe and assess the application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm for the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images acquired at the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beam line at the Elettra Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). We also propose a method using EMvGC with Artificial Neural Networks (EMANNs) for correcting misclassifications due to intensity variation of phase contrast, which are important effects and sometimes indispensable in certain biomedical applications, although they impair the segmentation provided by conventional techniques. Results demonstrate considerable success in the segmentation of SR-μCT biomedical images, with average Dice Similarity Coefficient 99.88% for bony tissue in Wistar Rats rib samples (EMvGC), as well as 98.95% and 98.02% for scans of Rhodnius prolixus insect samples (Chagas's disease vector) with EMANNs, in relation to manual segmentation. The techniques EMvGC and EMANNs cope with the task of performing segmentation in images with the intensity variation due to phase contrast effects, presenting a superior performance in comparison to conventional segmentation techniques based on thresholding and linear/nonlinear image filtering, which is also discussed in the present article.

  1. Accuracy of computed tomography-intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) in detection of choledocholithiasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.; Speer, A.G.; Collier, N.A.; Vincent, J.M.; Jardine, C.; Noack, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of computed tomography-intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) in the detection of choledocholithiasis, compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). 65 patients undergoing ERC had CT-IVC within 24 hours prior to ERC. Helical CT-IVC was performed following intravenous infusion of 100ml Biliscopin (Schering, Berlin). 2mm beam collimation was used with axial reformats at 1.5mm intervals used for image interpretation. Patients with serum bilirubin levels>3 times normal were excluded. CT-IVC and ERC studies were interpreted independently, and studies were graded as positive, negative or indeterminate for the presence of ductal calculi. 65 patients had a median age of 56 years. Median serum bilirubin at the time of CT-IVC was 13 mmol/L (range 5-47). ERC was indeterminate in 3 patients (4.7%) and CT-IVC in 4 (6.3%). 23 patients had ductal calculi on ERC and CT-IVC was positive in 22 (sensitivity 96%). False positive rate for CT-IVC was 8.3% with positive and negative predictive values of 92% and 97% respectively. Stones' size range was 4-16mm. Of the 14 solitary stones, 10 were pound 5mm and 8 pound 4mm.The bilirubin level in the positive cases was within the normal range in 20, with a range of 7-37 mmol/L. CT-IVC is highly accurate for detection of ductal calculi, including single small calculi, in patients with a serum bilirubin of <3 times normal. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography in mediastinal T-cell lymphoma with superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Varma, Subhash Chander; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a routine investigation for the staging of lymphomas. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is mandatory whenever parenchymal lesions, especially in the liver and spleen are suspected. We report a rare case of primary mediastinal T-cell lymphoma evaluated with contrast-enhanced PET/CT that showed features of superior vena cava syndrome

  3. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David C; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank; Landry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling of detectors and the corresponding noise characteristics. Stopping power maps were calculated for all three scans, and compared with the ground truth stopping power from the phantoms. Proton CT gave slightly better stopping power estimates than the dual energy CT method, with root mean square errors of 0.2% and 0.5% (for each phantom) compared to 0.5% and 0.9%. Single energy CT root mean square errors were 2.7% and 1.6%. Maximal errors for proton, dual energy and single energy CT were 0.51%, 1.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Better stopping power estimates could significantly reduce the range errors in proton therapy, but requires a large improvement in current methods which may be achievable with proton CT.

  4. Possibilities of differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions by computed tomography perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmina Sefić Pašić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate possibilities of computed tomography (CT perfusion in differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions based on their characteristic vascularization through perfusion parameters analysis. Methods Prospective study was conducted on 50 patients in the period 2009-2012. Patients were divided in two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The following CT perfusion parameters were analyzed: blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, capillary permeability surface area product (PS, hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, and impulse residual function (IRF. During the study another perfusion parameter was analyzed: hepatic perfusion index (HPI. All patients were examined on Multidetector 64-slice CT machine (GE with application of perfusion protocol for liver with i.v. administration of contrast agent. Results In both groups an increase of vascularization and arterial blood flow was noticed, but there was no significant statistical difference between any of 6 analyzed parameters. Hepatic perfusion index values were increased in all lesions in comparison with normal liver parenchyma. Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion in our study did not allow differentiation of benign and malignant liver lesions based on analysis of functional perfusion parameters. Hepatic perfusion index should be investigated in further studies as a parameter for detection of possible presence of micro-metastases in visually homogeneous liver in cases with no lesions found during standard CT protocol

  5. Indications for computed tomography (CT- diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR and maximum intensity projection (MIP with 2 D and 3 D imaging. 3 observers assessed the technical image quality, the assessment of the relevant anatomical structures (2-sample-t-test and the percentage of the osseous overlap of the proximal humerus (Welch-test using a scoring system. The quality of the different diagnostic methods was assessed according to the number of fractured parts (Bonferroni-Holm adjustment. Results There was significantly more overlap of the fractured region on the scapular Y-views (mean 71.5%, range 45–90% than on axillary views (mean 56.2%, range 10.5–100%. CT-diagnostics allowed a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p Conclusion Conventional X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture and often but not always show a clear presentation of the relevant bony structures such as both tuberosities, the glenoid and humeral head. CT with thin slices technology and additional 3 D imaging provides always a clear presentation of the fractured region. Clinically, a CT should be performed – independently of the number of fractured parts – when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan.

  6. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Prospective Comparative Study of Dual-Time-Point FDG-PET/CT, Contrast-Enhanced CT, and Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina; Falch, Kirsten; Hansen, Jeanette Ansholm; Farahani, Ziba Ahangarani; Petersen, Henrik; Larsen, Lisbet Brønsro; Duvnjak, Sandra; Buskevica, Inguna; Bektas, Selma; Søe, Katrine; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Ewertz, Marianne; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2016-06-01

    To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence. One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four-point assessment scale, and readers were blinded to other test results. The reference standard was biopsy along with treatment decisions and clinical follow-up (median, 17 months). FDG-PET/CT resulted in no false negatives and fewer false positives than the other imaging techniques. Accuracy of results were similar for 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT. For distant recurrence, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1) for FDG-PET/CT, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.94) for ceCT, and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.94) for the combined ceCT+BS. Of 100 patients, 22 (22%) were verified with distant recurrence, and 18 of these had bone involvement. Nineteen patients (19%) had local recurrence only. In exploratory analyses, diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT was better than ceCT alone or ceCT combined with BS in diagnosing distant, bone, and local recurrence, shown by a greater area under the receiver operating curve and higher sensitivity, specificity, and superior likelihood ratios. FDG-PET/CT was accurate in diagnosing recurrence in breast cancer patients. It allowed for distant recurrence to be correctly ruled out and resulted in only a small number of false-positive cases. Exploratory findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT has greater accuracy than conventional imaging technologies in this patient group. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Dilatation of the heart on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Comparison with live CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Ko [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan); Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate cardiac structures on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and quantitatively to prove dilatation of the heart after death. Our subjects were 50 PMCT of non-traumatic deaths and 50 CT of living persons (live CT). We measured maximal and minimal diameters of the superior vena cava (SVC) at three levels (upper, middle, and lower), the inferior vena cava (IVC), pulmonary artery (PA), pulmonary vein (PV), right atrium (RA), and left atrium (LA). Then the product of maximal by minimal diameter and the eccentricity were calculated. The maximal and minimal diameters of the heart were significantly longer than those on live CT except for the maximal diameter of the SVC at the upper level and the maximal diameter of the PA. All of the products of maximal by minimal diameter on PMCT were significantly larger than those on live CT. All of the eccentricities decreased significantly after death except LA. The heart is dilated on PMCT, and the right side of it dilates toward a round shape. (author)

  8. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Tuberculosis: Spectrum of Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Behera, Abhishek; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an illustrative tutorial highlighting the utility of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging to detect spectrum of manifestations in patients with tuberculosis (TB). FDG-PET/CT is a powerful tool for early diagnosis, measuring the extent of disease (staging), and consequently for evaluation of response to therapy in patients with TB.

  9. The sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scans in detecting trauma: are CT scans reliable enough for courtroom testimony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Nichols, Joanna J; Dimaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Rapid and accurate recognition of traumatic injuries is extremely important in emergency room and surgical settings. Emergency departments depend on computed tomography (CT) scans to provide rapid, accurate injury assessment. We conducted an analysis of all traumatic deaths autopsied at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in which perimortem medical imaging (CT scan) was performed to assess the reliability of the CT scan in detecting trauma with sufficient accuracy for courtroom testimony. Cases were included in the study if an autopsy was conducted, a CT scan was performed within 24 hours before death, and there was no surgical intervention. Analysis was performed to assess the correlation between the autopsy and CT scan results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were defined for the CT scan based on the autopsy results. The sensitivity of the CT scan ranged from 0% for cerebral lacerations, cervical vertebral body fractures, cardiac injury, and hollow viscus injury to 75% for liver injury. This study reveals that CT scans are an inadequate detection tool for forensic pathologists, where a definitive diagnosis is required, because they have a low level of accuracy in detecting traumatic injuries. CT scans may be adequate for clinicians in the emergency room setting, but are inadequate for courtroom testimony. If the evidence of trauma is based solely on CT scan reports, there is a high possibility of erroneous accusations, indictments, and convictions.

  10. [Axial computer tomography of the neurocranium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöppler, L

    1977-05-27

    Computer tomography (CT), a new radiographic examination technique, is very highly efficient, for it has high informative content with little stress for the patient. In contrast to the conventional X-ray technology, CT succeeds, by direct presentation of the structure of the soft parts, in obtaining information which comes close to that of macroscopic neuropathology. The capacity and limitations of the method at the present stage of development are reported. Computer tomography cannot displace conventional neuroradiological methods of investigation, although it is rightly presented as a screening method and helps towards selective use. Indications, technical integration and handling of CT are prerequisites for the exhaustive benefit of the excellent new technique.

  11. Effect of computed tomography noise and tissue heterogeneity on cerebral blood flow determination by xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, W.F.; Gur, D.

    1987-01-01

    The errors associated with derivation of cerebral blood flow values by the xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT) method have been evaluated as a function of tissue heterogeneity and CT noise. The results of this study indicate that CT noise introduces large errors in the derived flow value when data for a single, unprocessed voxel are used for this purpose. CT noise increases the derived flow values in a systematic way. Tissue heterogeneity results in a systematic error which lowers the derived flow values. Errors due to both parameters are computed for typical and extreme conditions

  12. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    of technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir...

  13. Dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzia, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount of computed tomography (CT) studies that are performed each year in the world is growing exponentially mainly due to the incorporation of multislice CT that allows studies in a few seconds. But, despite the benefit received by patients with the diagnosis, radiation dose is a concern in the professional community and it has be reduced as much as reasonably possible. This article describes the main dosimetric CT units used in order to work with this practice easily, using the values that provide modern equipment and internationally known reference levels. (authors) [es

  14. Clinical value of {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT) for detecting pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Zeich, Katrin; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven N. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Karges, Wolfram [RWTH Aachen, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Aachen (Germany); Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dralle, Henning [University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Halle (Germany); Neumaier, Bernd [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Section for Radiochemistry, Cologne (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In detecting pheochromocytoma (PHEO), positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabelled amine precursor {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) offers excellent specificity, while computed tomography (CT) provides high sensitivity and ability to localize lesions; therefore, the combination of these modalities could be advantageous in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately detects and localizes PHEO lesions than does each modality alone. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET, CT and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT images of 25 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic scanning of suspected sporadic or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome-associated PHEO were reviewed retrospectively in randomized sequence. Two blinded observers scored the images regarding the likelihood of PHEO being present and localizable. Results were correlated with subsequent clinical history and, when available, histology. Of the 19 lesions detected by all three modalities, PET identified each as positive for PHEO, but was unable to definitively localize 15 of 19 (79%). CT could definitively localize all 19 lesions, but could not definitively diagnose or exclude PHEO in 18 of 19 (95%) lesions. Furthermore, CT falsely identified as negative for PHEO one lesion which was judged to be positive for this tumor by both PET and PET/CT. Only in PET/CT scans were all 19 lesions accurately characterized and localized. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT for PHEO was 100% and the specificity 88%, with a 100% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately diagnoses and localizes adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious for PHEO than do {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or CT alone. (orig.)

  15. Computed Tomography of Patients with Head Trauma following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cranial computed tomography (CT) films, request cards, duplicate copy of radiology reports, soft copy CT images and case notes of 61 patients who underwent cranial CT scan on account of road traffic accidents. The study CT scans were performed at the radiology department of ...

  16. Image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Gerke, Oke; Thygesen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) technology is rapidly evolving and software solution developed to optimize image quality and/or lower radiation dose. Purpose To investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at different radiation doses in coronary CT...

  17. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  18. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment...

  19. Accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption lacunas based on cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; He, S; Guo, Y; Wang, S; Chen, S

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption cavities based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in comparison with that of Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) which served as the reference. The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases at Sichuan University. Thirty-two bovine teeth were included for standardized CBCT scanning and Micro-CT scanning before and after the simulation of different degrees of root resorption. The teeth were divided into three groups according to the depths of the root resorption cavity (group 1: 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 mm; group 2: 0.6, 1.0 mm; group 3: 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Each depth included four specimens. Differences in tooth volume before and after simulated root resorption were then calculated from CBCT and Micro-CT scans, respectively. The overall between-method agreement of the measurements was evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). For the first group, the average volume of resorption cavity was 1.07 mm(3) , and the between-method agreement of measurement for the volume changes was low (CCC = 0.098). For the second and third groups, the average volumes of resorption cavities were 3.47 and 6.73 mm(3) respectively, and the between-method agreements were good (CCC = 0.828 and 0.895, respectively). The accuracy of 3-D quantitative volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption based on CBCT was fairly good in detecting simulated resorption cavities larger than 3.47 mm(3), while it was not sufficient for measuring resorption cavities smaller than 1.07 mm(3) . This method could be applied in future studies of root resorption although further studies are required to improve its accuracy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Virtual non-contrast computer tomography (CT) with spectral CT as an alternative to conventional unenhanced CT in the assessment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shi-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lian; Wang, He-Qing; Liu, Jing-Hong; Sun, Mei-Yu; Liu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) virtual non-contrast (VNC) spectral imaging for gastric carcinoma. Fifty-two patients with histologically proven gastric carcinomas underwent gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) including non-contrast and contrast-enhanced hepatic arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase acquisitions prior to surgery. VNC arterial phase (VNCa), VNC venous phase (VNCv), and VNC equilibrium phase (VNCe) images were obtained by subtracting iodine from iodine/water images. Images were analyzed with respect to image quality, gastric carcinoma-intragastric water contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), gastric carcinoma-perigastric fat CNR, serosal invasion, and enlarged lymph nodes around the lesions. Carcinoma-water CNR values were significantly higher in VNCa, VNCv, and VNCe images than in normal CT images (2.72, 2.60, 2.61, respectively, vs 2.35, p≤0.008). Carcinoma- perigastric fat CNR values were significantly lower in VNCa, VNCv, and VNCe images than in normal CT images (7.63, 7.49, 7.32, respectively, vs 8.48, pVNC arterial phase images may be a surrogate for conventional non-contrast CT images in gastric carcinoma evaluation.

  1. Clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of uptake level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shigeto; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Using integrated 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), the clinical significance of 18 F-FDG uptake was evaluated in patients with primary breast cancer. Clinicopathological correlation with the level of maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) 60 min obtained from preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT were examined in 152 patients with primary breast cancer. The prognostic impact of the level of SUV was explored using simulated prognosis derived from computed program Adjuvant! in 136 (89%) patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). High SUV level was significantly correlated with tumor invasive size (≤2 cm) (P 18 F-FDG would be predictive of poor prognosis in patients with primary breast cancer, and aggressive features of cancer cells in patients with early breast cancer. 18 F-FDG PET/CT could be a useful tool to pretherapeutically predict biological characteristics and baseline risk of breast cancer. (author)

  2. Computed tomography in hepatic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choliz, J.D.; Olaverri, F.J.L.; Casas, T.F.; Zubieta, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 50 cases of hydatid disease of the liver. It was definite in 49 cases and negative in one case. Pre- and postcontrast scans were performed. CT may reveal the exact location and extension of cysts and possible complications. However, a false-negative case was found in a hydatid cyst located in a fatty liver

  3. Pathophysiological study of experimental hydrocephalus with computed tomography (CT) scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Takaho

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the pathophysiological changes during a development of hydrocephalus, the observations employing computed tomography (CT) scans and monitorings of intracranial epidural pressure (EDP) were performed in a series of kaolin-induced canine hydrocephalus. According to ''volume index'' of ventricles which was calculated from printed-out CT numbers, great individual variations were recognized in the degree of a ventricular enlargement as well as the rate of EDP. They are thought to be due to the difference in types of hydrocephalus, which have been induced by a discrepancy in the site and degree of an obstruction caused by kaolin. Periventricular lucency (PVL) of various degrees were also detected on CT scans of experimental hydrocephalus. It was always marked in the superolateral angle of frontal horn of the lateral ventricles, and differed in degree from severe to mild. PVLs were distinct in the acute stage with high EDP, and gradually became indistinct and had a tendency to disappear thereafter along with decreased EDP. They immediately disappeared after shunting operation. The pathogenesis of PVL was investigated with histological examinations, as well as by using contrast enhancement, Metrizamide ventriculography, the analysis of linear density profiles, and the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Consequently, PVLs in hydrocephalus are considered to represent an acute edema or a chronic CSF retention in the periventricular white matter caused by increase of water content. In other words, they are regarded as a sign of present or preceding intraventricular hypertension on CT scan, and may become a clinical indication for shunting operation. (author)

  4. Machine learning for micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Pelt, Daniël. M.; Perciano, Talita; Ushizima, Daniela; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Sethian, James

    2017-09-01

    Machine learning has revolutionized a number of fields, but many micro-tomography users have never used it for their work. The micro-tomography beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), in collaboration with the Center for Applied Mathematics for Energy Research Applications (CAMERA) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has now deployed a series of tools to automate data processing for ALS users using machine learning. This includes new reconstruction algorithms, feature extraction tools, and image classification and recommen- dation systems for scientific image. Some of these tools are either in automated pipelines that operate on data as it is collected or as stand-alone software. Others are deployed on computing resources at Berkeley Lab-from workstations to supercomputers-and made accessible to users through either scripting or easy-to-use graphical interfaces. This paper presents a progress report on this work.

  5. Computed tomography-controlled stereotactic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keizo; Shichijo, Fumio; Gyoten, Tetsuya; Tomida, Keisuke; Miyake, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    A single use of coordinate system of computed tomography (CT) scanner is utilized for CT-controlled stereotactic surgery. Depth, direction and readjustment of target trajectory were defined by known values of cursor number in CT images and numbers of the sliding table indicator. We loaded calculation formulas into hand held computer to obtain immediate answers. Stereotactic apparatus consisted two main parts: the patient's head fixation and probe holder. Surgery was performed in cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage for evacuation of the hematomas successfully. Target accuracy was satisfactory. With further advance of this surgery, automatic stereotactic control with a special robot machine seeing possible. (author)

  6. Peri-implant osseointegration after low-level laser therapy: micro-computed tomography and resonance frequency analysis in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Luciano; Gomes, Fernando Vacilotto; de Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt; de Moraes, João Feliz Duarte; Carlsson, Lennart

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy on the osseointegration process by comparing resonance frequency analysis measurements performed at implant placement and after 30 days and micro-computed tomography images in irradiated vs nonirradiated rabbits. Fourteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of seven animals each, one control group (nonirradiated animals) and one experimental group that received low-level laser therapy (Thera Lase®, aluminum-gallium-arsenide laser diode, 10 J per spot, two spots per session, seven sessions, 830 nm, 50 mW, CW, Ø 0.0028 cm 2 ). The mandibular left incisor was surgically extracted in all animals, and one osseointegrated implant was placed immediately afterward (3.25ø × 11.5 mm; NanoTite, BIOMET 3i). Resonance frequency analysis was performed with the Osstell® device at implant placement and at 30 days (immediately before euthanasia). Micro-computed tomography analyses were then conducted using a high-resolution scanner (SkyScan 1172 X-ray Micro-CT) to evaluate the amount of newly formed bone around the implants. Irradiated animals showed significantly higher implant stability quotients at 30 days (64.286 ± 1.596; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 60.808-67.764) than controls (56.357 ± 1.596; 95 %CI 52.879-59.835) (P = .000). The percentage of newly formed bone around the implants was also significantly higher in irradiated animals (75.523 ± 8.510; 95 %CI 61.893-89.155) than in controls (55.012 ± 19.840; 95 %CI 41.380-68.643) (P = .027). Laser therapy, based on the irradiation protocol used in this study, was able to provide greater implant stability and increase the volume of peri-implant newly formed bone, indicating that laser irradiation effected an improvement in the osseointegration process.

  7. Is there any role of positron emission tomography computed tomography for predicting resectability of gallbladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaihwan; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Chulhan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2014-05-01

    The role of integrated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) is uncertain in gallbladder cancer. The aim of this study was to show the role of PET-CT in gallbladder cancer patients. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder cancer underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and PET-CT scans. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-six patients underwent resection. Based on the final outcomes, PET-CT was in good agreement (0.61 to 0.80) with resectability whereas CT was in acceptable agreement (0.41 to 0.60) with resectability. When the diagnostic accuracy of the predictions for resectability was calculated with the ROC curve, the accuracy of PET-CT was higher than that of CT in patients who underwent surgical resection (P=0.03), however, there was no difference with all patients (P=0.12). CT and PET-CT had a discrepancy in assessing curative resection in nine patients. These consisted of two false negative and four false positive CT results (11.3%) and three false negative PET-CT results (5.1%). PET-CT was in good agreement with the final outcomes compared to CT. As a complementary role of PEC-CT to CT, PET-CT tended to show better prediction about resectability than CT, especially due to unexpected distant metastasis.

  8. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Borba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE, using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05. There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm. OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm, followed by the AOT point (105 µm. CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations.

  9. Assessment of scaffold porosity: the new route of micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A complete morphologic characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering application is fundamental, as the architectural parameters, in particular porosity, strongly affect the mechanical and biological performance of the structures. Therefore, appropriate techniques for this purpose need to be selected. Several techniques for the assessment of scaffold porosity have been proposed, including Scanning Electron Microscopy observation, mercury and liquid extrusion porosimetry, gas pycnometry, and capillary flow porometry. Each of these techniques has several drawbacks and, a combination of different techniques is often required so as to achieve an in depth study of the morphologic properties of the scaffold. A single technique is often limited and suitable only for the assessment of a specific parameter. To overcome this limit, the most attractive option would be a single nondestructive technique, yet capable of providing a comprehensive set of data. It appears that micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can potentially fulfill this role. Initially developed to characterize the 3D trabecular microarchitecture of bone, its use has been recently exploited by researchers for the morphologic characterization of porous biomaterials, as it enables obtaining a full assessment of the porous structures both in terms of pore size and interconnected porosity. This review aims to explore the use of micro-CT in scaffold characterization, comparing it with other previously developed techniques; we also focus on the contribution of this innovative tool to the development of scaffold-based tissue engineering application.

  10. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma Causing low abdominal pain, using TC-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schuetz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg [Hanusch-Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.

  11. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    In recent years, increased focus on the potentially harmful effects of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, such as radiation-induced cancer, has motivated research on new low-dose imaging techniques. Sparse image reconstruction methods, as studied for instance in the field of compressed sensing...... applications. This thesis takes a systematic approach toward establishing quantitative understanding of conditions for sparse reconstruction to work well in CT. A general framework for analyzing sparse reconstruction methods in CT is introduced and two sets of computational tools are proposed: 1...... contributions to a general set of computational characterization tools. Thus, the thesis contributions help advance sparse reconstruction methods toward routine use in...

  12. Comparison of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography, computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and planar scintigraphy for characterization of isolated skull lesions seen on bone scintigraphy in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Jain, Tarun Kumar; Reddy, Rama Mohan; Faizi, Nauroze Ashgar; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the added value of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) over planar scintigraphy, SPECT and CT alone for characterization of isolated skull lesions in bone scintigraphy (BS) in cancer patients. A total of 32 cancer patients (age: 39.5 ± 21.9; male: female - 1:1) with 36 isolated skull lesions on planar BS, underwent SPECT-CT of skull. Planar BS, SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were evaluated in separate sessions to minimize recall bias. A scoring scale of 1-5 was used, where 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. With receiver operating characteristic analysis area under the curves (AUC) was calculated for each modality. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values a Score ≤3 was taken as metastatic. Clinical/imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. Of 36 skull lesions 11 lesions each were on frontal, parietal and occipital bone while three lesions were in the temporal bone. Of these 36 lesions, 16 were indeterminate (Score-3) on planar and SPECT, five on CT and none on SPECT-CT. The AUC was largest for SPECT-CT followed by CT, SPECT and planar scintigraphy, respectively. Planar scintigraphy was inferior to SPECT-CT (P = 0.006) and CT (P = 0.012) but not SPECT (P = 0.975). SPECT was also inferior to SPECT-CT (P = 0.007) and CT (P = 0.015). Although no significant difference was found between SPECT-CT and CT (P = 0.469), the former was more specific (100% vs. 94%). SPECT-CT is better than planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone for correctly characterizing isolated skull lesions on BS in cancer patients. It is more specific than CT, but provides no significant advantage over CT alone for this purpose

  13. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  14. Detectability of colorectal neoplasia with fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Tomoko; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Kato, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the detectability of colorectal neoplasia with fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Data for a total of 492 patients who had undergone both PET/CT and colonoscopy were analyzed. After the findings of PET/CT and colonoscopy were determined independently, the results were compared in each of the six colonic sites examined in all patients. The efficacy of PET/CT was determined using colonoscopic examination as the gold standard. In all, 270 colorectal lesions 5 mm or more in size, including 70 pathologically confirmed malignant lesions, were found in 172 patients by colonoscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for detecting any of the colorectal lesions were 36 and 98%, respectively. For detecting lesions 11 mm or larger, the sensitivity was increased to 85%, with the specificity remaining consistent (97%). Moreover, the sensitivity for tumors 21 mm or larger was 96% (48/50). Tumors with malignant or high-grade pathology were likely to be positive with PET/CT. A size of 10 mm or smaller [odds ratio (OR) 44.14, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 11.44-221.67] and flat morphology (OR 7.78, 95% CI 1.79-36.25) were significant factors that were associated with false-negative cases on PET/CT. The sensitivity of PET/CT for detecting colorectal lesions is acceptable, showing size- and pathology-dependence, suggesting, for the most part, that clinically relevant lesions are detectable with PET/CT. However, when considering PET/CT for screening purposes caution must be exercised because there are cases of false-negative results. (author)

  15. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  16. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H.; Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  17. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed.

  18. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleijns, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors.

  19. [Prognostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C Y; Guo, Z; Li, Y Y; Li, T R

    2017-11-23

    Objective: To investigated the prognostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES -SCLC). Methods: Fifty-five patients with ES-SCLC who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET-CT were retrospectively recruited in this study. The correlations of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary lesion, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of primary lesion (MTVp), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of primary lesion (TLGp), the highest SUVmax of all lesions, the sum of metabolic volume (MTV sum), the sum of total lesions glycolysis (TLGsum) and clinical factors were analyzed. Results: The SUVmax, MTVp, TLGp, the highest SUVmax, MTVsum and TLGsum of 55 patients were 11.34±7.02, 29.61 cm(3,) 207.72, 13.61±7.10, 123.57 cm(3) and 988.48, respectively. The SUVmax of primary lesion, MTVp and TLGp were correlated with tumor type and the maximal tumor length, respectively(all P CT has certain prognostic value of patients with ES-SCLC. MTVsum and TLGsum are the independent predictors of PFS, and TLGsum is also an independent predictor of OS.

  20. CT angiography using electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT). A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CT angiography in small vessels using electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT). Vessel phantoms with inner diameters of 8 mm, 6 mm, and 4 mm were prepared with segments of 75%, 50%, and 25% stenosis in each vessel. The vessels were filled with contrast medium (Iopamidol 300 at 1/24 dilution, approximately 380 HU). The EBCT apparatus used was an Imatron C-150. The step volume scan mode was used with slice thicknesses of 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm, scan time of 0.3 sec, and 210 mm field of view. Images with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm were definitely better than those with a slice thickness of 3.0 mm. The quality of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images was quite similar to that of three-dimensional (3D) images. Using the 8 mm vessel phantom, all stenotic segments were accurately visualized on CT angiography. The 50% stenotic segments were accurately estimated in all vessels. However, the 75% stenotic segments were slightly overestimated in smaller vessels, and the 25% stenotic segments were slightly underestimated in smaller vessels. We consider CT angiography using EBCT to be a useful, less invasive diagnostic modality for stenoocclusive lesions. (author)

  1. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  2. Conventional multi-slice computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) for computer-aided implant placement. Part II: reliability of mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisan, Volkan; Karabuda, Zihni Cüneyt; Pişkin, Bülent; Özdemir, Tayfun

    2013-12-01

    Deviations of implants that were placed by conventional computed tomography (CT)- or cone beam CT (CBCT)-derived mucosa-supported stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guides were analyzed in this study. Eleven patients were randomly scanned by a multi-slice CT (CT group) or a CBCT scanner (CBCT group). A total of 108 implants were planned on the software and placed using SLA guides. A new CT or CBCT scan was obtained and merged with the planning data to identify the deviations between the planned and placed implants. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and multiple regressions (p < .05). Mean angular and linear deviations in the CT group were 3.30° (SD 0.36), and 0.75 (SD 0.32) and 0.80 mm (SD 0.35) at the implant shoulder and tip, respectively. In the CBCT group, mean angular and linear deviations were 3.47° (SD 0.37), and 0.81 (SD 0.32) and 0.87 mm (SD 0.32) at the implant shoulder and tip, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between the CT and CBCT groups (p = .169 and p = .551, p = .113 for angular and linear deviations, respectively). Implant placement via CT- or CBCT-derived mucosa-supported SLA guides yielded similar deviation values. Results should be confirmed on alternative CBCT scanners. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and radioimmunotherapy of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Capala, Jacek; Oehr, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of a number of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. J591, a monoclonal antibody, which targets the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, shows promising results. HER2 receptors may also have a potential as target for PET/CT imaging and RIT of advanced prostate cancer. SUMMARY: PET......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traditional morphologically based imaging modalities are now being complemented by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in prostate cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is an attractive target for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) as no effective therapies...... are available. This review highlights the most important achievements within the last year in PET/CT and RIT of prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Conflicting results exist on the use of choline for detection of malignant disease in the prostate gland. The role of PET/CT in N-staging remains to be elucidated...

  4. Appropriateness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are an essential part of modern healthcare. Marked increases in clinical demand for these imaging modalities are straining healthcare expenditure and threatening health system sustainability. The number of CT and MRI scans requested in ...

  5. Computed tomography of the ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.; Weider, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Otologists and otolaryngologists have described in detail the disorders which are unique to the ossicles. However the anatomy and spectrum of pathology and anatomy of the ossicles are not familiar to most radiologists. Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) and a systematic approach to evaluation now allow accurate identification of even subtle abnormalities of the ossicles. We present the normal anatomy, ossicular abnormalities, and indications for computed tomographic study. Because of the greater diagnostic capability of CT, the radiologist's role has increased in evaluation and treatment planning of patients with suspected ossicular abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Cranial computed tomography of the neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuichi; Shibakiri, Ippei

    1981-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) was performed in 10 cases of neurofibromatosis. The CT scan showed the abnormal findings in 8 cases out of 10. Skull lesions were noted in 3 cases and intracranial tumors were found in 5 among which multiple neoplasms were seen in 3. Although reported cases were not large enough in number, the incidence and variety of the tumors were similar to others reported before CT era. (author)

  7. Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Giraudo, Chiara; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Amagliani, Alessandro; Miotto, Diego; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, S Davide; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Incineration or extensive burning of the body, causing changes in the content and distribution of fluids, fixation and shrinking processes of tissues, can alter the typical macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of firearm wounds, hampering or at least complicating the reconstruction of gunshot fatalities. The present study aims at evaluating the potential role of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for detecting and quantifying gunshot residue (GSR) particles in experimentally produced intermediate-range gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire. Eighteen experimental shootings were performed on 18 sections of human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons at three different firing distances (5, 15 and 30 cm). Six stab wounds produced with an ice pick were used as controls. Each calf section underwent a charring cycle, being placed in a wood-burning stove for 4 min at a temperature of 400 °C. At visual inspection, the charred entrance wounds could not be differentiated from the exit lesions and the stab wounds. On the contrary, micro-CT analysis showed the presence of GSR particles in all burnt entrance gunshot wounds, while GSR was absent in the exit and stab wounds. The GSR deposits of the firearm lesions inflicted at very close distance (5 cm) were mainly constituted of huge particles (diameter >150 μm) with an irregular shape and well-delineated edges; at greater distances (15 and 30 cm), agglomerates of tiny radiopaque particles scattered in the epidermis and dermis layers were evident. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in charred firearm wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlates with the distance from which the gun was fired. The obtained results suggest that micro-CT analysis can be a valid screening tool for identifying entrance gunshot wounds and for differentiating firearm wounds from sharp-force injuries in bodies severely damaged by fire.

  8. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomographyCT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  9. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru

    1982-01-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Cun; Xie, Qiang; Lv, Wei-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a phenotypically heterogeneous, chronic, destructive inflammatory disease of the synovial joints. A number of imaging tools are currently available for evaluation of inflammatory conditions. By targeting the upgraded glucose uptake of infiltrating granulocytes and tissue macrophages, positron emission tomography/computed tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG PET/CT) is available to delineate inflammation with high sensitivity. Recently, several studies have indicated that FDG uptake in affected joints reflects the disease activity of RA. In addition, usage of FDG PET for the sensitive detection and monitoring of the response to treatment has been reported. Combined FDG PET/CT enables the detailed assessment of disease in large joints throughout the whole body. These unique capabilities of FDG PET/CT imaging are also able to detect RA-complicated diseases. Therefore, PET/CT has become an excellent ancillary tool to assess disease activity and prognosis in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  12. Computed Tomography Study Of Complicated Bacterial Meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To monitor the structural intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis using computed tomography (CT) scan. Retrospective study of medical and radiological records of patients who underwent CT scan over a 4 year period. AUniversityTeachingHospital in a developing country. Thirty three patients with clinically and ...

  13. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  14. Molar cusp deformation evaluated by micro-CT and enamel crack formation to compare incremental and bulk-filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Rani Sales; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Bicalho, Aline Arêdes; Ribeiro, Maria Tereza Hordones; Price, Richard Bengt; Soares, Carlos José

    2018-07-01

    To describe a method of measuring the molar cusp deformation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), the propagation of enamel cracks using transillumination, and the effects of hygroscopic expansion after incremental and bulk-filling resin composite restorations. Twenty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-occlusal-distal cavity preparations. They were restored with either a bulk-fill resin composite, X-tra fil (XTRA), or a conventional resin composite, Filtek Z100 (Z100). The resin composites were tested for post-gel shrinkage using a strain gauge method. Cusp deformation (CD) was evaluated using the images obtained using a micro-CT protocol and using a strain-gauge method. Enamel cracks were detected using transillumination. The post-gel shrinkage of Z100 was higher than XTRA (P cracks than XTRA (P = 0.012). Micro-CT was an effective method for evaluating the cusp deformation. Transillumination was effective for detecting enamel cracks. There were fewer negative effects of polymerization shrinkage in bulk-fill resin restorations using XTRA than for the conventional incremental filling technique using conventional composite resin Z100. Shrinkage and cusp deformation are directly related to the formation of enamel cracks. Cusp deformation and crack propagation may increase the risk of tooth fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying the degradation of degradable implants and bone formation in the femoral condyle using micro-CT 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichi; Meng, Haoye; Yin, Heyong; Sun, Zhen; Peng, Jiang; Xu, Xiaolong; Guo, Quanyi; Xu, Wenjing; Yu, Xiaoming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuyun; Lu, Shibi; Wang, Zhaoxu; Wang, Aiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Degradation limits the application of magnesium alloys, and evaluation methods for non-traumatic in vivo quantification of implant degradation and bone formation are imperfect. In the present study, a micro-arc-oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloy was used to evaluate the degradation of implants and new bone formation in 60 male New Zealand white rabbits. Degradation was monitored by weighing the implants prior to and following implantation, and by performing micro-computed tomography (CT) scans and histological analysis after 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of implantation. The results indicated that the implants underwent slow degradation in the first 4 weeks, with negligible degradation in the first week, followed by significantly increased degradation during weeks 12-24 (Pformation increased as the implant degraded. The findings concluded that micro-CT, which is useful for providing non-traumatic, in vivo , quantitative and precise data, has great value for exploring the degradation of implants and novel bone formation.

  16. Variation in the human ribs geometrical properties and mechanical response based on X-ray computed tomography images resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Rafał; Toczyski, Jacek; Subit, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of the human body are commonly used for injury prediction in automobile safety research. To create these models, the geometry of the human body is typically obtained from segmentation of medical images such as computed tomography (CT) images that have a resolution between 0.2 and 1mm/pixel. While the accuracy of the geometrical and structural information obtained from these images depend greatly on their resolution, the effect of image resolution on the estimation of the ribs geometrical properties has yet to be established. To do so, each of the thirty-four sections of ribs obtained from a Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) was imaged using three different CT modalities: standard clinical CT (clinCT), high resolution clinical CT (HRclinCT), and microCT. The images were processed to estimate the rib cross-section geometry and mechanical properties, and the results were compared to those obtained from the microCT images by computing the 'deviation factor', a metric that quantifies the relative difference between results obtained from clinCT and HRclinCT to those obtained from microCT. Overall, clinCT images gave a deviation greater than 100%, and were therefore deemed inadequate for the purpose of this study. HRclinCT overestimated the rib cross-sectional area by 7.6%, the moments of inertia by about 50%, and the cortical shell area by 40.2%, while underestimating the trabecular area by 14.7%. Next, a parametric analysis was performed to quantify how the variations in the estimate of the geometrical properties affected the rib predicted mechanical response under antero-posterior loading. A variation of up to 45% for the predicted peak force and up to 50% for the predicted stiffness was observed. These results provide a quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the response of the FE model to the resolution of the images used to generate it. They also suggest that a correction factor could be derived from the comparison between microCT and

  17. Systematic Errors in Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that it is possible to compensate them. In dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT), many physical quantities influence the final result. However, it is important to know which factors in CT measurements potentially lead to systematic errors. In this talk, typical error sources in dimensional X-ray CT are discussed...

  18. Evaluation of patient dose during computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafalla, Elamam Yagoob Taha

    2015-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT), is an x-ray procedure that generates high quality cross sectional images of the body, and by comparison to other radiological diagnosis, CT is responsible for higher doses to patients. The evaluation of patient dose from computed tomography for pulmonary examinations the CT is responsible for higher doses to patients. The radiation dose was measured in three hospitals in Khartoum State during March 2015-October 2015 using different CT modalities. The radiation dose was higher at Alzytouna hospital than Daralelaj hospital and Alatebaa hospital was lowest. In this study, the mean effective dose for first hospital was 23.83±3.93 mSv and the mean effective dose for second hospital was 8.94±1.64 mSv and the mean effective dose for third hospital was 2.96±0.79. (author)

  19. Variabilities of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-, Computed Tomography-, and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography-Based Tumor and Lymph Node Delineations for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Saraiya, Siddharth; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Jan, Nuzhat; Schuster, Jessica; Schutzer, Matthew; Fahrner, Lester; Groves, Robert; Olsen, Kathryn M; Ford, John C; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    To investigate interobserver delineation variability for gross tumor volumes of primary lung tumors and associated pathologic lymph nodes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to compare the results with computed tomography (CT) alone- and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT-based delineations. Seven physicians delineated the tumor volumes of 10 patients for the following scenarios: (1) CT only, (2) PET-CT fusion images registered to CT ("clinical standard"), and (3) postcontrast T1-weighted MRI registered with diffusion-weighted MRI. To compute interobserver variability, the median surface was generated from all observers' contours and used as the reference surface. A physician labeled the interface types (tumor to lung, atelectasis (collapsed lung), hilum, mediastinum, or chest wall) on the median surface. Contoured volumes and bidirectional local distances between individual observers' contours and the reference contour were analyzed. Computed tomography- and MRI-based tumor volumes normalized relative to PET-CT-based volumes were 1.62 ± 0.76 (mean ± standard deviation) and 1.38 ± 0.44, respectively. Volume differences between the imaging modalities were not significant. Between observers, the mean normalized volumes per patient averaged over all patients varied significantly by a factor of 1.6 (MRI) and 2.0 (CT and PET-CT) (P=4.10 × 10 -5 to 3.82 × 10 -9 ). The tumor-atelectasis interface had a significantly higher variability than other interfaces for all modalities combined (P=.0006). The interfaces with the smallest uncertainties were tumor-lung (on CT) and tumor-mediastinum (on PET-CT and MRI). Although MRI-based contouring showed overall larger variability than PET-CT, contouring variability depended on the interface type and was not significantly different between modalities, despite the limited observer experience with MRI. Multimodality imaging and combining different imaging characteristics might be the best approach to define

  20. Chest tube placement in thorax trauma - comparison chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, P.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E.; Tesch, C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of chest tube placement in patients with thoracic trauma with regard to chest tube malposition in chest radiography in the supine position compared to additional computed tomography of the thorax. Material and methods: Apart from compulsory chest radiography after one or multiple chest tube insertions, 31 severely injured patients with thoracic trauma underwent a CT scan of the thorax. These 31 patients with 40 chest tubes constituted the basis for the present analysis. Results: In chest radiography in the supine position there were no chest tube malpositions (n=40); In the CT scans 25 correct positions, 7 pseudo-malpositions, 6 intrafissural and 2 intrapulmonary malpositions were identified. Moreover 16 sufficient, 18 insufficient and 6 indifferent functions of the chest tubes were seen. Conclusion: In case of lasting clinical problems and questionable function of the chest tube, chest radiography should be supplemented by a CT scan of the thorax in order to estimate the position of the chest tube. (orig.) [de

  1. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological specimens and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional x-ray imaging method has been developed by combining a phase-contrast x-ray imaging technique with x-ray computed tomography. This phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCX-CT) provides sectional images of organic specimens that would produce absorption-contrast x-ray CT images with little contrast. Comparing PCX-CT images of rat cerebellum and cancerous rabbit liver specimens with corresponding absorption-contrast CT images shows that PCX-CT is much more sensitive to the internal structure of organic specimens.

  2. Synchrotron radiation μCT and histology evaluation of bone-to-implant contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Sporring, Jon; Rack, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in two-dimensional (2D) histology compared to high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro-CT). High spatial resolution, excellent signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast...... establish SR micro-CT as the leading imaging modality for hard X-ray microtomography. Using SR micro-CT at voxel size 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, no statistically significant difference was found between the different treatment modalities nor between recipient and reconstructed bone....... Comparing histology and SR micro-CT evaluation a bias of 5.2% was found in reconstructed area, and 15.3% in recipient bone. We conclude that for evaluation of BIC with histology and SR micro-CT, SR micro-CT cannot be proven more precise than histology for evaluation of BIC, however, with this SR micro-CT...

  3. Comparison of Tissue Density in Hounsfield Units in Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshowsaz, Masoud; Goorang, Sepideh; Ehsani, Sara; Azizi, Zeynab; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-03-01

    Bone quality and quantity assessment is one of the most important steps in implant treatment planning. Different methods such as computed tomography (CT) and recently suggested cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with lower radiation dose and less time and cost are used for bone density assessment. This in vitro study aimed to compare the tissue density values in Hounsfield units (HUs) in CBCT and CT scans of different tissue phantoms with two different thicknesses, two different image acquisition settings and in three locations in the phantoms. Four different tissue phantoms namely hard tissue, soft tissue, air and water were scanned by three different CBCT and a CT system in two thicknesses (full and half) and two image acquisition settings (high and low kVp and mA). The images were analyzed at three sites (middle, periphery and intermediate) using eFilm software. The difference in density values was analyzed by ANOVA and correction coefficient test (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between density values in CBCT and CT scans in most situations, and CBCT values were not similar to CT values in any of the phantoms in different thicknesses and acquisition parameters or the three different sites. The correction coefficients confirmed the results. CBCT is not reliable for tissue density assessment. The results were not affected by changes in thickness, acquisition parameters or locations.

  4. Evaluation of ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography in microPET/CT laboratory; Avaliacao dos niveis de radiacao ambiental no laboratorio de tomografia por emissao de positrons acoplada a tomografia computadorizada, microPET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Daniele Martins

    2016-11-01

    Micro PET/CT scanner is an essential tool generally used for small animal molecular imaging. Fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose is the most widely used radioisotope in this technique. The present study aimed to evaluate the radiation levels in a micro PET/CT research laboratory of the Radiopharmacy Center at IPEN-CNEN / SP, in order to accomplish both national standards and international recommendations. The radioprotection team has classified the laboratory as supervised area; even this laboratory does not require the adoption of specific measures for protection and safety, should be done regular re-evaluation of the conditions of occupational exposures. Workplace monitoring and individual control assessment were carried out to ensure the radiological protection of all workers directly involved in handling the scanner. Initially, there was conducted a radiometric survey, as well as measurements of the external radiation level in the workplace and its surroundings. To achieve this goal, there were placed nine thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy in preselected locations. Monthly evaluations of the occupationally exposed individuals were carried out through the use of TL dosimeters, ported in the workers' chest. Moreover, whole body measurements were performed every six months. The study period was about two-years which started in April 2014. All tests to evaluate micro PET/CT performance were based on the standard protocol of the equipment in accordance with the standard developed by the Animal PET Standard Task Force. Present study's results demonstrated that the ambient radiation levels (ambient and effective estimated radiation dose), as well as the effective shielding equipment are both adequate. This study emphasizes that it is essential to strictly follow the principles of radioprotection in workplace, whenever researches involve radioactive unsealed sources. (author)

  5. Computed tomography of the gastro-intestinal tract : its value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeders, J W.A.J. [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The subject discussed include indications and accuracy of CT - computed tomography, technical considerations, common pitfalls in CT interpretation, parameters for CT evaluation, benign lesions, double halo and target signs, hyperattenuated, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal ischaemia, primary adenocarcinoma of the GIT, lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma (3 refs.).

  6. Computed tomography of the gastro-intestinal tract : its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The subject discussed include indications and accuracy of CT - computed tomography, technical considerations, common pitfalls in CT interpretation, parameters for CT evaluation, benign lesions, double halo and target signs, hyperattenuated, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal ischaemia, primary adenocarcinoma of the GIT, lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma (3 refs.)

  7. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Marcia; Bona, Alvaro Della, E-mail: marcia_borb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Miranda Junior, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Biomateriais e Bioquimica Oral; Griggs, Jason Allan [Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Dental School, University of Mississippi Medical Center - UMMC, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Marcia; Bona, Alvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  9. X-ray Computed Tomography Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase one of the program is to identify suitable x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Image Quality Indicator (IQI) design(s) that can be used to adequately capture CT...

  10. Geometrical metrology on silicone rubber by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Pacurar, Ramona Alexandra; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) represents a suitable measuring technique for investigation of deformable materials, since no forces are developed on the part during scanning. As for any other measuring instruments, the traceability of the CT scanners needs to be assured. An investigation on geometrical...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  13. Comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, hydro-stomach computed tomography, and their combination for detecting primary gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hye Young; Chung, Woo Suk; Song, E Rang; Kim, Jin Suk

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy for detecting primary gastric cancer on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and hydro-stomach CT (S-CT) and determine whether the combination of the two techniques improves diagnostic performance. A total of 253 patients with pathologically proven primary gastric cancer underwent PET/CT and S-CT for the preoperative evaluation. Two radiologists independently reviewed the three sets (PET/CT set, S-CT set, and the combined set) of PET/CT and S-CT in a random order. They graded the likelihood for the presence of primary gastric cancer based on a 4-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy of the PET/CT set, the S-CT set, and the combined set were determined by the area under the alternative-free receiver operating characteristic curve, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV for detecting all gastric cancers and early gastric cancers (EGCs) were significantly higher with the combined set than those with the PET/CT and S-CT sets. Specificity and PPV were significantly higher with the PET/CT set than those with the combined and S-CT set for detecting all gastric cancers and EGCs. The combination of PET/CT and S-CT is more accurate than S-CT alone, particularly for detecting EGCs.

  14. Analysis of mandibular second molars with fused roots and shallow radicular grooves by using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo; De Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Marceliano-Alves, Marilia; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Zapata, Ronald Ordinola; Hungaro Duarte, Marco Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the morphological and morphometric aspects of fused mandibular second molars with radicular shallow grooves using micro-computed tomography (CT). Eighty-eight mandibular second molars with fused roots were scanned in a micro-CT scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. After reconstruction, only molars without C-shaped roots and presenting shallow radicular grooves were selected. 30 molars were chosen for further analysis. Canal cross-sections were classified according to Fan's modified classification (C1, C2, C3, and C4) and morphometric parameters at the apical region, examination of accessory foramina and tridimensional configuration were evaluated. Three-dimensional reconstructions indicated a higher prevalence of merging type ( n = 22). According to Fan's modified classification, the C4 configuration was predominant in the 3 apical mm. Roundness median values revealed a more round-shaped canals at 3 mm (0.72) than at 2 (0.63) and 1 (0.61) mm from the apex. High values of major and minor diameters were observed in the canals of these evaluated sections. In addition, few accessory apical foramina were observed at 1 and 2 mm from the apex. The average distance between last accessory foramina and the anatomic apex was 1.17 mm. A less complex internal anatomy is found when a mandibular second molar presents fused roots with shallow radicular grooves. The merging type canal was frequently observed. Moreover, the C4 configuration was predominant at a point 3 mm from the apex and presented rounded canals, large apical diameters, and few accessory foramina. The cervical and middle thirds presented C3 and C1 canal configurations most frequently. A minor morphological complexity is found when fused mandibular second molars present shallow radicular grooves.

  15. Computed tomography in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanis, A.; Schubiger, O.; Hayek, J.; Friede, R.L

    1981-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in a verified case of neutronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are presented. CT revealed diffuse and severe cerebral atrophy, reflected by generalized subarachnoid space enlargement and symmetric ventricular dilatation. There was no evidence of abnormalities of the white matter. The CT features in our case of NCL correspond perfectly with the neuropathologic changes of the disease mentioned in the literature. Furthermore, CT is of considerable help in differentiating between those inherited metabolic brain diseases characterized primarily by white matter involvement and those presenting predominantly with changes of grey matter. (orig.) [de

  16. The role of computed tomography in the laryngeal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hoon Sik

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography of the larynx represents a major advance in laryngology. Even in severe injury the larynx can be examined easily and conveniently by CT at the same time as the brain and facial structures without moving the patient, who need only lie down and breathe quietly during the study. Computed tomography permitted a much more detailed appraisal of laryngeal dysfunction in patients with blunt laryngeal trauma (3 cases) and strangulation injury (2 cases). Computed tomography of the larynx undoubtedly played a determinant role in patient management. Computed tomography was helpful in evaluating the laryngeal cartilages and deep spaces of the larynx which was difficult to examine by the laryngoscope. Follow-up computed tomography made it possible to evaluate the postoperative results

  17. Quantitative analysis of titanium-induced artifacts and correlated factors during micro-CT scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun Yuan; Pow, Edmond Ho Nang; Zheng, Li Wu; Ma, Li; Kwong, Dora Lai Wan; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of cover screw, resin embedment, and implant angulation on artifact of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning for implant. A total of twelve implants were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) implant only; (ii) implant with cover screw; (iii) implant with resin embedment; and (iv) implants with cover screw and resin embedment. Implants angulation at 0°, 45°, and 90° were scanned by micro-CT. Images were assessed, and the ratio of artifact volume to total volume (AV/TV) was calculated. A multiple regression analysis in stepwise model was used to determine the significance of different factors. One-way ANOVA was performed to identify which combination of factors could minimize the artifact. In the regression analysis, implant angulation was identified as the best predictor for artifact among the factors (P  0.05). Non-embedded implants with the axis parallel to X-ray source of micro-CT produced minimal artifact. Implant angulation and resin embedment affected the artifact volume of micro-CT scanning for implant, while cover screw did not. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessment of CT numbers in limited and medium field-of-view scans taken using Accuitomo 170 and Veraviewepocs 3De cone-beam computed tomography scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Matheus L. [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Tosoni, Guilherme M. [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis and Surgery, Araraquara Dental School, Sao Paulo State University, Araraquara (Brazil); Lindsey, David H.; Mendoza, Kristopher; Tetradis, Sotirios; Mallya, Sanjay M. [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the influence of anatomic location on the relationship between computed tomography (CT) number and X-ray attenuation in limited and medium field-of-view (FOV) scans. Tubes containing solutions with different concentrations of K2HPO4 were placed in the tooth sockets of a human head phantom. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired, and CT numbers of the K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solutions were measured. The relationship between CT number and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} concentration was examined by linear regression analyses. Then, the variation in CT number according to anatomic location was examined. The relationship between K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} concentration and CT number was strongly linear. The slopes of the linear regressions for the limited FOVs were almost 2-fold lower than those for the medium FOVs. The absolute CT number differed between imaging protocols and anatomic locations. There is a strong linear relationship between X-ray attenuation and CT number. The specific imaging protocol and anatomic location of the object strongly influence this relationship.

  19. Occult primary tumors of the head and neck: accuracy of thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, S. A.; Balm, A. J.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Hilgers, F. J.; Tan, I. B.; Pameijer, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography (thallium SPECT) and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) in the detection of occult primary tumors of the head and neck. Study of diagnostic tests. National Cancer Institute, Amsterdam,

  20. Computed Tomography Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  1. The value of unenhanced multi-detector computed tomography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is used to detect urinary tract calculi with high accuracy. The development of multi-detector CT (MDCT) allows reconstructions in coronal, sagittal and oblique directions. Objective: To compare MDCT with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) imaging in evaluating ...

  2. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a μ-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  3. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: rtaschereau@mednet.ucla.edu

    2010-02-21

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a {mu}-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  4. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings in a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram; Shah, Hardik

    2013-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGNP) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. This condition can clinically present as recurrent urinary tract infections, flank pain, hematuria, and occasionally sepsis, and weight loss. This condition is usually associated with obstructing renal calculus. We present 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG PET/CT) findings in an elderly male suffering from pyrexia and weight loss and suspected urinary tract infection. PET/CT findings in this case lead to diagnosis of XGNP. This diagnosis should be kept in mind while evaluating similar symptoms and PET/CT scan findings. PMID:24019680

  5. Computed tomography of craniomandibular osteopathy in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.; Montgomery, R.D.; Hathcock, J.T.; Jarboe, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the tympanic bullae and angular processes of the mandible in a West Highland White Terrier with craniomandibular osteopathy. The patient presented initially for swelling of the right forelimb. The report illustrates the use of computed tomography for evaluation of craniomandibular osteopathy, initial presentation with long-bone pathology, and remarkable resolution of osseous changes

  6. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit; Catena, Vittorio; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Schena, Emiliano; Buy, Xavier; Palussiere, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours. Patients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported. Forty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = -9.45, t = -3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %). CBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  7. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients With Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Clinical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordin, Arie; Golz, Avishay; Daitzchman, Marcello; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Kuten, Abraham; Israel, Ora

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared with PET and conventional imaging (CI) alone, and to assess the impact of PET/CT on further clinical management. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma had 45 PET/CT examinations. The study was a retrospective analysis. Changes in patient care resulting from the PET/CT studies were recorded. Results: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 92%, 90%, 90%, 90%, and 91%, respectively, as compared with 92%, 65%, 76%, 86%, and 80% for PET and 92%, 15%, 60%, 60%, and 60% for CI. Imaging with PET/CT altered further management of 19 patients (57%). Imaging with PET/CT eliminated the need for previously planned diagnostic procedures in 11 patients, induced a change in the planned therapeutic approach in 5 patients, and guided biopsy to a specific metabolically active area inside an edematous region in 3 patients, thus decreasing the chances for tissue sampling errors and avoiding damage to nonmalignant tissue. Conclusions: In cancer of the nasopharynx, the diagnostic performance of PET/CT is better than that of stand-alone PET or CI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had a major impact on further clinical management in 57% of patients

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT ...

  10. Position emission tomography with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to receive the most appropriate therapy, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) must be accurately stratified into different prognostic staging groups. Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the conventional staging. The aim of the present study...... was to investigate the value of positron emission tomography using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) and combined FDG-PET/CT for the staging of HL patients, and the impact on the choice of treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-nine consecutive, prospectively included patients had FDG-PET and CT...

  11. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.

    1988-01-01

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomography of projectile injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, A.J.; Rutty, G.N.; Robinson, C.; Morgan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a gold standard in clinical imaging but forensic professions have been slow to embrace radiological advances. Forensic applications of CT are now exponentially expanding, replacing other imaging methods. As post-mortem cross-sectional imaging increases, radiologists will fall under increasing pressure to interpret complex forensic cases involving both living and deceased patients. This review presents a wide variety of weapon and projectile types aiding interpretation of projectile injuries both in forensic and clinical practice

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Using novel X-ray techniques, based on grating-interferometry, new imaging modalities can be obtained simultaneously with absorption computed tomography (CT). These modalities, called phase contrast and dark field imaging, measure the electron density and the diffusion length of the sample....... Enhanced contrast capabilities of this X-ray technique makes studies on materials with similar attenuation properties possible. In this paper the focus is set on processing grating-based X-ray tomograms of meat emulsions to quantitatively measure micro-structural changes due to heat treatment. The emulsion...... samples were imaged both in a raw and cooked state. Additionally, different fat types were used in the emulsions in order to compare micro-structural differences when either pork fat or sunflower oil was used. From the reconstructed tomograms the different ingredients in the emulsions were segmented using...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  15. Asymmetrically increased rib cage uptake on bone scintigraphy: Incidental detection of pleural mesothelioma on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhull, Varun Singh; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up bone scintigraphy (BS) in a patient of carcinoma left breast, who was treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy 12 years back, revealed asymmetrically increased radiotracer uptake in left-sided ribs. Since, this pattern was atypical for metastatic rib involvement, single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of thorax was done in the same setting which revealed circumferential nodular left-sided pleural thickening. Biopsy confirmed it to be pleural mesothelioma. Left-sided ribs showed no abnormality on CT, thus suggesting the rib uptake as reactive in nature. This pattern of asymmetric rib uptake on BS should be kept in mind and warrants further investigation for determining underlying pathology

  16. New possibilities of three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Tarjan, Z.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scan reconstructions provide impressive and illustrative images of various parts of the human body. Such images are reconstructed from a series of basic CT scans by dedicated software. The state of the art in 3D computed tomography is demonstrated with emphasis on the imaging of soft tissues. Examples are presented of imaging the craniofacial and maxillofacial complex, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal and urogenital systems, and respiratory system, and their potential in clinical practice is discussed. Although contributing no new essential diagnostic information against conventional CT scans, 3D scans can help in spatial orientation. 11 figs., 25 refs

  17. Chest computed tomography-based scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis: Inter-rater reliability of CT abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvel, D.A.V. den; Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, J.P. van; Spee, M. [St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zanen, P.; Grutters, J.C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Division Heart and Lungs, Utrecht (Netherlands); St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Center of Interstitial Lung Diseases, Department of Pulmonology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    To determine inter-rater reliability of sarcoidosis-related computed tomography (CT) findings that can be used for scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis. CT images of 51 patients with sarcoidosis were scored by five chest radiologists for various abnormal CT findings (22 in total) encountered in thoracic sarcoidosis. Using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis, inter-rater reliability was analysed and reported according to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) criteria. A pre-specified sub-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of training. Scoring was trained in a distinct set of 15 scans in which all abnormal CT findings were represented. Median age of the 51 patients (36 men, 70 %) was 43 years (range 26 - 64 years). All radiographic stages were present in this group. ICC ranged from 0.91 for honeycombing to 0.11 for nodular margin (sharp versus ill-defined). The ICC was above 0.60 in 13 of the 22 abnormal findings. Sub-analysis for the best-trained observers demonstrated an ICC improvement for all abnormal findings and values above 0.60 for 16 of the 22 abnormalities. In our cohort, reliability between raters was acceptable for 16 thoracic sarcoidosis-related abnormal CT findings. (orig.)

  18. Chest computed tomography-based scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis: Inter-rater reliability of CT abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, D.A.V. den; Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, J.P. van; Spee, M.; Jong, P.A. de; Zanen, P.; Grutters, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    To determine inter-rater reliability of sarcoidosis-related computed tomography (CT) findings that can be used for scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis. CT images of 51 patients with sarcoidosis were scored by five chest radiologists for various abnormal CT findings (22 in total) encountered in thoracic sarcoidosis. Using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis, inter-rater reliability was analysed and reported according to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) criteria. A pre-specified sub-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of training. Scoring was trained in a distinct set of 15 scans in which all abnormal CT findings were represented. Median age of the 51 patients (36 men, 70 %) was 43 years (range 26 - 64 years). All radiographic stages were present in this group. ICC ranged from 0.91 for honeycombing to 0.11 for nodular margin (sharp versus ill-defined). The ICC was above 0.60 in 13 of the 22 abnormal findings. Sub-analysis for the best-trained observers demonstrated an ICC improvement for all abnormal findings and values above 0.60 for 16 of the 22 abnormalities. In our cohort, reliability between raters was acceptable for 16 thoracic sarcoidosis-related abnormal CT findings. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  20. Preliminary results for X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography on the biomedical imaging beamline at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rongchang; Du Guohao; Xie Honglan; Deng Biao; Tong Yajun; Hu Wen; Xue Yanling; Chen Can; Ren Yuqi; Zhou Guangzhao; Wang Yudan; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu Hongjie; Zhu Peiping

    2009-01-01

    With X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography(CT), one is able to obtain edge-enhanced image of internal structure of the samples. This allows visualization of the fine internal features for biology tissues, which is not able to resolve by conventional absorption CT. After preliminary modulation, monochromatic X-rays (8-72.5 keV) are available for experiments on the experimental station of the biomedical imaging beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). In this paper, we report the in line phase contrast micro-tomography(IL-XPCT) of biology sample (locust) on the beamline. The reconstruct slice images and three dimensional rendering images of the locust were obtained, with clearly visible images of locus's wing, surface texture and internal tissue distribution. (authors)

  1. Comparison of computed tomography dose reporting software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.; Sun, Z.; Pongnapang, N.; Ng, K. H.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) dose reporting software facilitates the estimation of doses to patients undergoing CT examinations. In this study, comparison of three software packages, i.e. CT-Expo (version 1.5, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover (Germany)), ImPACT CT Patients Dosimetry Calculator (version 0.99x, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org) and WinDose (version 2.1a, Wellhofer Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck (Germany)), has been made in terms of their calculation algorithm and the results of calculated doses. Estimations were performed for head, chest, abdominal and pelvic examinations based on the protocols recommended by European guidelines using single-slice CT (SSCT) (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Erlangen (Germany)) and multi-slice CT (MSCT) (Siemens Sensation 16, Erlangen (Germany)) for software-based female and male phantoms. The results showed that there are some differences in final dose reporting provided by these software packages. There are deviations of effective doses produced by these software packages. Percentages of coefficient of variance range from 3.3 to 23.4 % in SSCT and from 10.6 to 43.8 % in MSCT. It is important that researchers state the name of the software that is used to estimate the various CT dose quantities. Users must also understand the equivalent terminologies between the information obtained from the CT console and the software packages in order to use the software correctly. (authors)

  2. Computed tomography in space-occupying intraspinal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proemper, C.; Friedmann, G.

    1983-01-01

    Spinal computed tomography has considerably enhanced differential diagnostic safety in the course of the past two years. It has disclosed new possibilities of indication in the diagnosis of the vertebral column. With the expected improvement in apparatus technology, computed tomography will increasingly replace invasive examination methods. Detailed knowledge of clinical data, classification of the neurological findings, and localisation of the height - as far as possible - are the necessary prerequisites of successful diagnosis. If they are absent, it is recommended to perform myelography followed by secondary CT-myelography. If these preliminary conditions are observed, spinal CT can make outstanding contributions to be diagnosis of slipped disk, of the constricted vertebral canal, as well as tumours, malformations and posttraumatic conditions, postoperative changes and inflammatory processes. (orig.) [de

  3. Computed tomography evaluation of the sacroiliac joints in Crohn disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.W. Jr.; Fishman, E.K.; Kuhlman, J.E.; Caskey, C.I.; O'Brien, J.J.; Walia, G.S.; Bayless, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used in a prospective study of the sacroiliac joints in 86 patients with Crohn disease to determine the type and frequency of sacroiliac joint abnormalities present in this population. The CT findings were correlated with review of the clinical history in 64 patients. Computed tomography demonstrated changes of sacroiliitis in 29% of the study group. This high prevalence of sacroiliac joint abnormality was found even in those under 30 years of age. It exceeds the 11-19% previously reported from plain film examination, reflecting the greater sensitivity of CT. In the subgroup of 64 patients studied clinically, 19 (30%) had abnormal sacroiliac joints on CT, but only 2 (3%) reported symptoms related to the sacroiliac joints. (orig.)

  4. Minimising medically unwarranted computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    As computed tomography (CT) is such a superb diagnostic tool and individual CT risks are small, whenever a CT scan is clinically warranted, the CT benefit/risk balance is by far in the patient’s favour. However, if a CT scan is not clinically warranted, this balance shifts dramatically. It is likely that at least 25% of CT scans fall into this latter category, in that they could either be replaced with alternative imaging modalities or could be avoided entirely. Use of clinical decision rules for CT usage represents a powerful approach for slowing down the increase in CT usage, because they have the potential to overcome some of the major factors that result in some CT scans being undertaken when they may not be clinically helpful.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement ...

  7. Comparison of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, hydro-stomach computed tomography, and their combination for detecting primary gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hye Young; Chung, Woo Suk; Song, E Rang; Kim, Jin Suk [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy for detecting primary gastric cancer on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and hydro-stomach CT (S-CT) and determine whether the combination of the two techniques improves diagnostic performance. A total of 253 patients with pathologically proven primary gastric cancer underwent PET/CT and S-CT for the preoperative evaluation. Two radiologists independently reviewed the three sets (PET/CT set, S-CT set, and the combined set) of PET/CT and S-CT in a random order. They graded the likelihood for the presence of primary gastric cancer based on a 4-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy of the PET/CT set, the S-CT set, and the combined set were determined by the area under the alternative-free receiver operating characteristic curve, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV for detecting all gastric cancers and early gastric cancers (EGCs) were significantly higher with the combined set than those with the PET/CT and S-CT sets. Specificity and PPV were significantly higher with the PET/CT set than those with the combined and S-CT set for detecting all gastric cancers and EGCs. The combination of PET/CT and S-CT is more accurate than S-CT alone, particularly for detecting EGCs.

  8. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  9. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Metzinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR. Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues.

  10. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis is a ... is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  12. Quantifying shape changes of silicone breast implants in a murine model using in vivo micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E; Perilli, Egon; Carati, Colin J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2017-08-01

    A major complication of silicone breast implants is the formation of a capsule around the implant known as capsular contracture which results in the distortion of the implant. Recently, a mouse model for studying capsular contracture was examined using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), however, only qualitative changes were reported. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative method for comparing the shape changes of silicone implants using in vivo micro-CT. Mice were bilaterally implanted with silicone implants and underwent ionizing radiation to induce capsular contracture. On day 28 post-surgery mice were examined in vivo using micro-CT. The reconstructed cross-section images were visually inspected to identify distortion. Measurements were taken in 2D and 3D to quantify the shape of the implants in the normal (n = 11) and distorted (n = 5) groups. The degree of anisotropy was significantly higher in the distorted implants in the transaxial view (0.99 vs. 1.19, p = 0.002) and the y-axis lengths were significantly shorter in the sagittal (9.27 mm vs. 8.55 mm, p = 0.015) and coronal (9.24 mm vs. 8.76 mm, p = 0.031) views, indicating a deviation from the circular cross-section and shortening of the long axis. The 3D analysis revealed a significantly lower average thickness (sphere-fitting method) in distorted implants (6.86 mm vs. 5.49 mm, p = 0.002), whereas the volume and surface area did not show significant changes. Statistically significant differences between normal and distorted implants were found in 2D and 3D using distance measurements performed via micro-CT. This objective analysis method can be useful for a range of studies involving deformable implants using in vivo micro-CT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1447-1452, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metaanalysis of Diagnostic Performance of Computed Coronary Tomography Angiography, Computed Tomography Perfusion and Computed Tomography-Fractional Flow Reserve in Functional Myocardial Ischemia Assessment versus Invasive Fractional Flow Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Flors, Lucia F.; Shaw, Peter; Kramer, Christopher M.; Salerno, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We sought to compare the diagnostic performance of computed coronary tomography angiography (CCTA), computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and computed tomography fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) for assessing the functional significance of coronary stenosis as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR), in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. CCTA has proven clinically useful for excluding obstructive CAD due to its high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV), however the ability of CTA to identify functionally significant CAD has remained challenging. We searched PubMed/Medline for studies evaluating CCTA, CTP or CT-FFR for the non-invasive detection of obstructive CAD as compared to catheter-derived FFR as the reference standard. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, likelihood ratios (LR), odds ratio (OR) of all diagnostic tests were assessed. Eighteen studies involving a total of 1535 patients were included. CTA demonstrated a pooled sensitivity of 0.92, specificity 0.43, PPV of 0.56 and NPV of 0.87 on a per-patient level. CT-FFR and CTP increased the specificity to 0.72 and 0.77 respectively (P=0.004 and P=0.0009)) resulting in higher point estimates for PPV 0.70 and 0.83 respectively. There was no improvement in the sensitivity. The CTP protocol involved more radiation (3.5 mSv CCTA VS 9.6 mSv CTP) and a higher volume of iodinated contrast (145 mL). In conclusion, CTP and CT-FFR improve the specificity of CCTA for detecting functionally significant stenosis as defined by invasive FFR on a per-patient level; both techniques could advance the ability to non-invasively detect the functional significance of coronary lesions. PMID:26347004

  14. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic

  16. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging in the Staging and Prognosis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Wartski, M.; Gontier, E.; Madar, O.; Pecking, A.P.; Lerebours, F.; Fourme, E.; Le Stanc, E.; Cherel, P.; Alberini, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To prospectively assess fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) staging and prognosis value in patients with suspected inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Methods: Sixty-two women (mean age 50.7 ± 11.4 years) presenting with unilateral inflammatory breast tumors (59 invasive carcinomas; 3 mastitis) underwent a PET/CT scan before biopsy. Results: PET/CT scan was positive for the primary malignant tumor in 100% and false positive in 2 of 3 benign mastitis. In 59 IBC patients, FDG nodal foci were detected in axillary (90%; n = 53) and extra-axillary areas (56%; n = 33) ipsilateral to the cancer. Compared with clinical examination, the axillary lymph node status by PET/CT was upstaged and down staged in 35 and 5 patients, respectively. In 7 of 9 N0 patients, the axillary lymph node positivity on PET/CT was correct, as revealed by pathological post surgery assessment (not available in the 2 remaining patients). The nodal foci were compared with preoperative fine needle aspiration and/or pathological post chemotherapy findings available in 44 patients and corresponded to 38 true positive, 4 false-negative, and 2 false-positive cases. In 18 of 59 IBC patients (31%), distant lesions were found. On the basis of a univariate analysis of the first enrolled patients (n = 42), among 28 patients who showed intense tumoral uptake (standard uptake value(max)≥5), the 11 patients with distant lesions had a worse prognosis than the 17 patients without distant lesions (P =.04). Conclusions: FDG-PET/CT imaging provides additional invaluable information regarding nodal status or distant metastases in IBC patients and should be considered in the initial staging. It seems also that some prognostic information can be derived from FDG uptake characteristics. (authors)

  17. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-01-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity

  19. Micro X-ray CT imaging of pore-scale changes in unconsolidated sediment under confining pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, M.; Prasad, M.

    2017-12-01

    Micro X-ray computed tomography was used to image confining-pressure induced changes in a dry, unconsolidated quartz sand pack while simultaneously recording ultrasonic P-wave velocities. The experiments were performed under in-situ pressure of up to 4000 psi. The majority of digital rock physics studies rely on micro CT images obtained under ambient pressure and temperature conditions although effective rock properties strongly depend on in situ conditions. Goal of this work is to be able to obtain micro CT images of rock samples while pore and confining pressure is applied. Simultaneously we recorded ultrasonic P-wave velocities. The combination of imaging and velocity measurements provides insight in pore-scale changes in the rock and their influence on elastic properties. We visually observed a reduction in porosity by more than a third of the initial value as well as extensive grain damage, changes in pore and grain size distribution and an increase in contact number and contact radius with increasing confining pressure. An increase in measured ultrasonic P-wave velocities with increasing pressure was observed. We used porosity, contact number and contact radius obtained from micro CT images to model P-wave velocity with the contact-radius model by Bachrach et al. (1998). Our observations showed that the frame of unconsolidated sediments is significantly altered starting at pressures of only 1000 psi. This finding indicates that common assumptions in rock physics models (the solid frame remains unchanged) are violated for unconsolidated sediments. The effects on the solid frame should be taken into account when modeling the pressure dependence of elastic rock properties.

  20. Three-dimensional digitizer (neuronavigator): new equipment for computed tomography-guided stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Watanabe, T; Manaka, S; Mayanagi, Y; Takakura, K

    1987-06-01

    A new device was invented as an adjunct for computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotaxic or open neurosurgery. It is composed of a multijoint three-dimensional digitizer (sensor arm) and a microcomputer, which indicates the place of the sensor arm tip on preoperative CT images. Computed tomography scan is performed preoperatively with three markers placed on the nasion and ears. At surgery, after fixing the patient's head and the sensor arm, sampling of the standard points was done to translate the position of the tip of the sensor arm onto the CT images displayed on a computer screen. In this way positional data from conventional preoperative CT scan can be directly transferred into the surgical field. This system has the unique feature of introducing CT-guided stereotaxis into conventional open neurosurgery.

  1. Role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer; comparison with multidetector row computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N; Gundogan, C; Tozlu, M; Toprak, H; Kadıoglu, H; Aydin, M; Cermik, T F

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the contribution of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging to the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer compared with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We retrospectively scanned the data of 52 patients who were referred for FDG PET/CT imaging for evaluation of pancreatic lesions greater than 10mm. The diagnostic performances of 4 imaging methods and the impact of PET/CT on the management of pancreatic cancer were defined. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 33 of 52 patients (63%), 15 patients had benign diseases of pancreas (29%), and 4 patients were normal (8%). Sensitivity and NPV of EUS and PET/CT were equal (100%) and higher than MDCT and MRI. Specificity, PPV and NPV of PET/CT were significantly higher than MDCT. However, sensitivities of two imaging methods were not significantly different. There was no significant difference between PET/CT and MRI and EUS for these values. When the cut-off value of SUVmax was 3.2, the most effective sensitivity and specificity values were obtained. PET/CT contributed to the management of pancreatic cancer in 30% of patients. FDG PET/CT is a valuable imaging method for the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer, especially when applied along with EUS as first line diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative Study of Porosity and Pore Features in Moldavites by Means of X-ray Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pratesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray micro-computer aided tomography (μ-CT, together with optical microscopy and imaging, have been applied to the study of six moldavite samples. These techniques enabled a complete characterization to be made of the textural features of both Muong Nong-type and common splashform moldavites. A detailed study of the size and distribution of pores or bubbles confirmed the marked variability in pore size among the samples, as well as within each sample, and indicated in the Muong Nong-type moldavites the presence of at least two deformation stages which occurred before and after pore formation.

  3. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and shear force in Texel lamb loins using combinations of different X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Knott, S; Matthews, K R; Lambe, N R

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) parameters, including spiral computed tomography scanning (SCTS) parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF) and mechanically measured shear force were derived from two previously published studies. Purebred Texel (n = 377) of both sexes, females (n = 206) and intact males (n = 171) were used to investigate the prediction of IMF and shear force in the loin. Two and three dimensional CT density information was available. Accuracies in the prediction of shear force and IMF ranged from R 2 0.02 to R 2 0.13 and R 2 0.51 to R 2 0.71 respectively, using combinations of SCTS and CT scan information. The prediction of mechanical shear force could not be achieved at an acceptable level of accuracy employing SCTS information. However, the prediction of IMF in the loin employing information from SCTS and additional information from standard CT scans was successful, providing evidence that the prediction of IMF and related meat eating quality (MEQ) traits for Texel lambs in vivo can be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Diagnostic Evaluation of Carcinoma Urinary Bladder: Comparison with Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Mete, Utham Kumar; Narang, Vikram; Das, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Anish; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Mandal, Arup K.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most frequent tumor of the urinary tract and accounts 7% of all malignancies in men and 2% of all malignancies in women. This retrospective study was carried out to assess the diagnostic utility of F18-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging evaluation of bladder carcinoma. Seventy-seven consecutive patients diagnosed to have carcinoma urinary bladder referred for F18-FDG PET/CT were included in this study. Thirty-four patients were for initial staging after transurethral biopsy and remaining 43 patients were for restaging. All patients also underwent CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. PET/CT findings were correlated with diagnostic CT scan and histopathological findings. In 30 of the 34 patients for initial staging, both PET/CT and CT confirmed the primary lesion in the bladder. Histopathology report was available in 23 patients. Lymph nodes FDG uptake reported to be metastatic in 10/23 patients while CT detected lymph node metastasis in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy have been calculated to be 87.5%, 80%, 70%, 92%, 82% for PET/CT and 66%, 57%, 50%, 72%, 60% for CT respectively. PET/CT detected metastatic disease in 8 patients whereas CT detected in 4 patients. Of the 43 patients for restaging, local recurrence was detected in 24 patients on both PET/CT and CT. Histopathology report was available in 17 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 85%, 60%, 60%, 85%, 70% for PET/CT and 80%, 50%, 40%, 85%, 58% for CT respectively. Nineteen patients were detected to have metastatic disease by PET/CT, whereas CT detected metastases in 11 patients. F-18 FDG PET/CT is a very useful modality in pre-operative staging and monitoring after surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy of patients with carcinoma urinary bladder

  5. Contrast Agents for Micro-Computed Tomography of Microdamage in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roeder, Ryan K

    2008-01-01

    ...) and contrast agents with higher x-ray attenuation than bone. The ability to detect the presence and to a limited extent the morphology of microdamage in cortical and trabecular bone using micro-CT was demonstrated using a barium sulfate (BaSO4) stain...

  6. A sparsity-based iterative algorithm for reconstruction of micro-CT images from highly undersampled projection datasets obtained with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, S. Ali; Wahid, Khan A.; Babyn, Paul; Cooper, David M. L.; Gopi, Varun P.

    2016-12-01

    Synchrotron X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) is an imaging technique which is increasingly used for non-invasive in vivo preclinical imaging. However, it often requires a large number of projections from many different angles to reconstruct high-quality images leading to significantly high radiation doses and long scan times. To utilize this imaging technique further for in vivo imaging, we need to design reconstruction algorithms that reduce the radiation dose and scan time without reduction of reconstructed image quality. This research is focused on using a combination of gradient-based Douglas-Rachford splitting and discrete wavelet packet shrinkage image denoising methods to design an algorithm for reconstruction of large-scale reduced-view synchrotron Micro-CT images with acceptable quality metrics. These quality metrics are computed by comparing the reconstructed images with a high-dose reference image reconstructed from 1800 equally spaced projections spanning 180°. Visual and quantitative-based performance assessment of a synthetic head phantom and a femoral cortical bone sample imaged in the biomedical imaging and therapy bending magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing reconstruction algorithms. Using the proposed reconstruction algorithm to reduce the number of projections in synchrotron Micro-CT is an effective way to reduce the overall radiation dose and scan time which improves in vivo imaging protocols.

  7. MicroCT Scan in paleobiology: application to the study of dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, M.; Casali, F. E-mail: casali@bo.infn.it; Romani, D.; Bondioli, L.; Macchiarelli, R.; Rook, L

    2004-01-01

    State of the art in paleoanthropological and paleoprimatological research foresees the use of advanced non-destructive investigative approaches. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is a fundamental tool, since it offers the opportunity to get high quality morphological information with high spatial resolution. We carried out the set-up of an experimental microCT system able to examine paleobiological samples. The equipment can operate on small objects (size up to 3 cm) with a nominal spatial resolution of 30 {mu}m, allowing their 3D volume reconstruction and morphometric analysis. This approach represents a forefront technique in paleobiological studies, successfully employed only in a limited number of advanced research centers. A specific program of microCT analysis has been planned on a sample of human and non-human fossil primate dentitions, in order to assess the specific nature of a number of tooth lesions (e.g. caries versus abrasion). This currently in progress experimental activity represents the first step for the set-up of a research center specifically devoted to the realization of advanced studies in the field of archaeo-paleobiology.

  8. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-12-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children.

  9. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic se