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Sample records for computed tomography mdct

  1. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19,2016 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  2. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  3. Comparison of 640-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography Versus 32-Slice MDCT for Imaging of the Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Koumellis, Panos; Francis, Ian S; Liu, Christopher S C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 640-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting osteo-odonto laminar resorption in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) compared with the current standard 32-slice MDCT. Explanted OOKP laminae and bone-dentine fragments were scanned using 640-slice MDCT (Aquilion ONE; Toshiba) and 32-slice MDCT (LightSpeed Pro32; GE Healthcare). Pertinent comparisons including image quality, radiation dose, and scanning parameters were made. Benefits of 640-slice MDCT over 32-slice MDCT were shown. Key comparisons of 640-slice MDCT versus 32-slice MDCT included the following: percentage difference and correlation coefficient between radiological and anatomical measurements, 1.35% versus 3.67% and 0.9961 versus 0.9882, respectively; dose-length product, 63.50 versus 70.26; rotation time, 0.175 seconds versus 1.000 seconds; and detector coverage width, 16 cm versus 2 cm. Resorption of the osteo-odonto lamina after OOKP surgery can result in potentially sight-threatening complications, hence it warrants regular monitoring and timely intervention. MDCT remains the gold standard for radiological assessment of laminar resorption, which facilitates detection of subtle laminar changes earlier than the onset of clinical signs, thus indicating when preemptive measures can be taken. The 640-slice MDCT exhibits several advantages over traditional 32-slice MDCT. However, such benefits may not offset cost implications, except in rare cases, such as in young patients who might undergo years of radiation exposure.

  4. Enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tesshou; Ogata, Seiji; Uto, Mitsunobu; Nakazono, Toshihiro; Urata, Miyuki; Ishibe, Ryouhei; Shinyama, Shin; Nakajo, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in diagnosing acute appendicitis and its severity. Contrast-enhanced MD-CT 3.5 mm thick images of 23 control patients (A), and 64 patients with surgically proven acute appendicitis including 8 catarrhal (B), 28 phiegmonous (C), and 28 gangrenous (D) appendicitis patients were respectively analyzed. The number of observed major computed tomography (CT) findings for each patient group were as follows: enlarged (≥6 mm in maximum diameter) appendix (A: 5, B: 8, C: 28, D: 28), enhancement of the appendiceal wall; hyper (A: 3, B: 8, C: 27, D: 20), iso (A: 15, B: 0, C: 1, D: 2), hypo (A-C: 0, D: 4), and patched (A-C: 0, D: 2) enhancement, appendicolith (A, B: 0, C: 7, D: 13), dirty fat sign (A: 3, B: 1, C: 21, D: 28), localized ascites (A: 2, B: 0, C: 2, D: 11), and abscess formation (A-C: 0, D: 5). From the combinations of these findings, we could differentiate acute appendicitis from the control normal appendix with an accuracy of 99% and could diagnose the severity of acute appendicitis with accuracies of 92% for catarrhal appendicitis, 84% for phlegmonous appendicitis, and 92% for gangrenous appendicitis. We could also visually reconstruct the entire forms and positions of the appendices from the successive CT findings because of the high-resolution thin-slice MDCT images. MDCT is highly accurate in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its severity. (author)

  5. Role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the work: To assess the role of multidetector computed tomographic imaging in the diagnosis of secondary intussusception with pathological leading points in children. Materials and methods: This study is a retrospective study including 12 children referred to the radiodiagnosis department at Alexandria University ...

  6. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT imaging of cardiovascular effects of pulmonary embolism: What the radiologists need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboul-fotouh E. Mourad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with pulmonary embolism have high mortality and morbidity rate due to right heart failure and circulatory collapse leading to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT can efficiently evaluate the cardiovascular factors related to pulmonary embolism. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT in differentiation of between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism groups depending on the associated cardiovascular parameters and create a simple reporting system. Patients & methods: Prospective study contained 145 patients diagnosed clinically pulmonary embolism. All patients were examined by combined electrocardiographically gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography-computed tomography venography (ECG-CTPA-CTV using certain imaging criteria in a systematic manner. Results: Our study revealed 95 and 55 non-severe and severe pulmonary embolism groups respectively. Many cardiovascular parameters related to pulmonary embolism shows significant p value and can differentiate between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism patients include pulmonary artery diameter, intraventricular septum flattening, bowing, superior vena cava and Azygos vein diameters, right and left ventricular diameters. Conclusion: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT can be valuable to assess the severity of pulmonary embolism using the related cardiovascular parameters and leading the management strategy aim for best outcome. Keywords: Pulmonary embolism, MDCT, Cardiovascular, Computed tomography venography

  7. Assessment and diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, B.; Gieszczyk-Paraniak, B.; Gibinska, J.; Konopka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Acute bowel ischemia (ABT) is a life-threatening condition which most often effects elderly patients. It requires an intensive treatment and quick diagnosis. Unfortunately ABI manifested not only by specific but also various nonspecific clinical or laboratory finding. The radiological symptoms of the bowel ischemia are also differentiated and often nonspecific while the specific findings are rather uncommon.That is why the knowledge of the bowel ischemia pathogenesis and possible CT findings is so important for the correct diagnosis. The our paper, we present the radiological findings of the acute bowel ischemia based on the analysis of the patients' abdominal -CT examination. The purpose of our study is to MDCT in patients with acute bowel ischemia. The material of this study consists of four computer tomography examinations - three of those an angio-CT and one abdominal - in patients with acute abdomen symptoms. The result revealed the mesenteric thrombosis in two cases, and mesenteric artery stenosis in one case. In one case, the thrombus was present in the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, we claim that the MDCT should be the modality of choice for the diagnosis of the acute bowel ischemia. (author)

  8. Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT in Gastrointestinal Obstruction: One Symptom Myriad Differentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika Sindhwani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computed Tomography (CT is a highly sensitive modality with its multi-planar capabilities, used in evaluation of acute cases of intestinal obstruction. It delineates the level and helps to identify various etiologies of obstruction, where plain radiographs can only suggest signs of obstruction. It has an added advantage of detecting further complications, thus framing appropriate surgical approach. Aim: Our study aims at delineating variable CT spectrum of intestinal obstruction with highlight on atypical presentation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective hospital data based study was conducted in the Radiology Department of Shree Krishna Hospital, Anand, Gujarat, India, between 2014-2017 including 40 patients with mechanical causes of obstruction and excluding patients with non-mechanical causes of obstruction. Statistical analysis was done using percentages and proportions using MedCalc software version 17.6. Results: The age range of patients was from 5 days to 83 years and the maximum number of patients i.e., 7 (17.5% were in the age group of 41-50 years. Radiographic signs related to obstruction like air fluid levels, dilated bowel loops was seen in 26 out of 40 cases (sensitivity 60%. Small bowel obstruction dominated the case list with obstructed hernia as major causative factor. Conclusion: Study highlights the contribution of MDCT in early identification of underlying etiology and complications of obstruction with additional contribution in road mapping and framing appropriate and individualized treatment strategy for patients.

  9. Usefulness of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the initial evaluation of multiple blunt trauma of the trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Ogino, Takashi; Isaka, Akira; Takahashi, Yuga; Nameki, Tarou; Kagoshima, Kaie; Yamada, Takurou; Ishihara, Kouichi; Iino, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is useful for detecting hemoperitoneum (HE) in trauma patients in the emergency room (ER), but, patients' condition cannot be evaluated adequately by FAST alone. CT is useful for the diagnosis of multiple trauma, but has certain drawbacks. We evaluated the utility of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as the initial tool for proper diagnosis and treatment planning of multiple trauma patients. We retrospectively analyzed 128 cases treated in ER of Gunma University Hospital between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006, and they were hospital patients were hospitalized with blunt multiple trauma. We analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FAST, compiled MDCT finding, lifesaving treatment, and outcome. Eight patients were FAST positive, and 7 of the 8 were scanned by MDCT. There were 120 patients were FAST negative patients, 23 of the 120 were MDCT-negative, despite visceral injury, however 9 of the 120 had visceral injury by MDCT findings. Damage control surgery without MDCT was performed in one case, but the patient died after surgery. Six of the patients in the HE-positive group had really HE. One of the 6 died while a waiting surgery, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed in three patients, and one person out of the 3 died. The course of the remaining 2 patients was monitored, and they are alive. A patient in the HE-negative group with bladder rupture required surgery. There were 120 patients in the FAST-negative group. One of the 6 patients in the HE-positive subgroup died while a waiting surgery. One patient required chest and pericardial drainage. TAE was performed in 2 patients, and the remaining 6 were monitored and are alive. There were 23 FAST-negative patients patients who had visceral injury. Five of them required chest drainage, one received TAE, 17 were monitored, and all of the 23 are alive. There were 14 cases of pelvic fracture alone, and all of them were FAST

  10. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) of the aortic root; ECG-gated verses non-ECG-gated examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Joanna; Guenther, Anne; Aalokken, Trond Mogens; Andersen, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Motion artifacts may degrade a conventional CT examination of the ascending aorta and hinder accurate diagnosis. We quantitatively compared retrospectively electrocardiographic (ECG) -gated multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) with non-ECG-gated MDCT in order to demonstrate whether or not one of the methods should be preferred. Method: The study included seventeen patients with surgically reconstructed aortic root and reimplanted coronary arteries. All patients had undergone both non-gated MDCT and retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT employing a stringently modulated tube current with single phase image reconstruction. The incidence of motion artifacts in the left main coronary artery (LM), proximal right coronary artery (RCA), and aortic root and ascending aorta were rated using a four point scale. The effective dose for each scan was calculated and normalized to a 15 cm scan length. Statistical analysis of motion artifacts and radiation dose was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test. Results: A significant reduction in motion artifacts was found in all three vessels in images from the retrospectively ECG-gated scans (LM: P = 0.005, RCA: P = 0.015, aorta: P = 0.003). The mean normalized effective radiation dose was 3.69 mSv (±1.03) for the non-ECG-gated scans and 16.37 mSv (±2.53) for the ECG-gated scans. Conclusion: Retrospective ECG-gating with single phase reconstruction significantly reduces the incidence of motion artifacts in the aortic root and the proximal portion of the coronary arteries but at the expense of a fourfold increase in radiation dose.

  11. Comparison of calcium scoring with 4-multidetector computed tomography (4-MDCT) and 64-MDCT: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Rusak, Grazyna; Strześniewski, Piotr; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Lasek, Władysław

    2012-01-01

    To determine differences in coronary artery calcium (CAC) measurement performed with the use of 2 generations of multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanners of the same manufacturer. Agatston Score (AS) and calcium mass (CM) were measured with a 4-row scanner (AS4 and CM4) and a 64-row scanner (AS64 and CM64) using a cardiac phantom with calcium inserts. The results of the AS measurements (mean ± SD) varied significantly between the equipment: 880.6 ± 30.1 (AS4) vs 586.5 ± 24.0 (AS64; P < 0.0001). The AS interscanner variability was 31.6% for the phantom and from 25.5% to 110.1% for particular inserts. Mean ± SD CM values were different as well: 192.8 ± 5.0 mg (CM4) vs 152.4 ± 2.6 mg (CM64; P < 0.0001). Determination of CM with 64-row CT was more accurate than that with an older scanner; the mean relative error was -9.1% and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The CM interscanner variability was 23.3% for the phantom and from 19.0% to 122.8% for particular inserts. The interexamination variability ranged from 1.7% (CM64) to 5.6% (AS4). Coronary artery calcium scoring with the 64-row CT scanner is more accurate than with the 4-row device The difference between the results of AS and CM measurements carried out with both scanners is statistically significant.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) of Intravenous Urography (IVU) and Unenhanced Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) for Initial Investigation of Suspected Acute Ureterolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikefjord, E.; Askildsen, J.E.; Roervik, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is important to compare the cost and effectiveness of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) to determine the most cost-effective alternative for the initial investigation of acute ureterolithiasis. Purpose: To analyze the task-specific variable costs combined with the diagnostic effect of MDCT and IVU for patients with acute flank pain, and to determine which is most cost effective. Material and Methods: 119 patients with acute flank pain suggestive of stone disease (ureterolithiasis) were examined by both MDCT and IVU. Variable costs related to medical equipment, consumption material, equipment control, and personnel were calculated. The diagnostic effect was assessed. Results: The variable costs of MDCT versus IVU were EUR 32 and EUR 117, respectively. This significant difference was mainly due to savings in examination time, higher annual examination frequency, lower material costs, and no use of contrast media. As for diagnostic effect, MDCT proved considerably more accurate in the diagnosis of stone disease than IVU and markedly more accurate concerning differential diagnoses. Conclusion: MDCT had lower differential costs and a higher capacity to determine correctly stone disease and differential diagnoses, as compared to IVU, in patients with acute flank pain. Consequently, MDCT is a dominant alternative to IVU when evaluated exclusively from a cost-effective perspective

  13. Visual vs Fully Automatic Histogram-Based Assessment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) Progression Using Sequential Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Davide; Dinkel, Julien; Weinheimer, Oliver; Obermayer, Berenike; Buzan, Teodora; Nabers, Diana; Bauer, Claudia; Oltmanns, Ute; Palmowski, Karin; Herth, Felix; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes over time in extent of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) assessed by semi-quantitative visual scores (VSs) and fully automatic histogram-based quantitative evaluation and to test the relationship between these two methods of quantification. Methods Forty IPF patients (median age: 70 y, interquartile: 62-75 years; M:F, 33:7) that underwent 2 MDCT at different time points with a median interval of 13 months (interquartile: 10-17 months) were retrospectively evaluated. In-house software YACTA quantified automatically lung density histogram (10th-90th percentile in 5th percentile steps). Longitudinal changes in VSs and in the percentiles of attenuation histogram were obtained in 20 untreated patients and 20 patients treated with pirfenidone. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between VSs and selected percentiles. Results In follow-up MDCT, visual overall extent of parenchymal abnormalities (OE) increased in median by 5 %/year (interquartile: 0 %/y; +11 %/y). Substantial difference was found between treated and untreated patients in HU changes of the 40th and of the 80th percentiles of density histogram. Correlation analysis between VSs and selected percentiles showed higher correlation between the changes (Δ) in OE and Δ 40th percentile (r=0.69; phistogram analysis at one year follow-up of IPF patients, whether treated or untreated: Δ 40th percentile might reflect the change in overall extent of lung abnormalities, notably of ground-glass pattern; furthermore Δ 80th percentile might reveal the course of reticular opacities. PMID:26110421

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of contemporary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection of lumbar disc herniation

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    Notohamiprodjo, S.; Stahl, R.; Braunagel, M.; Kazmierczak, P.M.; Thierfelder, K.M.; Treitl, K.M.; Wirth, S. [University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector CT (MDCT) for detection of lumbar disc herniation with MRI as standard of reference. Patients with low back pain underwent indicated MDCT (128-row MDCT, helical pitch), 60 patients with iterative reconstruction (IR) and 67 patients with filtered back projection (FBP). Lumbar spine MRI (1.5 T) was performed within 1 month. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), annulus fibrosus (AF) and the spinal cord (SC) were determined for all modalities. Two readers independently rated image quality (IQ), diagnostic confidence and accuracy in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using MRI as standard of reference. Inter-reader correlation was assessed with weighted κ. Sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of MDCT for disc protrusion were 98.8%, 96.5%, 97.1%, 97.8% (disc level), 97.7%, 92.9%, 98.6%, 96.9% (patient level). SNR of IR was significantly higher than FBP. IQ was significantly better in IR owing to visually reduced noise and improved delineation of the discs. κ (>0.90) was excellent for both algorithms. MDCT of the lumbar spine yields high diagnostic accuracy for detection of lumbar disc herniation. IR improves image quality so that the provided diagnostic accuracy is principally equivalent to MRI. (orig.)

  15. Novel prediction model of renal function after nephrectomy from automated renal volumetry with preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotani, Shuji; Shimoyama, Hirofumi; Yokota, Isao; Noma, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Kousuke; China, Toshiyuki; Saito, Keisuke; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Ide, Hisamitsu; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Ukimura, Osamu; Gill, Inderbir S; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-10-01

    The predictive model of postoperative renal function may impact on planning nephrectomy. To develop the novel predictive model using combination of clinical indices with computer volumetry to measure the preserved renal cortex volume (RCV) using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and to prospectively validate performance of the model. Total 60 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy from 2011 to 2013 participated, including a development cohort of 39 patients and an external validation cohort of 21 patients. RCV was calculated by voxel count using software (Vincent, FUJIFILM). Renal function before and after radical nephrectomy was assessed via the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Factors affecting postoperative eGFR were examined by regression analysis to develop the novel model for predicting postoperative eGFR with a backward elimination method. The predictive model was externally validated and the performance of the model was compared with that of the previously reported models. The postoperative eGFR value was associated with age, preoperative eGFR, preserved renal parenchymal volume (RPV), preserved RCV, % of RPV alteration, and % of RCV alteration (p volumetry and clinical indices might yield an important tool for predicting postoperative renal function.

  16. Inter-scan reproducibility of coronary calcium measurement using Multi Detector-Row Computed Tomography (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabour, Siamak; Rutten, A.; Schouw, Y. T. van der; Atsma, F.; Grobbee, D. E.; Mali, W. P.; Bartelink, M. E. L.; Bots, M. L.; Prokop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To assess inter-scan reproducibility of coronary calcium measurements obtained from Multi Detector-Row CT (MDCT) images and to evaluate whether this reproducibility is affected by different measurement protocols, slice thickness, cardiovascular risk factors and/or technical variables.Design. Cross-sectional study with repeated measurements. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 76 healthy women. Coronary calcium was assessed in these women twice in one session using 16-MDCT (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16). Images were reconstructed with 1.5 mm slice thickness and 3.0 mm slice thickness. The 76 repeated scans were scored. The Agatston score, a volume measurement and a mass measurement were assessed. Reproducibility was determined by estimation of mean, absolute, relative difference, the weighted kappa value for agreement and the Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICCC).Results. Fifty-five participants (72.4%) had a coronary calcification of more than zero in Agatston (1.5 mm slice thickness). The reproducibility of coronary calcium measurements between scans in terms of ranking was excellent with Intra-class correlation coefficients of >0.98, and kappa values above 0.80. The absolute difference in calcium score between scans increased with increasing calcium levels, indicating that measurement error increases with increasing calcium levels. However, no relation was found between the mean difference in scores and calcium levels, indicating that the increase in measurement error is likely to result in random misclassification in calcium score. Reproducibility results were similar for 1.5 mm slices and for 3.0 mm slices, and equal for Agatston, volume and mass measurements.Conclusion. Inter-scan reproducibility of measurement of coronary calcium using images from MDCT is excellent, irrespective of slice thickness and type of calcium parameter

  17. High-pitch computed tomography of the lung in pediatric patients. An intraindividual comparison of image quality and radiation dose to conventional 64-MDCT

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    Tsiflikas, I.; Thomas, C.; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D.; Schaefer, J.F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Seitz, G.; Warmann, S. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Pediatric Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of typical artifacts in low-dose pediatric lung examinations using high-pitch computed tomography (HPCT) compared to MDCT, and to estimate the effective radiation dose (E{sub eff}). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval for this retrospective study was obtained. 35 patients (17 boys, 18 girls; mean age 112 ± 69 months) were included and underwent MDCT and follow-up scan by HPCT or vice versa (mean follow-up time 87 days), using the same tube voltage and current. The total artifact score (0-8) was defined as the sum of artifacts arising from movement, breathing or pulsation of the heart or pulmonary vessels (0 - no; 1 - moderate; 2 - severe artifacts). E{sub eff} was estimated according to the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Multislice Computed Tomography. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences between the patient groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation of ordinal variables. Results: The scan time was significantly lower for HPCT compared to MDCT (0.72 ± 0.13 s vs. 3.65 ± 0.81s; p < 0.0001). In 28 of 35 (80 %) HPCT examinations no artifacts were visible, whereas in MDCT artifacts occurred in all examinations. The frequency of pulsation artifacts and breathing artifacts was higher in MDCT compared to HPCT (100% vs. 17% and 31% vs. 6%). The total artifact score significantly correlated with the patient's age in MDCT (r=-0.42; p=0.01), but not in HPCT (r=-0.32; p=0.07). The estimated E{sub eff} was significantly lower in HPCT than in MDCT (1.29±0.31 vs. 1.47±0.37 mSv; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our study indicates that the use of HPCT has advantages for pediatric lung imaging with a reduction of breathing and pulsation artifacts. Moreover, the estimated E{sub eff} was lower. In addition, examinations can be performed without sedation or breath-hold without losing image quality. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative assessment of lung volumes using multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Min; Hur, Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyung Jung

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in the quantitative assessment of lung volumes and to assess the relationship between the MDCT results and disease severity as determined by a pulmonary function test (PFT) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. We performed a PFT and MDCT on 39 COPD patients. Using the GOLD classifications, we divided the patients into three groups according to disease severity; stage I (mild, n = 10), stage II (moderate, n = 15), and stage III (severe, n = 14). Using the pulmo-CT software program, we measured the proportion of lung volumes with attenuation values below -910 and -950 HU. The mean FEV1 (% of predicted) and FEV1/FVC was 82.2 ± 2% and 66.2 ± 3% in stage I, 53.5 ± 11% and 52 ± 6% in stage II, and 32.3 ± 7% and 44.2% ± 13% in stage III, respectively. Differences in lung volume percentage at each of the thresholds (-910 and -950 HU) among the 3 stages were statistically significant (ρ < 0.01, ρ < 0.01) and correlated well with the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (r = -0.803, r -0.766, r = -0.817, and r = -0.795, respectively). The volumetric measurement obtained by MDCT provides an accurate means of quantifying pulmonary emphysema

  19. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) evaluation of myocardial viability: intraindividual comparison of monomeric vs. dimeric contrast media in a rabbit model

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    Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, Aachen (Germany)]|[University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Jost, Gregor; Sieber, Martin; Seidensticker, Peter R.; Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer-Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Bruners, Philipp [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, Rolf W. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of different types of iodinated contrast media on the assessment of myocardial viability, acute myocardial infarction (MI) was surgically induced in six rabbits. Over a period of 45 min, contrast-enhanced cardiac MDCT (64 x 0.6 mm, 80 kV, 680mAs{sub eff.}) was repeatedly performed using a contrast medium dose of 600 mg iodine/kg body weight. Animals received randomized iopromide 300 and iodixanol 320, respectively. Attenuation values of healthy and infarcted myocardium were measured. The size of MI was computed and compared with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-stained specimen. The highest attenuation differences between infarcted and healthy myocardium occurred during the arterial phase with 140.0{+-}3.5 HU and 141.0{+-}2.2 HU for iopromide and iodixanol, respectively. For iodixanol the highest attenuation difference on delayed contrast-enhanced images was achieved 3 min post injection (73.5 HU). A slightly higher attenuation difference was observed for iopromide 6 min after contrast medium injection (82.2 HU), although not statistically significant (p=0.6437). Mean infarct volume as measured by NBT staining was 33.5%{+-}13.6%. There was an excellent agreement of infarct sizes among NBT-, iopromide- and iodixanol-enhanced MDCT with concordance-correlation coefficients ranging from {rho}{sub (c)=} 0.9928-0.9982. Iopromide and iodixanol both allow a reliable assessment of MI with delayed contrast-enhanced MDCT. (orig.)

  20. Lung MRI of invasive fungal infection at 3 Tesla: evaluation of five different pulse sequences and comparison with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chenggong; Tan, Xiangliang; Li, Caixia; Wu, Yuankui; Hao, Peng; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Yikai [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wei, Qi; Feng, Ru; Xu, Jun [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, New Territories (China)

    2014-09-18

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of five MR sequences to detect pulmonary infectious lesions in patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as the reference standard. Thirty-four immunocompromised patients with suspected IFI underwent MDCT and MRI. The MR studies were performed using five pulse sequences at 3.0 T: T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), spectrally selective attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR), T1-weighted high resolution isotropic volume excitation (e-THRIVE) and T1-weighted fast field echo (T1-FFE). The size, lesion-to-lung contrast ratio and the detectability of pulmonary lesions on MR images were assessed. Image quality and artefacts on different sequences were also rated. A total of 84 lesions including nodules (n = 44) and consolidation (n = 40) were present in 75 lobes. SPAIR and e-THRIVE images achieved high overall lesion-related sensitivities for the detection of pulmonary abnormalities (90.5 % and 86.9 %, respectively). STIR showed the highest lesion-to-lung contrast ratio for nodules (21.8) and consolidation (17.0), whereas TSE had the fewest physiological artefacts. MRI at 3.0 T can depict clinically significant pulmonary IFI abnormalities with high accuracy compared to MDCT. SPAIR and e-THRIVE are preferred sequences for the detection of infectious lesions of 5 mm and larger. (orig.)

  1. Usefulness of multidetector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) for diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Hiroyuki; Narabayashi, Isamu; Tanikake, Masato; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Uesugi, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) in the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in infants. MD-CT was performed 34 times on 21 patients with cardiovascular anomalies. We performed three evaluations: 1) The assessment of the specificity of MD-CT in detecting the morphological features of cardiovascular anomalies. 2) The diameters of aortae with coronary artery (CoA), and the diameters of pulmonary artery, measured by using MD-CT were compared with those by angiography. 3) The amount of exposure to radiation was measured. 1) MD-CT can detect CoA, pulmonary arteriovenous anomalies among extracardiac anomalies in all the patients. The diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac anomalies was poor as only six of the 15 anomalies could be accurately diagnosed. 2) The diameters of aortae and pulmonary artery obtained using MD-CT showed a good correlation with those obtained using arteriography (r=0.97, 0.95). 3) The average dose-length product was 269.2 mGy·cm. And the average effective dose was 5.1 mSv. MD-CT is not suitable for the evaluation of intracardiac anomalies, but is extremely effective in the evaluation of extracardiac major vascular anomalies. On the basis of the amount of information and noninvasive nature, MD-CT should be used first before angiography. (author)

  2. Contrast enhancement in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen: intraindividual comparison of contrast media containing 300 mg versus 370 mg iodine per ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.F.; Mahnken, A.H.; Keil, S.; Das, M.; Hohl, C.; Guenther, R.W.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Bauer, D.; Seidensticker, P.; Jost, E.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate the difference in intraluminal vessel and parenchyma contrast enhancement of two different iodine concentrations in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen. Eighty-three patients underwent baseline and follow-up MDCT-scanning (Somatom Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) of the abdomen using contrast media containing 370 mg iodine/ml (protocol A; Ultravist 370, Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany) and 300 mg iodine/ml (protocol B; Ultravist 300). The total iodine load (37 g iodine) and the iodine delivery rate (1.29 g iodine/s) were identical for both protocols. Contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase was measured in the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney. Mean attenuation values were compared using paired t-test. Intraindividual comparison revealed no statistically significant differences of the mean attenuation values between protocols A and B for all anatomic sites: abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney (all P > 0.05). Given an injection protocol with constant total iodine load and constant iodine delivery rate, the iodine concentration of contrast media does not significantly influence abdominal contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase. (orig.)

  3. Multidetector computed tomography enteroclysis (MDCT-E) with neutral enteral and IV contrast enhancement in tumor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania; Lutio, Elisabetta de; Romano, Luigia [Cardarelli Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Naples (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea [San Martino Hospital, 2. Service of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Second University of Naples, Institute of Radiology, Naples (Italy); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of MDCT-enteroclysis (MDCT-E), an emerging technique of small bowel examination that combines the advantages of MDCT examination of the abdomen and the enteral volume challenge of enteroclysis, in evaluation of small bowel neoplasms. In our institutions, MDCT-E was used to study 456 patients (age range 21-84 years, mean 53 years) admitted for suspicion of small bowel disease. All examinations were done on multichannel CT units, 129 on a 16-slice scanner and 327 on a four-slice scanner. Post-processing and multiplanar reformatting and interpretation were performed on dedicated workstations. After adequate gastrointestinal preparation and naso-enteric intubation, small bowel was distended by methylcellulose infused by a peristaltic pump. One volumetric MDCT acquisition was obtained after 120-130 ml of intravenous contrast medium. Multiplanar reformatting was based on the image reconstruction parameters from 3 to 4 mm. Forty-five small bowel neoplasms were found; in the remaining cases, 223 Crohn's diseases and 149 other abnormalities were detected. All findings were confirmed by surgery, endoscopy or clinical follow-up. In our experience, MDCT-E with neutral enteral and IV contrast seems to be a reliable method in the diagnosis of small bowel neoplasms. (orig.)

  4. Feasibility of opportunistic osteoporosis screening in routine contrast-enhanced multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) using texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookiah, M R K; Rohrmeier, A; Dieckmeyer, M; Mei, K; Kopp, F K; Noel, P B; Kirschke, J S; Baum, T; Subburaj, K

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of opportunistic osteoporosis screening in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT exams using texture analysis. The results showed an acceptable reproducibility of texture features, and these features could discriminate healthy/osteoporotic fracture cohort with an accuracy of 83%. This aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of opportunistic osteoporosis screening in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT exams using texture analysis. We performed texture analysis at the spine in routine MDCT exams and investigated the effect of intravenous contrast medium (IVCM) (n = 7), slice thickness (n = 7), the long-term reproducibility (n = 9), and the ability to differentiate healthy/osteoporotic fracture cohort (n = 9 age and gender matched pairs). Eight texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The independent sample t test was used to rank the features of healthy/fracture cohort and classification was performed using support vector machine (SVM). The results revealed significant correlations between texture parameters derived from MDCT scans with and without IVCM (r up to 0.91) slice thickness of 1 mm versus 2 and 3 mm (r up to 0.96) and scan-rescan (r up to 0.59). The performance of the SVM classifier was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and revealed an average classification accuracy of 83%. Opportunistic osteoporosis screening at the spine using specific texture parameters (energy, entropy, and homogeneity) and SVM can be performed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT exams.

  5. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  6. Multidetector Computed Tomography and Neuroendocrine Pancreaticoduodenal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappeport, E.D.; Palnaes Hansen, C.; Kjaer, A.; Knigge, U.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of dedicated pancreatic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine pancreaticoduodenal tumors (NPTs). Material and Methods: MDCT and other imaging studies in patients with suspected NPTs were identified. Thirty dedicated MDCT studies were done in 23 patients. Fourteen patients (16 operations) subsequently had surgery. Imaging reports were reviewed and findings compared with surgical findings and findings in other imaging studies. Results: Patients with surgery : 19 NPTs (16 extrapancreatic gastrinomas and 3 pancreatic NPTs) were identified at surgery. MDCT identified 16 and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) 11 out of 19 tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound detected 11 out of 14 NPTs. Patients without surgery : In 4 out of 9 patients, no NPTs were identified at MDCT. Conclusion: Dedicated MDCT of the pancreas can identify many NPTs, including small duodenal and periduodenal tumors, and the detection rate is better than reported in the older literature on CT

  7. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M

    2013-01-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which...

  8. Concordance of coronary artery calcium estimates between MDCT and electron beam tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Anthony L; Wong, Nathan D; Friedman, John D; Ben-Yosef, Nachum; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Hayes, Sean W; Kang, Xingping; Sciammarella, Maria G; de Yang, Ling; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2005-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare MDCT with electron beam tomography (EBT) for the quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Sixty-eight patients underwent both MDCT and EBT within 2 months for the quantification of CAC. The images were scored in a blinded fashion and independently by two observers with a minimum of 7 days between the interpretations of images obtained from one scanner type to the other. Presence versus absence of CAC was discordant by EBT versus MDCT in 6% (n = 4) of the cases by observer 1, with one of these cases also discordant by observer 2. All cases except one (aortic calcium misidentified as CAC) were among those with a mean Agatston score of less than 5 present on EBT but absent on MDCT. EBT and MDCT scores correlated well (r = 0.98-0.99). The relative median variability between EBT and MDCT for the Agatston score was 24% for observer 1 and 27% for observer 2 and was 18% and 14%, respectively, for volume score (average for both observers: 27% for Agatston score and 16% for volume score). Scores were higher for EBT than MDCT in approximately half of the cases, with little systematic difference between the two (median EBT-MDCT difference: Agatston score, -0.55; volume score, 3.4 mm3). The absolute median difference averaged for the two observers was 28.75 for the Agatston score and 15.4 mm3 for the volume score. Differences in CAC measurements using EBT and MDCT are similar to interscan differences in CAC measurements previously reported for EBT or for other MDCT scanners individually.

  9. The value of unenhanced multi-detector computed tomography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is used to detect urinary tract calculi with high accuracy. The development of multi-detector CT (MDCT) allows reconstructions in coronal, sagittal and oblique directions. Objective: To compare MDCT with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) imaging in evaluating ...

  10. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadodia, A.; Seith, A.; Sharma, R.; Choudhury, A.R.; Bhutia, O.; Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  11. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.; Davis, J.; Morgan, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-sectional images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography. This review article presents a brief historical perspective on CT, its current status and the underlying physics. The mathematical fundamentals of computed tomography are developed for the simplest transmission CT modality. A description of CT scanner instrumentation is provided with an emphasis on radiation sources and systems. Examples of CT images are shown indicating the range of materials that can be scanned and the spatial and contrast resolutions that may be achieved. Attention is also given to the occurrence, interpretation and minimisation of various image artefacts that may arise. A final brief section is devoted to the principles and potential of a range of more recently developed tomographic modalities including diffraction CT, positron emission CT and seismic tomography. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  12. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has matured into a reliable and prominent tool for study of the muscoloskeletal system. When it was introduced in 1973, it was unique in many ways and posed a challenge to interpretation. It is in these unique features, however, that its advantages lie in comparison with conventional techniques. These advantages will be described in a spectrum of important applications in orthopedics and rheumatology

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  14. Illustrated computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides the following information: basic aspects of computed tomography; atlas of computed tomography of the normal adult; clinical application of computed tomography; and radiotherapy planning and computed tomography

  15. Potential contribution of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) to computer-aided detection of lung nodules on MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Nogami, Munenobu; Kono, Atsushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate potential benefits of using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: MDCT datasets of 60 patients with suspected lung nodules were retrospectively collected. Using “second-read” CAD, two radiologists (Readers 1 and 2) independently interpreted these datasets for the detection of non-calcified nodules (≥4 mm) with concomitant confidence rating. They did this task twice, first without MPR (using only axial images), and then 4 weeks later with MPR (using also coronal and sagittal MPR images), where the total reading time per dataset, including the time taken to assess the detection results of CAD software (CAD assessment time), was recorded. The total reading time and CAD assessment time without MPR and those with MPR were statistically compared for each reader. The radiologists’ performance for detecting nodules without MPR and the performance with MPR were compared using jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Results: Compared to the CAD assessment time without MPR (mean, 69 s and 57 s for Readers 1 and 2), the CAD assessment time with MPR (mean, 46 s and 45 s for Readers 1 and 2) was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). For Reader 1, the total reading time was also significantly shorter in the case with MPR. There was no significant difference between the detection performances without MPR and with MPR. Conclusion: The use of MPR has the potential to improve the workflow in CAD of lung nodules on MDCT.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volume with multidetector-row computed tomography. Comparison with electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeya; Yamashina, Shohei; Nanjou, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    This study compared left ventricular systolic function and volume determined by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (G-SPECT) Thirty-seven patients with coronary artery disease and non-cardiovascular disease underwent MDCT. In this study, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) were calculated using only two-phase imaging with MDCT. Left ventricular function and volume were compared using measurements from G-SPECT. We conducted MDCT and G-SPECT virtually simultaneously. Both the EF and ESV evaluated by MDCT closely correlated with G-SPECT (r=0.763, P 65 bpm) during MDCT significantly influenced the difference in EF calculated from MDCT and G-SPECT (P<0.05). Left ventricular function can be measured with MDCT as well as G-SPECT. However, a heart rate over 65 bpm during MDCT negatively affects the EF correlation between MDCT and G-SPECT. (author)

  17. Multidetector computed tomography of the renal arteries in vascular emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regine, Giovanni; Stasolla, Alessandro; Miele, Vittorio

    2007-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has drastically changed the diagnostic imaging protocol in both traumatic and non-traumatic vascular emergencies, replacing almost completely the traditional primary role of catheter angiography. MDCT is a well-established tool for the elective evaluation of stenoses, malformations, and dysplasias in the settings of renovascular hypertension, but probably less used in the settings of acute traumatic and non-traumatic clinical situations. The aim of this review is to define the role of MDCT in renal arteries emergencies

  18. Assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency by multidetector computed tomography and electron-beam tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, LH; Dorgelo, J; Tio, RA; Jessurun, GAJ; Oudkerk, M; Zijlstra, F

    This case report describes the use of retrospectively ECG-gated 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and electron-beam tomography (EBT) for assessing bypass graft patency in two patients with recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The results of each tomographic

  19. Computed tomography after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Hampson, F.; Duxbury, M.; Rae, D.M.; Sinclair, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Whipple's procedure (radical pancreaticoduodenectomy) is currently the only curative option for patients with periampullary malignancy. The surgery is highly complex and involves multiple anastomoses. Complications are common and can lead to significant postoperative morbidity. Early detection and treatment of complications is vital, and high-quality multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the best method of investigation. This review outlines the surgical technique and illustrates the range of normal postoperative appearances together with the common complications

  20. Prognostic implications of nonobstructive coronary plaques in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a multidetector computed tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Kühl, Jørgen T

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the amount of noncalcified plaque (NCP) in nonobstructive coronary lesions as detected by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) was a predictor of future coronary events.......We sought to determine whether the amount of noncalcified plaque (NCP) in nonobstructive coronary lesions as detected by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) was a predictor of future coronary events....

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs multidetector-computed tomography for detecting liver metastases in colorectal cancer: a prospective, blinded, patient-by-patient analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, S R; Jakobsen, A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.......This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer....

  2. Radiological protection in computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has sustained interest in radiological protection in computed tomography (CT), and ICRP Publications 87 and 102 focused on the management of patient doses in CT and multi-detector CT (MDCT) respectively. ICRP forecasted and 'sounded the alarm' on increasing patient doses in CT, and recommended actions for manufacturers and users. One of the approaches was that safety is best achieved when it is built into the machine, rather than left as a matter of choice for users. In view of upcoming challenges posed by newer systems that use cone beam geometry for CT (CBCT), and their widened usage, often by untrained users, a new ICRP task group has been working on radiological protection issues in CBCT. Some of the issues identified by the task group are: lack of standardisation of dosimetry in CBCT; the false belief within the medical and dental community that CBCT is a 'light', low-dose CT whereas mobile CBCT units and newer applications, particularly C-arm CT in interventional procedures, involve higher doses; lack of training in radiological protection among clinical users; and lack of dose information and tracking in many applications. This paper provides a summary of approaches used in CT and MDCT, and preliminary information regarding work just published for radiological protection in CBCT. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  4. Role of enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography before urgent endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Youichi; Amano, Yuji; Ueno, Sayaka; Izumi, Daisuke; Mikami, Hironobu; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Okimoto, Eiko; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Imaoka, Tomonori

    2014-04-01

    Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has been reported to be a potentially useful modality for detection of the bleeding origin in patients with acute upper massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of MDCT as a routine method for detecting the origin of acute upper GI bleeding prior to urgent endoscopy. Five hundred seventy-seven patients with acute upper GI bleeding (514 nonvariceal patients, 63 variceal patients) who underwent urgent upper GI endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: enhanced MDCT, unenhanced MDCT, and no MDCT before endoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for detection of the bleeding origin was evaluated, and the average procedure times needed to endoscopically identify the bleeding origin were compared between groups. Diagnostic accuracy among endoscopists was 55.3% and 14.7% for the enhanced MDCT and unenhanced MDCT groups, respectively. Among nonvariceal patients, accuracy was 50.2% in the enhanced MDCT group, which was significantly better than that in the unenhanced MDCT group (16.5%). In variceal patients, accuracy was significantly better in the enhanced MDCT group (96.4%) than in the unenhanced MDCT group (0.0%). These accuracies were similar to those achieved by expert radiologists. The average procedure time to endoscopic detection of the bleeding origin in the enhanced MDCT group was significantly faster than that in the unenhanced MDCT and no-MDCT groups. Enhanced MDCT preceding urgent endoscopy may be an effective modality for the detection of bleeding origin in patients with acute upper GI bleeding. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Usefulness of multi-detector row Computed Tomography for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 74-year-old female underwent surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. Preoperative multi-detector row computed tomography (MD-CT) demonstrated tumor invasion into the accessory right colic vein and the branch of the middle colic artery (MCA), which was not detected by digital subtraction ...

  6. Diagnostic yield of multidetector computed tomography in patients with acute spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Bannas, Peter; Well, Lennart; Regier, Marc; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver Gerhard [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine; Schoen, Gerhard [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology; Froelich, Andreas [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2017-04-15

    To determine the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with acute spondylodiscitis. For data acquisition, we searched our radiological database for all patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for suspected spondylodiscitis between 2007 and 2015 (n = 325). For further analyses, we included all patients (n = 67) who initially underwent MDCT prior to MRI. Overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for MDCT and, separately, for contrast-enhanced CT (CECT, n = 36) and for non-enhanced CT (NECT, n = 31). MRI together with clinical evaluation served as the standard of reference. Results: In 34 of 43 patients with acute spondylodiscitis on MRI, correct diagnosis was already made by the initial MDCT scan. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for MDCT. The sensitivity was 79% and the negative predictive value was 72%. The overall accuracy was 87%. Accuracy was higher for CECT (89%) than for NECT (84%), however without statistical significance (p = 0.55). MDCT detected 90% of paravertebral abscesses (34/38), but only 6% of epidural abscesses (2/36). MDCT has moderate sensitivity, but high specificity for acute spondylodiscitis. Thus, if MDCT is positive for spondylodiscitis, treatment can be started without further delay. However, MRI should be added to both MDCT negative and positive cases to rule out complications such as epidural abscesses that cannot reliably be detected by MDCT. Key Points: Patients with acute spondylodiscitis are often initially suspected of having other differential diagnosis because of nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, MDCT is frequently performed prior to MRI in patients with acute spondylodiscitis. MDCT proved moderate sensitivity but high specificity for the diagnosis of acute spondylodiscitis. Paravertebral abscess is a strong indicator for the presence of spondylodiscitis on MDCT. However, MRI is crucial to rule out epidural

  7. What is Computed Tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging What is Computed Tomography? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Chest X ray Image back to top Computed Tomography (CT) Although also based on the variable absorption ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  9. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on computed tomographic (CT) scanning which has improved computer-assisted imaging modalities for radiologic diagnosis. The advantage of this modality is its ability to image thin cross-sectional planes of the body, thus uncovering density information in three dimensions without tissue superposition problems. Because this enables vastly superior imaging of soft tissues in the brain and body, CT scanning was immediately successful and continues to grow in importance as improvements are made in speed, resolution, and cost efficiency. CT scanners are used for general purposes, and the more advanced machines are generally preferred in large hospitals, where volume and variety of usage justifies the cost. For imaging in the abdomen, a scanner with a rapid speed is preferred because peristalsis, involuntary motion of the diaphram, and even cardiac motion are present and can significantly degrade image quality. When contrast media is used in imaging to demonstrate scanner, immediate review of images, and multiformat hardcopy production. A second console is reserved for the radiologist to read images and perform the several types of image analysis that are available. Since CT images contain quantitative information in terms of density values and contours of organs, quantitation of volumes, areas, and masses is possible. This is accomplished with region-of- interest methods, which involve the electronic outlining of the selected region of the television display monitor with a trackball-controlled cursor. In addition, various image- processing options, such as edge enhancement (for viewing fine details of edges) or smoothing filters (for enhancing the detectability of low-contrast lesions) are useful tools

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  11. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  14. Multidetector-row computed tomography management of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Takahiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Terada, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) pulmonary angiography and indirect venography management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), including indication for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Seventy-one consecutive patients who were clinically suspected of PE and underwent 16-slice MDCT pulmonary angiography and indirect venography were enrolled. Management included indication of IVC filter for patients with extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in submassive or massive PE. A right ventricular to left ventricular short-axis diameter by MDCT >1.0 was judged as submassive PE. All patients were followed for 1 year. MDCT identified 50 patients with venous thromboembolism and 47 patients had acute PE: 4 were judged as massive, 14 as submassive, and 29 as non-massive by MDCT; 3 patients had DVT alone and 7 patients had caval or iliac DVT. Only 1 patient with massive PE and DVT near the right atrium died of recurrence. No other patients died of PE. Management based on MDCT pulmonary angiography combined with indirect venography is considered to be safe and reliable in patients with suspected acute PE. (author)

  15. Transmural myocardial perfusion gradients in relation to coronary artery stenoses severity assessed by cardiac multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jesper James; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Hove, Jens Dahlgaard

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial coronary artery stenosis severity and the corresponding regional transmural perfusion at rest and during adenosine stress, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We evaluated the relationship between the severity of coronary artery diameter...

  16. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = radiography (P radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run.

  17. Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Preoperative Workup of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae

    2009-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is associated with a dismal prognosis; however, curative resection may offer a chance of cure. Various factors should be considered in the surgical planning for curative resection. These factors include extent of bile duct involvement, relationship between portal vein and tumor involvement, diffuse hepato duodenal ligament infiltration, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal seeding, and hepatic volume. Using high-quality volume data from multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and adequate postprocessing images, radiologists can provide various types of information, imperative for curative resection of a hilar cholangiocarcinoma. This review illustrates the role of MDCT in the preoperative workup of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  18. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palas, J.; Matos, A.P.; Ramalho, M.; Mascarenhas, V.; Heredia, V.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  19. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  20. Evaluation of Left Atrial Volumes Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: Comparison with Echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Hong, Yoo Jin; Rim, Se Joong

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively assess the relationship between the two different measurement methods for the evaluation of left atrial (LA) volume using cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to compare the results between cardiac MDCT and echocardiography. Thirty-five patients (20 men, 15 women; mean age, 60 years) underwent cardiac MDCT angiography for coronary artery disease. The LA volumes were measured using two different methods: the two dimensional (2D) length-based (LB) method measured along the three-orthogonal planes of the LA and the 3D volumetric threshold-based (VTB) method measured according to the threshold 3D segmentation of the LA. The results obtained by cardiac MDCT were compared with those obtained by echocardiography. The LA end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (LAESV and LAEDV) measured by the 2D-LB method correlated well with those measured by the 3DVTB method using cardiac MDCT (r = 0.763, r = 0.786, p = 0.001). However, there was a significant difference in the LAESVs between the two measurement methods using cardiac MDCT (p < 0.05). The LAESV measured by cardiac MDCT correlated well with measurements by echocardiography (r = 0.864, p = 0.001), however with a significant difference (p < 0.01) in their volumes. The cardiac MDCT overestimated the LAESV by 22% compared to measurements by echocardiography. A significant correlation was found between the two different measurement methods for evaluating LA volumes by cardiac MDCT. Further, cardiac MDCT correlates well with echocardiography in evaluating the LA volume. However, there are significant differences in the LAESV between the two measurement methods using cardiac MDCT and between cardiac MDCT and echocardiography

  1. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography is regarded by many as a complicated union of sophisticated x-ray equipment and computer technology. This book overcomes these complexities. The rigid technicalities of the machinery and the clinical aspects of computed tomography are discussed including the preparation of patients, both physically and mentally, for scanning. Furthermore, the author also explains how to set up and run a computed tomography department, including advice on how the room should be designed

  2. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocard......BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic...... echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...

  3. Performance of cone-beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography in diagnostic imaging of the midface: A comparative study on Phantom and cadaver head scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Schoellchen, Maximilian; Hanken, H.; Precht, C.; Heiland, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Oral- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Henes, F.O.; Adam, G.; Regier, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany); Schumacher, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Institute of Anatomy, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To compare multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) regarding radiation, resolution, image noise, and image quality. CBCT and 256-MDCT were compared based on three scan protocols: Standard-dose (∼24 mGy), reduced-dose (∼9 mGy), and low-dose (∼4 mGy). MDCT images were acquired in standard- and high-resolution mode (HR-MDCT) and reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Spatial resolution in linepairs (lp) and objective image noise (OIN) were assessed using dedicated phantoms. Image quality was assessed in scans of 25 cadaver heads using a Likert scale. OIN was markedly higher in FBP-MDCT when compared to CBCT. IR lowered the OIN to comparable values in standard-mode MDCT only. CBCT provided a resolution of 13 lp/cm at standard-dose and 11 lp/cm at reduced-dose vs. 11 lp/cm and 10 lp/cm in HR-MDCT. Resolution of 10 lp/cm was observed for both devices using low-dose settings. Quality scores of MDCT and CBCT did not differ at standard-dose (CBCT, 3.4; MDCT, 3.3-3.5; p > 0.05). Using reduced- and low-dose protocols, CBCT was superior (reduced-dose, 3.2 vs. 2.8; low dose, 3.0 vs. 2.3; p < 0.001). Using the low-dose protocol, the assessed CBCT provided better objective and subjective image quality and equality in resolution. Similar image quality, but better resolution using CBCT was observed at higher exposure settings. (orig.)

  4. Multi-detector row computed tomography and blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio; Pedrosa, Ivan; Sparano, Amelia; Romano, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. The clinical presentation of trauma patients varies widely from one individual to another and ranges from minor reports of pain to shock. Knowledge of the mechanism of injury, the time of injury, estimates of motor vehicle accident velocity and deceleration, and evidence of associated injury to other systems are all salient features to provide for an adequate assessment of chest trauma. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanning and MDCT-angiography are being used more frequently in the diagnosis of patients with chest trauma. The high sensitivity of MDCT has increased the recognized spectrum of injuries. This new technology can be regarded as an extremely valuable adjunct to physical examination to recognize suspected and unsuspected blunt chest trauma

  5. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography with 64-Channel Multidetector Computed Tomography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulimoen, G. R.; Gjoennaess, E.; Atar, D.; Dahl, T.; Stranden, E.; Sandbaek, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Vascular Diagnosis and Research, and Division of Cardiology, Aker Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Advances in computer tomography (CT) imaging technology in recent years have facilitated the possibility of noninvasive coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with conventional invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for the detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and Methods: MDCT was performed in 60 patients classified with non-ST-elevation infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina and scheduled for ICA within 3 days. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT was evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as the gold standard. Results: 48 out of 60 patients had interpretable scans by both MDCT and ICA. On a segment-based analysis, 488 out of 665 segments with a diameter of =1.5 mm, as defined by QCA, were interpretable by MDCT. Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 47%, and negative predictive value 97% in detecting and excluding significant coronary stenosis, as defined with MDCT. On a per patient-based analysis, sensitivity was 89%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: Limited diagnostic accuracy restricts the usefulness of coronary MDCT in patient groups with a high pretest probability of disease, such as in acute coronary syndrome.

  6. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography with 64-Channel Multidetector Computed Tomography in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulimoen, G. R.; Gjoennaess, E.; Atar, D.; Dahl, T.; Stranden, E.; Sandbaek, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Advances in computer tomography (CT) imaging technology in recent years have facilitated the possibility of noninvasive coronary angiography. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with conventional invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for the detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and Methods: MDCT was performed in 60 patients classified with non-ST-elevation infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina and scheduled for ICA within 3 days. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT was evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as the gold standard. Results: 48 out of 60 patients had interpretable scans by both MDCT and ICA. On a segment-based analysis, 488 out of 665 segments with a diameter of =1.5 mm, as defined by QCA, were interpretable by MDCT. Sensitivity was 78%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 47%, and negative predictive value 97% in detecting and excluding significant coronary stenosis, as defined with MDCT. On a per patient-based analysis, sensitivity was 89%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 84%, and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: Limited diagnostic accuracy restricts the usefulness of coronary MDCT in patient groups with a high pretest probability of disease, such as in acute coronary syndrome

  7. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  9. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Gullberg, G.T.; Huesman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the methods of computer assisted tomography for determination of the three-dimensional distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the human body. The major applications of emission computed tomography are in biological research and medical diagnostic procedures. The objectives of these procedures are to make quantitative measurements of in vivo biochemical and hemodynamic functions

  10. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.

  11. Value of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Assessing Blunt Multitrauma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahvenjaervi, L.; Mattila, L.; Ojala, R.; Tervonen, O. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To find out if multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), using a dedicated trauma protocol, provides sufficient diagnostic information of the injuries of blunt multitrauma patients to enable the planning of treatment for all body compartments. Material and Methods: One-hundred-and-thirty-three patients exposed to high-energy trauma were referred and scanned with the standardized MDCT multitrauma protocol. The imaging protocol consisted of axial scanning of the head and helical scanning of the facial bones, cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The scanning times were 12 s for the head, 19-21 s for the facial bones and cervical spine (1 mm collimation), and 32-50 s for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (2 mm collimation). One-hundred-and-forty milliliters of non-iodinated contrast material (300 mg I/ml) was administered intravenously at 3 ml/s. Results: Ninety-nine of the patients (74%) had at least one finding consistent with trauma. The most frequent findings were in the thorax in 58 patients (44%). Nineteen false-negative findings and two false-positive findings were made. The overall sensitivity of MDCT was 94%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 97%. Conclusion: MDCT is accurate in the assessment of blunt multitrauma patients. The decision to treat the patient can be made on the basis of MDCT with a reasonable level of certainty.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special ... the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  14. Computer tomography in otolaryngology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of design and the action of computer tomography which was applied also for the diagnosis of nose, ear and throat diseases are discussed. Computer tomography makes possible visualization of the structures of the nose, nasal sinuses and facial skeleton in transverse and eoronal planes. The method enables an accurate evaluation of the position and size of neoplasms in these regions and differentiation of inflammatory exudates against malignant masses. In otology computer tomography is used particularly in the diagnosis of pontocerebellar angle tumours and otogenic brain abscesses. Computer tomography of the larynx and pharynx provides new diagnostic data owing to the possibility of obtaining transverse sections and visualization of cartilage. Computer tomograms of some cases are presented. (author)

  15. Computed tomography after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [Department of Radiology, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.smith@ipswichhospital.nhs.uk; Hampson, F. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duxbury, M. [Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh EH16 4SU (United Kingdom); Rae, D.M.; Sinclair, M.T. [Department of Pancreaticobiliary surgery, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Whipple's procedure (radical pancreaticoduodenectomy) is currently the only curative option for patients with periampullary malignancy. The surgery is highly complex and involves multiple anastomoses. Complications are common and can lead to significant postoperative morbidity. Early detection and treatment of complications is vital, and high-quality multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the best method of investigation. This review outlines the surgical technique and illustrates the range of normal postoperative appearances together with the common complications.

  16. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the interobserver agreement of visual coronary plaque characteristics by 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in three populations with low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence and to identify determinants for the reproducible assessment of these plaque characteristics...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...

  6. Role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in treatment planning for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ezzat, Amany; Azmy, Emad; Tharwat, Nehal

    2013-08-01

    The authors evaluated the role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (WB-MDCT) in treatment planning for multiple myeloma. This was a prospective study of 28 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (19 men, nine women; age range, 51-73 years; mean age, 60 years) who underwent WB-MDCT and conventional radiography (CR) of the skeleton. The images were interpreted for the presence of bony lesions, medullary lesions, fractures and extraosseous lesions. We evaluated any changes in treatment planning as a result of WB-MDCT findings. WB-MDCT was superior to CR for detecting bony lesions (p=0.001), especially of the spine (p=0.001) and thoracic cage (p=0.006). WB-MDCT upstaged 14 patients, with a significant difference in staging (p=0.002) between WB-MDCT and CR. Medullary involvement either focal (n=6) or diffuse (n=3) had a positive correlation with the overall score (r=0.790) and stage (r=0.618) of disease. Spine fractures were better detected at WB-MDCT (n=4) than at CR (n=2). Extraosseous soft tissue lesions (n=7) were detected only at WB-MDCT. Findings detected at the WB-MDCT led to changes in the patient's treatment plan in 39% of cases. Upstaging of seven patients (25%) altered the medical treatment plan, and four of 28 (14%) patients required additional radiotherapy (7%) and vertebroplasty (7%). We conclude that WB-MDCT has an impact on treatment planning and prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, as it has high rate of detecting cortical and medullary bone lesions, spinal fracture and extraosseous lesions. This information may alter treatment planning in multiple myeloma due to disease upstaging and detection of spine fracture and extraosseous spinal lesions.

  7. Late enhanced computed tomography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy enables accurate left-ventricular volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Christoph; Lutz, M.; Kuehl, C.; Frey, N. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Luebeck, DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Kiel (Germany); Both, M.; Sattler, B.; Jansen, O; Schaefer, P. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Harders, H.; Eden, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Late enhancement (LE) multi-slice computed tomography (leMDCT) was introduced for the visualization of (intra-) myocardial fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). LE is associated with adverse cardiac events. This analysis focuses on leMDCT derived LV muscle mass (LV-MM) which may be related to LE resulting in LE proportion for potential risk stratification in HCM. N=26 HCM-patients underwent leMDCT (64-slice-CT) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In leMDCT iodine contrast (Iopromid, 350 mg/mL; 150mL) was injected 7 minutes before imaging. Reconstructed short cardiac axis views served for planimetry. The study group was divided into three groups of varying LV-contrast. LeMDCT was correlated with CMR. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14 years. The groups of varying contrast differed in weight and body mass index (p < 0.05). In the group with good LV-contrast assessment of LV-MM resulted in 147.4 ± 64.8 g in leMDCT vs. 147.1 ± 65.9 in CMR (p > 0.05). In the group with sufficient contrast LV-MM appeared with 172 ± 30.8 g in leMDCT vs. 165.9 ± 37.8 in CMR (p > 0.05). Overall intra-/inter-observer variability of semiautomatic assessment of LV-MM showed an accuracy of 0.9 ± 8.6 g and 0.8 ± 9.2 g in leMDCT. All leMDCT-measures correlated well with CMR (r > 0.9). LeMDCT primarily performed for LE-visualization in HCM allows for accurate LV-volumetry including LV-MM in > 90 % of the cases. (orig.)

  8. MDCT assessment of resectability in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qihong; Wang, Haolu; Zhang, Yunhe; Qian, Lijun; Chi, Jiachang; Liang, Xiaowen; Chen, Tao; Wang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) assessment of resectability in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and to identify the factors associated with unresectability and accurate evaluation of resectability. From January 2007 to June 2015, a total of 77 consecutive patients were included. All patients had preoperative MDCT (with MPR and MinIP) and surgical treatment, and were pathologically proven with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The MDCT images were reviewed retrospectively by two senior radiologists and one hepatobiliary surgeon. The surgical findings and pathologic results were considered to be the gold standard. The Chi square test was used to identify factors associated with unresectability and accurate evaluation of resectability. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of MDCT assessment were 83.3 %, 75.9 %, and 80.5 %, respectively. The main causes of inaccuracy were incorrect evaluation of N2 lymph node metastasis (4/15) and distant metastasis (4/15). Bismuth type IV tumor, main or bilateral hepatic artery involvement, and main or bilateral portal vein involvement were highly associated with unresectability (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Bismuth type IV tumor and main or bilateral vascular involvement highly suggest the unresectability of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Patients without biliary drainage have a more accurate MDCT evaluation of resectability. We suggest MDCT should be performed before biliary drainage to achieve an accurate evaluation of resectability in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  9. What Can Computed Tomography Scans of the Thorax Show after Breast Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Alikhassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative breast abnormalities after breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy are frequently overlooked and inaccurately assessed or reported using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. These inaccurate results may have legal ramifications for the clinicians, cause patients avoidable anxiety, and lead to additional unnecessary diagnostic follow-up testing and costs.Methods: The patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy up to 6 months prior to undergoing a thoracic MDCT scan consented and enrolled in this study. These patients underwent a thoracic MDCT scan either because of respiratory or cardiac clinical symptoms or as part of breast cancer staging.Results: Forty women were included in this study. Different postoperative breast changes observed on thoracic MDCT scans including fibrous scar tissue, fat necrosis, seroma, abscess, hematoma, and recurrent and residual tumor were described.Conclusions: MDCT scans offer sufficient evidence in many postoperative cases to allow a confident diagnosis. General radiologists who review thoracic MDCT scans should know how to characterize breast lesions incidentally found on MDCT scans after breast surgeries. This information would enhance the value of the radiologist’s report for appropriate case management.

  10. Current role of multidetector computed tomography in imaging of wrist injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mohd Arif; Raj, Vimal; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of the wrist is challenging to both radiologists and orthopedic surgeons. This is primarily because of the complex anatomy/functionality of the wrist and also the fact that many frequent injuries are sustained to the hands. On going developments in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology with its "state of the art" postprocessing capabilities have revolutionized this field. Apart from routine imaging of wrist trauma, it is now possible to assess intrinsic ligaments with MDCT arthrography, thereby avoiding invasive diagnostic arthroscopies. Postoperative wrist imaging can be a diagnostic challenge, and MDCT can be helpful in assessment of these cases because volume acquisition and excellent postprocessing abilities help to evaluate these wrists in any desired plane and thinner slices. This article pictorially reviews the current clinical role of MDCT imaging of wrist in our practice. It also describes arthrography technique and scanning parameters used at our center. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MDCT imaging of calcinosis in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, V.; Becce, F.; Feydy, A.; Guérini, H.; Campagna, R.; Allanore, Y.; Drapé, J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Calcinosis is a typical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can be found in many different tissues including the superficial soft tissues, periarticular structures, muscles, and tendons. It can also provoke erosive changes on bones. Investigation is conducted most often with plain radiographs. However, when a more detailed assessment is necessary, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is helpful owing to its multiplanar reformat (MPR) ability. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the various appearances of calcinosis in SSc patients as visualized at MDCT

  12. Preoperative computer tomography evaluation in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groudeva, V.; Stoynova, V.; Trendafilova, D.; Dzhorgova, Y.; Nachev, G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is rapidly emerging technique alternative to surgery in high risk patients. Imaging and especially computer tomography is important in preoperative assessment of the aortic ring and the prosthetic valve choice. The aim of this study is to share authors initial experience in CT assessment of the aortic ring prior to Transcatheter aortic valve replacement. 49 patients (mean age 76,55) underwent 320 rows MDCT (Acquilon One) prior TAVI. Protocol involved scanning from thoracic inlet to common femoral arteries. Aortic root size, aortic diameter at the level of coronary sinuses and the sinotubular junction and distance to coronary ostia were evaluated on a Vitrea work station. MDCT established maximal aortic ring diameter from 18 to 31 mm mean 25,04 mm while the lesser rate was from 16 to 21 mm. Accordingly positioned prostheses were in 34,75% No. 23, in 49% - No. 26 and in16,3% - No. 29. MDCT is crucial in aortic valve assessment prior to TAVI in experienced hands and multidisciplinary team. (authors) Key words: TRANSCATHETER AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT (TAVI). MDCT AORTIC VALVE ASSESSMENT

  13. Multidetector-row computed tomography for the preoperative evaluation of axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Yutaka; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Shiraiwa, Misaki; Ishihara, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of multidetector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) for detecting axillary lymph nodal status (ALNS) in patients with breast cancer. We reviewed 42 patients with breast cancer. A metastatic lymph node on MD-CT was defined as oval or round, with more than 5 mm on the short axis. We evaluated ALNS preoperatively by both palpation and MD-CT findings and performed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). For establishing the ALNS, MD-CT showed a sensitivity of 76.9%, a specificity of 96.6%, and an accuracy of 90.5%. On the basis of the MD-CT findings, misdiagnosis was made in 4 of the 42 patients, only one of which was false positive. On the other hand, one patient with a histologically negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) result had metastasis only in a non-SLN. Preoperative MD-CT showed a positive node in this patient. Multidetector-row computed tomography assists in identifying women who require ALND without SLNB, with sufficient positive predictive value. False-negative detection by SLNB could be avoided with careful interpretation of the axillary lymph nodes shown by MD-CT. (author)

  14. Multiplanar and two-dimensional imaging of central airway stenting with multidetector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT provides guidance for primary screening of the central airways. The aim of our study was assessing the contribution of multidetector computed tomography- two dimensional reconstruction in the management of patients with tracheobronchial stenosis prior to the procedure and during a short follow up period of 3 months after the endobronchial treatment. Methods This is a retrospective study with data collected from an electronic database and from the medical records. Patients evaluated with MDCT and who had undergone a stenting procedure were included. A Philips RSGDT 07605 model MDCT was used, and slice thickness, 3 mm; overlap, 1.5 mm; matrix, 512x512; mass, 90 and kV, 120 were evaluated. The diameters of the airways 10 mm proximal and 10 mm distal to the obstruction were measured and the stent diameter (D was determined from the average between D upper and D lower. Results Fifty-six patients, 14 (25% women and 42 (75% men, mean age 55.3 ± 13.2 years (range: 16-79 years, were assessed by MDCT and then treated with placement of an endobronchial stent. A computed tomography review was made with 6 detector Philips RSGDT 07605 multidetector computed tomography device. Endobronchial therapy was provided for the patients with endoluminal lesions. Stents were placed into the area of stenosis in patients with external compression after dilatation and debulking procedures had been carried out. In one patient the migration of a stent was detected during the follow up period by using MDCT. Conclusions MDCT helps to define stent size, length and type in patients who are suitable for endobronchial stinting. This is a non-invasive, reliable method that helps decisions about optimal stent size and position, thus reducing complications.

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  19. Computed tomography in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Jend, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    This volume offers a critical review and assessment of new avenues opened up by computed tomography in traumatology. Over 200 illustrations, including numerous CT scans, aid the physician engaged emergency care and postoperative treatment of accident victims. Technical prerequisites, special techniques of investigation, pathomorphology of organ changes conditioned by trauma, diagnostic leading symptoms and signs, and diagnostics of iatrogenic injuries and lesions are presented

  20. Computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, T.W.; Blake, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to computed tomography and is particularly concerned with determining the CT numbers of zones of interest in an image displayed on a cathode ray tube which zones lie in the so-called level or center of the gray scale window. (author)

  1. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  4. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  5. MDCT classification of osseous ankle and foot injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opherk, J.P.; Rosenthal, H.; Galanski, M.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography plays an essential role in the primary evaluation of acute ankle and foot trauma. In the case of complex injuries, however, subsequent computed tomography (CT) is nowadays recommended. In this connection, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with the conventional single-slice spiral CT. Multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction of the acquired data sets are also helpful tools for critical assessment of therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the potential of the MDCT technique for accurate fracture classification, precise illustration of displaced components, and postoperative control of arrangement of typical lesions. (orig.) [de

  6. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    1985-06-01

    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  8. Multi-detector computed tomography of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildermuth, Simon; Marincek, Borut; University Hospital of Zurich

    2005-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common causes for referrals to the emergency department. The sudden onset of severe abdominal pain characterising the ''acute abdomen'' requires rapid and accurate identification of a potentially life-threatening abdominal pathology to provide a timely referral to the appropriate physician. While the physical examination and laboratory investigations are often non-specific, computed tomography (CT) has evolved as the first-line imaging modality in patients with an acute abdomen. Because the new multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner generations provide increased speed, greater volume coverage and thinner slices, the acceptance of CT for abdominal imaging has increased rapidly. The goal of this article is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  9. Multidetector computer tomography in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma assessment: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Granata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, with only a minority of cases being resectable at the moment of their diagnosis. The accurate detection and characterization of pancreatic carcinoma is very important for patient management. Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT has become the cross-sectional modality of choice in the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with pancreatic tumors. However, approximately 11% of ductal adenocarcinomas still remain undetected at MDCT because of the lack of attenuation gradient between the lesion and the adjacent pancreatic parenchyma. In this systematic literature review we investigate the current evolution of the CT technique, limitations, and perspectives in the evaluation of pancreatic carcinoma.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  11. The application of MDCT in the diagnosis of chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błasińska-Przerwa, Katarzyna; Pacho, Ryszard; Bestry, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Traumas are the third most common cause of death worldwide, after cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, and the main cause of death of patients under 40 years of age. Contemporary image diagnosis of chest trauma uses chest X-ray (CXR), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), transthoracic and transoesophageal ultrasound (USG), X-ray angiography and magnetic resonance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MDCT results in the examination of posttraumatic chest injuries and to compare the results of CXR and MDCT in chosen chest traumatic injuries. The sixty patients with chest trauma included in the study were diagnosed at the Department of Radiology of the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases between May 2004 and October 2007. MDCT was performed in all patients. Two groups with different types of injury (blunt or penetrating chest trauma) were distinguished. The analysis of injuries in both groups was conducted depending on the mechanism of trauma. The detection of 20 selected injuries at CXR and MDCT was compared. Moreover, the compatibility of MDCT with the results of intraoperative assessment and bronchoscopy was analysed. The influence of MDCT on the treatment modality was also assessed. History of blunt chest trauma was found in 51 patients (group 1) and of penetrating trauma in 9 patients (group 2). The most frequent injuries among group 1 were lung contusion and rib fractures, and among group 2 it was pericardial hematoma. Compared to MDCT, the sensitivity and specificity of CXR were 66.7 and 58%, respectively. Change of treatment modality was observed after MDCT in 83% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT in diagnosing tracheobronchial injury, compared to bronchoscopy, were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. Compatibility of MDCT results and intraoperative assessment was observed in 43% of patients, and the main reason for discrepancy was underdiagnosis of diaphragm injury in MDCT. MDCT was a valuable diagnostic method in

  12. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleijns, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors.

  13. Computed Tomography Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  14. Mathematics of Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, William Grant

    A review of the applications of the Radon transform is presented, with emphasis on emission computed tomography and transmission computed tomography. The theory of the 2D and 3D Radon transforms, and the effects of attenuation for emission computed tomography are presented. The algebraic iterative methods, their importance and limitations are reviewed. Analytic solutions of the 2D problem the convolution and frequency filtering methods based on linear shift invariant theory, and the solution of the circular harmonic decomposition by integral transform theory--are reviewed. The relation between the invisible kernels, the inverse circular harmonic transform, and the consistency conditions are demonstrated. The discussion and review are extended to the 3D problem-convolution, frequency filtering, spherical harmonic transform solutions, and consistency conditions. The Cormack algorithm based on reconstruction with Zernike polynomials is reviewed. An analogous algorithm and set of reconstruction polynomials is developed for the spherical harmonic transform. The relations between the consistency conditions, boundary conditions and orthogonal basis functions for the 2D projection harmonics are delineated and extended to the 3D case. The equivalence of the inverse circular harmonic transform, the inverse Radon transform, and the inverse Cormack transform is presented. The use of the number of nodes of a projection harmonic as a filter is discussed. Numerical methods for the efficient implementation of angular harmonic algorithms based on orthogonal functions and stable recursion are presented. The derivation of a lower bound for the signal-to-noise ratio of the Cormack algorithm is derived.

  15. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; Peterson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented especially of the ball bearing races used in the rotation. (U.K.)

  16. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.T.; Hein, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  17. Acute Knee Trauma: Analysis of Multidetector Computed Tomography Findings and Comparison with Conventional Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, A.O.T.; Kiuru, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of acute knee trauma and to compare radiography with MDCT in patients referred ta level 1 trauma center. Material and Methods: During a 5-year period, a total of 415 MDCT examinations were performed on 409 patients with acute knee trauma to reveal complex fracture anatomy or rule out a fracture. MDCT and primary radiographs were re-evaluated with respect to fracture location and trauma mechanism. Tibial plateau fractures were further analyzed depending on anatomical location: anterior-medial, anterior-lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior-medial regions. Maximal depression of the tibial articular surface was measured. Findings on the primary knee radiographs were compared with MDCT findings. Results: Of the 409 patients, 356 (87%) had a knee fracture. A total of 451 fractures were found in all anatomic regions: distal femur ( n = 49), proximal tibia ( n 307), patella ( n = 23), and proximal fibula ( n = 72). Primary radiographs were available in 316 (76%) cases. Of these, 225 (71%) had MDCT in order to reveal the fracture anatomy better, and 91 (29%) had a subsequent MDCT after negative plain radiographs. Overall sensitivity of radiography was 83%, while negative predictive value was 49%. On radiography, tibial plateau articular depression was underestimated in all regions except when the fracture consisted of the whole half of the anterior or posterior plateau. The three main injury mechanisms were traffic accident, a simple fall, and sport. In 49 cases (15%), primary radiographs were suboptimal due to positioning. Conclusion: In severely injured patients, diagnostically sufficient radiographs are difficult to obtain, and therefore a negative radiograph is not reliable in ruling out a fracture. In these patients, MDCT is a fast and accurate examination and is also recommended in patients with tibial plateau fractures or complex knee injuries in order to evaluate the fracture adequately

  18. The value of multidetector-row computed tomography for localization of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Chou [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shih-Hung [Department of Emergency Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Kuo [Division of Gasteroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Hsien [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Bao [Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chih-Yung, E-mail: chougo2002@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: There are no simple guidelines on when to perform multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for diagnosis of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB). We used a risk scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic power of MDCT for patients with obscure AGIB. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with obscure AGIB who were referred for an MDCT scan after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment at presentation were studied. We recorded clinical data and calculated Blatchford score for each patient. Patients who required transfusion more than 500 mL of blood to maintain the vital signs were classified as high-risk patients. Two radiologists independently reviewed and categorized MDCT signs of obscure AGIB. Discordant findings were resolved by consensus. One-way ANOVA was used to compare clinical data between two groups; kappa statistics were used to estimate agreement on MDCT findings between radiologists. Results: Of the 92 patients, 62 (67.4%) were classified as high-risk patients. Blatchford scores of high-risk patients were significantly greater than those of low-risk patients. Sensitivity for MDCT diagnosing obscure AGIB was 81% in high-risk patients, as compared with 50% in the low-risk. When used in conjunction with selection of the cut-off value of 13 in Blatchford scoring system, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 70.9% and 73.7%, respectively. Contrast extravasation was the most specific sign of AGIB (k = .87), recognition of which would have improved diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: With the aid of Blatchford scoring system for evaluating the disease severity, MDCT can localize the bleeders of obscure AGIB more efficiently.

  19. The value of multidetector-row computed tomography for localization of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Chou; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Tung, Ho-Jui; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Chih-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are no simple guidelines on when to perform multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for diagnosis of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB). We used a risk scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic power of MDCT for patients with obscure AGIB. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with obscure AGIB who were referred for an MDCT scan after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment at presentation were studied. We recorded clinical data and calculated Blatchford score for each patient. Patients who required transfusion more than 500 mL of blood to maintain the vital signs were classified as high-risk patients. Two radiologists independently reviewed and categorized MDCT signs of obscure AGIB. Discordant findings were resolved by consensus. One-way ANOVA was used to compare clinical data between two groups; kappa statistics were used to estimate agreement on MDCT findings between radiologists. Results: Of the 92 patients, 62 (67.4%) were classified as high-risk patients. Blatchford scores of high-risk patients were significantly greater than those of low-risk patients. Sensitivity for MDCT diagnosing obscure AGIB was 81% in high-risk patients, as compared with 50% in the low-risk. When used in conjunction with selection of the cut-off value of 13 in Blatchford scoring system, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 70.9% and 73.7%, respectively. Contrast extravasation was the most specific sign of AGIB (k = .87), recognition of which would have improved diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: With the aid of Blatchford scoring system for evaluating the disease severity, MDCT can localize the bleeders of obscure AGIB more efficiently.

  20. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cademartiri (Filippo)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield

  1. Assessment of adult congenital heart disease with multi-detector computed tomography - beyond coronary lumenography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, E.D.; Gatzoulis, M.; Padley, S.P.G.; Rubens, M.

    2007-01-01

    Adult congenital heart disease is an increasingly prevalent condition with more than 135,000 patients affected in England alone. With this increased patient population and an increase in interventional procedures being performed on them, traditional imaging techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be unavailable locally or contra-indicated. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is rapidly emerging as an alternative imaging method for the investigation of these patients and this review highlights the broad application of cardiac MDCT to this population and makes recommendations on the stardardized reporting of complex congenital heart disease

  2. Multidetector computed tomography of urolithiasis. Technique and results; Multidetektor-Computertomografie der Urolithiasis. Technik und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karul, M.; Regier, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie und Endoskopie; Heuer, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Operative Medizin

    2013-02-15

    The diagnosis of acute urolithiasis results from unenhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This test analyses the functional and anatomical possibility for passing an ureteral calculi, the localization and dimension of which are important parameters for further therapy. Alternatively chronic urolithiasis could be ruled out by magnetic resonance urography (MRU). MRU is the first choice especially in pregnant women and children because of radiation hygiene. Enhanced MDCT must be emphasized as an alternative to intravenous urography (IVU) for diagnosis of complex drainage of urine and suspected disorder of the involved kidney. This review illustrates the principles of different tests and the clinical relevance thereof. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of adult congenital heart disease with multi-detector computed tomography - beyond coronary lumenography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, E.D. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom) and Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.nicol@rbht.nhs.uk; Gatzoulis, M. [Adult Congenital Heart Centre and Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension, Royal Brompton Hospital and National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Adult congenital heart disease is an increasingly prevalent condition with more than 135,000 patients affected in England alone. With this increased patient population and an increase in interventional procedures being performed on them, traditional imaging techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be unavailable locally or contra-indicated. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is rapidly emerging as an alternative imaging method for the investigation of these patients and this review highlights the broad application of cardiac MDCT to this population and makes recommendations on the stardardized reporting of complex congenital heart disease.

  4. The role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluation of small bowel obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih İnci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate therole and additional diagnostic contribution of multi-detectorcomputed tomography (MDCT in patients with acuteabdominal pain caused by small bowel obstruction.Materials and methods: A total of 48 patients who admittedto our hospital with acute abdominal pain and underwentMDCT on suspicion of intestinal obstruction and hadabdominal surgery between January 2012 and October2012 were included to our study. MDCT images were interpretedby two experienced radiologist retrospectively.All clinical data and surgery notes also were evaluated.Patients had surgery due to penetrating or blunt abdominalinjury were excluded.Results: Of these 48 patients, 26 (54.1% were male and22 (45.9% were female. Patients’ ages ranged 25 to 71and mean age was 52±5.4 years. The causes of intestinalobstruction of patients were adhesions for 12 (46.1% patients,tumors for 7 (26.9% patients, external hernias for5 (19.2% patients, internal hernia for 1 (3.9% patient andintussusception for 1 (3.9% patient. A total concordancebetween the MDCT findings and definitive diagnosis wasfound in 26 of 23 cases and the sensitivity and specifityof MDCT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction werefound to be 88.5% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion: MDCT is a fast, effective and reliable imagingmethod for preoperative diagnosing small bowel obstructioncauses acute abdominal pain with the advantagesof MDCT such as multi-planar and three-dimensionalreformatted imaging.Key words: Acute abdominal pain, multi-detector computed tomography, small bowel obstruction

  5. Evaluation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography versus 18FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography in initial staging and restaging after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez León, Nieves; Vega, Gema; Rodríguez-Vigil Junco, Beatriz; Suevos Ballesteros, Carlos

    2018-04-25

    To prospectively compare the accuracy in initial staging and end-of-treatment restaging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) between 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64MDCT) and 18FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18FGD PET/CT) with intravenous contrast injection. Randomised and blind controlled clinical multicentric trial that included biopsy-proven DLBCL patients. Seventy-two patients from five different hospitals in the region of Madrid, Spain, were enrolled in the study between January 2012 and June 2015. Thirty-six were randomly allocated to 18FDG PET/TC and the other 36 to 64MDCT for initial staging and end-of-treatment restaging. A nuclear medicine physician and a radiologist independently analysed 18FDG PET/TC images and reached an agreement post-hoc. 64MDCT images were separately evaluated by a different radiologist. Every set of images was compared to the reference standard that included clinical data, complementary tests and follow-up. The study was approved by participating centres' ethics committees and written informed consent was obtained from all the participants. A good agreement was observed between both diagnostic techniques and the reference standard in initial staging [18FDG PET/CT (k=0.5) and 64MDCT (k=0.6)], although only the 18FDG PET/TC showed a good agreement with the reference standard for the end-of-treatment restaging (k=0.7). In DLBCL, both 18FDG PET/TC and 64MDCT have shown good agreement with the reference standard in initial staging. Nevertheless, 18FDG PET/CT has shown to be superior to 64MDCT in end-of-treatment response assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of field-of-view size on gray values derived from cone-beam computed tomography compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Ramezani, Leila; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Ghazikhanlu-Sani, Karim; Fallahi-Sichani, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of field-of-view (FOV) size on the gray values derived from conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans as the gold standard. A radiographic phantom was designed with 4 acrylic cylinders. One cylinder was filled with distilled water, and the other 3 were filled with 3 types of bone substitute: namely, Nanobone, Cenobone, and Cerabone. The phantom was scanned with 2 CBCT systems using 2 different FOV sizes, and 1 MDCT system was used as the gold standard. The mean gray values (MGVs) of each cylinder were calculated in each imaging protocol. In both CBCT systems, significant differences were noted in the MGVs of all materials between the 2 FOV sizes ( P <.05) except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Significant differences were found in the MGVs of each material compared with the others in both FOV sizes for each CBCT system. No significant difference was seen between the Cranex3D CBCT system and the MDCT system in the MGVs of bone substitutes on images obtained with a small FOV. The size of the FOV significantly changed the MGVs of all bone substitutes, except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Both CBCT systems had the ability to distinguish the 3 types of bone substitutes based on a comparison of their MGVs. The Cranex3D CBCT system used with a small FOV had a significant correlation with MDCT results.

  7. Computed tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhashi, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  8. Method for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    1980-01-01

    In transversal computer tomography apparatus, in which the positioning zone in which the patient can be positioned is larger than the scanning zone in which a body slice can be scanned, reconstruction errors are liable to occur. These errors are caused by incomplete irradiation of the body during examination. They become manifest not only as an incorrect image of the area not irradiated, but also have an adverse effect on the image of the other, completely irradiated areas. The invention enables reduction of these errors

  9. Dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzia, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount of computed tomography (CT) studies that are performed each year in the world is growing exponentially mainly due to the incorporation of multislice CT that allows studies in a few seconds. But, despite the benefit received by patients with the diagnosis, radiation dose is a concern in the professional community and it has be reduced as much as reasonably possible. This article describes the main dosimetric CT units used in order to work with this practice easily, using the values that provide modern equipment and internationally known reference levels. (authors) [es

  10. Comparison of the radiation dose from cone beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography in examinations of the hand; Vergleich der Strahlendosis von Cone-Beam Computertomografie und Multidetektor Computertomografie in Untersuchungen der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Neubauer, C.; Gerstmair, A.; Krauss, T.; Kotter, E.; Langer, M. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reising, K. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Zajonc, H. [University Medical Center Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Fiebich, M.; Voigt, J. [University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection

    2016-05-15

    Comparison of radiation dose of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in examinations of the hand. Dose calculations were carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulations in MDCT and CBCT. A corpse hand was examined in a 320-row MDCT scanner and a dedicated extremities CBCT scanner with standard protocols and multiple low-dose protocols. The image quality of the examinations was evaluated by 5 investigators using a Likert scale from 1 (very good) to 5 (very poor) regarding depiction of cortical bone, cancellous bone, joint surfaces, soft tissues and artifacts. For a sum of ratings of all structures < 50 a good overall image quality was expected. The studies with at least good overall image quality were compared with respect to the dose. The dose of the standard examination was 13.21 (12.96 to 13.46 CI) mGy in MDCT and 7.15 (6.99 to 7.30 CI) mGy in CBCT. The lowest dose in a study with good overall image quality was 4.54 (4.43 to 4.64 CI) mGy in MDCT and 5.72 (5.59 to 5.85 CI) mGy in CBCT. Although the dose of the standard protocols in the CBCT is lower than in the MDCT, the MDCT can realize a good overall image quality at a lower dose than the CBCT. Dose optimization of CT examination protocols for the hand is useful in both modalities, the MDCT has an even greater potential for optimization.

  11. Mesenteric panniculitis: computed tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Alves, Jose Ricardo Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Pinheiro, Ricardo Andrade; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Noro, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is an inflammatory process that represents the second stage of a rare progressive disease involving the adipose tissue of the mesentery. Imaging methods used in the diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis include barium studies, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography is important for both, diagnosis and evaluation of the extension of the disease and treatment monitoring. Computed tomography findings may vary according to the stage of the disease and the amount of inflammatory material or fibrosis. There is also good correlation between the computed tomography and anatomical pathology findings. The authors studied 10 patients with mesenteric panniculitis submitted to computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in one patient. In all patients, computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the mesentery with density of fat, interspersed with areas of soft tissue density and dilated vessels. (author)

  12. The neutron computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, G.; Krata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of computer tomography (CT) was applied for neutrons instead of X-rays. The neutron radiography image of samples was scanned by microphotometer to get the transmission data. This process was so time-consuming that the number of incident angles to samples could not be increased. The transmission data was processed by FACOM computer and CT image was gained. In the experiment at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 at Tokai-mura with 18 projection angles, the resolution of paraffin in the aluminum block was less than 0.8 mm. In the experiment at Van de Graaf accelerator of Nagoya University, this same resolution was 1.2 mm because of the angle distribution of neutron beam. This experiment is the preliminary one, the facility which utilizes neutron television and video-recorder will be necessary for the next stage. (Auth.)

  13. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; O'Dell, W.R.; Brook, R.F.; Hein, P.W.; Brandt, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. A failsafe, solenoid brake is described which can lock the shaft against rotation. The gantry also contains a hoist mechanism which aids maintenance of the heavy X-ray tube and/or detector arrays. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  14. Nutcracker or left renal vein compression phenomenon: multidetector computed tomography findings and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuellar i Calabria, Hug; Quiroga Gomez, Sergi; Sebastia Cerqueda, Carmen; Boye de la Presa, Rosa; Miranda, Americo; Alvarez-Castells, Agusti

    2005-01-01

    The use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in routine abdominal explorations has increased the detection of the nutcracker phenomenon, defined as left renal vein (LRV) compression by adjacent anatomic structures. The embryology and anatomy of the nutcracker phenomenon are relevant as a background for the nutcracker syndrome, a rare cause of hematuria as well as other symptoms. MDCT examples of collateral renal vein circulation (gonadal, ureteric, azygous, lumbar, capsular) and aortomesenteric (anterior) and retroaortic (posterior) nutcracker phenomena in patients with no urologic complaint are shown as well as studies performed on patients with gross hematuria of uncertain origin. Incidental observation of collateral veins draining the LRV in abdominal MDCT explorations of asymptomatic patients may be a sign of a compensating nutcracker phenomenon. Imbalance between LRV compression and development of collateral circulation may lead to symptomatic nutcracker syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Nutcracker or left renal vein compression phenomenon: multidetector computed tomography findings and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar i Calabria, Hug; Quiroga Gomez, Sergi; Sebastia Cerqueda, Carmen; Boye de la Presa, Rosa; Miranda, Americo; Alvarez-Castells, Agusti [Hospitals Universitaris Vall D' Hebron, Institut de Diagnostic Per La Imatge, Servei De Radiodiagnostic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in routine abdominal explorations has increased the detection of the nutcracker phenomenon, defined as left renal vein (LRV) compression by adjacent anatomic structures. The embryology and anatomy of the nutcracker phenomenon are relevant as a background for the nutcracker syndrome, a rare cause of hematuria as well as other symptoms. MDCT examples of collateral renal vein circulation (gonadal, ureteric, azygous, lumbar, capsular) and aortomesenteric (anterior) and retroaortic (posterior) nutcracker phenomena in patients with no urologic complaint are shown as well as studies performed on patients with gross hematuria of uncertain origin. Incidental observation of collateral veins draining the LRV in abdominal MDCT explorations of asymptomatic patients may be a sign of a compensating nutcracker phenomenon. Imbalance between LRV compression and development of collateral circulation may lead to symptomatic nutcracker syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Intra- and interobserver agreement of computed tomography in assessment of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To study the intra- and interobserver agreement of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in interpretation of degenerative changes of the mandibular condyle. Five observers independently evaluated one hundred temporomandibular joint MDCT images for signs of osteophytes, erosion, sclerosis and flattening. The intra- and interobserve agreements were calculated by using Kappa statistics. The intraobserver agreement was substantial for erosion (k=0.75), flattening (k=0.74) and sclerosis (k=0.72) and almost perfect for osteophytes (k=0.84). The interobserver agreement was fair for flattening (k=0.39), moderate for erosion (k=0.58) and sclerosis (k=0.48) and substantial for osteophytes (k=0.75). This study shows that we can expert good agreement for the presence of osteophytes, but not for flattening in the interpretation of MDCT images of the condyle.

  17. Multiparametric multidetector computed tomography scanning on suspicion of hyperacute ischemic stroke: validating a standardized protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Torres Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT scanning has enabled the early diagnosis of hyperacute brain ischemia. We aimed at validating a standardized protocol to read and report MDCT techniques in a series of adult patients. The inter-observer agreement among the trained examiners was tested, and their results were compared with a standard reading. No false positives were observed, and an almost perfect agreement (Kappa>0.81 was documented when the CT angiography (CTA and cerebral perfusion CT (CPCT map data were added to the noncontrast CT (NCCT analysis. The inter-observer agreement was higher for highly trained readers, corroborating the need for specific training to interpret these modern techniques. The authors recommend adding CTA and CPCT to the NCCT analysis in order to clarify the global analysis of structural and hemodynamic brain abnormalities. Our structured report is suitable as a script for the reproducible analysis of the MDCT of patients on suspicion of ischemic stroke.

  18. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  19. Prediction of optimal deployment projection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: angiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction of the aortic root versus multidetector computed tomography.

    OpenAIRE

    Binder Ronald K; Leipsic Jonathon; Wood David; Moore Teri; Toggweiler Stefan; Willson Alex; Gurvitch Ronen; Freeman Melanie; Webb John G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Identifying the optimal fluoroscopic projection of the aortic valve is important for successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Various imaging modalities including multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have been proposed for prediction of the optimal deployment projection. We evaluated a method that provides 3 dimensional angiographic reconstructions (3DA) of the aortic root for prediction of the optimal deployment angle and compared it with MDCT. METHODS AND RES...

  20. Left atrial passive emptying function is preserved in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation--a 320-slice multidetector computed tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Bue Fridolin Ross; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Left atrial (LA) mechanical function is thought to be virtually inexistent in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Due to recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology, it is now possible to acquire images of the entire heart in a single heartbeat....... The objective of this study was to compare individual components of LA function assessed by MDCT in patients with permanent AF and patients in sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: 320-slice MDCT was performed in 30 patients with permanent AF. Measurements of LA volumes during the cardiac cycle were compared to 30......; 71 vs. 30 ml/m(2), p permanent AF have significantly increased LA volumes throughout the cardiac...

  1. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  2. Positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional mycardial blood flow and substrate metabolism can be non-invasively evaluated and quantified with positron emission computed tomography (Positron-CT). Tracers of exogenous glucose utilization and fatty acid metabolism are available and have been extensively tested. Specific tracer kinetic models have been developed or are being tested so that glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be measured quantitatively by Positron-CT. Tracers of amino acid and oxygen metabolism are utilized in Positron-CT studies of the brain and development of such tracers for cardiac studies are in progress. Methods to quantify regional myocardial blood flow are also being developed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of Positron-/CT to document myocardial infarction. Experimental and clinical studies have begun to identify metabolic markers of reversibly ischemic myocardium. The potential of Positron-CT to reliably detect potentially salvageable myocardium and, hence, to identify appropriate therapeutic interventions is one of the most exciting applications of the technique

  3. Association between diabetes and different components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by coronary multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Truong, Quynh A; Toepker, Michael; Donnelly, Patrick; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in the presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as detected by coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We compared coronary atherosclerotic plaques (any plaque, calcified [CAP], non-calcified [NCAP, and mixed plaque [MCAP

  4. Is there an indication for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, R.; van der Zaag-Loonen HJ, [No Value; Willems, T.P.; Post, W.J.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bypass graft occlusion and stenosis detection compared with coronary angiography in post-coronary artery bypass graft patients. The indication for noninvasive

  5. Computer tomography of the neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliequist, B; Forssell, A

    1976-07-01

    The experience with computer tomography of the neurocranium in 300 patients submitted for computer tomography of the brain is reported. The more appropriate projections which may be obtained with the second generation of scanners in combination with an elaborated reconstruction technique seem to constitute a replacement of conventional skull films.

  6. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...... that compares the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector row computed tomography with that of coronary angiography Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/6...

  7. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Matthew K.; Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D.; Bardgett, Harry P.; Cowan, Nigel C.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  8. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Matthew K. [University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, UME Office, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D. [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Medicine, MD Undergraduate Program, Diamond Health Care Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bardgett, Harry P. [Bradford Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Bradford (United Kingdom); Cowan, Nigel C. [The Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  9. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I.Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling [Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of General Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiological Technology, Taichung (China)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  10. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  11. Imaging of peripheral arteries by 16-row multidetector computed tomography angiography: A feasible tool?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Anuj [Department of Radiology, National Organ Transplant Program, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)]. E-mail: dranujmish@yahoo.com; Bhaktarahalli, Jahnavi Narayanaswamy [Department of Clinical Pathology, Tripoli Medical Centre, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Ehtuish, Ehtuish F. [Department of Surgery, National Organ Transplant Program, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    2007-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multidetector (16-row) computed tomography (MDCT) in imaging the upper and lower limb arterial tree in trauma and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent MDCT angiography (MDCTA) of the upper or the lower limb on 16-row MDCT scanner between November, 2004 and July, 2005. The findings were compared with the surgical outcome in cases with trauma and suspected arterial injuries or color Doppler correlation was obtained for patients of PAOD. Results: MDCTA allowed a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in all trauma cases with suspected arterial injuries. In the 23 cases of PAOD, MDCT adequately demonstrated the presence of stenosis or occlusion, its degree and extent, the presence of collaterals and plaques. Conclusion: Our experience of CT angiography (CTA) with 16-row MDCT scanner has clearly demonstrated its efficacy as a promising, new, fast, accurate, safe and non-invasive imaging modality of choice in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries and as a useful screening modality in cases of PAOD for diagnosis and for grading.

  12. Imaging of peripheral arteries by 16-row multidetector computed tomography angiography: A feasible tool?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Anuj; Bhaktarahalli, Jahnavi Narayanaswamy; Ehtuish, Ehtuish F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multidetector (16-row) computed tomography (MDCT) in imaging the upper and lower limb arterial tree in trauma and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent MDCT angiography (MDCTA) of the upper or the lower limb on 16-row MDCT scanner between November, 2004 and July, 2005. The findings were compared with the surgical outcome in cases with trauma and suspected arterial injuries or color Doppler correlation was obtained for patients of PAOD. Results: MDCTA allowed a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in all trauma cases with suspected arterial injuries. In the 23 cases of PAOD, MDCT adequately demonstrated the presence of stenosis or occlusion, its degree and extent, the presence of collaterals and plaques. Conclusion: Our experience of CT angiography (CTA) with 16-row MDCT scanner has clearly demonstrated its efficacy as a promising, new, fast, accurate, safe and non-invasive imaging modality of choice in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries and as a useful screening modality in cases of PAOD for diagnosis and for grading

  13. Study of the renal segmental arterial anatomy with contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Francesco; Cozzi, Luigi Alberto; Cozzi, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    To use triphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to study the renal segmental arterial anatomy and its relationship with the urinary tract to plan nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT. We evaluated renal arteries and parenchymal vasculature. In 61 patients, the arteries and the urinary tract were represented simultaneously. 86.60% presented a single renal artery; 13.4%, multiple arteries. All single renal arteries divided into anterior and posterior branch before the hilum. The anterior artery branched into a superior, middle, and inferior branch. In 43.14%, the inferior artery arose before the others; in 45.75%, the superior artery arose before the others; in 9.80%, the branches shared a common trunk. In 26.80%, the posterior artery supplies the entire posterior surface; in 73.20%, it ends along the inferior calyx. In 96.73%, the upper pole was vascularized by the anterior superior branch and the posterior artery: the "tuning fork". MDCT showed four vascular segments in 96.73% and five in 3.27%. MDCT showed two avascular areas: the first along the projection of the inferior calyx on the posterior aspect, the second between the branches of the "tuning fork". The arterial phase provides the arterial tree representation; the delayed phase shows arteries and urinary tract simultaneously. MDCT provides a useful representation of the renal anatomy prior to intervascular-intrarenal NSS.

  14. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (Pbenign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  15. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  16. Incidence of pulmonary embolism and other chest findings in younger patients using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel; Zapparoli, Mauricio; Semelka, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become the first-line modality for imaging patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The disadvantages of MDCT, the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast agents, are a reasonable cause of concern, especially in young patients, and therefore it is critical to understand the likelihood of PE in these patients to evaluate a risk benefit analysis. Purpose: To calculate the incidence of PE and other chest findings on MDCT in a young adult population investigated for PE. Material and Methods: 387 consecutive patients (age 31.5±13.5 years) underwent chest MDCT for clinically suspected PE between January 2004 and August 2006. Incidence of PE and other chest findings were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% using binomial distribution. Results: PE incidence was 5%; negative PE with other chest findings was 60%. In 89% of the patients with other chest findings, these included findings of the pleura and/or lung parenchyma. The main patterns of disease were lung opacification suggesting pneumonia (41%), atelectasis (12.4%), and nodular/mass findings (17.5%). In 34% of the patients, there was no PE and no other findings present. Conclusion: There is a low incidence of PE in young patients imaged for PE with MDCT

  17. Evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with asymptomatic turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Ji Mi; Song, Min Seob; Choi, Seok jin; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2013-08-01

    Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.

  18. Computed tomography findings of early abdominal postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A.; Gayer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Various surgical approaches are used for different abdominal pathological conditions. Postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to the type of the surgery and the clinical context. Nowadays, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy for various intraabdominal pathological processes, even if clinically unsuspected, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool for evaluating postoperative insults. Other advantages of abdominal MDCT include its accessibility and its speed, which allow scanning of uncooperative, marginally stable patients. Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous (PC) drainage of postoperative collections is another advantage of CT. Therefore, although CT requires transportation of a critically ill, postoperative patient, it is recommended in any suspicious clinical setting because several conditions require prompt management and a correct diagnosis is crucial. In assessing a patient for suspected postoperative complications, several points should be taken into consideration, including the relevant clinical and laboratory data, the surgical findings, the type of the surgery, the time elapsed since surgery, and the operative technique (either open laparotomy of laparoscopic procedure). (author)

  19. Automatic individualized contrast medium dosage during hepatic computed tomography by using computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Brismar, Torkel B. [Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [FoU-centrum Skaane Skaanes Universitetssjukhus i Lund, Lund (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Trelleborg (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    To compare hepatic parenchymal contrast media (CM) enhancement during multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and its correlation with volume pitch-corrected computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and body weight (BW). One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase thoraco-abdominal MDCT examination were enrolled. BW was measured in the CT suite. Forty grams of iodine was administered intravenously (iodixanol 320 mg I/ml at 5 ml/s or iomeprol 400 mg I/ml at 4 ml/s) followed by a 50-ml saline flush. CTDI{sub vol} presented by the CT equipment during the parenchymal examination was recorded. The CM enhancement of the liver was defined as the attenuation HU of the liver parenchyma during the hepatic parenchymal phase minus the attenuation in the native phase. Liver parenchymal enhancement was negatively correlated to both CTDI{sub vol} (r = -0.60) and BW (r = -0.64), but the difference in correlation between those two was not significant. CTDI{sub vol} may replace BW when adjusting CM doses to body size. This makes it potentially feasible to automatically individualize CM dosage by CT. (orig.)

  20. Blunt trauma of bone structures of the chest: Computed tomography vs multidetector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Computerized tomography (CT, especially multidetector CT (MDCT, has had a revolutionary impact in diagnostic in traumatized patients. The aim of the study was to identify and compare the frequency of injuries to bone structures of the thorax displayed with 5-mm-thick axial CT slices and thin-slice (MDCT examination with the use of 3D reconstructions, primarily multiplanar reformations (MPR. Methods. This prospective study included 61 patients with blunt trauma submitted to CT scan of the thorax as initial assessment. The two experienced radiologists independently and separately described the findings for 5-mmthick axial CT slices (5 mm CT as in monoslice CT examination; MPR and other 3D reconstructions along with thin-slice axial sections which were available in modern MDCT technologies. After describing thin-slice examination in case of disagreement in the findings, the examiners redescribed thinslice examination together which was ultimately considered as a real, true finding. Results. No statistically significant difference in interobserver evaluation of 5 mm CT examination was recorded (p > 0.05. Evaluation of fractures of sternum with 5 mm CT and MDCT showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in favor of better display of injury by MDCT examination. Conclusion. MDCT is a powerful diagnostic tool that can describe higher number of bone fractures of the chest in traumatized patients compared to 5 mm CT, especially in the region of sternum for which a statistical significance was obtained using MPR. Moreover, the importance of MDCT is also set by easier and more accurate determination of the level of bone injury.

  1. An Unusual Left Ventricular Outflow Pseudoaneurysm: Usefulness of Echocardiography and Multidetector Computed Tomography for Surgical Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Col, Uberto; Ramoni, Enrico; Di Bella, Isidoro; Ragni, Temistocle

    2009-01-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pseudoaneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication, mainly after aortic root endocarditis or surgery. Usually it originates from a dehiscence in the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and it arises posteriorly to the aortic root. Due to these anatomical features, its imaging assessment is challenging and surgical repair requires complex procedures. An unusual case of LVOT pseudoaneurysm is described. It was detected by transthoracic ecocardiography 7 months after aortic root replacement for acute endocarditis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) confirmed the presence of a pouch located between the aortic root and the right atrium. Computed tomography also detected the origin of the pseudoaneurysm from the muscular interventricular septum of the LVOT, rather below the aortic valve plane. It was repaired with an extracardiac surgical approach, sparing the aortic root bioprosthesis previously implanted. The high-resolution three-dimensional details provided by the preoperative MDCT allowed us to plan a simple and effective surgical strategy.

  2. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  3. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  4. Multidetector computed tomography sizing of bioprosthetic valves: guidelines for measurement and implications for valve-in-valve therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, R.; Attia, R.; Condemi, F.; Webb, J.; Woodburn, P.; Hodson, D.; Nair, A.; Preston, R.; Razavi, R.; Bapat, V.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To describe a technique for bioprosthetic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) sizing and to compare MDCT-derived values against manufacturer-provided sizing. Materials and methods: Fourteen bioprosthetic stented valves commonly used in the aortic valve position were evaluated using a Philips 256 MDCT system. All valves were scanned using a dedicated cardiac CT protocol with a four-channel electrocardiography (ECG) simulator. Measurements were made of major and minor axes and the area and perimeter of the internal stent using varying reconstruction kernels and window settings. Measurements derived from MDCT (MDCT ID) were compared against the stent internal diameter (Stent ID) as provided by the valve manufacturer and the True ID (Stent ID + insertion of leaflets). All data were collected and analysed using SPSS for Mac (version 21). Results: The mean difference between the MDCT ID and Stent ID was 0.6±1.9 mm (r=0.649, p=0.012) and between MDCT ID and True ID 2.1±2 mm (r=0.71, p=0.005). There was no difference in the major (p=0.90), minor (p=0.87), area (p=0.92), or perimeter (p=0.92) measurements when sharp, standard, and detailed stent kernels were used. Similarly, the measurements remained consistent across differing windowing levels. Conclusion: Bioprosthetic stented valves may be reliably sized using MDCT in patients requiring valve-in-valve (VIV) interventions where the valve type and size are unknown. In these cases, clinicians should be aware that MDCT has a tendency to overestimate the True ID size. - Highlights: • Cardiac CT is likely to be ideally suited for bioprosthetic aortic valve sizing for valve in valve procedures. • We compared MDCT sizing for 14 varying bioprosthetic aortic valves across varying window settings and reconstruction kernels. • We provide “normal” MDCT sizing for varying valves and show their relationship to surgical sizing. • Bioprosthetic valves may be reliably sized by MDCT but require adjustment owing to

  5. Blunt trauma of bone structures of the chest--computed tomography vs multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Kosta; Turkalj, Ivan; Stojanović, Sanja; Vucaj-Cirilović, Viktorija; Nikolić, Olivera; Stojiljković, Dragana

    2013-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT), especially multidetector CT (MDCT), has had a revolutionary impact in diagnostic in traumatized patients. The aim of the study was to identify and compare the frequency of injuries to bone structures of the thorax displayed with 5-mm-thick axial CT slices and thin-slice (MDCT) examination with the use of 3D reconstructions, primarily multiplanar reformations (MPR). This prospective study included 61 patients with blunt trauma submitted to CT scan of the thorax as initial assessment. The two experienced radiologists inde pendently and separately described the findings for 5-mm-thick axial CT slices (5 mm CT) as in monoslice CT examination; MPR and other 3D reconstructions along with thin-slice axial sections which were available in modern MDCT technologies. After describing thin-slice examination in case of disagreement in the findings, the examiners redescribed thin-slice examination together which was ultimately considered as a real, true finding. No statistically significant difference in interobserver evaluation of 5 mm CT examination was recorded (p > 0.05). Evaluation of fractures of sternum with 5 mm CT and MDCT showed a statistically significant difference (p tool that can describe higher number of bone fractures of the chest in traumatized patients compared to 5 mm CT, especially in the region of sternum for which a statistical significance was obtained using MPR. Moreover, the importance of MDCT is also set by easier and more accurate determination of the level of bone injury.

  6. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  7. Investigation of the role of computed tomography as an adjunct to autopsy in the evaluation of stillbirth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians\\' ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. RESULTS: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.

  8. Multidetector row computed tomography noninvasively assesses coronary reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong-Il; Won, Yoo-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk

    2006-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the efficacy of 16-slice multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in estimating residual stenosis and successful reperfusion after thrombolysis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 31 patients with STEMI underwent MDCT scanning within 6 h (mean 4.6±1.1) after thrombolysis and the results for detection of significant residual stenosis and distal flow of the infarct-related artery were compared with those from conventional coronary angiography (CCAG) performed within 24 h (mean 12.1±5.6) after the MDCT scan. Successful reperfusion was defined as Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow 2 or 3 on CCAG and full contrast enhancement of the distal artery landmarks on MDCT. A final analysis was performed using 24 patients (312 segments). MDCT had a positive predictive value of 73.3% and a negative predictive value of 95.1% for detecting significant residual stenosis. It accurately estimated 17 of 18 patients (94.4%) with successful reperfusion and 5 of 6 (83.3%) with failed reperfusion on the basis of comparison with CCAG. MDCT demonstrated high accuracy not only for the detecting residual stenosis, but also for assessing successful reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in patients with STEMI. (author)

  9. Investigation of the role of computed tomography as an adjunct to autopsy in the evaluation of stillbirth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, Keelin; O’Regan, Kevin N.; Sheridan, Carmel P.; O’Connor, Owen J.; Benson, Jodie; McWilliams, Sebastian; Moore, Niamh; Murphy, Mary J.; Chopra, Raj; Higgins, John R.; Maher, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The number of parents agreeing to autopsy following stillbirth is declining, which has undermined clinicians’ ability to assess causes of intrauterine death and can impact counselling regarding recurrence. Post-mortem radiological imaging is a potential alternative method of investigating perinatal loss. The aim of this study was to assess the role of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the investigation of stillbirth. Study design: Following ethical approval and written consent, parents were offered MDCT of the stillborn infant. MDCT was performed with 3D reconstruction, and images were analysed for image quality, anthropomorphic measurements and pathologic findings. Body part and organ-specific measurements were performed; including head, chest and abdominal circumferences, and muscle and liver mass was also measured. Findings were correlated with obstetric history, post-mortem skeletal survey (plain radiography), and formal autopsy. Results: Fourteen third-trimester stillborn infants were scanned. Image quality was moderate to excellent for most body structures. CT was better than plain radiography for imaging skeletal structures and large solid organs and demonstrated a range of pathologies including renal vein thrombosis, mesenteric calcification and skeletal hyperostosis that were not seen on plain radiographs. MDCT did not overlook autopsy findings and provided some additional information. Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of MDCT in the investigation of third trimester stillbirth. MDCT image quality is acceptable and the examination can demonstrate a range of anatomic and pathologic findings. Initially, its value may be as an important adjunct to conventional autopsy.

  10. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: Patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Ingo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Results Electrocardiography (ECG-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... is used to evaluate: complications from infections such as pneumonia a tumor that arises in the lung ...

  12. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  18. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Performed with Expanded-Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Bruni, Antonio; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We assessed, in a prospective study, the efficacy of multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency in patients treated with the Viatorr (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered stent-graft. Eighty patients who underwent TIPS procedure using the Viatorr self-expanding e-PTFE stent-graft were evaluated at follow-up of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with clinical and laboratory tests as well as ultrasound–color Doppler (USCD) imaging. In case of varices, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was also performed. In addition, the shunt was evaluated using MDCT at 6 and 12 months. In all cases of abnormal findings and discrepancy between MDCT and USCD, invasive control venography was performed. MDCT images were acquired before and after injection of intravenous contrast media on the axial plane and after three-dimensional reconstruction using different algorithms. MDCT was successfully performed in all patients. No artefacts correlated to the Viatorr stent-graft were observed. A missing correlation between UCSD and MDCT was noticed in 20 of 80 (25%) patients. Invasive control venography confirmed shunt patency in 16 (80%) cases and shunt malfunction in 4 (20%) cases. According to these data, MDCT sensitivity was 95.2%; specificity was 96.6%; and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively. USCD sensitivity was 90%; specificity was 75%; and PPV and NPV were 54.5 and 95.7%, respectively. A high correlation (K value = 0.85) between MDCT and invasive control venography was observed. On the basis of these results, MDCT shows superior sensitivity and specificity compared with USCD in those patients in whom TIPS was performed with the Viatorr stent-graft. MDCT can be considered a valid tool in the follow-up of these patients.

  19. Detection of intracranial aneurysms with 64 channel multidetector row computed tomography: Comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi-Mucelli, Fabio; Bruni, Stefano; Doddi, Marco; Calgaro, Antonio; Braini, Massimiliano; Cova, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the contribution of 64 channel multidetector row computed tomography angiography (64MDCT-angiography) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the detection of intracranial aneurysms. Methods and materials: Twenty-nine patients (10 males and 19 females, age: 40-84 years; average: 61.9 years) with clinical and imaging findings strongly suggesting the presence of subaracnoid hemorrhage underwent 64MDCT-angiography and DSA with a short interval between the two examinations (less than 12 h-5 days). CT parameters were: 64 mm x 0.5 mm collimation, pitch-0.828 and helical pitch-53. DSA were performed with standard technique (four vessel catheterization) and multiple projections. Axial CT scans as well as maximum intensity projection, volume rendering and multiplanar reformations and angiographic views were independently reviewed by four readers (two for 64MDCT-angiography and two for DSA). Consensus was reached for discordant cases. DSA was considered as the standard of reference. Results: In 29 patients, 28 aneurysms were found (14 patients had 1 aneurysm, 4 patients had 2 aneurysms and 2 patients had 3 aneurysms; in 9 patients no aneurysm were found). 64MDCT-angiography detected 26/28 aneurysms. No false-positive sites were recognized. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy were, respectively, 92.8, 100, 100, 99.4 and 99.5%. Conclusions: 64MDCT-angiography is helpful in detecting intracranial aneurysms with results similar to those of DSA but with less discomfort and risks for the patients and can be considered for the first line imaging technique. Conventional angiography is still needed in doubtful cases or negative MDCT-angiography associated with a strong clinical suspect

  20. Role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer; comparison with multidetector row computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N; Gundogan, C; Tozlu, M; Toprak, H; Kadıoglu, H; Aydin, M; Cermik, T F

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the contribution of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging to the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer compared with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We retrospectively scanned the data of 52 patients who were referred for FDG PET/CT imaging for evaluation of pancreatic lesions greater than 10mm. The diagnostic performances of 4 imaging methods and the impact of PET/CT on the management of pancreatic cancer were defined. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 33 of 52 patients (63%), 15 patients had benign diseases of pancreas (29%), and 4 patients were normal (8%). Sensitivity and NPV of EUS and PET/CT were equal (100%) and higher than MDCT and MRI. Specificity, PPV and NPV of PET/CT were significantly higher than MDCT. However, sensitivities of two imaging methods were not significantly different. There was no significant difference between PET/CT and MRI and EUS for these values. When the cut-off value of SUVmax was 3.2, the most effective sensitivity and specificity values were obtained. PET/CT contributed to the management of pancreatic cancer in 30% of patients. FDG PET/CT is a valuable imaging method for the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer, especially when applied along with EUS as first line diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidetector-row computed tomography for prosthetic heart valve dysfunction: is concomitant non-invasive coronary angiography possible before redo-surgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, Wilco [Haga Teaching Hospital, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Sucha, Dominika; Habets, Jesse [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Laufer, Ward; Chamuleau, Steven [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Herwerden, Lex.A. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Symersky, Petr [Vrije Universiteit, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Retrospective ECG-gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) is increasingly used for the assessment of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction, but is also hampered by PHV-related artefacts/cardiac arrhythmias. Furthermore, it is performed without nitroglycerine or heart rate correction. The purpose was to determine whether MDCT performed before potential redo-PHV surgery is feasible for concomitant coronary artery stenosis assessment and can replace invasive coronary angiography (CAG). PHV patients with CAG and MDCT were identified. Based on medical history, two groups were created: (I) patients with no known coronary artery disease (CAD), (II) patients with known CAD. All images were scored for the presence of significant (>50 %) stenosis. CAG was the reference test. Fifty-one patients were included. In group I (n = 38), MDCT accurately ruled out significant stenosis in 19/38 (50 %) patients, but could not replace CAG in the remaining 19/38 (50 %) patients due to non-diagnostic image quality (n = 16) or significant stenosis (n = 3) detection. In group II (n = 13), MDCT correctly found no patients without significant stenosis, requiring CAG imaging in all. MDCT assessed patency in 16/19 (84 %) grafts and detected a hostile anatomy in two. MDCT performed for PHV dysfunction assessment can replace CAG (100 % accurate) in approximately half of patients without previously known CAD. (orig.)

  2. Multidetector-row computed tomography for prosthetic heart valve dysfunction: is concomitant non-invasive coronary angiography possible before redo-surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanis, Wilco; Sucha, Dominika; Habets, Jesse; Laufer, Ward; Chamuleau, Steven; Herwerden, Lex.A. van; Symersky, Petr; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective ECG-gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) is increasingly used for the assessment of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction, but is also hampered by PHV-related artefacts/cardiac arrhythmias. Furthermore, it is performed without nitroglycerine or heart rate correction. The purpose was to determine whether MDCT performed before potential redo-PHV surgery is feasible for concomitant coronary artery stenosis assessment and can replace invasive coronary angiography (CAG). PHV patients with CAG and MDCT were identified. Based on medical history, two groups were created: (I) patients with no known coronary artery disease (CAD), (II) patients with known CAD. All images were scored for the presence of significant (>50 %) stenosis. CAG was the reference test. Fifty-one patients were included. In group I (n = 38), MDCT accurately ruled out significant stenosis in 19/38 (50 %) patients, but could not replace CAG in the remaining 19/38 (50 %) patients due to non-diagnostic image quality (n = 16) or significant stenosis (n = 3) detection. In group II (n = 13), MDCT correctly found no patients without significant stenosis, requiring CAG imaging in all. MDCT assessed patency in 16/19 (84 %) grafts and detected a hostile anatomy in two. MDCT performed for PHV dysfunction assessment can replace CAG (100 % accurate) in approximately half of patients without previously known CAD. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of gated blood pool SPECT and spiral multidetector computed tomography in the assessment of right ventricular functional parameters. Validation with first-pass radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung S.; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Choo, Ki S.; Lee, Jun S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (GBPS) and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for the determination of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and right ventricular volumes (RVV) and to compare first-pass radionuclide angiography (FP-RNA) as the gold standard. Twenty consecutive patients (11 men, 9 women) referred for MDCT for the evaluation of the presence of coronary artery disease underwent FP-RNA and GBPS. The mean right ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) calculated with GBPS revealed a statistically significant lower value than that of MDCT. The mean right ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) calculated with GBPS was also lower than that of MDCT. A comparison of right ventricular EDV from GBPS and MDCT yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.5972. Right ventricular ESV between GBPS and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.5650. The mean RVEFs calculated with FP-RNA (39.8%±4.0%), GBPS (43.7%±6.9%), and MDCT (40.4%±7.7%) showed no statistical differences (Kruskal-Wallis statistics 4.538, P=0.1034). A comparison of RVEFs from FP-RNA and GBPS yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.7251; RVEFs between FP-RNA and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.6166 and between GBPS and MDCT showed a correlation coefficient of 0.6367. The RVEF, EDV, and ESV calculated by GBPS had good correlation with those obtained with MDCT. In addition, there were no statistical differences of RVEF calculated from FP-RNA, GBPS, and MDCT. However, with regard to RVV, EDV and ESV from GBPS revealed statistically significantly lower values than those of MDCT. Although reasonable correlations among these modalities were obtained, the agreement among these three modalities was not good enough for interchangeable use in the clinical setting. Also, these results should be confirmed in patients with cardiac diseases in future larger population-based studies. (author)

  4. The story of 12 Chachapoyan mummies through multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Klaus M.; Nemec, Stefan; Czerny, Christian; Fischer, Helga; Plischke, Sonja; Gahleitner, Andre; Viola, Thomas Bence; Imhof, Herwig; Seidler, Horst; Guillen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the imaging findings in Chachapoyan mummies of Peru through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Twelve human mummies and three burial objects from Laguna de los Condores, Peru, about 500-1000 years old, were studied, using a MDCT unit. In addition to the standard whole-body acquisitions, high-resolution scans from areas of particular interest were acquired individually (e.g., temporal bone, teeth). Results: Eight mummies were female, three male, and sex was indeterminable in one mummy; the age of the mummies included newborn, 0.7 years, 2.5 years, 13 years, 13 years, 16 years, and six between 20 and 40 years old. The stature of the mummies was reconstructed (mean ± standard deviation; adults: 145 ± 14 cm, adolescents: 116 ± 17 cm, 2.5 years old child: 72 cm, newborns: 41 ± 3 cm). Dental conditions were compromised in seven and excellent in five mummies. Besides a dislocation of the ossicles, temporal bones and ears were normal in all mummies. An occipital osteoma, a tuberculous spondylodiscitis, and also probable tuberculous erosions at one tarsal joint and one sacral bone, osteoarthritis or tuberculous affection of a sacroiliac joint, as well as five cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were observed. Ten mummies were buried in the fetal position, two were found packaged in bundles; the burial technique was studied in detail. A necklace was found with one mummy. The added burial objects were identified as skeletal parts of two leopardis pardalis and one lagothrix flavicauda. Conclusions: MDCT non-invasively revealed information about age, sex, stature, diseases, burial practices and other cultural aspects of the Chachapoyas.

  5. The story of 12 Chachapoyan mummies through multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Klaus M., E-mail: klaus.friedrich@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Czerny, Christian, E-mail: christian.czerny@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Fischer, Helga, E-mail: helga.fischer@akhwien.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Plischke, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.plischke@akhwien.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gahleitner, Andre, E-mail: andre.gahleitner@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viola, Thomas Bence, E-mail: bence.viola@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Anthropology, Althanstrasse 14, A-1091 Vienna (Austria); Imhof, Herwig, E-mail: herwig.imhof@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Seidler, Horst, E-mail: horst.seidler@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Anthropology, Althanstrasse 14, A-1091 Vienna (Austria); Guillen, Sonja [University of Vienna, Department of Anthropology, Althanstrasse 14, A-1091 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To assess the imaging findings in Chachapoyan mummies of Peru through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Twelve human mummies and three burial objects from Laguna de los Condores, Peru, about 500-1000 years old, were studied, using a MDCT unit. In addition to the standard whole-body acquisitions, high-resolution scans from areas of particular interest were acquired individually (e.g., temporal bone, teeth). Results: Eight mummies were female, three male, and sex was indeterminable in one mummy; the age of the mummies included newborn, 0.7 years, 2.5 years, 13 years, 13 years, 16 years, and six between 20 and 40 years old. The stature of the mummies was reconstructed (mean {+-} standard deviation; adults: 145 {+-} 14 cm, adolescents: 116 {+-} 17 cm, 2.5 years old child: 72 cm, newborns: 41 {+-} 3 cm). Dental conditions were compromised in seven and excellent in five mummies. Besides a dislocation of the ossicles, temporal bones and ears were normal in all mummies. An occipital osteoma, a tuberculous spondylodiscitis, and also probable tuberculous erosions at one tarsal joint and one sacral bone, osteoarthritis or tuberculous affection of a sacroiliac joint, as well as five cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were observed. Ten mummies were buried in the fetal position, two were found packaged in bundles; the burial technique was studied in detail. A necklace was found with one mummy. The added burial objects were identified as skeletal parts of two leopardis pardalis and one lagothrix flavicauda. Conclusions: MDCT non-invasively revealed information about age, sex, stature, diseases, burial practices and other cultural aspects of the Chachapoyas.

  6. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to ...

  12. Multidetector computed tomography has replaced conventional intravenous excretory urography in imaging of the kidneys: A scoping review of multidetector computed tomography findings in renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizakhona B.A. Mthalane

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a worldwide infectious disease burden, especially in non-developed countries, with increased morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Extrapulmonary TB is rare and renal TB is one of the commonest manifestations. The end result of renal TB is end-stage renal disease; however, this can be avoided if the diagnosis is made early. The diagnosis of renal TB is challenging because of the non-specific presentation and low sensitivity of clinical tests. Although the sequel of TB infection in the kidney causes varying manifestations depending on the stage of the disease, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is capable of demonstrating early findings. We performed a 20-year scoping review of MDCT findings in renal TB to promote awareness. Aim: To identify specific MDCT imaging characteristics of renal TB, promote early diagnosis and increase awareness of the typical imaging features. Methods and material: We searched published and unpublished literature from 1997 to 2017 using a combination of search terms on electronic databases. We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 150 articles were identified, of which 145 were found through electronic search engines and 5 were obtained from grey literature. Seventy-nine articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria were reviewed. These included original research, case reports, literature review, organisational reports and grey literature. Conclusion: Multidetector computed tomography can reproduce images comparable with intravenous excretory urography; together with advantages of being able to better assess the renal parenchyma and surrounding spaces, it is important in suggesting the diagnosis of renal TB and clinicians should consider including MDCT when investigating patients with recurrent urinary tract infection not responding to usual antimicrobial therapy.

  13. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Abe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA -950 ) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950 . The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA -950 . (orig.)

  14. Defining Anatomic Variants of the Coronary Artery in Taiwanese Subjects Using 64-Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jung Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed 64-multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT prompted us to evaluate coronary angiography using this noninvasive method. We reviewed 281 images of MDCT coronary angiography in Taiwanese. The origins of the coronary arteries were identified from the luminal aspect of the aorta. We described them as seen from the aortic sinus looking toward the cardiac ventricle. The sinus facing the left ventricle was designated sinus 1, and that facing the right ventricle was designated sinus 2. Anatomic variants of the coronary artery were divided into five types according to the structure of the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery. Of the 281 patients, 275 (97.9% had the type I variant in which the right coronary artery originated from sinus 2. MDCT provides advantages in defining anatomic variation and helps in the planning of clinical therapy or surgery.

  15. Computed tomography in renal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, W.; Eisenberger, F.; Buck, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a group of 19 patients suffering from flank trauma and gross hematuria the diagnostic value of angiography was compared with that of computed tomography. The cases that underwent both tests were found to have the some diagnosis of rupture of the kidney. Typical CT-findings in kidney rupture are demonstrated. Whereas angiography presents an exact picture of the arterial system of the kidney, including its injures computed tomography reveals the extent of organ lesons by showing extra- and intrarenal hematomas. If surgery is planned angiography is still mandatory, whereby the indication is largely determined by the clinical findings. Computed tomography as a non-invasive method is equally suitable for follow-ups. (orig.) [de

  16. Preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in fatty liver: MDCT or MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulemann, Vanessa; Schima, Wolfgang; Tamandl, Dietmar; Kaczirek, Klaus; Gruenberger, Thomas; Wrba, Friedrich; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Twenty preoperative tri-phasic MDCT (4-64-row, Siemens) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (1.5 T or 3.0 T, Siemens) examinations of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases in diffuse steatosis were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent surgical resection for liver metastases (time interval 1-60 days). The amount of fatty infiltration of the liver was determined histopathologically by semi-quantitative percent-wise estimation and ranged from 25 to 75%. Results: Overall, 51 metastases were found by histopathology of the resected liver segments/lobes. The size of the metastases ranged from 0.4 to 13 cm, with 18 (35%) being up to 1 cm in diameter. In the overall rating, MDCT detected 33/51 lesions (65%), and MRI 45/51 (88%). For lesions up to 1 cm, MDCT detected only 2/18 (11%) and MRI 12/18 (66%). One false positive lesion was detected by MDCT. Statistical analysis showed that MRI is markedly superior to MDCT, with a statistically significant difference (p 1 cm. Conclusion: For the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and consecutive diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, MRI is superior to MDCT, especially for the detection of small lesions.

  17. Scimitar syndrome: multi detector computed tomography angiography findings of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, A.; Bozlar, U.; Ors, F.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scimitar syndrome also known as pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality. This abnormality consists of ipsilateral anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of right lung into the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hypoplasia of the right lung, an anomalous systemic arterial supply from supradiaphragmatic aorta to the right lower lobe and dextrocardia. Objectives and tasks: In this article, we aimed to present multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography findings of a case with scimitar syndrome. Material and methods: 21 year old male with dextrocardia and anomalous curvilinear density in the right lower lobe directed toward the right hemidiaphragm on chest radiography was evaluated with MDCT angiography examination. Results: Dextrocardia and interruption of IVC with azygous continuation was detected in MDCT angiography examination. Vertically directing right superior pulmonary vein was draining to the suprahepatic segment of IVC. Pulmonary sequestration in the right lower lobe taking feeder from celiac trunk was detected. Right pulmonary artery was hypoplastic and bronchial tree was abnormal, manifesting as a mirror image in both lung lobes. Conclusion: MDCT angiography is very successful imaging method in demonstrating the anomalous pulmonary vein and assessing pulmonary arterial and bronchial anomalies

  18. Influence of statin treatment on coronary atherosclerosis visualised using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hans [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Klinikum Brandenburg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology, and Pulmonology, Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany); Frieler, Katja [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Potsdam Institut fuer Klimaforschung, Potsdam (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Medical Statistics, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite, Medical School, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin and Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Coronary angiography using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of non-calcified, calcified and mixed plaques. Progression of coronary plaques may be influenced by statins. Sixty-three consecutive patients underwent MDCT as a follow-up to their original CT angiography in a retrospective longitudinal study. MDCT was performed by using a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm{sup 3} at two time points 25 {+-} 3 months apart. Non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaque components were analysed by using volumetric measurement. The influence of statin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and risk factors was assessed by using a linear random intercept model for plaque growth. The volumes of non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaques significantly (P < 0.001) increased from baseline (medians/interquartile ranges = 21/15-39, 7/3-20 and 36/16-69 mm{sup 3}) to follow-up (29/17-44, 13/6-29 and 41/20-75 mm{sup 3}). Statins significantly slowed the growth of non-calcified plaques (statin coefficient {beta} = -0.0036, P = 0.01) but did not significantly affect the growth rate of mixed or calcified plaques. The effect of statin treatment on non-calcified plaques remained significant after adjusting for LDL levels and cardiac risk factors. Quantification using MDCT shows that progression of non-calcified coronary plaques may be slowed by statins. (orig.)

  19. Influence of statin treatment on coronary atherosclerosis visualised using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans; Frieler, Katja; Schlattmann, Peter; Hamm, Bernd; Dewey, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Coronary angiography using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of non-calcified, calcified and mixed plaques. Progression of coronary plaques may be influenced by statins. Sixty-three consecutive patients underwent MDCT as a follow-up to their original CT angiography in a retrospective longitudinal study. MDCT was performed by using a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm 3 at two time points 25 ± 3 months apart. Non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaque components were analysed by using volumetric measurement. The influence of statin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and risk factors was assessed by using a linear random intercept model for plaque growth. The volumes of non-calcified, calcified and mixed coronary plaques significantly (P 3 ) to follow-up (29/17-44, 13/6-29 and 41/20-75 mm 3 ). Statins significantly slowed the growth of non-calcified plaques (statin coefficient β = -0.0036, P = 0.01) but did not significantly affect the growth rate of mixed or calcified plaques. The effect of statin treatment on non-calcified plaques remained significant after adjusting for LDL levels and cardiac risk factors. Quantification using MDCT shows that progression of non-calcified coronary plaques may be slowed by statins. (orig.)

  20. Sixty-Four-Section Cardiac Computed Tomography in Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction: Thrombus or Pannus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet; Kalçik, Macit; Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Astarcioğlu, Mehmet Ali; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Aykan, Ahmet Çağri; Biteker, Murat; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kaya, Hasan; Yesin, Mahmut; Duran, Nilüfer Ekşi; Sevinç, Deniz; Güneysu, Tahsin

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing pannus and thrombus in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction is essential for the selection of proper treatment. We have investigated the utility of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in distinguishing between pannus and thrombus, the latter amenable to thrombolysis. Sixty-two (23 men, mean age 44±14 years) patients with suspected mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction assessed by transesophageal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational trial. Subsequently, MDCT was performed before any treatment was started. Periprosthetic masses were detected by MDCT in 46 patients, and their attenuation values were measured as Hounsfield Units (HU). Patients underwent thrombolysis unless contraindicated, and those with a contraindication or failed thrombolysis underwent surgery. A mass which was completely lysed or surgically detected as a clot was classified as thrombus, whereas a mass which was surgically detected as tissue overgrowth was classified as pannus. A definitive diagnosis could be achieved in 37 patients with 39 MDCT masses (22 thrombus and 17 pannus). The mean attenuation value of 22 thrombotic masses was significantly lower than that in 17 pannus (87±59 versus 322±122; Ppannus from thrombus. Complete lysis was more common for masses with HUpannus overgrowth, whereas a lower value is associated with thrombus formation. A higher attenuation (HU>90) is associated with reduced lysis rates. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Multidetector row computed tomography evaluation of the micropig kidney as a potential renal donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Woong; Lee, Min Young; Ryu, Jung Min; Moon, Yong Ju; Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Yun, Seung Pil; Jang, Min Woo; Park, Sung Su; Han, Ho Jae

    2010-03-01

    Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) provides anatomical information about the kidney and other internal organs. Presently, the suitability of 64-channel MDCT to assess the kidney of healthy micropigs was evaluated. Morphological evaluations of the kidney and the major renal vessels of six healthy micropigs were carried out using MDCT, recording kidney volume and the diameter and length of renal arteries and veins. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal artery were 0.44 +/- 0.05 and 4.51 +/- 0.55 cm on the right side and 0.46 +/- 0.06 and 3.36 +/- 0.27 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean diameters and lengths of the renal vein were 1.44 +/- 0.52 and 4.22 +/- 1.29 cm on the right side and 1.38 +/- 0.17 and 5.15 +/- 0.87 cm on the left side, respectively. The mean volume of the right kidney was 79.3 +/- 14.5 mL and of the left kidney was 78.0 +/- 13.9 mL. The data presented in this study suggest that the MDCT offers a noninvasive, rapid, and accurate method for the evaluation of the renal anatomy in living kidney donors. It also provides sufficient information about extra-renal anatomy important for donor surgery and determination of organ suitability.

  2. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  3. Improved vessel morphology measurements in contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography with non-linear post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencik, Maros; Lisauskas, Jennifer B.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Hoffmann, Udo; Abbara, Suhny; Achenbach, Stephan; Karl, W. Clem; Brady, Thomas J.; Chan, Raymond C.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits detection of coronary plaque. However, noise and blurring impair accuracy and precision of plaque measurements. The aim of the study was to evaluate MDCT post-processing based on non-linear image deblurring and edge-preserving noise suppression for measurements of plaque size. Contrast-enhanced MDCT coronary angiography was performed in four subjects (mean age 55 ± 5 years, mean heart rate 54 ± 5 bpm) using a 16-slice scanner (Siemens Sensation 16, collimation 16 x 0.75 mm, gantry rotation 420 ms, tube voltage 120 kV, tube current 550 mAs, 80 mL of contrast). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS; 40 MHz probe) was performed in one vessel in each patient and served as a reference standard. MDCT vessel cross-sectional images (1 mm thickness) were created perpendicular to centerline and aligned with corresponding IVUS images. MDCT images were processed using a deblurring and edge-preserving noise suppression algorithm. Then, three independent blinded observers segmented lumen and outer vessel boundaries in each modality to obtain vessel cross-sectional area and wall area in the unprocessed MDCT cross-sections, post-processed MDCT cross-sections and corresponding IVUS. The wall area measurement difference for unprocessed and post-processed MDCT images relative to IVUS was 0.4 ± 3.8 mm 2 and -0.2 ± 2.2 mm 2 (p 2 , respectively. In conclusion, MDCT permitted accurate in vivo measurement of wall area and vessel cross-sectional area as compared to IVUS. Post-processing to reduce blurring and noise reduced variability of wall area measurements and reduced measurement bias for both wall area and vessel cross-sectional area

  4. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99 /sup m/Tc, 201 Tl, 123 I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose sinusitis . evaluate sinuses that are filled with fluid or thickened sinus membranes . detect the presence of ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... of the Sinuses? CT is usually the first test ordered when a sinus tumor is suspected. If ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen on a photograph ...

  7. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Multiple detector computed tomography findings after direct lymphangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenbin; Chen, Xiaobai; Wen, Tingguo; Duan, Yongli; Wang, Rengui

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the findings of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) after direct lymphangiography in primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). Fifty-five patients with PIL were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MDCT after direct lymphangiography. The pathologies of 16 patients were confirmed by surgery and the remaining 39 patients were confirmed by gastroendoscopy and/or capsule endoscopy. After direct lymphangiography, MDCT found intra- and extraintestinal as well as lymphatic vessel abnormalities. Among the intra- and extraintestinal disorders, 49 patients had varying degrees of intestinal dilatation, 46 had small bowel wall thickening, 9 had pleural and pericardial effusions, 21 had ascites, 41 had mesenteric oedema, 20 had mesenteric nodules and 9 had abdominal lymphatic cysts. Features of lymphatic vessel abnormalities included intestinal trunk reflux (43.6%, n = 24), lumbar trunk reflux (89.1%, n = 49), pleural and pulmonary lymph reflux (14.5%, n = 8), pericardial and mediastinal lymph reflux (16.4%, n = 9), mediastinal and pulmonary lymph reflux (18.2%, n = 10), and thoracic duct outlet obstruction (90.9%, n = 50). Multiple detector computed tomography after direct lymphangiography provides a safe and accurate examination method and is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of PIL. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Imaging of peripheral arteries by 16-slice computed tomography angiography: a valuable tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Ehtuish, Ehtuish F.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of multidetector (16-row) computed tomography (MDCT) in imaging the upper and lower limb arterial tree in trauma and peripheral vascular disease. Thirty three patients underwent multislice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) of the upper or the lower limb on multislice (16-slice) CT scanner between November 2004 and July 2005 in the Department of Radiology, National Organ Transplant Center, Tripoli, Libya. The findings were retrospectively compared with the surgical outcome in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries; or color Doppler correlation was obtained, for patients of peripheral vascular disease. Multislice computed tomography angiography allows a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in all trauma cases with suspected arterial injuries. In 23 cases of peripheral vascular diseases, MSCTA adequately demonstrated the presence of any stenosis or occlusion, its degree and extent, the presence of collaterals and distal reformation if any; the presence of plaques. Our experience of computed tomography angiography with 16-row MDCT scanner has clearly demonstrated its efficacy as a promising, new, fast, accurate, safe and non-invasive imaging modality of choice in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries; and as a useful screening modality in cases of peripheral vascular disease for diagnosis and for grading. (author)

  9. MDCT of renal and mesenteric vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, D.

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) with multiple detector-row CT (MDCT) has evolved into an established technique for non-invasive imaging of renal and mesenteric vessels. With adequate selection of acquisition parameters (thin collimation) high spatial-resolution volumetric data sets for subsequent 2D and 3D reformation can be acquired. Contrast medium (CM) injection parameters need to be adjusted to the acquisition speed of the scanners. Whereas fast acquisitions allow a reduction of total CM volume in the setting of CTA, this is not the case when CTA is combined with a second-phase abdominal MDCT acquisition for parenchymal (e.g., hepatic) imaging. Renal CTA is an accurate and reliable test for visualizing vascular anatomy and renal artery stenosis, and therefore a viable alternative to MRA in the assessment of patients with renovascular hypertension and in potential living related renal donors. CTA, combined with abdominal/parenchymal MDCT is a first-line diagnostic test in patients with suspected abdominal vascular emergencies, such as acute mesenteric ischemia, and an excellent tool to assess a wide variety of vascular abnormalities of the abdominal viscera. (orig.)

  10. MDCT of renal and mesenteric vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) with multiple detector-row CT (MDCT) has evolved into an established technique for non-invasive imaging of renal and mesenteric vessels. With adequate selection of acquisition parameters (thin collimation) high spatial-resolution volumetric data sets for subsequent 2D and 3D reformation can be acquired. Contrast medium (CM) injection parameters need to be adjusted to the acquisition speed of the scanners. Whereas fast acquisitions allow a reduction of total CM volume in the setting of CTA, this is not the case when CTA is combined with a second-phase abdominal MDCT acquisition for parenchymal (e.g., hepatic) imaging. Renal CTA is an accurate and reliable test for visualizing vascular anatomy and renal artery stenosis, and therefore a viable alternative to MRA in the assessment of patients with renovascular hypertension and in potential living related renal donors. CTA, combined with abdominal/parenchymal MDCT is a first-line diagnostic test in patients with suspected abdominal vascular emergencies, such as acute mesenteric ischemia, and an excellent tool to assess a wide variety of vascular abnormalities of the abdominal viscera. (orig.)

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will be taken to ... in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  12. Computed tomography in hepatic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choliz, J.D.; Olaverri, F.J.L.; Casas, T.F.; Zubieta, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 50 cases of hydatid disease of the liver. It was definite in 49 cases and negative in one case. Pre- and postcontrast scans were performed. CT may reveal the exact location and extension of cysts and possible complications. However, a false-negative case was found in a hydatid cyst located in a fatty liver

  13. Computer tomography in Caisson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, F.; Csobaly, S.; Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, Budapest

    1981-01-01

    Computer tomography was performed on 20 patients with the early stages of Caisson osteoarthropathy, as well as in other patients with chronic bone infarcts. From their results the authors have formed the opinion that CT is valuable, not only in the diagnosis of early cases, but that it can provide significant information concerning the osteopathy and bone infarcts. (orig.) [de

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  15. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan E-mail: hnazarog@dicle.edu.tr; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual.

  16. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual

  17. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  18. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  19. Positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Lamy, T.; Le Gouil, S.; Devillers, A.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Ansquer, C.; Cheze-le Rest, C.; Metges, J.P.; Teyton, P.; Lozach, P.; Volant, A.; Bizais, Y.; Visvikis, D.; Morel, O.; Girault, S.; Soulie, P.; Dupoiron, D.; Berthelot, C.; Lorimier, G.; Jallet, P.; Garin, E.; Prigent, F.; Lesimple, T.; Barge, M.L.; Rousseau, C.; Devillers, A.; Bernard, A.M.; Bouriel, C.; Bridji, B.; Resche, R.; Banayan, S.; Claret, M.; Ninet, J.; Janier, M.; Billotey, C.; Garin, E.; Devillers, A.; Becker, S.; Lecloirec, J.; Boucher, E.; Raoul, J.L.; Rolland, V.; Oudoux, A.; Valette, F.; Dupas, B.; Moreau, P.; Champion, L.; Anract, P.; Wartski, M.; Laurence, V.; Goldwasser, F.; Pecking, A.P.; Alberini, J.L.; Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Allal, B.; Zerdoud, S.; Gansel, M.G.; Thomas, F.; Dierrickx, L.; Delord, J.P.; Marchand, C.; Resche, I.; Mahe, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several oral communications present the interest of positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose in the detection of cancers, or for the follow up of cancers treatments in order to detect early possible relapses.PET FDG is also used to optimize the definition of target volume in order to avoid side effects and to get a better control of the illness. (N.C.)

  20. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of attenuated plaque in stable angina with 64-multidetector computed tomography: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Okabe, Teruo; Endo, Ayaka; Kawamura, Akio; Koga, Seiko; Yamada, Minoru; Fukuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2012-01-01

    To clarify multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of attenuated plaque detected by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). One hundred and fifty-four patients with stable angina underwent MDCT before IVUS. The attenuated plaque was identified in the targeted artery with IVUS, and the same artery was analyzed with MDCT for the presence of a high density area (HDA) >130 Hounsfield units (HU), and a low density area (LDA) HDA in attenuated plaque was compared with that in calcified plaque. Ten attenuated plaques and 15 calcified plaques were identified in 9 of 154 patients (males=9, 66.2 ± 9.5 years). Eight of the 10 attenuated plaques and all 15 calcified plaques were accompanied with a HDA on MDCT. The HDA ranged from 174 to 667 HU (mean 389.0 ± 148.3 HU) in the 8 attenuated plaques, and from 545 to 1,205 HU (mean 920.9 ± 215.9 HU) in 15 calcified plaques. There was a significant difference in CT density of the HDA between the attenuated and calcified plaque (PHDA. MDCT has the ability to demonstrate attenuated plaque as the combination of HDA (approximately 400 HU on average) and LDA HDA can be differentiated from calcified plaque by its lower CT density value.

  2. Effectiveness of Bismuth Shield to Reduce Eye Lens Radiation Dose Using the Photoluminescence Dosimetry in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi Young; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kwon, Soo Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the eye radiation dose when performing routine multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). We also evaluated dose reduction and the effect on image quality of using a bismuth eye shield when performing head MDCT. Examinations were performed with a 64MDCT scanner. To compare the shielded/unshielded lens dose, the examination was performed with and without bismuth shielding in anthropomorphic phantom. To determine the average lens radiation dose, we imaged an anthropomorphic phantom into which calibrated photoluminescence glass dosimeter (PLD) were placed to measure the dose to lens. The phantom was imaged using the same protocol. Radiation doses to the lens with and without the lens shielding were measured and compared using the Student t test. In the qualitative evaluation of the MDCT scans, all were considered to be of diagnostic quality. We did not see any differences in quality between the shielded and unshielded brain. The mean radiation doses to the eye with the shield and to those without the shield were 21.54 versus 10.46 mGy, respectively. The lens shield enabled a 51.3% decrease in radiation dose to the lens. Bismuth in-plane shielding for routine eye and head MDCT decreased radiation dose to the lens without qualitative changes in image quality. The other radiosensitive superficial organs specifically must be protected with shielding.

  3. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  4. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  5. Computed Tomography Helps to Plan Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Kruszec, Paweł; Fijorek, Kamil; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in preparation for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR). An analysis of 187 patients scheduled for MIAVR between June 2009 and December 2014 was conducted. In the study group (n = 86), MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries was performed before the operation. In the control group (n = 101), patients qualified for MIAVR without receiving preoperative MDCT. The surgical strategy was changed preoperatively in 12.8% of patients from the study group and in 2.0% of patients from the control group (p = 0.010) and intraoperatively in 9.9% of patients from the control group and in none from the study group (p = 0.002). No conversion to median sternotomy was necessary in the study group; among the controls, there were 4.0% conversions. On the basis of the MDCT measurements, optimal access to the aortic valve was achieved when the angle between the aortic valve plane and the line to the second intercostal space was 91.9 ± 10.0 degrees and to the third intercostal space was 94.0 ± 1.4 degrees, with the distance to the valve being 94.8 ± 13.8 mm and 84.5 ± 9.9 mm for the second and third intercostal spaces, respectively. The right atrium covering the site of the aortotomy was present in 42.9% of cases when MIAVR had been performed through the third intercostal space and in 1.3% when through the second intercostal space (p = 0.001). Preoperative MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries makes it possible to plan MIAVR operations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  7. Comparative study of single and multislice computed tomography for assessment of the mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Silva Ferreira Paes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of relative measurements from the roof of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest in multislice (multidetector computed tomography (MDCT and single-slice computed tomography (SSCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 26 printed CT films (7 SSCT and 19 MDCT from the files of the LABI-3D (3D Imaging Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of São Paulo (FOUSP, which had been acquired using different protocols. Two observers analyzed in a randomized and independent order a series of 22 oblique CT reconstructions of each patient. Each observer analyzed the CT scans twice. The length of the mandibular canal and the distance between the mandibular canal roof and the crest of the alveolar ridge were obtained. Dahlberg test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean error found for the mandibular canal length measurements obtained from SSCT was 0.53 mm in the interobserver analysis, and 0.38 mm for both observers. On MDCT images, the mean error was 0.0 mm in the interobserver analysis, and 0.0 and 0.23 mm in the intraobserver analysis. Regarding the distance between the mandibular canal roof and the alveolar bone crest, the SSCT images showed a mean error of 1.16 mm in the interobserver analysis and 0.66 and 0.59 mm in the intraobserver analysis. In the MDCT images, the mean error was 0.72 mm in the interobserver analysis and 0.50 and 0.54 mm in the intraobserver analysis. CONCLUSION: Multislice CT was demonstrated a more accurate method and demonstrated high reproducibility in the analysis of important anatomical landmarks for planning of mandibular dental implants, namely the mandibular canal pathway and alveolar crest height.

  8. Pulmonary Emphysema in Cystic Fibrosis Detected by Densitometry on Chest Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielpütz, Mark O.; Weinheimer, Oliver; Eichinger, Monika; Wiebel, Matthias; Biederer, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heußel, Claus P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathological studies on lung specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and recent results from a mouse model indicate that emphysema may contribute to CF lung disease. However, little is known about the relevance of emphysema in patients with CF. In the present study, we used computationally generated density masks based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest for non-invasive characterization and quantification of emphysema in CF. Methods Volumetric MDCT scans were acquired in parallel to pulmonary function testing in 41 patients with CF (median age 20.1 years; range 7-66 years) and 21 non-CF controls (median age 30.4 years; range 4-68 years), and subjected to dedicated software. The lung was segmented, low attenuation volumes below a threshold of -950 Hounsfield units were assigned to emphysema volume (EV), and the emphysema index was computed (EI). Results were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted (FEV1%), residual volume (RV), and RV/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). Results We show that EV was increased in CF (457±530 ml) compared to non-CF controls (78±90 ml) (PEmphysema in CF was detected from early adolescence (~13 years) and increased with age (rs=0.67, Pemphysema detected by densitometry on chest MDCT is a characteristic pathology that contributes to airflow limitation and may serve as a novel endpoint for monitoring lung disease in CF. PMID:23991177

  9. Efficacy of double arterial phase dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with the sensitivity encoding technique versus dynamic multidetector-row helical computed tomography for detecting hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Seishi; Okada, Masahiro; Murakami, Takamichi; Uemura, Masahiko; Haraikawa, Toyoaki; Hirata, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Kim, Tonsok

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of double arterial phase dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the sensitivity encoding technique (SENSE dynamic MRI) for detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with double arterial phase dynamic multidetector-row helical computed tomography (dynamic MDCT). A total of 28 patients with 66 hypervascular HCCs underwent both double arterial SENSE dynamic MRI and dynamic MDCT. The diagnosis of HCC was based on surgical resection (n=7), biopsy (n=10), or a combination of CT during arterial portography (CTAP), CT during hepatic arteriography (CTA), and/or the 6-month follow-up CT (n=49). Based on alternative-free response receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the diagnostic performance for detecting HCC was compared between double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI and double arterial phase dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity, positive predictive value, and mean A Z values for hypervascular HCCs were 72%, 80%, and 0.79, respectively, for SENSE dynamic MRI and 66%, 92%, and 0.78, respectively, for dynamic MDCT. The mean sensitivity for double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI was higher than that for double arterial phase dynamic MDCT, but the difference was not statistically significant. Double arterial phase SENSE dynamic MRI is as valuable as double arterial phase dynamic MDCT for detecting hypervascular HCCs. (author)

  10. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial function using 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuschmid, Martin; Rothfuss, Julia K.; Fenchel, Michael; Stauder, Norbert; Kuettner, Axel; Miller, Stephan; Claussen, Claus D.; Kopp, Andreas F.; Schroeder, Stephen; Burgstahler, Christof; Franow, Andreas; Kuzo, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess functional parameters using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and echocardiography and to compare the results with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). End-diastolic-volume (EDV), end-systolic-volume (ESV), stroke-volume (SV), ejection-fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) were calculated based on CT data sets from 52 patients. Echocardiography was performed in 24 of the 52 patients. The results from MDCT and echocardiography were compared with MRI. A strong correlation between MDCT and MRI (r=0.66-0.90) was found for all parameters. Echocardiography revealed a low or moderate correlation (0.05-0.59). Compared to MRI the average differences with MDCT were for EDV 15.1 ml, ESV 10.6 ml, SV 4.5 ml, EF 1.8%, and MM 8.2 g, for EDV determined by echocardiography 36.2 ml, ESV 6.8 ml, and EF 13.9%. Bland-Altman analysis revealed acceptable limits of agreement between MRI and MDCT. MDCT enables reliable quantification of left ventricular function. Echocardiography was found to have only a moderate agreement of functional parameters with MRI. (orig.)

  11. Cochlear Implant Electrode Localization Using an Ultra-High Resolution Scan Mode on Conventional 64-Slice and New Generation 192-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Leng, Shuai; Diehn, Felix E; Witte, Robert J; Krecke, Karl N; Grimes, Josh; Koeller, Kelly K; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Lane, John I

    2017-08-01

    A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes. Additionally, all specimens were scanned with micro-CT to provide a reference criterion for electrode position. Images were reconstructed according to routine temporal bone clinical protocols. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to scanner type, reviewed images independently to assess resolution of individual electrodes, scalar localization, and severity of image artifact. Serving as the reference standard, micro-CT identified scalar crossover in one specimen; imaging of all remaining cochleae demonstrated complete scala tympani insertions. The 192-slice MDCT scanner exhibited improved resolution of individual electrodes (p implant imaging compared with conventional MDCT. This technology provides important feedback regarding electrode position and course, which may help in future optimization of surgical technique and electrode design.

  12. Industrial applications of computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Kanglong; Qiang Yujun; Yang Fujia

    1992-01-01

    Industrial computer tomography (CT) and its application is a rapidly developing field of high technology. CT systems have been playing important roles in nondestructive testing (NDT) of products and equipment for a number of industries. Recently, the technique has advanced into the area of industrial process control, bringing even greater benefit to mankind. The basic principles and typical structure of an industrial CT system Descriptions are given of some successful CT systems for either NDT application or process control purposes

  13. Computed tomography of projectile injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, A.J.; Rutty, G.N.; Robinson, C.; Morgan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a gold standard in clinical imaging but forensic professions have been slow to embrace radiological advances. Forensic applications of CT are now exponentially expanding, replacing other imaging methods. As post-mortem cross-sectional imaging increases, radiologists will fall under increasing pressure to interpret complex forensic cases involving both living and deceased patients. This review presents a wide variety of weapon and projectile types aiding interpretation of projectile injuries both in forensic and clinical practice

  14. Computed tomography in osteoid osteoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, J.L.; Aubspin, D.; Buchon, R.; Schoenenberger, P.; Flageat, J.

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of suspected osteoid osteoma were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). The role of CT was related, as a key diagnostic tool: radionuclide imaging is helpful in directing subsequent CT scans, which allows the study of complex anatomical sites (spine) or the analysis of atypical lesions (invisible nidus, sclerosis or lytic lesions, double nidus...). CT provides the surgeon with the exact location and extent of the lesion, and thus, CT may allow a more limited surgical resection of the involved bone [fr

  15. The value of computed tomography in ''sciatica''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm-Jurkovic, H.; Hammer, B.

    1981-01-01

    13 cases of therapy-resistant lumboischialgia without herniated disk, caused in 12 cases by a tumour and in 1 case by an abscess, were examined by computed tomography of the lumbar and pelvic region. This method is indicated immediately after insufficient results of conventional X-ray methods (including tomography) and of lumbosacral radiculography. The computed tomography is indispensable also in patients with ''sciatica'' with a known malignoma. The information given by computed tomography is essential for the therapy planning. (author)

  16. Computed tomography of the ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.; Weider, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Otologists and otolaryngologists have described in detail the disorders which are unique to the ossicles. However the anatomy and spectrum of pathology and anatomy of the ossicles are not familiar to most radiologists. Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) and a systematic approach to evaluation now allow accurate identification of even subtle abnormalities of the ossicles. We present the normal anatomy, ossicular abnormalities, and indications for computed tomographic study. Because of the greater diagnostic capability of CT, the radiologist's role has increased in evaluation and treatment planning of patients with suspected ossicular abnormalities. (orig.)

  17. Ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist: Radiation dose and image quality compared to conventional multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werncke, Thomas, E-mail: Werncke.Thomas@mh-hannover.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Sonnow, Lena; Meyer, Bernhard C. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lüpke, Matthias [University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute for General Radiology and Medical Physics, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany); Hinrichs, Jan; Wacker, Frank K.; Falck, Christian von [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Objective of this phantom and cadaveric study was to compare the effective radiation dose (ED) and image quality (IQ) between C-arm computed tomography (CACT) using an ultra-high resolution 1 × 1 binning with a standard 16-slice CT (MDCT) arthrography of the wrist. Methods: ED was determined with thermoluminescence dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom and different patient positions. Imaging was conducted in 10 human cadaveric wrists after tri-compartmental injection of diluted iodinated contrast material and a wire phantom. IQ of MDCT was compared with CACT reconstructed with a soft (CACT1) and sharp (CACT2) kernel. High and low contrast resolution was determined. Three radiologists assessed IQ of wrist structures and occurrence of image artifacts using a 5-point Likert scale. Results: ED of MDCT was comparable to standard CACT (4.3 μSv/3.7 μSv). High contrast resolution was best for CACT2, decreased to CACT1 and MDCT. Low contrast resolution increased between CACT2 and MDCT (P < 0.001). IQ was best for CACT2 (1.3 ± 0.5), decreased to CACT1 (1.9 ± 0.6) and MDCT (3.5 ± 0.6). Non-compromising artifacts were only reported for CACT. Conclusions: The results of this phantom and cadaveric study indicate that ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist bears the potential to outperform MDCT arthrography in terms of image quality and workflow at the cost of mildly increasing image artifacts while radiation dose to the patient is comparably low for both, MDCT and C-Arm CT.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Myocardial Bridging in Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Martin Lopez, Elba; Capunay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Vallejos, Javier; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) are congenital defects of the coronary arteries in which a segment of an epicardial artery lies in the myocardium for part of its course. The current gold standard for diagnosing MB is coronary angiography; however other invasive techniques are also useful. Myocardial bridging can also be visualized with the use of novel non-invasive imaging techniques such as multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in patients undergoing multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Material and Methods: A total of 452 consecutive patients were evaluated with 16-row and 64-row MDCT-CA due to the presence of abnormal findings in myocardial perfusion image tests, symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease, and in asymptomatic patients with a family history of coronary artery disease. The presence of MB, their location and characteristics were analyzed. Myocardial bridging were classified as complete and incomplete bridges with respect to continuity of the myocardium over the tunneled segment of the artery involved. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameter during systole and diastole were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MB was 35.18%; 88 were complete and 71 incomplete. Among complete MB, 6 affected both systole and diastole, 27 presented only systolic compression and 55 showed no compression. Incomplete MB showed absence of arterial compression. Conclusions: Multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography detected a higher prevalence of MB in the study population and allowed to classify them and to assess their functional aspects throughout the cardiac cycle. (authors) [es

  19. The history of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, J.

    1980-01-01

    New scientific discoveries are often made by the synthetising of other discoveries. Computed tomography is such an example. The three necessary elements were: 1/ the fact that certain simple crystals scintillate when exposed to X-rays, 2/ the advent of electronics and 3/ that of computers. The fact that X-rays cause crystals to scintillate was learnt very shortly after Roentgen's discovery, electronics and computers coming very much later. To put all these together and apply them to diagnostic radiology, and at the same time dismiss the concept so firmly ingrained in everyone's mind that an X-ray picture must be produced on photographic film, required a genius. (orig./VJ) [de

  20. Renal replacement lipomatosis: multidetector-row computed tomography findings in one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisir, C.; Can, C.; Kebapci, M.

    2007-01-01

    Replacement lipomatosis of the kidney is the result of severe atrophy of the renal parenchyma often caused by chronic calculus disease with secondary marked benign proliferation of fibrofatty tissue replacing atrophied renal parenchyma. Different radiological modalities have been used to illustrate this entity, with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, and computed tomography (CT) used most frequently. We report multidedector CT (MDCT) findings of replacement lipomatosis in a 50-year-old woman. We think that it accurately provides a complete one-step diagnostic workup and appropriate pre-surgical planning for patients for whom there is a suspicion of replacement lipomatosis

  1. Multidetector row computed tomography in bowel obstruction. Part 2. Large bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rakesh.sinha@uhl-tr.nhs.uk; Verma, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Large bowel obstruction may present as an emergency as high-grade colonic obstruction and can result in perforation. Perforated large bowel obstruction causes faecal peritonitis, which can result in high morbidity and mortality. Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has the potential of providing an accurate diagnosis of large bowel obstruction. The rapid acquisition of images within one breath-hold reduces misregistration artefacts than can occur in critically ill or uncooperative patients. The following is a review of the various causes of large bowel obstruction with emphasis on important pathogenic factors, CT appearances and the use of multiplanar reformatted images in the diagnostic workup.

  2. Multidetector computed tomography diagnosis of gastric volvulus through the foramen of Morgagni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouvet, S; Coulier, B; Pierard, F; Gogoase, M; Coppens, J P; Van Hoof, M

    2014-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is considered to be the rarest form of all diaphragmatic hernias. It develops through a congenital defect in the retrosternal area. Usually asymptomatic, this entity can lead to life-threatening complications such as incarceration, strangulation or volvulus of the herniated viscus. We hereby report a rare case of organoaxial gastric volvulus producing through the foramen of Morgagni in a 78-year-old woman. The full diagnosis was made by upper gastro-intestinal series and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The basic anatomy, physiopathology, diagnostic methods, complications and surgical treatment of Morgagni hernia are briefly reviewed.

  3. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  4. Duodenal diverticulitis. computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Martin, S.; Garcia, J.; Dominguez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal diverticular occur very frequently among the general public. However, duodenal diverticulitis is a very uncommon clinical entity, the diagnosis of which requires radiological studies since the clinical signs cam mimic a great number of disease processes with different treatments. We present a case of duodenal diverticulitis in which the diagnosis according to ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) studies was confirmed intraoperatively. We also review the few cases of this entity reported in the literature. The CT findings are highly suggestive of duodenal diverticulitis given their similarity to those associated with diverticulitis at other sites. (Author) 5 refs,

  5. Mathematical foundations of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Keinert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Along with a review of some of the mathematical foundations of computed tomography, the article contains new results on derivation of reconstruction formulas in a general setting encompassing all standard formulas; discussion and examples of the role of the point spread function with recipes for producing suitable ones; formulas for, and examples of, the reconstruction of certain functions of the attenuation coefficient, e.g., sharpened versions of it, some of them with the property that reconstruction at a point requires only the attenuation along rays meeting a small neighborhood of the point

  6. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam

  7. Brain metastases: computed tomography assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, Victoria; Yagual, Glenda; Vinueza, Clayreth

    1998-01-01

    Intracranial metastatic tumor is relatively frequent in patients with cancer from other origin. Its location and type of metastasis varies in relation to its linage from the primary tumor. And the sequence goes from the most frequent: lung and breast cancer, melanoma, GU tract, leukemia, GI tract, head and neck tumor. Computed tomography findings are extremely varied and non specific, so there are no radiologic characteristics even from the primary tumor. We reviewed 29 TC studies in the Radiology department of ION-SOLCA, from patients with diagnosis of brain metastasis, our findings showed the great variability in the radio-diagnosis imaging. (The author)

  8. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic

  9. Whole-body computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    The vast literature on whole-body CT is presented in this bibliography which is published as a self-contained supplement to the monography entitled whole-body CT. For this documentation, the following journals have been scanned back to the year 1980: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography (JCAT), Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Roentgenstrahlen (RoeFo), Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), Der Radiologe, Neuroradiology, and American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR). The supplement includes keyword indexes that can be searched for terms indicating body organs, body regions, or certain lesions. The author index offers an additional access to the publication wanted. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Dose determination in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.; Gonzalez, M.; Germanier, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the last years the methodologies to determine the dose in computed tomography have been revised. In this work was realized a dosimetric study about the exploration protocols used for simulation of radiotherapy treatments. The methodology described in the Report No. 111 of the American Association of Medical Physiques on a computed tomograph of two cuts was applied. A cylindrical phantom of water was used with dimensions: 30 cm of diameter and 50 cm of longitude that simulates the absorption and dispersion conditions of a mature body of size average. The doses were determined with ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimetry. The results indicate that the dose information that provides the tomograph underestimates the dose between 32 and 35%.

  11. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, I.; Antoun, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  12. MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF INSTABILITY OF AORTIC ANEURYSM WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vishnyakova Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic aneurysm is characterized by high incidence, polymorphic clinical features and sudden onset of severe complications.Aim: To develop a standard multidetector computed tomography (MDCT protocol for aortic aneurysm examination and image analysis for detection the signs of aortic wall instability.Materials and methods: The data of 279 patients with aortic aneurysm who underwent MDCT examination during 2009–2014 was analyzed to identify aortic wall instability signs.Results: Complicated course of aortic aneurysm was observed in 100 cases (36%. The most common sign of aortic wall instability was aortic dissection. According to our results, a new definition of aortic aneurysm complications was elaborated. It included signs of aortic wall instability with incomplete and/or complete disruption of aortic wall layers. A scheme of the most common patterns of aortic wall abnormalities was proposed, allowing a radiologist to reach high accuracy in characterizing this pathology.Conclusion: A dedicated MDCT protocol for aortic aneurysm detection and image analysis can increase quality of radiologic assessment of aneurysm wall allowing to approach to the level of histological accuracy.

  13. Physics properties of non-helical scan using 320-row multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urikura, Atsushi; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Kawatani, Keisuke; Kawashima, Ippei; Goto, Hironori; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, clinical applications utilizing 320-row multi detector computed tomography (320MDCT) have increased, and the physical image properties of 320MDCT have been more concerned. We evaluated the spatial resolution in scan plane and z-direction, image noise and low-contrast sensitivity of non-helical mode (320NH), 640 slices mode by a double slice reconstruction technology (640DS), and 64-row helical mode (64HE) by using a 320MDCT. The spatial resolution in z-direction was evaluated by the section sensitivity profile (SSP) measurement with the micro coin phantom and the contrast transfer ratio (CTR) with the 0.5-mm comb phantom. The in-plane spatial resolution of 320NH was uniform over all the slice positions. The spatial resolution in z-direction decreased from the cathode side toward the anode side. The image noise of the anode side was higher than that of the cathode side. The contrast to noise ratio as index of the low contrast sensitivity was uniform over all the slice position. The CTR of 320NH fluctuated in the z-position, and the fluctuation was improved by 640DS except for the center of rotation. (author)

  14. Gastric cancer: texture analysis from multidetector computed tomography as a potential preoperative prognostic biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giganti, Francesco; Salerno, Annalaura; Marra, Paolo; Esposito, Antonio; Del Maschio, Alessandro; De Cobelli, Francesco [Department of Radiology and Centre for Experimental Imaging San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); Antunes, Sofia [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Centre for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy); Ambrosi, Alessandro [San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); Nicoletti, Roberto [Department of Radiology and Centre for Experimental Imaging San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Orsenigo, Elena [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Surgery, Milan (Italy); Chiari, Damiano; Staudacher, Carlo [San Raffaele Vita-Salute University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Surgery, Milan (Italy); Albarello, Luca [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate the association between preoperative texture analysis from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Fifty-six patients with biopsy-proved gastric cancer were examined by MDCT and treated with surgery. Image features from texture analysis were quantified, with and without filters for fine to coarse textures. The association with survival time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis. The following parameters were significantly associated with a negative prognosis, according to different thresholds: energy [no filter] - Logarithm of relative risk (Log RR): 3.25; p = 0.046; entropy [no filter] (Log RR: 5.96; p = 0.002); entropy [filter 1.5] (Log RR: 3.54; p = 0.027); maximum Hounsfield unit value [filter 1.5] (Log RR: 3.44; p = 0.027); skewness [filter 2] (Log RR: 5.83; p = 0.004); root mean square [filter 1] (Log RR: - 2.66; p = 0.024) and mean absolute deviation [filter 2] (Log RR: - 4.22; p = 0.007). Texture analysis could increase the performance of a multivariate prognostic model for risk stratification in gastric cancer. Further evaluations are warranted to clarify the clinical role of texture analysis from MDCT. (orig.)

  15. Motion artifacts in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.K.

    1979-01-01

    In the year 1972, the first Computed Tomography Scanner (or CT) was introduced and caused a revolution in the field of Diagnostic Radiology. A tomogram is a cross-sectional image of a three-dimensional object obtained through non-invasive measurements. The image that is presented is very similar to what would be seen if a thin cross-sectional slice of the patient was examined. In Computed Tomography, x-rays are passed through the body of a patient in many different directions and their attenuation is detected. By using some mathematical theorems, the attenuation information can be converted into the density of the patient along the x-ray path. Combined with modern sophisticated computer signal processing technology, a cross-sectional image can be generated and displayed on a TV monitor. Usually a good CT image relies on the patient not moving during the x-ray scanning. However, for some unconscious or severely ill patients, this is very difficult to achieve. Thus, the motion during the scan causes the so-called motion artifacts which distort the displayed image and sometimes these motion artifacts make diagnosis impossible. Today, to remove or avoid motion artifacts is one of the major efforts in developing new scanner systems. In this thesis, a better understanding of the motion artifacts problem in CT scaning is gained through computer simulations, real scanner experiments and theoretical analyses. The methods by which the distorted image can be improved are simulated also. In particular, it is assumed that perfect knowledge of the patient motion is known since this represents the theoretical limit on how well the distorted image can be improved

  16. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  17. MDCT classification of osseous ankle and foot injuries; MDCT-Klassifikation knoecherner Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenks und des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opherk, J.P.; Rosenthal, H.; Galanski, M. [Medizinische Hochschule, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Conventional radiography plays an essential role in the primary evaluation of acute ankle and foot trauma. In the case of complex injuries, however, subsequent computed tomography (CT) is nowadays recommended. In this connection, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with the conventional single-slice spiral CT. Multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction of the acquired data sets are also helpful tools for critical assessment of therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the potential of the MDCT technique for accurate fracture classification, precise illustration of displaced components, and postoperative control of arrangement of typical lesions. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Radiographie spielt bei der initialen Diagnostik akuter Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenks und des Fusses eine essenzielle Rolle. Im Falle komplexer Frakturen ist jedoch eine weiterfuehrende computertomographische Diagnostik empfehlenswert. Dabei ist die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) der konventionellen Einzeilencomputertomographie hinsichtlich Zeit-, Orts- und Kontrastaufloesung deutlich ueberlegen. Die multiplanare Reformation und dreidimensionale Rekonstruktion des akquirierten Datensatzes sind zudem bei der Beurteilung therapeutischer Interventionen aussagekraeftige Werkzeuge. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die exakte Frakturklassifikation, die praezise Abbildung dislozierter Komponenten und die postoperative Stellungskontrolle typischer Verletzungen mit dieser Technik. (orig.)

  18. Measuring Weld Profiles By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive computer tomography system determines internal and external contours of welded objects. System makes it unnecessary to take metallurgical sections (destructive technique) or to take silicone impressions of hidden surfaces (technique that contaminates) to inspect them. Measurements of contours via tomography performed 10 times as fast as measurements via impression molds, and tomography does not contaminate inspected parts.

  19. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and

  20. Anatomical variants of celiac trunk, hepatic and renal arteries in a population of developing country using multidetector computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifuzzaman, M.; Naqvi, S.S.N.; Rasool, M.; Hussain, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)s has become a major part in evaluation of hepatic and renal tumours. With improvements in MDCT, CT angiography has also improved and normal anatomy and its variants in patients undergoing operative or interventional procedures can be effectively studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anatomical variation of celiac trunk, hepatic and renal arterial systems in patients undergoing multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on CT angiographies performed during the months of October till December 2015. Hepatic and renal arteries and celiac trunk were studied and normal and anatomical variations were noted. All patients with abnormalities affecting the vessels or a history of any vascular abnormality were excluded from the study. Results: Out of total 110 patients, 69.1% had normal and 30.9% had variant hepatic artery with Michel Type IV being the most common variant whereas 88.2% had normal celiac trunk and 8.2% had gastrosplenic trunk variant. Variation in renal arterial system was observed in 15.5% of the patients with two renal arteries on right and two on left being the most common type. Multiple variants were identified in 11.8% of the patients. Conclusion: The type and knowledge of anatomy is of prime importance for an optimum preoperative planning in surgical or radiological procedure. MDCT allows minimally invasive assessment of arterial anatomy with high quality 3D reconstruction images. (author)

  1. Measurement of spinal canal narrowing, interpedicular widening, and vertebral compression in spinal burst fractures: plain radiographs versus multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Frank V.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K.; Kiuru, Martti J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reliability of measurements of spinal canal narrowing, vertebral body compression, and interpedicular widening in burst fractures in radiography compared with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Patients who had confirmed acute vertebral burst fractures over an interval of 34 months underwent both MDCT and radiography. Measurements of spinal canal narrowing, vertebral body compression, and interpedicular widening from MDCT and radiography were compared. The 108 patients (30 female, 78 male, aged 16-79 years, mean 39 years) had 121 burst fractures. Eleven patients had multiple fractures, of which seven were not contiguous. Measurements showed a strong positive correlation between radiography and MDCT (Spearman's rank sum test: spinal canal narrowing k = 0.50-0.82, vertebral compression k = 0.55-0.72, and interpedicular widening k = 0.81-0.91, all P 0.25) and for interpedicular widening in the thoracic spine (k = 0.35, P = 0.115). The average difference in measurements between the modalities was 3 mm or fewer. Radiography demonstrates interpedicular widening, spinal canal narrowing and vertebral compression with acceptable precision, with the exception of those of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  2. Increased epicardial fat volume quantified by 64-multidetector computed tomography is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and totally occlusive lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji; Anzai, Toshihisa; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the epicardial fat volume measured by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the extension and severity of coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. Both MDCT and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in 71 consecutive patients who presented with effort angina. The volume of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was measured by MDCT. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by evaluating the extension of coronary plaques in 790 segments using MDCT data, and the percentage diameter stenosis in 995 segments using CAG data. The estimated volume of EAT indexed by body surface area was defined as VEAT. Increased VEAT was associated with advanced age, male sex, degree of metabolic alterations, a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the presence of total occlusions, and showed positive correlation with the stenosis score r=0.28, P=0.02) and the atheromatosis score (r=0.67, P 3 /m 2 ) to be the strongest independent determinant of the presence of total occlusions odds ratio 4.64. P=0.02). VEAT correlates with the degree of metabolic alterations and coronary atheromatosis. Excessive accumulation of EAT might contribute to the development of ACS and coronary total occlusions. (author)

  3. An introduction to emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes salient features of the theory and an examination of practical considerations for someone who is using or introducing tomography, selecting equipment for it or wishing to develop a clinical application. Emphasis is on gamma camera tomography. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: emission computed and gamma camera tomography and the relationship to other medical imaging techniques, the tomographic reconstruction technique theory, rotating gamma camera tomography, attenuation correction and quantitative reconstruction, other single photon tomographic techniques, positron tomography, image display, clinical application of single photon and positron tomography, and commercial systems for SPECT. Substantial bibliography. (U.K.)

  4. Multidetector Computed Tomography Arthrography of the Shoulder: Diagnostic Accuracy and Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, M.; Bertellini, A.; Sverzellati, N.; Pogliacomi, F.; Costantino, C.; Vitale, M.; Zappia, M.; Corradi, D.; Garlaschi, G.; Zompatori, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The presence of subcutaneous implants, such as permanent defibrillators, is an absolute contraindication to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, MRI is unadvisable in subjects with metallic hardware near the area of study, as artifacts generated by such materials distort image quality. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with multidetector computed tomography arthrography (arthro-MDCT) of the shoulder in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to MRI and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Material and Methods: After intraarticular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 70 shoulders in 70 patients (30 females, 40 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. The patients had arthralgia but no radiologically detected fractures. They could not be studied by MRI because of absolute contraindications (subcutaneous electronic implants), surgical metal implants, or claustrophobia. In 28 of the 70 patients who had had previous shoulder surgery, the arthro-CT examination was preceded by an MRI on the same day. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In the 42 non-operated patients, the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity and specificity ranging between 87% and 100%. In the 28 operated shoulders, arthro-MDCT had an accuracy of 94% compared with 25% with MRI. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (κ=0.95) in the evaluation of all types of lesions, both on MDCT and MRI. When arthro-MDCT was compared with MRI in the postoperative patients by a McNemar test, a significant difference (P<0.05) was found between these two techniques. Conclusion: Arthro-MDCT of the shoulder is a safe technique that provides

  5. Multidetector Computed Tomography Arthrography of the Shoulder: Diagnostic Accuracy and Indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, M.; Bertellini, A.; Sverzellati, N.; Pogliacomi, F.; Costantino, C.; Vitale, M.; Zappia, M.; Corradi, D.; Garlaschi, G.; Zompatori, M. (Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Parma, Parma Hospital, Parma (Italy))

    2008-06-15

    Background: The presence of subcutaneous implants, such as permanent defibrillators, is an absolute contraindication to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, MRI is unadvisable in subjects with metallic hardware near the area of study, as artifacts generated by such materials distort image quality. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with multidetector computed tomography arthrography (arthro-MDCT) of the shoulder in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to MRI and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Material and Methods: After intraarticular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 70 shoulders in 70 patients (30 females, 40 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. The patients had arthralgia but no radiologically detected fractures. They could not be studied by MRI because of absolute contraindications (subcutaneous electronic implants), surgical metal implants, or claustrophobia. In 28 of the 70 patients who had had previous shoulder surgery, the arthro-CT examination was preceded by an MRI on the same day. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In the 42 non-operated patients, the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity and specificity ranging between 87% and 100%. In the 28 operated shoulders, arthro-MDCT had an accuracy of 94% compared with 25% with MRI. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (kappa=0.95) in the evaluation of all types of lesions, both on MDCT and MRI. When arthro-MDCT was compared with MRI in the postoperative patients by a McNemar test, a significant difference (P<0.05) was found between these two techniques. Conclusion: Arthro-MDCT of the shoulder is a safe technique that provides

  6. Computed tomography of surface related radionuclide distributions ('BONN'-tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Koenig, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method called the 'BONN' tomography is described to produce planar projections of circular activity distributions using standard single photon emission computed tomography. The clinical value of the method is demonstrated for bone scans of the jaw, thorax, and pelvis. Numerical or projection-related problems are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Cong; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Daoping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning the treatment of splenic aneurysms. Methods: Eight cases with splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty four-slice spiral CT scans were performed. Intravenous contrast material was injected at 4 ml/s, and arterial and venous phase images were obtained. Subsequently, arterial phase images were analyzed and made for CT angiography. The diagnosis was made by using axial and reconstructive images. All of the patients were also performed Doppler color echocardiography. Results: All patients showed splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysms clearly with CT arterial phase images. Among them, six patients had splenic artery aneurysms, one had giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAA) and one had splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. Ultrasound examination only diagnosed six of them. Conclusion: MDCT is a noninvasive and valuable method in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms and has high value in determination of treatment plan

  8. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Cong [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Institute, Road jing-wu No. 324, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)], E-mail: suncong03@163.com; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Daoping [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Institute, Road jing-wu No. 324, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning the treatment of splenic aneurysms. Methods: Eight cases with splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty four-slice spiral CT scans were performed. Intravenous contrast material was injected at 4 ml/s, and arterial and venous phase images were obtained. Subsequently, arterial phase images were analyzed and made for CT angiography. The diagnosis was made by using axial and reconstructive images. All of the patients were also performed Doppler color echocardiography. Results: All patients showed splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysms clearly with CT arterial phase images. Among them, six patients had splenic artery aneurysms, one had giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAA) and one had splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. Ultrasound examination only diagnosed six of them. Conclusion: MDCT is a noninvasive and valuable method in diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysms and has high value in determination of treatment plan.

  9. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.; Choi, B.J.; Kang, D.K.; Sun, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD TM ) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD sub ) or subendocardial DE (DE sub ) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p TM (0.761) and DE TM (0.771). The presence of EPD TM , DE TM , and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD TM was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  10. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-12-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children.

  11. Computed tomography of splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Federle, M.P.; Goodman, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty patients with abdominal trauma and possible splenic injury were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). CT correctly diagnosed 21 of 22 surgically proved traumatic sesions of the spleen (96%). Twenty-seven patients had no evidence of splenic injury. This was confirmed at operation in 1 patient and clinical follow-up in 26. There were one false negative and one false positive. In 5 patients (10%), CT demonstrated other clinically significant lesions, including hepatic or renal lacerations in 3 and large retroperitoneal hematomas in 2. In adolescents and adults, CT is an accurate, noninvasive method of rapidly diagnosing splenic trauma and associated injuries. Further experience is needed to assess its usefulness in evaluating splenic injuries in infants and small children

  12. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M; Rupp, N

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  14. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  15. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions

  16. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  17. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2011-12-01

    Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved in these accidents, we recommend ruling out of internal injury by MDCT as the primary imaging modality.

  18. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  19. Prediction of optimal deployment projection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: angiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction of the aortic root versus multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Ronald K; Leipsic, Jonathon; Wood, David; Moore, Teri; Toggweiler, Stefan; Willson, Alex; Gurvitch, Ronen; Freeman, Melanie; Webb, John G

    2012-04-01

    Identifying the optimal fluoroscopic projection of the aortic valve is important for successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Various imaging modalities, including multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), have been proposed for prediction of the optimal deployment projection. We evaluated a method that provides 3-dimensional angiographic reconstructions (3DA) of the aortic root for prediction of the optimal deployment angle and compared it with MDCT. Forty patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR at St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada, were evaluated. All underwent preimplant 3DA and 68% underwent preimplant MDCT. Three-dimensional angiographic reconstructions were generated from images of a C-arm rotational aortic root angiogram during breath-hold, rapid ventricular pacing, and injection of 32 mL contrast medium at 8 mL/s. Two independent operators prospectively predicted perpendicular valve projections. The implant angle was chosen at the discretion of the physician performing TAVR. The angles from 3DA, from MDCT, the implant angle, and the postdeployment perpendicular prosthesis view were compared. The shortest distance from the postdeployment perpendicular prosthesis projection to the regression line of predicted perpendicular projections was calculated. All but 1 patient had adequate image quality for reproducible angle predictions. There was a significant correlation between 3DA and MDCT for prediction of perpendicular valve projections (r=0.682, Pregression line of predicted angles to the postdeployment prosthesis view was 5.1±4.6° for 3DA and 7.9±4.9° for MDCT (P=0.01). Three-dimensional angiographic reconstructions and MDCT are safe, practical, and accurate imaging modalities for identifying the optimal perpendicular valve deployment projection during TAVR.

  20. Evaluation of right ventricular function with multidetector computed tomography: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of inter- and intraobserver variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mira; Teige, Florian; Schnapauff, Dirk; Hamm, Bernd; Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite, Medical School, Berlin, PO Box 10098 (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This study was performed to prospectively compare multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with 16 simultaneous sections and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of global right ventricular function in 50 patients. MDCT using a semiautomatic analysis tool showed good correlation with MRI for end-diastolic volume (EDV, r=0.83, p<0.001), end-systolic volume (ESV, r=0.86, p<0.001) and stroke volume (SV, r=0.74, p<0.001), but only a moderate correlation for the ejection fraction (EF, r=0.67, p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis revealed a slight, but insignificant overestimation of EDV (4.0 ml, p= 0.08) and ESV (2.4 ml, p=0.07), and underestimation of EF (0.1%, p=0.92) with MDCT compared with MRI. All limits of agreement between both modalities (EF: {+-}15.7%, EDV: {+-}31.0 ml, ESV: {+-}18.0 ml) were in a moderate but acceptable range. Interobserver variability of MDCT was not significantly different from that of MRI. For MDCT software, the post-processing time was significantly longer (19.6{+-}5.8 min) than for MRI (11.8{+-}2.6 min, p<0.001). Accurate assessment of right ventricular volumes by 16-detector CT is feasible but still rather time-consuming. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of prosthetic valve obstruction on electrocardiographically gated multidetector-row computed tomography--identification of subprosthetic pannus in the aortic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tomohiro; Teshima, Hideki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic role of electrocardiographically gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) in the aortic position. Between 2002 and 2006, 9 patients were diagnosed with PVO of an aortic bileaflet mechanical valve based on echocardiographic and cineradiographic criteria. These 9 patients were examined using MDCT before replacement of the mechanical valve, and intraoperative findings were compared to morphologic periprosthetic abnormalities observed on MDCT. CT attenuation (Hounsfield units; HU) of the periprosthetic abnormalities was measured to investigate the underlying cause of the PVO. MDCT showed subprosthetic masses extending beyond the prosthetic ring into the orifice of the valve. At reoperation, presence of subprosthetic pannus was confirmed in all of the 9 patients, but no periprosthetic thrombus was found. The mean CT attenuation of the subprosthetic pannus was 170 HU, and it was significantly greater than that obtained from the interventricular septum (108 HU; Ppannus causing PVO and the mean CT attenuation of subprosthetic pannus is significantly higher than that of the interventricular septum on MDCT.

  2. Sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum: a tertiary center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladimir M; Wani, Sachin B; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris M; Mullady, Daniel K; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S; Early, Dayna S; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Azar, Riad R

    2013-04-01

    There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: (1) evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum; and (2) assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and cross-sectional imaging. The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than the sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) (P pancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (κ = 0.43). Endoscopic ultrasound is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum.

  3. SENSITIVITY OF ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND, MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PANCREAS DIVISUM: A TERTIARY CENTER EXPERIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladimir M.; Wani, Sachin B.; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris; Mullady, Daniel; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S.; Early, Dayna S.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Azar, Riad R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: 1. Evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum. 2. Assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent ERP and cross-sectional imaging. RESULTS The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) [ppancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (қ=0.43). CONCLUSIONS EUS is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum. PMID:23211370

  4. Perfusion Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability — a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu Mirabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial viability plays an important role in preventing the development of left ventricular remodeling following an acute myocardial infarction. A preserved viability in the infarcted area has been demonstrated to be associated with a lower amplitude of the remodeling process, while the extent of the non-viable myocardium is directly correlated with the amplitude of the remodeling process. A number of methods are currently in use for the quantification of the viable myocardium, and some of them are based on the estimation of myocardial perfusion during pharmacologic stress. 64-slice Multi-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT during vasodilator stress test, associated with CT Coronary Angiography (CCTA has a high diagnostic accuracy in evaluating myocardial perfusion. In this article, we present a sequence of 3 clinical cases that presented with symptoms of myocardial ischemia, who underwent 64-slice MDCT imaging at rest and during adenosine stress test, in order to assess the extent of the hypoperfused myocardial areas. Coronary artery anatomy and the Coronary Calcium Score was assessed for all 3 patients by performing CT Coronary Angiography. The combination of CT Angiography and adenosine stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging can accurately detect atherosclerosic lesions that cause perfusion abnormalities, compared with the combination of invasive angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT.

  5. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.D.; Ritman, E.L.; Robb, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  7. Multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography. Optimization of image reconstruction phase according to the heart rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Takazakura, Ryutaro; Nitta, Norihisa; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ushio, Noritoshi; Matsuo, Shinro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Horie, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the image reconstruction phase of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography according to the heart rate is crucial. Scan data were reconstructed for 10 different phases in 58 sequential patients who under went 8-row cardiac MDCT. The obtained images were scored and compared in terms of motion artifacts and visibility of the vessels, and moreover, electrocardiogram (ECG) record-based evaluations were added for clarification of the temporal relationships among these 10 phases. In the cases with lower heart rates ( 65 beats/mm), they were obtained in the late systolic period. As the heart rate increased, the optimal image reconstruction phase changed from mid diastole to late systole. However, it is recommended to try to decrease the heart rate of patients before data acquisition. (author)

  8. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings

  9. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  10. Diagnostic imaging strategy for MDCT- or MRI-detected breast lesions: use of targeted sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Satoko; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Mibu, Akemi; Karikomi, Masato; Sakata, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Leading-edge technology such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) often reveals mammographically and ultrasonographically occult lesions. MRI is a well-documented, effective tool to evaluate these lesions; however, the detection rate of targeted sonography varies for MRI detected lesions, and its significance is not well established in diagnostic strategy of MRI detected lesions. We assessed the utility of targeted sonography for multidetector-row CT (MDCT)- or MRI-detected lesions in practice. We retrospectively reviewed 695 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who were candidates for breast conserving surgery and underwent MDCT or MRI in our hospital between January 2004 and March 2011. Targeted sonography was performed in all MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions followed by imaging-guided biopsy. Patient background, histopathology features and the sizes of the lesions were compared among benign, malignant and follow-up groups. Of the 695 patients, 61 lesions in 56 patients were detected by MDCT or MRI. The MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions were identified by targeted sonography in 58 out of 61 lesions (95.1%). Patients with pathological diagnoses were significantly older and more likely to be postmenopausal than the follow-up patients. Pathological diagnosis proved to be benign in 20 cases and malignant in 25. The remaining 16 lesions have been followed up. Lesion size and shape were not significantly different among the benign, malignant and follow-up groups. Approximately 95% of MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions were identified by targeted sonography, and nearly half of these lesions were pathologically proven malignancies in this study. Targeted sonography is a useful modality for MDCT- or MRI-detected breast lesions

  11. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  12. Cone-beam computed tomography arthrography: an innovative modality for the evaluation of wrist ligament and cartilage injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhian-Wihlm, Reeta [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Strasbourg (France); Le Minor, Jean-Marie [University of Strasbourg, Institute of Anatomy, Strasbourg (France); University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Dentistry, Strasbourg (France); Schmittbuhl, Matthieu [University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Dentistry, Strasbourg (France); Jeantroux, Jeremy; Veillon, Francis; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Bierry, Guillaume [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); Mahon, Peter Mac [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become an important modality in dento-facial imaging but remains poorly used in the exploration of the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the performance and radiation exposure of CBCT arthrography in the evaluation of ligament and cartilage injuries in cadaveric wrists, with gross pathology findings as the standard of reference. Conventional arthrography was performed under fluoroscopic guidance on 10 cadaveric wrists, followed by MDCT acquisition and CBCT acquisition. CBCT arthrography and MDCT arthrography images were independently analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists working independently and then in consensus. The following items were observed: scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) (tear, integrity), and proximal carpal row cartilage (chondral tears). Wrists were dissected and served as the standard of reference for comparisons. Interobserver agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined. Radiation dose (CTDI) of both modalities was recorded. CBCT arthrography provides equivalent results to MDCT arthrography in the evaluation of ligaments and cartilage with sensitivity and specificity between 82 and 100%, and interobserver agreement between 0.83 and 0.97. However, radiation dose was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for CBCT arthrography than for MDCT arthrography with a mean CTDI of 2.1 mGy (range 1.7-2.2) versus a mean of 15.1 mGy (range 14.7-16.1). CBCT arthrography appears to be an innovative alternative to MDCT arthrography of the wrist as it allows an accurate and low radiation dose evaluation of ligaments and cartilage. (orig.)

  13. The value of MDCT in diagnosis of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Rengui; Zhu, Xuejun; Gao, Li; Chen, Jiuhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon entity characterized by a massive growth of lymphoid tissue. There are two types: the hyaline-vascular (HV) type and the plasma cell (PC) type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for hyaline-vascular CD. Materials and methods: Fifty-two cases of confirmed hyaline-vascular CD were retrospectively reviewed. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MDCT scans had been performed in all patients, followed by surgery and pathological analysis of the lesion. Original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images were used for image interpretation. Features of the lesion and its adjacent structures were identified. Results: The lesion was present in the thorax of 24 patients and the abdomen in 28. Obvious features of hyaline-vascular CD (especially feeding vessels and draining veins) and its adjacent structures were demonstrated on 52 patients. Conclusion: On MDCT imaging, original MDCT transverse and reconstructed images provide an excellent tool for diagnosis of hyaline-vascular CD and have high value in the determination of a treatment plan

  14. Accurate determination of high-risk coronary lesion type by multidetector cardiac computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasnag, Mirvat; Umakanthan, Branavan; Foster, Gary P

    2008-07-01

    Coronary arteriography (CA) is the standard method to image coronary lesions. Multidetector cardiac computerized tomography (MDCT) provides high-resolution images of coronary arteries, allowing a noninvasive alternative to determine lesion type. To date, no studies have assessed the ability of MDCT to categorize coronary lesion types. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of lesion type categorization by MDCT using CA as a reference standard. Patients who underwent both MDCT and CA within 2 months of each other were enrolled. MDCT and CA images were reviewed in a blinded fashion. Lesions were categorized according to the SCAI classification system (Types I-IV). The origin, proximal and middle segments of the major arteries were analyzed. Each segment comprised a data point for comparison. Analysis was performed using the Spearman Correlation Test. Four hundred eleven segments were studied, of which 110 had lesions. The lesion distribution was as follows: 35 left anterior descending (LAD), 29 circumflex (Cx), 31 right coronary artery (RCA), 2 ramus intermedius, 8 diagonal, 4 obtuse marginal and 2 left internal mammary arteries. Correlations between MDCT and CA were significant in all major vessels (LAD, Cx, RCA) (p < 0.001). The overall correlation coefficient was 0.67. Concordance was strong for lesion Types II-IV (97%) and poor for Type I (30%). High-risk coronary lesion types can be accurately categorized by MDCT. This ability may allow MDCT to play an important noninvasive role in the planning of coronary interventions.

  15. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Hek; Lee, Joong Suk; Chun, Beung He; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst

  16. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  18. X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A

    2006-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  19. Computed tomography of epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Mana; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) of epileptic children, especially in the area of the temporal horn. The subjects were 242 epileptic children excluding those with encephalitis, brain tumor, neurocutaneous syndromes, degenerative disease, hydrocephalus etc. The control subjects were 195 children without any neurological disease and symptoms. CT scan were taken with a TCT-60A whole body scanner, and 14 check points were evaluated excluding the temporal horn. 195 epileptic children (N-group) and all control children were normal at 14 check points. Next, the areas of the temporal horns and adjoining hemispheres of the epileptic children (N-group) and control children were examined with Muto-Tablet-Desitizer. The temporal horn ratio ((area of temporal horn/area of ipsilateral hemisphere) x 100) was greater in younger children of the control group, and it was higher in epileptic than in control children. Enlargement of the temporal horn was seen in 1 % of the controls and in 35 % of the 125 epileptic children with normal measurements at 14 points on CT scans (p < 0.01). The frequency of enlargement of temporal horns was not variable among different epileptic types. In the epileptic children with normal CT scans except for enlargement of temporal horns behavioral disturbances were 6 boys and 5 had enlarged temporal horns (bilateral 1 case, left side 1 case, right side 3 cases). (author)

  20. Computed Tomography of Interacerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. The precise anatomic extent of the nematoma, associated cerebral edema, ventricular deformity and displacement, and hydrocephalus are all readily assessed. Aside from head trauma, the principal cause of intracerebral hematoma is hypertensive vascular disease. Although hematomas from various causes may present similar CT appearances frequently the correct etiology may be suggested by consideration of patient's age, clinical history, and the location of the hematoma. The analytical study was performed in 180 cases of intracerebral hemorrhages by CT from October 1981 to January 1983. The results were as follows; 1. The most prevalent age group was 6th decade (37.2%). Male was prevalent to female at the ration of 1.6 to 1. 2. The most common symptom and sign was mental disturbance (48.7%), motor weakness (23%), headache (10.6%), nausea and vomiting (9.8%). 3. The causes of hemorrhage were hypertension (53.9%), head trauma (30.6%), aneurysm (6.1%) and A-V malformation (7.2%). 4. The frequent locations of hemorrhage were basal ganglia and thalamus (40.4%), lobes (35%), ventricles (21.8%). 5. The distribution of hemorrhage was intracerebral hemorrhage (65.6%), intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (30.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (4.4%).

  1. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, D.; Dafni, E.; Levene, S.; Malamud, G.; Shapiro, O.; Shechter, G.; Zahavi, O.

    1999-01-01

    Computerized Tomography. has become, during the past few years, one of the mostly used apparatus in X-ray diagnosis. Its clinical applications has penetrated to various fields, like operational guidance, cardiac imaging, computer aided surgery etc. The first second-generation CT scanners consisted of a rotate-rotate system detectors array and an X-ray tube. These scanners were capable of acquiring individual single slices, the duration of each being several seconds. The slow scanning rate, and the then poor computers power, limited the application range of these scanners, to relatively stable organs, short body coverage at given resolutions. Further drawbacks of these machines were weak X-ray sources and low efficiency gas detectors. In the late 80's the first helical scanners were introduced by Siemens. Based on a continuous patient couch movement during gantry rotation, much faster scans could be obtained, increasing significantly the volume coverage at a given time. In 1992 the first dual-slice scanners, equipped with high efficiency solid state detectors were introduced by Elscint. The acquisition of data simultaneously from two detector arrays doubled the efficiency of the scan. Faster computers and stronger X-ray sources further improved the performance, allowing for a new range of clinical applications. Yet, the need for even faster machines and bigger volume coverage led to further R and D efforts by the leading CT manufacturers. In order to accomplish the most demanding clinical needs, innovative 2 dimensional 4-rows solid-state detector arrays were developed, together with faster rotating machines and bigger X-ray tubes, all demanding extremely accurate and robust mechanical constructions. Parallel, multi-processor custom computers were made, in order to allow the on-line reconstruction of the growing amounts of raw data. Four-slice helical scanners, rotating at 0.5 sec per cycle are being tested nowadays in several clinics all over the world. This talk

  2. Anatomical variation of celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and hepatic artery: Evaluation with multidetector computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farghadani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery (SMA, and hepatic artery are the most important branches of abdominal aorta due to their vascularization field. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of different anatomical variation of celiac axis, SMA, hepatic artery, and its branches with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT angiography of upper abdomen arteries. Materials and Methods: MDCT of 607 kidney donor and traumatic patients that referred to MDCT unit at Al Zahra Hospital in Isfahan from 2012 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. We excluded patients with history of abdominal vascular surgery and hepatic or pancreatic surgery. Computed tomography images of the patient were obtained with 64-row MDCT scanner and anatomical variations were analyzed. Results: Three hundred and eighty-eight (63.9% of the 607 patients had classic arterial anatomy and 219 (36.1% patients had variant types. The most common type of variation was the origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA from SMA (9.6%, and the next common variation was the origin of the left hepatic artery (LHA from the left gastric artery (6.9%. Variations in the origin of the common hepatic artery (CHA were seen in 16 (2.6% patients. Buhler arc was identified in two patients. The RHA originated from the celiac axis in 11 (1.8% patients and from the aorta in 8 (1.3% patients. Trifurcation of CHA into gastroduodenal artery, RHA, and LHA was detected in 11 (1.8% patients. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that anatomical variation occurs in a high percentage of patients. Detection of these variations can guide surgical and radiological interventional planning.

  3. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  4. Computed tomography of the facial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

  5. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar; Shimabukuro Michio; Nishiuchi Takeshi; Ueno Junji; Takao Shoichiro; Fukuda Daiju; Hirata Yoichiro; Kurobe Hirotsugu; Soeki Takeshi; Iwase Takashi; Kusunose Kenya; Niki Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi Koji; Taketani Yoshio; Yagi Shusuke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-se...

  6. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gurudevan, Swaminatha V. [Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA (United States); Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A. [Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  7. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hayato, E-mail: m04149@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Tazawa, Yoko; Kumano, Reiko [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This is the first study to demonstrate the anatomy of thyroid veins on contrasted-enhanced MDCT. • Identifying the thyroid vein on MDCT prior to selective venous sampling of parathyroid hormone provides clinical information to interventional radiologist. • Detecting especially the inferior thyroid veins with individual variability in numbers, locations, and lengths may have an effect on SVS for HPT and decrease the difficulty and time of the procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Design and methods: : The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15–92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. Results: All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01 ± 1.30 cm (range, 0.5–6.19) and 2.04 ± 0.91 cm (0.5–4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96 ± 1.05 cm (0.81–4.8) and 1.65 ± 0.69 cm (0.63–2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This

  8. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  9. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1987-01-01

    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos

  10. Computed tomography of cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Deuk; Moon, Yang In; Lim, Se Hwan; Lee, Cheorl Woo; Kim, Byung Chan; Won, Jong Jin

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an accurate and noninvasive method in the evaluation of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) for detection of nature, location, extension and associated changes. Retrospective analysis was done in 402 patients of clinically suspected CVA who were performed CT in our hospital from December 1985 to December 1987. The results were as follows; 1. The analysis of CT findings in 402 patients showed 321 cases of CVA, 79 cases of normal findings, and 2 cases of brain tumors. 2. Among 321 cases of CVA, intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in 158 cases, cerebral infarction in 126 cases, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 37 cases. 3. The common sites of cerebral hemorrhage were basal ganglia in 99 cases, especially putamen, thalamus in 32 cases, and cerebrum, cerebellum in 11 cases respectively. Cerebral infarction was found chiefly at the areas distributed by the middle cerebral artery: cerebral lobe 55 cases and basal ganglia 51 cases. The aneurysm was the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and its common site was posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery areas. 4. The common shape of cerebral infarction was oval in basal ganglia and wedged in the cerebral lobes. The contrast enhancement of the cerebral infarction was observed in 10% of cases between the 3rd days and 2nd weeks after onset, and was usually gyral patients (77.7%). 5. The aneurysm was noted as enhancing nodule on contrast CT in all 14 cases. In conclusion, the most common cause of CVA is intracerebral hemorrhage in Iri, Korea. High resolution contrast enhanced CT can be used in the diagnosis of the ruptured cerebral aneurysm without the aid of cerebral angiography

  11. Computed tomography of cerebrovascular accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Deuk; Moon, Yang In; Lim, Se Hwan; Lee, Cheorl Woo; Kim, Byung Chan; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iri (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is an accurate and noninvasive method in the evaluation of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) for detection of nature, location, extension and associated changes. Retrospective analysis was done in 402 patients of clinically suspected CVA who were performed CT in our hospital from December 1985 to December 1987. The results were as follows; 1. The analysis of CT findings in 402 patients showed 321 cases of CVA, 79 cases of normal findings, and 2 cases of brain tumors. 2. Among 321 cases of CVA, intracerebral hemorrhage was noted in 158 cases, cerebral infarction in 126 cases, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 37 cases. 3. The common sites of cerebral hemorrhage were basal ganglia in 99 cases, especially putamen, thalamus in 32 cases, and cerebrum, cerebellum in 11 cases respectively. Cerebral infarction was found chiefly at the areas distributed by the middle cerebral artery: cerebral lobe 55 cases and basal ganglia 51 cases. The aneurysm was the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and its common site was posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery areas. 4. The common shape of cerebral infarction was oval in basal ganglia and wedged in the cerebral lobes. The contrast enhancement of the cerebral infarction was observed in 10% of cases between the 3rd days and 2nd weeks after onset, and was usually gyral patients (77.7%). 5. The aneurysm was noted as enhancing nodule on contrast CT in all 14 cases. In conclusion, the most common cause of CVA is intracerebral hemorrhage in Iri, Korea. High resolution contrast enhanced CT can be used in the diagnosis of the ruptured cerebral aneurysm without the aid of cerebral angiography.

  12. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos.

  13. [Contribution of X-ray computed tomography in the evaluation of kidney performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sandrine; Rognant, Nicolas; Collet-Benzaquen, Diane; Juillard, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    X-ray computer assisted tomography scanner is an imaging method based on the use of X-ray attenuation in tissue. This attenuation is proportional to the density of the tissue (without or after contrast media injection) in each pixel image of the image. Spiral scanner, the electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scanner and multidetector computed tomography scanner allow renal anatomical measurements, such as cortical and medullary volume, but also the measurement of renal functional parameters, such as regional renal perfusion, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. These functional parameters are extracted from the modeling of the kinetics of the contrast media concentration in the vascular space and the renal tissue, using two main mathematical models (the gamma variate model and the Patlak model). Renal functional imaging allows measuring quantitative parameters on each kidney separately, in a non-invasive manner, providing significant opportunities in nephrology, both for experimental and clinical studies. However, this method uses contrast media that may alter renal function, thus limiting its use in patients with chronic renal failure. Moreover, the increase irradiation delivered to the patient with multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Gerke, Oke; Thygesen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) technology is rapidly evolving and software solution developed to optimize image quality and/or lower radiation dose. Purpose To investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at different radiation doses in coronary CT...

  15. Evaluation of computed tomography for obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shoji; Toda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    Findings of computed tomography were reviewed in 54 cases where obstructive jaundice was suggested by liver function studies and computed tomography was done with the diagnosis subsequently confirmed by surgery. Dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct was found in 49 (91%) of the cases and the site of obstruction was determined in 44 cases (82%). The cause was shown in 28 cases (52%). By disease, the cause was correctly diagnosed with gallbladder in 40%, bile duct cancer in 46%, pancreas cancer in 71%, and choledocal cyst in 100%, but cholelithiasis was diagnosed correctly in only 17%. Further, non-calcium cholelithiasis is very difficult to diagnose by computed tomography. Computed tomography is a useful tool for diagnosis of obstructive jaundice as a noninvasive means of evaluating the patient; however, concomitand use of other diagnostic studies is essential for greater accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  16. Computed tomography and/or ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, S.; Kishikawa, T.; Huewel, N.; Kazner, E.; Grumme, T.; Lanksch, W.

    1982-01-01

    It is discussed if in intracranial tumors, especially in tumors of the posterior cranial fossa, a CT and/or a ventriculography should be practiced. We have made investigations of 134 patients, 93 of whom were children up to 14 years of age. Each case was undertaken computed tomography as well as ventriculography. The results are clearly demonstrating the superiority of computed tomography compared with ventriculography. Ventriculography is a surgical intervention stressing the patients, side-effects may occur, and sometimes serious complications are caused. Modern computed tomography is producing pictures of high quality, which are highly sufficient for neurosurgical intervention. Very rarely additional angiography has to be performed. The diagnosis of intracranial tumors can fully be established by computed tomography, whereas ventriculography is no longer necessary. (orig.) [de

  17. Computed tomography measurement of the left atrial appendage for optimal sizing of the Watchman device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Betancor, Jorge; Sato, Kimi; Harb, Serge; Abdur Rehman, Karim; Patel, Kunal; Kumar, Arnav; Cremer, Paul C; Jaber, Wael; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Schoenhagen, Paul; Wazni, Oussama

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an emerging treatment option for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who cannot tolerate oral anticoagulation. The Watchman device (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA) is deployed at the ostium of the LAA, and an appropriately sized device is critical for successful occlusion. However, standardized imaging protocols for device sizing have not been established. We investigated the clinical utility of a standardized imaging protocol, with pre-procedural multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT), and intra-procedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), for Watchman device sizing. Patients who underwent Watchman device implantation between 2010 and 2016 at our center, and who had pre-procedural MDCT and intra-procedural TEE were included. MDCT measurements (CTmax, CTmin, CTmean), and TEE measurement (TEEmax) of the LAA ostium were determined for each case, and correlated with the final size of the Watchman device implanted. Demographic data and clinical outcomes were collected. The study included 80 patients (mean age: 75 ± 9.6 years; male: 68%; mean CHA2DS2-VASc score: 4.5 ± 1.4). CTmax of the LAA ostium correlated strongly with the final deployed Watchman device size (Spearman's rho: 0.81, p < 0.001), while TEEmax of the LAA ostium showed only moderate correlation with the final deployed Watchman device size (Spearman's rho: 0.61, p < 0.001). Implantation success rate was 100%. At a mean duration of follow-up of 197 days, there were no device-related complications (device embolization, cardiac perforation and pericardial tamponade). At follow-up, the vast majority of patients (76 patients; 95%) had either no or trivial (≤3 mm) residual peri-device leak on TEE. A standardized imaging protocol for assessment of Watchman device implantation incorporating pre-procedural MDCT and intra-procedural TEE, was associated with excellent procedural outcomes at a mean duration

  18. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  19. Dose optimization in computed tomography: ICRP 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The doses given in the use of computed tomography scans are studied, aiming to calibrate the limits of irradiation in patients who need these tests. Furthermore, a good value of computed tomography should be guaranteed by physicians and radiologists for people not being irradiated unfairly, reducing doses and unnecessary tests. A critical evaluation by an ethics committee is suggested for cases where the test is performed for medical research without a cause [es

  20. Quantitative computed tomography evaluation of pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Buelund, Lene Elisabeth; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2009-01-01

    Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present.......Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present....

  1. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  2. Development of emission computed tomography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, E.

    1984-01-01

    Two positron emission computed tomography (PCT) devices developed in Japan are described. One is for head and the other for wholebody. The devices show fairly quantitative images with slight modifications of the existing algorithms because they were developed based on filtered back-projection. The PCT device seems to be better than the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) since it provides adequade compensation for photon attenuation in patients. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. MDCT arthrography of the wrist: Diagnostic accuracy and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, Massimo; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Bertellini, Annalisa; Araoz, Philip A.; Averna, Raffaele; Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna; Corradi, Maurizio; Costantino, Cosimo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with Multidetector Computed Tomography (arthro-MDCT) of the wrist in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and methods: After intra-articular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 43 wrists in patients of both genders (18 females, 25 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. Fifteen patients had prior wrist surgery. The patients had arthralgia, degenerative and traumatic arthropathies as well as limited range of motion, but no radiologically detected fractures. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In non-operated and operated wrists the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranging between 92% and 94% for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), between 80% and 100% for intrinsic ligaments located within the proximal carpal compartment, and between 94% and 100% for articular cartilage. Inter-observer agreement between two radiologists, in the evaluation of all types of lesions, was almost perfect (k = 0.96) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arthro-MDCT of the wrist provides an accurate diagnosis to identify chondral, fibrocartilaginous and intra-articular ligament lesions in patients who cannot be evaluated by MRI, and in post-surgical patients.

  4. MDCT arthrography of the wrist: Diagnostic accuracy and indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, Massimo [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.defilippo@unipr.it; Pogliacomi, Francesco [Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Functional Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Bertellini, Annalisa [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Araoz, Philip A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Averna, Raffaele; Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Corradi, Maurizio; Costantino, Cosimo [Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Functional Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio [Department of Radiological and Histopathological Sciences, Policlinic S.Orsola-Malpighi, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with Multidetector Computed Tomography (arthro-MDCT) of the wrist in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and methods: After intra-articular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 43 wrists in patients of both genders (18 females, 25 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. Fifteen patients had prior wrist surgery. The patients had arthralgia, degenerative and traumatic arthropathies as well as limited range of motion, but no radiologically detected fractures. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In non-operated and operated wrists the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranging between 92% and 94% for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), between 80% and 100% for intrinsic ligaments located within the proximal carpal compartment, and between 94% and 100% for articular cartilage. Inter-observer agreement between two radiologists, in the evaluation of all types of lesions, was almost perfect (k = 0.96) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arthro-MDCT of the wrist provides an accurate diagnosis to identify chondral, fibrocartilaginous and intra-articular ligament lesions in patients who cannot be evaluated by MRI, and in post-surgical patients.

  5. Reverse Redistribution in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Revisited with 64-slice MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choi, In Suck; Choi, Soo Jin; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report myocardial perfusion imaging of a patient showing reverse redistribution (RR) and a 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) with corresponding findings. The patient had subendocardial myocardial infarction (MI) with positive electrocardiogram (EMG) findings and elevated levels of cardiac isoenzymes. Experiencing this case emphasizes the importance of complementary correlation of a new diagnostic modality that helps us to understand the nature of RR.

  6. Influence of the Quantity of Aortic Valve Calcium on the Agreement Between Automated 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography and Multidetector Row Computed Tomography for Aortic Annulus Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Prihadi, Edgard A; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Vollema, E Mara; van der Kley, Frank; de Weger, Arend; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Naji, Franjo; Fras, Zlatko; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Accurate aortic annulus sizing is key for selection of appropriate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prosthesis size. The present study compared novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) software and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for aortic annulus sizing and investigated the influence of the quantity of aortic valve calcium (AVC) on the selection of TAVI prosthesis size. A total of 83 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI were evaluated. Maximal and minimal aortic annulus diameter, perimeter, and area were measured. AVC was assessed with computed tomography. The low and high AVC burden groups were defined according to the median AVC score. Overall, 3D TEE measurements slightly underestimated the aortic annulus dimensions as compared with MDCT (mean differences between maximum, minimum diameter, perimeter, and area: -1.7 mm, 0.5 mm, -2.7 mm, and -13 mm 2 , respectively). The agreement between 3D TEE and MDCT on aortic annulus dimensions was superior among patients with low AVC burden (AVC burden (≥3,025 arbitrary units). The interobserver variability was excellent for both methods. 3D TEE and MDCT led to the same prosthesis size selection in 88%, 95%, and 81% of patients in the total population, the low, and the high AVC burden group, respectively. In conclusion, the novel automated 3D TEE imaging software allows accurate and highly reproducible measurements of the aortic annulus dimensions and shows excellent agreement with MDCT to determine the TAVI prosthesis size, particularly in patients with low AVC burden. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bum Shin; Shin, Kyoung Hee; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  8. Computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ro; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Sim, Bo Sung

    1981-01-01

    Computed Tomography has become increasingly important diagnostic method as the initial examination in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage with direct detection of extravasated blood in basal cistern and cortical sulci. Furthermore, CT provides better and exact visualization of the presence, localization, extent and degree of intracerebral, intraventricular and subdural hemorrhage, infarction, hydrocephalus and rebleeding which may be associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and also could detect the causative lesions with contrast enhancement in many cases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to various causes and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Authors analysed a total of 153 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage confirmed by lumbar puncture at Seoul National University Hospital from March 1979 to April 1981, with special emphasis on CT findings. All of the cases took CT scan and 125 cases of them angiography. The results are as follows: 1. Most prevalent age group was 4th to 6th decades (78%). The ratio of male to female was 1.1: 1. 2. Of 125 cases with angiography, aneurysm was a major cause (68%). Others were arterio-venous malformation (9.6%), Moya-moya disease (4%) and unknown (18.4%). 3. Of all 153 cases with CT scan, hemorrhage was demonstrated in 98 cases (64.1%); SAH in 72 cases (47.1%), ICH in 65 cases (42.5%), IVH in 34 cases (22.2%) and SDH in 1 case (0.7%). SAH combined with ICH was a major group (34.7%) in SAH. Detection rate of SAH was 68.3% within the first 7 days and 5.8% after 7 dyas. 4. In aneurysms, SAH was detected in 60 of 85 cases (70.6%); 88.1% within the first 7 dyas and 5.6% after 7 dyas. Anterior communicating artery was the most common site of the aneurysms (40%), in which detection rate of SAH was 100% within the first 7 days. SAH was combined with ICH in 38.3%. 5. On CT, SAH of unilateral Sylvian fissure was pathognomonic for ruptured MCA

  9. Computed Tomography evaluation of maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Natraj Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The maxillofacial region, a complex anatomical structure, can be evaluated by conventional (plain films, Tomography, Multidetector Computed Tomography, Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography, Orthopantomogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The study was conducted with objective of describing various forms of maxillofacial injuries, imaging features of different types of maxillofacial fractures and the advantage of using Three- Dimensional Computed Tomography reconstructed image. Materials & Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients during April 2014 to September 2016 using Toshiba Aquilion Prime 160 slice Multi Detector Computed Tomography scanner.Results: The maxillofacial fractures were significantly higher in male population (88% than female population (12 %. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury others being physical assault and fall from height. It was most common in 31-40 years (26% and 21-30 (24% years age group. Maxillary sinus was the commonest fracture (36% followed by nasal bone and zygomatic bone (30%, mandible and orbital bones (28%. Soft tissue swelling was the commonest associated finding. Three dimensional images (3 D compared to the axial scans missed some fractures. However, the extension of the complex fracture lines and degree of displacement were more accurately assessed. Complex fractures found were Le fort (6% and naso-orbito-ethmoid (4% fractures.Conclusion: The proper evaluation of complex anatomy of the facial bones requires Multidetector Computed Tomography which offers excellent spatial resolution enabling multiplanar reformations and three dimensional reconstructions for enhanced diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning.

  10. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although the site of nosocomial sepsis in the critically ill ventilated patient is usually identifiable, it may remain occult, despite numerous investigations. The rapid results and precise anatomical location of the septic source using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in combination with computed ...

  11. Computed tomography of cartilaginous tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.; Triller, J.; Robotti, G.; Gumppenberg, S. von

    1984-01-01

    The compound tomography (CT) morphology of cartilaginous tumors and the utility of CT in their diagnostic work-up is presented on the basis of 19 cases. CT provided unique informations regarding definition of tumor extent and tumor relationship to adjacent structures particularly in the axial skeleton. CT has diminished the indications for angiography in cartilaginous tumors. (orig.) [de

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic role of computed tomography in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Carluccio, Davide Antonio; Rella, Leonarda; Ianora, Amato Antonio Stabile; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in recognizing the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and providing a prognostic grading system for the therapeutic approach. A total of 43 patients who underwent ESWL because of urinary stone disease were assessed by 320-row MDCT examination before and after ESWL. Pre-ESWL CT unenhanced scans were performed for diagnosing stone disease. Post-ESWL CT scans were acquired before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium searching for peri-renal fluid collection or hyper-density, pyelic or ureteral wall thickening, blood clots in the urinary tract, peri- or intra-renal hematoma or abscess, active bleeding. A severity grading system of ESWL complications was established. Patients were affected by renal (n = 36) or ureteral (n = 7) lithiasis. Post-ESWL CT examination detected small fluid collections and hyper-density of peri-renal fat tissue in 35/43 patients (81%), pyelic or ureteral wall thickening in 2/43 (4%), blood clots in the urinary tract in 9/43 (21%), renal abscesses or hematomas with a diameter of <2 cm in 10/43 (23%), large retroperitoneal collections in 3/43 (7%), active bleeding from renal vessels in 1/43 (2%). Mild complications were found in 30 cases; moderate in 9; severe in 4. The therapeutic choice was represented by clinical follow-up (n = 20), clinical and CT follow-up (n = 10), ureteral stenting (n = 9), drainage of large retroperitoneal collections (n = 3), and arterial embolization (n = 1). MDCT plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and follow-up of patients treated with ESWL recognizing its complications and providing therapeutic and prognostic indications.

  13. Diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography for renal sinus fat invasion in renal cell carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cherry; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cho, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although renal sinus fat invasion has prognostic significance in patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), there are no previous studies about the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) about this issue in the current literature. Materials and methods: A total of 863 consecutive patients (renal sinus fat invasion in 110 patients (12.7%)) from single institutions with surgically-confirmed renal cell carcinoma who underwent MDCT between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. The area under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare diagnostic performance. Reference standard was pathologic examination. Weighted κ statistics were used to measure the level of interobserver agreement. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to find the predictors for renal sinus fat invasion. Image analysis was first performed with axial-only CT images. A second analysis was then performed with both axial and coronal CT images. A qualitative analysis was then conducted by two reviewers who reached consensus regarding tumor size, decreased perfusion, tumor margin, vessel displacement, and lymph node metastasis. The reference standard was pathologic evaluation. Results: The AUCs of the ROC analysis were 0.881 and 0.922 for axial-only images and 0.889 and 0.902 for combined images in both readers. The AUC of tumor size was 0.884, a similar value to that of the reviewers. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, a linear-nodular or nodular type of fat infiltration, and an irregular tumor margin were independent predicting factors for perinephric fat invasion. Conclusion: MDCT shows relatively high diagnostic performance in detecting perinephric fat invasion of RCC but suffers from a relatively low PPV related to low prevalence of renal sinus fat invasion. Applying tumor size alone we could get similar diagnostic performance to those of radiologists. Tumor size, fat infiltration with a nodular appearance, and

  14. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  16. Multidetector computed tomography predictors of late ventricular remodeling and function after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessick, Jonathan; Abadi, Sobhi; Agmon, Yoram; Keidar, Zohar; Carasso, Shemi; Aronson, Doron; Ghersin, Eduard; Rispler, Shmuel; Sebbag, Anat; Israel, Ora; Hammerman, Haim; Roguin, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite advent of rapid arterial revascularization as 1st line treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), incomplete restoral of flow at the microvascular level remains a problem and is associated with adverse prognosis, including pathological ventricular remodeling. We aimed to study the association between multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) perfusion defects and ventricular remodeling post-AMI. Methods: In a prospective study, 20 patients with ST-elevation AMI, treated by primary angioplasty, underwent arterial and late phase MDCT as well as radionuclide scans to study presence, size and severity of myocardial perfusion defects. Contrast echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 4 months follow-up to evaluate changes in myocardial function and remodeling. Results: Early defects (ED), late defects (LD) and late enhancement (LE) were detected in 15, 7 and 16 patients, respectively and radionuclide defects in 15 patients. The ED area (r = 0.74), and LD area (r = 0.72), and to a lesser extent LE area (r = 0.62) correlated moderately well with SPECT summed rest score. By univariate analysis, follow-up end-systolic volume index and ejection fraction were both significantly related to ED and LD size and severity, but not to LE size or severity. By multivariate analysis, end-systolic volume index was best predicted by LD area (p < 0.05) and ejection fraction by LD enhancement ratio. Conclusions: LD size and severity on MDCT are most closely associated with pathological ventricular remodeling after AMI and may thus play a role in early identification and treatment of this condition

  17. Differentiation of benign and malignant ulcers of the stomach on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Im Jeong; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choo, Ki Seok; Lee, Suk Hong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Tae Oh; Jo, Hong Jae [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    We wanted to determine the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings for differentiating benign ulcers from malignant ones. 18 clinicopathologically proven benign ulcers that had been detected by both endoscopy and MDCT were the focus of this study. 26 ulcerative advanced gastric cancers and 26 early gastric cancers with ulceration, all of which had been surgically proven, were selected as a control group. Five of the 26 early gastric cancers that were confined to the mucosa and that were not detected on CT were excluded in this study. The following CT findings were reviewed by two radiologists; ulcer size, the degree of enhancement and the thickness of inner enhancing layer in the ulcer base, the total thickness and the enhancing inner layer thickness in the largest part of the thickened ulcer mound, the presence of ulcer that projected beyond the healthy lumen, and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration and perigastric lymphadenopathy. An indiscernible thin-walled ulcer base (less than 1.5 mm) and suboptimal enhancement of the ulcer base for the discrimination of benign gastric ulcers from the malignant gastric ulcers showed sensitivities of 100% (18/18) and 78% (14/18), respectively, with specificities of 98% (46/47) and 92% (43/47), respectively. Ulcer projection was more significantly present in benign ulcer (13/18, 72%) than in the malignant gastric ulcers (7/47, 15%). The enhancing inner layer thickness in the ulcer mound was significantly greater in the AGC (mean; 7.4 mm) than in the benign gastric ulcers (mean, 2.2 mm). There were insignificant differences for ulcer size, total thickness of the ulcer mound, the perigastric fat infiltration and perigastric lymphadenopathy between the benign and malignant gastric ulcers. MDCT is an additional helpful diagnostic tool when benign gastric ulcers are histologically difficult to distinguish from malignant gastric ones.

  18. Differentiation of benign and malignant ulcers of the stomach on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Im Jeong; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choo, Ki Seok; Lee, Suk Hong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Tae Oh; Jo, Hong Jae

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to determine the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings for differentiating benign ulcers from malignant ones. 18 clinicopathologically proven benign ulcers that had been detected by both endoscopy and MDCT were the focus of this study. 26 ulcerative advanced gastric cancers and 26 early gastric cancers with ulceration, all of which had been surgically proven, were selected as a control group. Five of the 26 early gastric cancers that were confined to the mucosa and that were not detected on CT were excluded in this study. The following CT findings were reviewed by two radiologists; ulcer size, the degree of enhancement and the thickness of inner enhancing layer in the ulcer base, the total thickness and the enhancing inner layer thickness in the largest part of the thickened ulcer mound, the presence of ulcer that projected beyond the healthy lumen, and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration and perigastric lymphadenopathy. An indiscernible thin-walled ulcer base (less than 1.5 mm) and suboptimal enhancement of the ulcer base for the discrimination of benign gastric ulcers from the malignant gastric ulcers showed sensitivities of 100% (18/18) and 78% (14/18), respectively, with specificities of 98% (46/47) and 92% (43/47), respectively. Ulcer projection was more significantly present in benign ulcer (13/18, 72%) than in the malignant gastric ulcers (7/47, 15%). The enhancing inner layer thickness in the ulcer mound was significantly greater in the AGC (mean; 7.4 mm) than in the benign gastric ulcers (mean, 2.2 mm). There were insignificant differences for ulcer size, total thickness of the ulcer mound, the perigastric fat infiltration and perigastric lymphadenopathy between the benign and malignant gastric ulcers. MDCT is an additional helpful diagnostic tool when benign gastric ulcers are histologically difficult to distinguish from malignant gastric ones

  19. Prevalence of 'high-riding' superior pericardial recesses on thin-section 16-MDCT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Antonio [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: antodoc@yahoo.com; Bisceglie, Paola [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Giulietti, Giorgio [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Calcara, Giacomo [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Figuera, Michele [Department of Radiology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Mundo, Elena [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Granata, Antonio [Department of Nephrology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, Policlinico Universitario, Via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Privitera, Carmelo [Department of Radiology, Ospedale Vittorio Emanuele, Via Plebiscito 628, 95124 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Giambattista [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy); Patti, Maria Teresa [Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Ospedale Ferrarotto, via Citelli, 8 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of 'high-riding' superior pericardial recess (HRSPR) on thin-section (1 mm) 16-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen consecutive chest CT scans obtained with a thin-section 16 MDCT were retrospectively evaluated. The prevalence and characteristic of HRSPR were analyzed. Results: HRSPR was depicted in 21 patients (11 men and 10 women) (6.6%) who ranged in age from 28 to 72 years (mean age, 57 years). The extended recesses were rounded/oval shaped in five patients and triangular, spindle, half moon or irregular shaped in the other 16 patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest as HRSPRs are more frequently and better depicted on thinsection MDCT scans, and this improves the capability to distinguish this superior extension of the superior aortic recess from abnormal findings such as lymphadenopathy, cystic lesions, and aortic dissection.

  20. Visualization of subtle temporal bone structures. Comparison of cone beam CT and MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pein, M.K.; Plontke, S.K.; Brandt, S.; Koesling, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the visualization of subtle, non-pathological temporal bone structures on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in vivo. Temporal bone studies of images from 38 patients archived in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) were analyzed (slice thickness MDCT 0.6 mm and CBCT 0.125 mm) of which 23 were imaged by MDCT and 15 by CBCT using optimized standard protocols. Inclusion criteria were normal radiological findings, absence of previous surgery and anatomical variants. Images were evaluated blind by three trained observers. Using a five-point scale the visualization of ten subtle structures of the temporal bone was analyzed. Subtle middle ear structures showed a tendency to be more easily distinguishable by CBCT with significantly better visualization of the tendon of the stapedius muscle and the crura of the stapes on CBCT (p = 0.003 and p = 0.033, respectively). In contrast, inner ear components, such as the osseus spiral lamina and the modiolus tended to be better detectable on MDCT, showing significant differences for the osseous spiral lamina (p = 0.001). The interrater reliability was 0.73 (Cohen's kappa coefficient) and intraobserver reliability was 0.89. The use of CBCT and MDCT allows equivalent and excellent imaging results if optimized protocols are chosen. With both imaging techniques subtle temporal bone structures could be visualized with a similar degree of definition. In vivo differences do not seem to be as large as suggested in several previous studies. (orig.) [de

  1. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Takayuki [Keio University School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA{sub -950}) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA{sub -950}. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA{sub -950}. (orig.)

  2. Reproducibility of multi-detector spiral computed tomography in detection of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunot, S.; Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V.; Montaudon, M.; Laurent, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer agreement of the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in an inpatient population explored by 16 slice multi-detector spiral computed tomography (MDCT). Four hundred consecutive inpatients were referred for MDCT for the clinical suspicion of acute PE. One hundred and seventy seven (44.2%) had a known cardio-respiratory disease at the time of examination. Inter-observer and intra-observer agreements for the diagnosis of acute PE and of sub-segmental acute PE were assessed blind and independently by three experienced readers and by kappa statistics. Seventy-five patients were diagnosed as having acute PE findings (19.5%), and clots were located exclusively within sub-segmental arteries in nine patients (12%). When clots were limited to sub-segmental or more distal branches of the pulmonary arteries, kappa values were found to be moderate (0.56) to very good (0.85) for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE, whereas for the diagnosis of acute PE in the whole population, kappa values ranged from 0.84 to 0.97. Intra-observer agreement was found to be perfect (kappa=1). MDCT is a reproducible technique for the diagnosis of sub-segmental acute PE as well as for acute PE. In this inpatient population, sub-segmental acute PE was not a rare event. (orig.)

  3. Identifying the most infectious lesions in pulmonary tuberculosis by high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Jun Jun; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Teng, Wen-Bao; Chou, Chun-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Lee, Tsung-Lung; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether characteristics detected by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) were predictive of highly infectious, smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Among 124 patients with active PTB, 84 had positive (group 1) and 40 had negative (group 2) smear results for acid-fast bacilli. Multiplanar MDCT, axial conventional CT and chest X-ray images were analysed retrospectively for morphology, number, and segmental (lobe) distribution of lesions. By multivariate analysis, consolidation over any segment of the upper, middle, or lingual lobes, cavitations, and clusters of nodules were associated with group 1, while centrilobular nodules were predictive of group 2. Using five independent variables associated with risk in group 1, a prediction model was created to distinguish between group 1 and group 2. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.951 ± 0.021 for this prediction model. With the ideal cutoff point score of 1, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 84.5%, 97.5%, and 98.0%, respectively. A model to predict smear-positive active PTB on the basis of findings from MDCT may be a useful tool for clinical decisions about isolating patients pending sputum smear results. (orig.)

  4. Identifying the most infectious lesions in pulmonary tuberculosis by high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun Jun [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Mei-Ho Institute of Technology, Pingtung (China); China Medical University, Taichung (China); Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); National Taiwan University, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, Taipei (China); Teng, Wen-Bao; Chou, Chun-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Lee, Tsung-Lung [Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Thoracic and Circulation Imaging, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-09-15

    This study aimed to determine whether characteristics detected by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) were predictive of highly infectious, smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Among 124 patients with active PTB, 84 had positive (group 1) and 40 had negative (group 2) smear results for acid-fast bacilli. Multiplanar MDCT, axial conventional CT and chest X-ray images were analysed retrospectively for morphology, number, and segmental (lobe) distribution of lesions. By multivariate analysis, consolidation over any segment of the upper, middle, or lingual lobes, cavitations, and clusters of nodules were associated with group 1, while centrilobular nodules were predictive of group 2. Using five independent variables associated with risk in group 1, a prediction model was created to distinguish between group 1 and group 2. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.951 {+-} 0.021 for this prediction model. With the ideal cutoff point score of 1, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 84.5%, 97.5%, and 98.0%, respectively. A model to predict smear-positive active PTB on the basis of findings from MDCT may be a useful tool for clinical decisions about isolating patients pending sputum smear results. (orig.)

  5. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the detection of transplant vasculopathy: comparison with invasive coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Carrascosa, J.; Perrone, S.; Deviggiano, A.; Lopez, E.M.; Lev, G.; Garcia, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detection of luminal stenosis and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in comparison with coronary angiography (CA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) respectively. Material and methods: Nineteen cardiac transplant patients scheduled for follow-up CA were included. MDCT coronary angiography was performed using a 16-row CT scanner within 7-14 days after CA and IVUS. Studies were analyzed by independent readers; two observers evaluated the CT datasets for the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50% and allograft vasculopathy. Results: The sensitivity for detecting > 50% luminal stenosis was 80-88% and specificity, 98-99% and for detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the sensitivity was 91-96% and specificity, 88-91%. Conclusion: In this preliminary series, our results indicate that MDCT coronary angiography was capable of detecting both significant coronary stenosis as well as diffuse intimal proliferation. This non-invasive procedure could be an alternative to CA and IVUS in the surveillance of heart transplant patients. (authors) [es

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are located in ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series of pictures, or slices of the ...

  8. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  9. MDCT for computerized volumetry of pneumothoraces in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Lee, Edward Y; Vij, Abhinav; Mahmood, Soran A; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    Our purpose in this study was to develop an automated computer-aided volumetry (CAV) scheme for quantifying pneumothorax in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images for pediatric patients and to investigate the imaging parameters that may affect its accuracy. Fifty-eight consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 12 ± 6 years) with pneumothorax who underwent MDCT for evaluation were collected retrospectively for this study. All cases were imaged by a 16- or 64-MDCT scanner with weight-based kilovoltage, low-dose tube current, 1.0-1.5 pitch, 0.6-5.0 mm slice thickness, and a B70f (sharp) or B31f (soft) reconstruction kernel. Sixty-three pneumothoraces ≥1 mL were visually identified in the left (n = 30) and right (n = 33) lungs. Each identified pneumothorax was contoured manually on an Amira workstation V4.1.1 (Mercury Computer Systems, Chelmsford, MA) by two radiologists in consensus. The computerized volumes of the pneumothoraces were determined by application of our CAV scheme. The accuracy of our automated CAV scheme was evaluated by comparison between computerized volumetry and manual volumetry, for the total volume of pneumothoraces in the left and right lungs. The mean difference between the computerized volumetry and the manual volumetry for all 63 pneumothoraces ≥1 mL was 8.2%. For pneumothoraces ≥10 mL, ≥50 mL, and ≥200 mL, the mean differences were 7.7% (n = 57), 7.3% (n = 33), and 6.4% (n = 13), respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.99 between the computerized volume and the manual volume of pneumothoraces. Bland-Altman analysis showed that computerized volumetry has a mean difference of -5.1% compared to manual volumetry. For all pneumothoraces ≥10 mL, the mean differences for slice thickness ≤1.25 mm, = 1.5 mm, and = 5.0 mm were 6.1% (n = 28), 3.5% (n = 10), and 12.2% (n = 19), respectively. For the two reconstruction kernels, B70f and B31f, the mean differences were 6.3% (n = 42, B70f) and 11.7% (n = 15, B31f

  10. Indication for dental computed tomography. Case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schom, C.; Engelke, W.; Kopka, L.; Fischer, U.; Grabbe, E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on case reports, common indications for dental computed tomography are demonstrated and typical findings are analysed. From a group of 110 patients who had a reformatted computed tomography of the maxilla and mandibula, 10 typical cases were chosen as examples and are presented with a detailed description of the findings. The most important indication was the analysis of the morphology of the alveolar ridge needed in presurgical planning for osseointegrated implants as well as in special cases of postsurgical control. Apart from implantology, the method could be used in cases of mandibular cysts and bony destructions. In conclusion, dental computed tomography has become established mainly in implantology. It can provide valuable results in cases where a demonstration of the bone in all dimensions and free of overlappings and distortions is needed. (orig.) [de

  11. Complications of myocardial infarction on multidetector-row computed tomography of chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, V.; Karunasaagarar, K.; Rudd, J.H.F.; Screaton, N.; Gopalan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in the western world. The advent of early reperfusion therapy has substantially decreased in-hospital mortality and has improved the outcome in survivors of the acute phase of MI. Complications of MI include ischaemic, mechanical, arrhythmic, embolic and inflammatory disturbances. Although some of these complications may be infrequent, their importance is underscored because of the potential ability to correct them with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The majority of these complications will be detected on clinical examination and confirmed by echocardiography. Some patients may undergo non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated thoracic multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) due to non-specific presentation. In this group, it is imperative for the radiologist to be aware of and be confident in diagnosing the complications secondary to MI. This review illustrates the spectrum and imaging features of acute and chronic complications of MI that can be visualized on both ECG-gated cardiac and non-ECG-gated thoracic MDCT.

  12. Role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluating incidentally detected breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Lorusso, Valentina; Rella, Leonarda; Telegrafo, Michele; Serio, Gabriella; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Ianora, Amato Antonio Stabile

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) does not represent the primary method for the evaluation of breast lesions; however, it can detect breast abnormalities, even when performed for other reasons related to thoracic structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of 320-row multidetector CT (MDCT) in evaluating and differentiating incidentally detected breast lesions by using vessel probe and 3D analysis software with net enhancement value. Sixty-two breast lesions in 46 patients who underwent 320-row chest CT examination were retrospectively evaluated. CT scans were assessed searching for the presence, location, number, morphological features, and density of breast nodules. Net enhancement was calculated by subtracting precontrast density from the density obtained by postcontrast values. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of CT were calculated for morphological features and net enhancement. Thirty of 62 lesions were found to be malignant at histological examination and 32 were found to be benign. When morphological features were considered, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV of CT were 87%, 100%, 88%, 100%, and 50%, respectively. Based on net enhancement, CT reached a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV of 100%, 94%, 97%, 94%, and 100%, respectively. MDCT allows to recognize and characterize breast lesions based on morphological features. Net enhancement can be proposed as an additional accurate feature of CT.

  13. Comparative diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography and MRI for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. We conducted a retrospective study on 34 patients with histopathologically proven cystic pancreatic lesions who underwent both preoperative MDCT and MRI. CT and MRI were independently evaluated for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions, differentiating aggressive vs. non-aggressive lesion, analyzing morphological features, and evaluating specific leading diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined. Competency assessment of lesional morphology analysis was performed using the kappa values of the 2 tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions were higher than CT (p = 0.03). For differentiating aggressiveness, the sensitivity of MRI was better than CT, but the specificity of CT was better than MRI. In evaluation of morphologic features, MRI showed better performance in characterization of septa and wall. Otherwise, the 2 modalities showed similarly good performance. MRI was better than CT in determining a specific diagnosis (58.8% vs. 47.2%, respectively). CT and MRI are reasonable diagnostic methods for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. However, MRI enables more confident assessment than CT in differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions and characterization of the septa and wall

  14. Right top pulmonary vein: Evaluation with 64 section multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Gokhan; Dincer, Elvan; Kabaalioglu, Adnan; Ozkaynak, Can

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and anatomic features of the rare variant of the pulmonary veins named 'right top pulmonary vein' as depicted with 64 section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: MDCT of 610 patients obtained over 12 months period for diagnosis of suspected thoracic or cardiac pathology were routinely reviewed in transverse and 3D images. The frequency of right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) was determined and anatomic features were also documented. Results: Right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) is a supernumerary vein arising from the roof of the right part of the left atrium separately from the orifice of the right superior pulmonary vein. It crosses behind the intermediate bronchus and drains mainly posterior segment of the right upper lobe but also receives few subsegmental branches of superior segment of the right lower lobe. It was detected in 2.2% of patients (14/610). The mean diameter of RTPV was 5.1 mm. Conclusion: The RTPV is a rare venous drainage variation of pulmonary veins. It is important to be aware of this anatomic pattern for avoiding misinterpretation of pulmonary venographic findings, inadvertent ablation of pulmonary vein and perioperative bleeding during video assisted thorocoscopic lobectomy

  15. Assessing vertebral fracture risk on volumetric quantitative computed tomography by geometric characterization of trabecular bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checefsky, Walter A.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The current clinical standard for measuring Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is dual X-ray absorptiometry, however more recently BMD derived from volumetric quantitative computed tomography has been shown to demonstrate a high association with spinal fracture susceptibility. In this study, we propose a method of fracture risk assessment using structural properties of trabecular bone in spinal vertebrae. Experimental data was acquired via axial multi-detector CT (MDCT) from 12 spinal vertebrae specimens using a whole-body 256-row CT scanner with a dedicated calibration phantom. Common image processing methods were used to annotate the trabecular compartment in the vertebral slices creating a circular region of interest (ROI) that excluded cortical bone for each slice. The pixels inside the ROI were converted to values indicative of BMD. High dimensional geometrical features were derived using the scaling index method (SIM) at different radii and scaling factors (SF). The mean BMD values within the ROI were then extracted and used in conjunction with a support vector machine to predict the failure load of the specimens. Prediction performance was measured using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) metric and determined that SIM combined with mean BMD features (RMSE = 0.82 +/- 0.37) outperformed MDCT-measured mean BMD (RMSE = 1.11 +/- 0.33) (p biomechanical strength prediction in vertebrae can be significantly improved through the use of SIM-derived texture features from trabecular bone.

  16. Complications of myocardial infarction on multidetector-row computed tomography of chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V.; Karunasaagarar, K. [Department of Radiology, Papworth and Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Rudd, J.H.F. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Screaton, N. [Department of Radiology, Papworth and Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.co [Department of Radiology, Papworth and Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in the western world. The advent of early reperfusion therapy has substantially decreased in-hospital mortality and has improved the outcome in survivors of the acute phase of MI. Complications of MI include ischaemic, mechanical, arrhythmic, embolic and inflammatory disturbances. Although some of these complications may be infrequent, their importance is underscored because of the potential ability to correct them with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The majority of these complications will be detected on clinical examination and confirmed by echocardiography. Some patients may undergo non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated thoracic multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) due to non-specific presentation. In this group, it is imperative for the radiologist to be aware of and be confident in diagnosing the complications secondary to MI. This review illustrates the spectrum and imaging features of acute and chronic complications of MI that can be visualized on both ECG-gated cardiac and non-ECG-gated thoracic MDCT.

  17. Association of Dyslipidemia and Sex With Coronary Artery Calcium Assessed by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Masahiko; Yamaji, Kyohei; Aoki, Jiro; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Watanabe, Mika; Horiuchi, Yu; Furui, Koichi; Kato, Nahoko; Hara, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Kengo

    2017-10-21

    Previous studies reporting that statin increases coronary artery calcium (CAC) were conducted exclusively on patients with statin as a prevention, regardless of the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. The impact of sex on CAC has not been fully evaluated. We aimed to determine the association of dyslipidemia and sex with CAC using 320-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT).Of the 356 consecutive patients who underwent coronary MDCT, 251 patients were enrolled, after excluding those with prior stenting and/or coronary bypass grafting or images showing motion artifacts. The primary outcome measures were the percent calcium volume (PCV) and percent atheroma volume (PAV) per coronary vessel.Multivariable analyses indicated that PCV was significantly higher in dyslipidemia patients without statins than in the subjects without dyslipidemia [partial regression coefficient (PRC): 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83 to 4.34, P = 0.004]. In contrast, PCV was similar in dyslipidemia patients taking statins and those without dyslipidemia (PRC: -1.09, 95% CI: -2.82 to 0.65, P = 0.22). There was no significant difference in PCV between men and women, although women exhibited a significantly lower PAV (PRC: -2.87, 95% CI: -4.54 to -1.20, P = 0.001).In low-risk patients, these results could be translated into hypotheses, which should be tested in future prospective studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in CAC between men and women, but women had lower PAV than men.

  18. Association of apolipoprotein b/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and coronary artery stenosis and plaques detected by multi-detector computed tomography in healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Shin, Mi Seon; Yu, Ji Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Woo Je

    2013-05-01

    Despite the noninvasiveness and accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), its use as a routine screening tool for occult coronary atherosclerosis is unclear. We investigated whether the ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB) to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), an indicator of the balance between atherogenic and atheroprotective cholesterol transport could predict occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by MDCT. We collected the data of 1,401 subjects (877 men and 524 women) who participated in a routine health screening examination of Asan Medical Center. Significant coronary artery stenosis defined as > 50% stenosis was detected in 114 subjects (8.1%). An increase in apoB/A1 quartiles was associated with increased percentages of subjects with significant coronary stenosis and noncalcified plaques (NCAP). After adjustment for confounding variables, each 0.1 increase in serum apoB/A1 was significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for coronary stenosis and NCAP of 1.23 and 1.18, respectively. The optimal apoB/A1 ratio cut off value for MDCT detection of significant coronary stenosis was 0.58, which had a sensitivity of 70.2% and a specificity of 48.2% (area under the curve, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.58-0.63, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that apoB/A1 ratio is a good indicator of occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by coronary MDCT.

  19. Myocardial enhancement pattern in patients with acute myocardial infarction on two-phase contrast-enhanced Ecg-gated multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.M.; Seo, J.B.; Hong, M.K.; Do, K.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.W.; Park, S.J.; Park, S.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the myocardial enhancement pattern of the left ventricle on two-phase contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT examinations were performed in 16 patients with AMI. The presence, location and pattern of myocardial enhancement were evaluated. MDCT findings were compared with the catheter angiographic results. RESULTS: Subendocardial (n=9) or transmural (n=6) area of early perfusion defects of the myocardium was detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%) on early-phase CT images. Variable delayed myocardial enhancement patterns on late-phase CT images were observed in 12 patients (75%): (1) subendocardial residual perfusion defect and subepicardial late enhancement (n=6); (2) transmural late enhancement (n=1); (3) isolated subendocardial late enhancement (n=1); and (4) isolated subendocardial residual perfusion defect (n=2). On catheter angiography, 14 of 15 corresponding coronary arteries showed significant stenosis. CONCLUSION: Variable abnormal myocardial enhancement pattern was seen on two-phase, contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT in patients with AMI. Assessment of myocardial attenuation on CT angiography gives additional information of the location and extent of infarction

  20. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  1. Computed tomography of sacro-iliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquel, A.; Laredo, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Actual technologies to explore sacro-iliac joints are conventional radiography, computed tomography , scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Standards films are sufficient, except in beginning sacro-iliac septic inflammations where the computed tomography is superior. Two problems are generally posed for the radiologist, to differentiate a septic arthritis from a rheumatic pathology An other problem in diagnosis is to make the difference between a degenerative arthropathy (which does not need a further investigation) and an infectious rheumatic pathology where more exploration is necessary. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs

  2. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... examined the content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR-CCTR. METHODS: We retrieved 2008-2012 data to examine the 1) content; 2) completeness of procedure registration using the Danish National Patient Registry as reference; 3) completeness of variable registration comparing observed vs...

  3. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E.; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD.• Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity.• CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe.• DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low-to-intermediate pretest...

  4. Physics of x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutagawa, W.M.; Huth, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Sections are included on theoretical limits of x-ray computed tomography and the relationship of these limits to human organ imaging and specific disease diagnosis; potential of x-ray computed tomography in detection of small calcified particles in early breast cancer detection; early lung cancer measurement and detection; advanced materials for ionizing radiation detection; positron system with circular ring transaxial tomographic camera; contrast mechanism of transmission scanner and algorithms; and status of design on a 200 keV scanning proton microprobe

  5. Computed tomography in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations of 7 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type were reviewed and correlated with clinical stages. The findings of CT were also compared with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There was no positive correlation between the degree of cerebral atrophy on CT and clinical stage. Cerebral atrophy seemed to be influenced by aging, ill duration, and the degree of dementia. The cerebral/cerebellar uptake ratio of RI on SPECT was significantly decreased with the progression of clinical stage. SPECT seemed to reflect the degree of dementia, irrespective of ages and ill duration. (N.K.)

  6. Value and impact factors of multidetector computed tomography in diagnosis of preoperative lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingxu; Lv, You; Guo, Xiuyu; Song, Hongmei; Su, Guoqiang; Chen, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) exhibited wide ranges of sensitivities and specificities for lymph node assessment of gastric cancer (GC) in several individual studies. This present meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the value of MDCT in diagnosis of preoperative lymph node metastasis (LNM) and to explore the impact factors that might explain the heterogeneity of its diagnostic accuracy in GC. A comprehensive search was conducted to collect all the relevant studies about the value of MDCT in assessing LNM of GC within the PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase databases up to Feb 2, 2016. Two investigators independently screened the studies, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of included studies. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC curve (AUC) were pooled to estimate the overall accuracy of MDCT. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were carried out to identify the possible factors influencing the heterogeneity of the accuracy. A total of 27 studies with 6519 subjects were finally included. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56-0.77), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. Meta-regression revealed that MDCT section thickness, proportion of serosal invasion, and publication year were the main significant impact factors in sensitivity, and MDCT section thickness, multiplanar reformation (MPR), and reference standard were the main significant impact factors in specificity. After the included studies were divided into 2 groups (Group A: studies with proportion of serosa-invasive GC subjects ≥50%; Group B: studies with proportion of serosa-invasive GC subjects <50%), the pooled sensitivity in Group A was significantly higher than in Group B (0.84 [95% CI: 0.75-0.90] vs 0.55 [95% CI: 0.41-0.68], P < .01). For early gastric cancer (EGC), the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15-0.61), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0

  7. Parameters related to the image quality in computed tomography -CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.A.; Mourão, A.P.; Silva, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Quality control programs in computed tomography, CT, should be continuously reviewed to always ensure the best image quality with the lowest possible dose for the patient in the diagnostic process. The quality control in CT aims to design and implement a set of procedures that allows the verification of their operating conditions within the specified requirements for its use. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Technical Rules (Resolution NE in 1016.) - Radiology Medical - 'Equipment and Safety Performance' establishes a reference to the analysis of tests on TC. A large number of factors such as image noise, slice thickness (resolution of the Z axis), low contrast resolution and high contrast resolution and the radiation dose can be affected by the selection of technical parameters in exams. The purpose of this study was to investigate how changes in image acquisition protocols modify its quality and determine the advantages and disadvantages between the different aspects of image quality, especially the reduction of patient radiation dose. A preliminary procedure is to check the operating conditions of the CT measurements were performed on a scanner with 64-MDCT scanner (GE Healthcare, BrightSpeed) in the service of the Molecular Imaging Center (Cimol) of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). When performing the image quality tests we used a simulator, Catphan-600, this device has five modules, and in each you can perform a series of tests. Different medical imaging practices have different requirements for acceptable image quality. The results of quality control tests showed that the analyzed equipment is in accordance with the requirements established by current regulations. [pt

  8. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA-950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. • Tomosynthesis showed significantly better diagnostic performance for pulmonary emphysema than radiography. • Interobserver agreement for tomosynthesis was significantly higher than that for radiography. • Sensitivity increased with increasing LAA -950 in both tomosynthesis and radiography. • Tomosynthesis imparts a similar radiation dose to two projection chest radiography. • Radiation dose and cost of tomosynthesis are lower than those of MDCT.

  9. Usefulness and safety of propranolol injection into vein for acquisition of coronary multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Takako; Kodama, Takahide; Kondo, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    A low heart rate (HR), associated with a prolonged slow filling phase (SF), is necessary to obtain a high quality coronary CT at a low radiation dose with conventional 64 multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). The purpose of our study was to confirm the safety of injecting propranolol (2-10 mg) into the vein for lowering heart rate in patients requiring MDCT and to document the effect of the drug on HR, PQ and SF. Of 1290 consecutive patients who were initially considered for enrollment in the coronary MDCT study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillations, 3 with atrial flutters, and 13 with artificial pacemakers were excluded. Of the remaining 1234 patients (M/F=714/520), 331 had already taken an oral beta-blocker before the CT examination, and were included in the study. In patients with no contraindications, propranolol was aggressively injected (2-10 mg) into the vein to reduce the HR. In patients not taking an oral beta blocker, 2 mg propranolol reduced the HR by -10±5 bpm and 10 mg, by -20±7 bpm. However, in patients taking an oral beta-blocker, the decrease in HR by propranolol was minimal (2 mg, -6±4 bpm; 10 mg, -10±6 bpm). Propranolol significantly prolonged the PQ interval (from 169±27 to 179±29 ms, P<0.0001), and SF (from 125±69 to 264±79 ms, P<0.0001). Adverse effects of propranolol injection were observed in only 3 [2 mild hypotension and 1 paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (recovered to sinus rhythm by DC counter shock)] of 3212 patients. All 3 patients became stable after 1 or 2 hours of rest and could return home. Propranolol injection was a relatively safe and useful method to reduce HR and prolong SF, necessary for obtaining high quality coronary MDCT with a low radiation dose. (author)

  10. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in a non-selected study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Hauser, Andreas; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the prospective diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily clinical routine was analyzed. Two hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with an acute or subacute abdomen, examined by MDCT over a time period of 5 months, were included in the study. All original CT diagnoses made during the daily routine by radiological generalists were compared to the final diagnoses made by using all available medical information from endoscopies, surgical interventions, autopsies and follow-up. Finally, all CT examinations of patients with an initial CT diagnosis or a final diagnosis of bowel ischemia were reread by a radiologist specialized in abdominal imaging in order to analyze the CT findings and the reasons for initially false negative or false positive CT readings. Twenty-four patients out of 291 (8.2%) had acute bowel ischemia. The age of affected patients ranged from 50 to 94 years (mean age: 75.7 years). Eleven patients were male, and 13 female. Reasons for acute bowel ischemia were: arterio-occlusive (n=11), non-occlusive (n=5), strangulation (n=2), over-distension (n=3) and radiation (n=3). The prospective sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MDCT for the diagnosis of acute bowel ischemia in the daily routine were 79.17, 98.51, 90.48 and 98.15%. MDCT reaches a similarly high sensitivity in diagnosing acute bowel as angiography. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being helpful in most of its clinical differential diagnoses and of being less invasive with the consecutive possibility of being used earlier in the diagnostic process with all the resulting positive effects on the patients prognosis. Therefore, nowadays MDCT should probably be used as the first step imaging modality of choice in patients with suspected acute bowel ischemia. (orig.)

  11. Detection of biliary and vascular anatomy in living liver donors: Value of gadobenate dimeglumine enhanced MR and MDCT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artioli, Diana; Tagliabue, Marianna; Aseni, Paolo; Sironi, Sandro; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance (MR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of living donor's vascular and biliary anatomy, having surgical findings as reference standard. Methods: Thirty-two living liver donors underwent MR cholangiography (1.5-T; standard cholangiography pulse sequences and delayed acquisitions after administration of biliary contrast agent) for biliary anatomy evaluation. MDCT (16-row multidetector scanner, multiphase protocol, 3 mm slice thickness) was also performed in all cases for the assessment of vascular anatomy before transplantation. Hepatic veins (<4 mm in diameter) were not considered. MR and MDCT images interpretation was performed by two reviewers by consensus, based on source axial images, multiplanar reformats, and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing images. Surgical intraoperative findings were used as standard of reference. Results: At surgery, 17 biliary anomalies, 3 portal anomalies, 32 venous and 8 arterial variants were found in the 32 patients. MR correctly identified 15/17 biliary anomalies, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93%. MDCT correctly identified 8/8 arterial, 3/3 portal and 29/32 venous variants, with a sensitivity of 100% and 91%, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: MR and MDCT proved to be efficient in evaluating living liver donor's biliary and vascular anatomy.

  12. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Csernus, Reka; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan; Cosgarea, Raluca; Kim, Ti-Sun; Heiland, Sabine; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  13. Detection of biliary and vascular anatomy in living liver donors: Value of gadobenate dimeglumine enhanced MR and MDCT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artioli, Diana, E-mail: diansadiana@gmail.com [Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milano (Italy); Tagliabue, Marianna; Aseni, Paolo; Sironi, Sandro; Vanzulli, Angelo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milano (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance (MR) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of living donor's vascular and biliary anatomy, having surgical findings as reference standard. Methods: Thirty-two living liver donors underwent MR cholangiography (1.5-T; standard cholangiography pulse sequences and delayed acquisitions after administration of biliary contrast agent) for biliary anatomy evaluation. MDCT (16-row multidetector scanner, multiphase protocol, 3 mm slice thickness) was also performed in all cases for the assessment of vascular anatomy before transplantation. Hepatic veins (<4 mm in diameter) were not considered. MR and MDCT images interpretation was performed by two reviewers by consensus, based on source axial images, multiplanar reformats, and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing images. Surgical intraoperative findings were used as standard of reference. Results: At surgery, 17 biliary anomalies, 3 portal anomalies, 32 venous and 8 arterial variants were found in the 32 patients. MR correctly identified 15/17 biliary anomalies, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93%. MDCT correctly identified 8/8 arterial, 3/3 portal and 29/32 venous variants, with a sensitivity of 100% and 91%, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: MR and MDCT proved to be efficient in evaluating living liver donor's biliary and vascular anatomy.

  14. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Csernus, Reka; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cosgarea, Raluca; Kim, Ti-Sun [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Periodontology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heiland, Sabine [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Experimental Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Radiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are then displayed on a monitor. Special software can also generate three-dimensional (3-D) images ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  20. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  1. Anatomic evaluation of the xiphoid process with 64-row multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, Kayihan; Kosehan, Dilek; Topcu, Adem; Koktener, Asli

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interindividual variations of the xiphoid process in a wide adult group using 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Included in the study were 500 consecutive patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP) images on coronal and sagittal planes, and three-dimensional volume rendering (VR) reconstruction images were obtained and used for the evaluation of the anatomic features of the xiphoid process. The xiphoid process was present in all patients. The xiphoid process was deviated ventrally in 327 patients (65.4%). In 11 of these 327 patients (2.2%), ventral curving at the end of the xiphoid process resembled a hook. The xiphoid process was aligned in the same axis as the sternal corpus in 166 patients (33.2%). The tip of the xiphoid process was curved dorsally like a hook in three patients (0.6%). In four patients (0.8%), the xiphoid process exhibited a reverse S shape. Xiphoidal endings were single in 313 (62.6%) patients, double in 164 (32.8%), or triple in 23 (4.6%). Ossification of the cartilaginous xiphoid process was fully completed in 254 patients (50.8 %). In total, 171 patients (34.2%) had only one xiphoidal foramen and 45 patients (9%) had two or more foramina. Sternoxiphoidal fusion was present in 214 of the patients (42.8%). Significant interindividual variations were detected in the xiphoid process. Excellent anatomic evaluation capacity of MDCT facilitates the detection of variations of the xiphoid process as well as the whole ribcage. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative parameters of image quality in 64-slice computed tomography angiography of the coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencik, Maros; Nomura, Cesar H.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Hoffmann, Udo; Pena, Antonio J.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Abbara, Suhny; Nieman, Koen; Fatima, Umaima; Achenbach, Stephan; Brady, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored quantitative parameters of image quality in consecutive patients undergoing 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography for clinical reasons. Forty-two patients (36 men, mean age 61 ± 11 years, mean heart rate 63 ± 10 bpm) underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT coronary angiography with a 64-slice scanner (Siemens Sensation 64, 64 mmx 0.6 mm collimation, 330 ms tube rotation, 850 mAs, 120 kV). Two independent observers measured the overall visualized vessel length and the length of the coronary arteries visualized without motion artifacts in curved multiplanar reformatted images. Contrast-to-noise ratio was measured in the proximal and distal segments of the coronary arteries. The mean length of visualized coronary arteries was: left main 12 ± 6 mm, left anterior descending 149 ± 25 mm, left circumflex 89 ± 30 mm, and right coronary artery 161 ± 38 mm. On average, 97 ± 5% of the total visualized vessel length was depicted without motion artifacts (left main 100 ± 0%, left anterior descending 97 ± 6%, left circumflex 98 ± 5%, and right coronary artery 95 ± 6%). In 27 patients with a heart rate ≤65 bpm, 98 ± 4% of the overall visualized vessel length was imaged without motion artifacts, whereas 96 ± 6% of the overall visualized vessel length was imaged without motion artifacts in 15 patients with a heart rate >65 bpm (p < 0.001). The mean contrast-to-noise ratio in all measured coronary arteries was 14.6 ± 4.7 (proximal coronary segments: range 15.1 ± 4.4 to 16.1 ± 5.0, distal coronary segments: range 11.4 ± 4.2 to 15.9 ± 4.9). In conclusion, 64-slice MDCT permits reliable visualization of the coronary arteries with minimal motion artifacts and high CNR in consecutive patients referred for non-invasive MDCT coronary angiography. Low heart rate is an important prerequisite for excellent image quality

  3. Variation of densitometry on computed tomography in COPD--influence of different software tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Wielpütz

    Full Text Available Quantitative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT as a potential biomarker is increasingly used for severity assessment of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the user-independent measurement variability between five different fully-automatic densitometry software tools.MDCT and full-body plethysmography incl. forced expiratory volume in 1s and total lung capacity were available for 49 patients with advanced COPD (age = 64±9 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 31±6% predicted. Measurement variation regarding lung volume, emphysema volume, emphysema index, and mean lung density was evaluated for two scientific and three commercially available lung densitometry software tools designed to analyze MDCT from different scanner types.One scientific tool and one commercial tool failed to process most or all datasets, respectively, and were excluded. One scientific and another commercial tool analyzed 49, the remaining commercial tool 30 datasets. Lung volume, emphysema volume, emphysema index and mean lung density were significantly different amongst these three tools (p<0.001. Limits of agreement for lung volume were [-0.195, -0.052 l], [-0.305, -0.131 l], and [-0.123, -0.052 l] with correlation coefficients of r = 1.00 each. Limits of agreement for emphysema index were [-6.2, 2.9%], [-27.0, 16.9%], and [-25.5, 18.8%], with r = 0.79 to 0.98. Correlation of lung volume with total lung capacity was good to excellent (r = 0.77 to 0.91, p<0.001, but segmented lung volume (6.7±1.3-6.8±1.3 l were significantly lower than total lung capacity (7.7±1.7 l, p<0.001.Technical incompatibilities hindered evaluation of two of five tools. The remaining three showed significant measurement variation for emphysema, hampering quantitative MDCT as a biomarker in COPD. Follow-up studies should currently use identical software, and standardization efforts should encompass software as

  4. Computed Tomography Study Of Complicated Bacterial Meningitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To monitor the structural intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis using computed tomography (CT) scan. Retrospective study of medical and radiological records of patients who underwent CT scan over a 4 year period. AUniversityTeachingHospital in a developing country. Thirty three patients with clinically and ...

  5. Computed tomography - old ideas and new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Dominik; Boas, F.E. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Several recently introduced 'new' techniques in computed tomography - iterative reconstruction, gated cardiac CT, multiple-source, and dual-energy CT - actually date back to the early days of CT. We review the historic origins and evolution of these techniques, which may provide some insight into the latest innovations in commercial CT systems. (orig.)

  6. Computed tomography in the evaluation of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, M.P.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1982-01-01

    This book is intended to be the current standard for computed tomography in the evaluation of trauma. It summarizes two years of experience at San Francisco General Hospital. The book is organized into seven chapters, covering head, maxillofacial, laryngeal, spinal, chest, abdominal, acetabular, and pelvic trauma. Extremity trauma is not discussed

  7. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  8. Computed tomography evaluation of petrous bone fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrous bone trauma is the sequel of blunt head injury and can have life threatening complications resulting in immediate mortality. Early detection and good knowledge of the Computed Tomography (CT) findings ensure prompt treatment of both fractures and complications. Objective: To document the ...

  9. Appropriateness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are an essential part of modern healthcare. Marked increases in clinical demand for these imaging modalities are straining healthcare expenditure and threatening health system sustainability. The number of CT and MRI scans requested in ...

  10. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  12. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Cha, Soon Joo; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1984-01-01

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  13. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  14. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    of technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir...

  15. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  16. Investigation of measuring strategies in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has entered the industrial world in 1980’s as a technique for non-destructive testing and has nowadays become a revolutionary tool for dimensional metrology, suitable for actual/nominal comparison and verification of geometrical and dimensional tolerances. This paper evaluates...

  17. Computed tomography in severe protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C; de Villiers, J F

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed on eight children aged 1 to 4 years with severe protein energy malnutrition. Clinical features typical of kwashiorkor were present in all the children studied. Severe cerebral atrophy or brain shrinkage according to standard radiological criteria was present in every case. The findings of this study suggest considerable cerebral insult associated with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  18. Computed tomography of the iliopsoas muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino-Murcia, M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal method for the imaging of the psoas muscle. The authors present 13 cases of patients with psoas abnormalities diagnosed by CT. The CT features of the different pathologic entities and comparison of CT with other imaging modalities are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal

  20. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  1. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto

    1982-01-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  2. Misty mesentery: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahualli, Jorge; Mendez Uriburu, Luis; Ravera, Maria L.; Cikman, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    An alteration in the density of the mesenteric adipose tissue is often the principal clue of underlying mesenteric and bowel disease. The term 'Misty Mesentery' describes the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric fat infiltrated by inflammatory cells, fluid (edema, lymph, and/or blood), tumor, and fibrosis. (author) [es

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... detectors rotate around the patient. At the same time, the examination table is moving through the scanner, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series of pictures, or slices of the body, to ...

  5. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    was not used. Autopsies were performed according to the Danish government's official guidelines. PMCT and autopsy findings were interpreted independent of each other. Diagnoses, including the cause of death and histology findings, were registered in a computer database (SPSS) together with information about...

  6. Computed tomography in Alexander's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, I M; Kendall, B E

    1980-10-01

    Two cases of biopsy-proven Alexander's disease are described with computed tomographic changes which, in our experience and on survey of the literature, have not occurred in any other condition. Such changes in a child with a progressive condition consistent with Alexander's disease, strongly support the diagnosis.

  7. Computed tomography of limy bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kimoto, Masatoshi; Gunge, Nobuharu; Sano, Kaizo; Yamashita, Sachiko; Hirano, Yutaka

    1983-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of three cases of limy bile was reported. The CT findings consist of uniform high density within gallbladder, niveau formation between limy bile and noncalcified bile. Sagittal reconstruction of CT images was especially useful in the differentiation of limy bile and gallstones. (author)

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T.; Osorio V, M.; Hernandez O, O.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  10. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  12. Microfocus computed tomography in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodovskiy, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in the field of high-frequency power schemes for X-ray devices allow the creation of high-resolution instruments. At the department of electronic devices and Equipment of the St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, a model of a microfocus computer tomograph was developed. Used equipment allows to receive projection data with an increase up to 100 times. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of implementing various schemes for obtaining projection data.

  13. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  14. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  15. Orbital computed tomography: technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Miller, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomographic scanning has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of orbital disease. The best use of this methodology requires knowledge of the principles and appropriate attention to scanning protocols. Computed tomographic scanning of the orbit is a demanding technique requiring thin sections through planes precisely positioned from the topographical anatomy. Ideally, orbital CT should include both transverse axial and coronal sections: The pathological condition and its plane of growth will influence the selection of the optimal plane or section. Coronal sections may be obtained either directly or indirectly by computer reconstruction from contiguous transverse images. Sagittal or oblique sections or both also are useful and may be obtained directly or indirectly. Difficulty in patient positioning may preclude direct sagittal imaging, however. The use of intravenous contrast enhancement is not necessary as a routine technique unless a mass is identified or suspected. Where surgical resection or biopsy of a space-occupying lesion is contemplated, contrast enhancement can be valuable in assessing relative vascularity and aiding diagnostic specificity. It should be continually emphasized that CT is a powerful technology which, in orbital diagnosis, produces the highest yield when clinician and radiologist collaborate in the radiodiagnostic workup. The clinical information supplied by the referring ophthalmologist is used by the radiologist both in the selection of the appropriate techniques for investigation and in striving to achieve the most specific conclusion

  16. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Bonanno, D. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Maccioni, G. [INFN – Cagliari Division, Cagliari (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Talamonti, C. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E. [Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to ~1% and spatial resolutions <1 mm, achieved within processing times of ~15′ for a 512×512 pixels image prove that this technique will be beneficial if used instead of X-CT in hadron-therapy.

  17. Measuring techniques in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.; Knoop, B.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter reviews the historical development of the emission computed tomography and its basic principles, proceeds to SPECT and PET, special techniques of emission tomography, and concludes with a comprehensive discussion of the mathematical fundamentals of the reconstruction and the quantitative activity determination in vivo, dealing with radon transformation and the projection slice theorem, methods of image reconstruction such as analytical and algebraic methods, limiting conditions in real systems such as limited number of measured data, noise enhancement, absorption, stray radiation, and random coincidence. (orig./HP) With 111 figs., 6 tabs [de

  18. Computed tomography of the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, R.; Heller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Patients showing severe multiple injuries, require special care and attention in the hospital. In these cases, the range of the diagnostic measures taken subsequent to computed tomography of the cranium must be broadened to include examinations of the vertebral column and pelvic ring for traumatic lesions. Radiological routine procedures are discussed wit hthe view of throwing some light on the problems involved incomputed tomography of the vertebral disks. In degenerative processes associated with spinal stenosis and hypertrophic facets it has been found that angular-sagittal-reconstruction may be quite useful. Computed tomography provides valuable information on morphological factors and has great discriminating power in the diagnosis of skeletal tumours of the extremities. Quantitative computed tomography offers unprecedented possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Here, particular care must be taken to avoid inaccuracies of measurement as a result of incorrectly performed examinations. In malignant bone tumours the method of dynamic scanning permits the success or failure of any radiotherapeutic or chemical measures taken to be evaluated at an early stage. The success or failure of any radiotherapeutic or chemical measures taken to to treat malignant bone tumours can be evaluated at an early stage using the method on dynamic scanning. (orig.) [de

  19. Comparison between conventional tomography and computer tomography in diseases of the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, J.D.; Ganter, H.; Winter, C.; Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Giessen

    1990-01-01

    16 patients with diseases of the sacroiliac joints were examined both with computer tomography and with conventional tomography. Both techniques were characterized by a high sensitivity. Computer tomography was superior in exactly delineating the extent of the pathologic changes. In conventional tomography the joint surface was more blurred, erosions were larger, and signs of ankylosis were more expanded, so that the joints seemed to be more altered in 8 cases than demonstrated by computer tomography. Very accurate changes like subchondral cysts were recognized only in the computer tomograms. In all cases in which anteroposterior radiographs revealed no clear result, the authors recommend to additionally employ computer tomography. (orig.) [de

  20. Computed tomography in diagnostics of effluent otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imomova, L.S.; Norboev, Z.; Kalandarov, S.Ch.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to computed tomography in diagnostics of effluent otitis media. The purpose of present work is to assess the possibilities of computed tomography method of temporal bone in the diagnostics of otitis media.

  1. Computed tomography of the menisci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.; Rupp, N.; Paar, O.; Rodammer, G.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty patients were examined with CT of the menisci. All findings were confirmed by arthroscopy. One false positive diagnosis of a torn meniscus was made, caused by partial volume effect. In seven patients with irregular degenerative changes of the menisci, the abnormality could be clearly demonstrated. One meniscus ganglion was shown. Seven meniscus lesions, which were not shown by arthrography or arthroscopy, were clearly demonstrated by CT. The computer tomographic demonstration of menisci can replace knee arthrography as the examination of choice and should be performed before carrying out arthroscopy. (orig.) [de

  2. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Akutsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  3. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI

  4. Multidetector computed tomography for preoperative evaluation of vascular anatomy in living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Akinci, Serkan; Yildiz, Sener; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-04-01

    Currently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a noninvasive alternative imaging modality to catheter renal angiography for the evaluation of renal vascular anatomy in living renal donors. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice MDCT in the preoperative assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-nine consecutive living renal donors (32 men, 27 women) underwent MDCT angiography followed by open donor nephrectomy. All MDCT studies were performed by using a 16-slice MDCT scanner with the same protocol consisting of arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography. The MDCT images were assessed retrospectively for the number and branching pattern of the renal arteries and for the number and presence of major or minor variants of the renal veins. The results were compared with open surgical results. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for the detection of anatomic variants of renal arteries including the accessory arteries (n = 9), early arterial branching (n = 7) and major renal venous anomalies including the accessory renal veins (n = 3), late venous confluence (n = 4), circumaortic (n = 2) or retroaortic (n = 3) left renal veins were 100%. However, the sensitivity for identification of minor venous variants was 79%. All of three ureteral duplications were correctly identified at excretory phase conventional abdominal radiography. Sixteen-slice MDCT is highly accurate for the identification of anatomic variants of renal arteries and veins. Dual-phase MDCT angiography including arterial and nephrographic phases followed by conventional abdominal radiography enables complete assessment of renal donors without significant increase of radiation dose. However, the evaluation of minor venous variants may be problematic because of their small diameters and poor opacification.

  5. Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.

    2011-12-01

    Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.

  6. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  7. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    In recent years, increased focus on the potentially harmful effects of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, such as radiation-induced cancer, has motivated research on new low-dose imaging techniques. Sparse image reconstruction methods, as studied for instance in the field of compressed sensing...... applications. This thesis takes a systematic approach toward establishing quantitative understanding of conditions for sparse reconstruction to work well in CT. A general framework for analyzing sparse reconstruction methods in CT is introduced and two sets of computational tools are proposed: 1...... contributions to a general set of computational characterization tools. Thus, the thesis contributions help advance sparse reconstruction methods toward routine use in...

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR-imaging for the detection of pulmonary nodules at 1.5 Tesla: intraindividual comparison with multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, Marc; Schwarz, Dorothee; Henes, Frank Oliver; Groth, Michael; Begemann, Philipp G.C.; Adam, Gerhard; Kooijman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI for detecting pulmonary nodules at 1.5 Tesla in comparison with standard multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty patients with disseminated cancer disease in which MDCT had assured the presence of at least one pulmonary nodule were examined using a respiratory-gated DWI MR-sequence. Grey scale inverted source images and coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were consensually analysed by two experienced radiologists. Size and location of any nodule detected were assessed. Additionally, the readers evaluated each hemithorax for the presence of at least one nodule and applied a four-point conspicuity scale (1-hemithorax definitely affected; 4-hemithorax definitely not affected). MDCT data served as reference. At MDCT, a total of 71 pulmonary noduIes was found (size 3–5 mm, n = 16; 6–9 mm, n = 22; ≥10 mm, n = 33). For the DWI MR-sequence, a sensitivity of 86.4% was calculated for nodules ranging 6–9 mm and 97% for nodules ≥10 mm. In contrast, only 43.8% of lesions ≤5 mm was detected. The separate analysis of each hemithorax for the presence of at least one pulmonary nodule revealed a specificity rate, PPV and NPV of DWI-MR of 92.3%, 96% and 80%, respectively. The presented study is the first to confirm the diagnostic potential of DWI-MR in the detection of solid lung nodules. This technique allows for the detection of nodules ≥6 mm with reasonably high sensitivity rates (>86%). The observation of false positive findings decreases the accuracy of this approach compared with MDCT.

  9. Assessment of coronary calcification using calibrated mass score with two different multidetector computed tomography scanners in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Groen, Jaap M. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Medical Physics, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arnold, Ben A. [Image Analysis, 1380 Burkesville Road, Columbia, KY (United States); Nikolovski, Sasho [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Knudsen, Andreas D., E-mail: dehlbaek@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kühl, J. Tobias [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordestgaard, Børge G. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and the Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Greuter, Marcel J.W. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Kofoed, Klaus F. [Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Radiology, The Diagnostic Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Objective: Population studies have shown coronary calcium score to improve risk stratification in subjects suspected for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to assess the validity of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for measurement of calibrated mass scores (MS) in a phantom study, and to investigate inter-scanner variability for MS and Agaston score (AS) recorded in a population study on two different high-end MDCT scanners. Materials and methods: A calcium phantom was scanned by a first (A) and second (B) generation 320-MDCT. MS was measured for each calcium deposit from repeated measurements in each scanner and compared to known physical phantom mass. Random samples of human subjects from the Copenhagen General Population Study were scanned with scanner A (N = 254) and scanner B (N = 253) where MS and AS distributions of these two groups were compared. Results: The mean total MS of the phantom was 32.9 ± 0.8 mg and 33.1 ± 0.9 mg (p = 0.43) assessed by scanner A and B respectively – the physical calcium mass was 34.0 mg. Correlation between measured MS and physical calcium mass was R{sup 2} = 0.99 in both scanners. In the population study the median total MS was 16.8 mg (interquartile range (IQR): 3.5–81.1) and 15.8 mg (IQR: 3.8–63.4) in scanner A and B (p = 0.88). The corresponding median total AS were 92 (IQR: 23–471) and 89 (IQR: 40–384) (p = 0.64). Conclusion: Calibrated calcium mass score may be assessed with very high accuracy in a calcium phantom by different generations of 320-MDCT scanners. In population studies, it appears acceptable to pool calcium scores acquired on different 320-MDCT scanners.

  10. Study on multi-detector computed tomography in the virtual endoscope mode to phantom of saliva gland duct application. Image quality evaluation of geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Tomonori; Innami, Hisashi; Oyake, Reira; Shinohara, Yuki; Yamaaki, Fumi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis ability of the radiographic imaging has been greatly improved by the advent of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), Which is now a the prerequisite to the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases. MDCT conducted in the virtual endoscope mode can be used for various image compositions, and the space in a structure such as the large intestines can be visualized similarly as with an actual endoscope. Using a phantom of a salivary gland duct, I performed the image analysis to determine whether this endoscope mode could able to be applied to the oral cavity. I searched for the optimum conditions and the best position for taking pictures, and evaluated whether the salivary gland ducts could be reproducibly imitated by the phantom. Modulation transfer function (MTF), Wiener spectrum (WS) analysis were used to examined the utility of MDCT in the virtual endoscope mode for use in the oral cavity. As a result, the following conclusions were made: The best image was obtained within 40 mm from the center part of the gantry by the MTF and the WS analyses. Decreases in the MTF and the WS as the decrease were seen at 20 mAs and 80 kV, and the decrease were seen in the sharpness of the image decreased as the value of the reconstruction function became smaller. The image was somewhat distorted when pictures were taken of the parallel or the direction of the slice by the inclination within 90 deg±15 deg as much as possible Z axially for running of the duct in the evaluation of internal reproducibility. The influence was admitted to go out easily in an inside form as the inside diameter became thin. The salivary gland phantom was evaluated geometrically by MDCT in the virtual endoscope mode, and the optimal conditions were obtained from the above-mentioned results. The utility of MDCT in the mode was thus suggested. (author)

  11. Preoperative differentiation between T1a and ≥T1b gallbladder cancer: combined interpretation of high-resolution ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Ijin; Baek, Jee Hyun; Kim, Jung Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Hee Sun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of combined interpretation of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for preoperative differentiation between T1a and ≥T1b gallbladder (GB) cancer. Eighty-seven patients with pathologically confirmed GB cancers (T1a, n = 15; ≥T1b, n = 72), who preoperatively underwent both HRUS and MDCT, were included in this retrospective study. Two reviewers independently determined the T-stages of the GB cancers on HRUS and MDCT using a five-point confidence scale (5, definitely T1a; 1, definitely ≥T1b). For individual modality interpretation, the lesions with scores ≥4 were classified as T1a, and, for combined modality interpretation, the lesions with all scores ≥4 in both modalities were classified as T1a. The McNemar test was used to compare diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of differentiation between T1a and ≥T1b GB cancer was higher using combined interpretation (90.8 % and 88.5 % for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively) than individual interpretation of HRUS (82.8 % and 83.9 %) or MDCT (74.7 % and 82.8 %) (P < 0.05, reviewer 1). Combined interpretations demonstrated 100 % specificity for both reviewers, which was significantly higher than individual interpretations (P < 0.05, both reviewers). Combined HRUS and MDCT interpretation may improve the diagnostic accuracy and specificity for differentiating between T1a and ≥T1b GB cancers. circle Differentiating between T1a and ≥T1b gallbladder cancer can help surgical planning. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomography of pelvic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, Makoto; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1984-12-01

    Plain x-ray and computed tomographic (CT) findings were compared in 7 patients with pelvic fractures (2 males and 5 females) aged between 35 and 50 year. Plain x-rays had a higher sensitivity than CT in detecting fractures of the ischiatic and pubic ramuses, and deviation of bone fragments. CT was superior to plain x-rays near the acetabulum and in detecting deviation of bone fragments. Although there were no differences between the two modalities in detecting fractures of the wing of ilium, CT was more useful than plain x-rays in visualizing deviation of bone fragments. CT clearly visualized not only fractures but also injuries of the soft tissues, such as pelvic viscera and muscles, and the presence of hematoma. CT seems to be a useful method for observing the condition and process of pelvic injuries and for deciding treatment protocols.

  13. 21 CFR 892.1200 - Emission computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emission computed tomography system. 892.1200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1200 Emission computed tomography system. (a) Identification. An emission computed tomography system is a device intended to detect the...

  14. Detection of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty with a Non-Flat-Panel Angio Unit Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography - An Ex Vivo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Clemens; Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of cement leakages after vertebroplasty using angiographic computed tomography (ACT) in a non-flat-panel angio unit compared to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Vertebroplasty was performed in 19 of 33 cadaver vertebrae (23 thoracic and 10 lumbar segments). In the angio suite, ACT (190 o ; 1.5 o per image) was performed to obtain volumetric data. Another volumetric data set of the specimen was obtained by MDCT using a standard algorithm. Nine multiplanar reconstructions in standardized axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of every vertebra were generated from both data sets. Images were evaluated on the basis of a nominal scale with 18 criteria, comprising osseous properties (e.g., integrity of the end plate) and cement distribution (e.g., presence of intraspinal cement). MDCT images were regarded as gold standard and analyzed by two readers in a consensus mode. Rotational acquisitions were analyzed by six blinded readers. Results were correlated with the gold standard using Cohen's κ-coefficient analysis. Furthermore, interobserver variability was calculated. Correlation with the gold standard ranged from no correlation (osseous margins of the neuroforamen, κ = 0.008) to intermediate (trace of vertebroplasty canula; κ = 0.615) for criteria referring to osseous morphology. However, there was an excellent correlation for those criteria referring to cement distribution, with κ values ranging from 0.948 (paravertebral cement distribution) to 0.972 (intraspinal cement distribution). With a minimum of κ = 0.768 ('good correlation') and a maximum of κ = 0.91 ('excellent'), interobserver variability was low. In conclusion, ACT in an angio suite without a flat-panel detector depicts a cement leakage after vertebroplasty as well as MDCT. However, the method does not provide sufficient depiction of osseous morphology.

  15. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon [Unit of Endodontology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  16. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  17. Emission computed tomography: methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Greenberg, J.; Fowler, J.; Christman, D.; Rosenquist, A.; Rintelmann, W.; Hand, P.; MacGregor, R.; Wolf, A.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for the determination of local cerebral glucose metabolism using positron emission computed tomography is described as an example of the development of use of this methodology for the study of these parameters in man. The method for the determination of local cerebral glucose metabolism utilizes 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]-FDG). In this method [ 18 F]-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation by hexokinase in the tissue. The labelled product of metabolism, [ 18 F]-FDG phosphate, is essentially trapped in the tissue over the time course of the measurement. The studies demonstrate the potential usefulness of emission computed tomography for the measurement of various biochemical and physiological parameters in man. (Auth.)

  18. Computed tomography of chest wall abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Morimoto, Shizuo; Akira, Masanori

    1986-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions of the chest wall become less common because of the improvement of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Over a 5-year period, 7 patients with chest wall inflammatory diseases underwent chest computed tomography. These were 2 tuberculous pericostal abscesses, 2 empyema necessitatis, 1 spinal caries, and 2 bacterial chest wall abscesses (unknown organisms). Computed tomography (CT) helped in demonstrating the density, border, site, and extent of the lesions. CT images also demonstrated the accompaning abnormalities which included bone changes, pleural calcification, or old tuberculous changes of the lung. CT was very effective to demonstrate the communicating portions from the inside of the bony thorax to the outside of the bony thorax in 2 empyema necessitatis. (author)

  19. Soil structure changes evaluated with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate in millimetric scale changes in soil bulk density and porosity, using the gamma-ray computed tomography in soil samples with disturbed structure due to wetting and drying (W-D) cycles. Soil samples with 98.1 cm 3 were sieved using a 2 mm mesh and homogeneously packed in PVC cylinders. Soil samples were submitted to 1, 2, and 3 W-D cycles. Control samples were not submitted to W-D cycles. After repetitions of W-D cycles, soil sample porosity decreased and soil layers became denser. Computed tomography allowed a continuous analysis of soil bulk density and also soil porosity along millimetric (0.08 cm) layers, what cannot be provided by traditional methods used in soil physics. (author)

  20. Possibilities of computer tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymazal, J.; Bauer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer tomography was performed in 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, the average age of patients being 40.8 years. Native examinations were made of 17 patients, examinations with contrast medium of 19, both methods were used in the examination of 5 patients. In 26 patients, i.e. in almost two-thirds, cerebral atrophy was found, in 11 of a severe type. In 9 patients atrophy affected only the hemispheres, in 16 also the stem and cerebellum. The stem and cerebellum only were affected in 1 patient. Hypodense foci were found in 21 patients, i.e. more than half of those examined. In 9 there were multiple foci. In most of the 19 examined patients the hypodense changes were in the hemispheres and only in 2 in the cerebellum and brain stem. No hyperdense changes were detected. The value and possibilities are discussed of examinations by computer tomography multiple sclerosis. (author)

  1. Basic principle of cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The use of computed tomography for dental procedures has increased recently. Cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) systems have been designed for imaging hard tissues of the dentomaxillofacial region. CBCT is capable of providing high resolution in images of high diagnostic quality. This technology allows for 3-dimensional representation of the dentomaxillofacial skeleton with minimal distortion, but at lower equipment cost, simpler image acquisition and lower patient dose. Because this technology produces images with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution, it is ideally suited for dedicated dentomaxillofacial imaging. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of cone beam scanning technology and compare it with the fan beam scanning used in conventional CT and the basic principles of currently available CBCT systems

  2. Contrast-induced nephropathy after computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Selistre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase. Objective: We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography. Methods: We studied 400 patients prospectively. Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.

  3. Xenon as an adjunct in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, B.E.; Radue, E.W.; Zilkha, E.; Loh, L.

    1979-01-01

    Nonradioactive xenon was used for enhancement in computed tomography in a series of 18 patients requiring general anesthesia. The method and results are described. The properties of xenon are radically different from those of intravenous iodides, and the enhancement patterns demonstrate different aspects of both normal and abnormal tissues. In our limited experience, it has been of value in those isodense and low attenuation lesions that have not enhanced after intravenous Conray. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  4. Computed tomography of the eye and orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, S.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Weber, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    This book is the product of the evolution of computed tomography (CT) into subspecialization and the need for one source of information for the busy radiologist. The authors have succeeded in providing a readable overview of orbital CT as well as a reference book. The book is divided into seven major catagories of pathology (Neurofibromatosis, Primary Orbital Neoplasms, Secondary and Metastic Tumors of the Orbit, Vascular Disorders, Inflammatory Disease, Occular Lesions, and Trauma) after separate discussions of anatomy and technique

  5. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  6. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.

    1988-01-01

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  7. Cranial computed tomography of the neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuichi; Shibakiri, Ippei

    1981-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) was performed in 10 cases of neurofibromatosis. The CT scan showed the abnormal findings in 8 cases out of 10. Skull lesions were noted in 3 cases and intracranial tumors were found in 5 among which multiple neoplasms were seen in 3. Although reported cases were not large enough in number, the incidence and variety of the tumors were similar to others reported before CT era. (author)

  8. Computed tomography manifestations of peritoneal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, K.; Lee, W.K.; Hennessy, O.

    2005-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a potential space that is divided by the peritoneal reflections into various complex subspaces. It can be involved in many disease processes including developmental, inflammatory, neoplastic and traumatic conditions. Computed tomography is highly sensitive and consistent in detecting peritoneal pathology. This pictorial essay aims to emphasize and illustrate the CT features of the spectrum of peritoneal diseases. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  10. Fatty kidney diagnosed by mortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Subnuclear vacuolization of the renal tubular epithelium is indicative of diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis and has also been proposed as a postmortem marker for hypothermia. We present for the first time a fatal case of ketoacidosis in combination with exposure where a suspicion of these diagn...... of these diagnoses was raised by a marked radiolucency of the kidneys at post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd....

  11. Comparing culprit lesions in ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W.-C. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: w.c.huang@yahoo.com.tw; Liu, C.-P. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpliu@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Wu, M.-T. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wu.mingting@gmail.com; Mar, G.-Y. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gymar@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Lin, S.-K. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: skyii89@yahoo.com.tw; Hsiao, S.-H. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a841120@ms3.hinet.net; Lin, S.-L. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sllin@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Chiou, K.-R. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: krchiou@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2010-01-15

    Background: Classifying acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as ST elevation ACS (STE-ACS) or non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) is critical for clinical prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. Assessing the differences in composition and configuration of culprit lesions between STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS can clarify their pathophysiologic differences. Objective: This study focused on evaluating the ability of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to investigate these differences in culprit lesions in patients with STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. Methods: Of 161 ACS cases admitted, 120 who fit study criteria underwent MDCT and conventional coronary angiography. The following MDCT data were analyzed: calcium volume, Agatston calcium scores, plaque area, plaque burden, remodeling index, and plaque density. Results: The MDCT angiography had a good correlation with conventional coronary angiography regarding the stenotic severity of culprit lesions (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). The STE-ACS culprit lesions (n = 54) had significantly higher luminal area stenosis (78.6 {+-} 21.2% vs. 66.7 {+-} 23.9%, p = 0.006), larger plaque burden (0.91 {+-} 0.10 vs. 0.84 {+-} 0.12, p = 0.007) and remodeling index (1.28 {+-} 0.34 vs. 1.16 {+-} 0.22, p = 0.021) than those with NSTE-ACS (n = 66). The percentage of expanding remodeling index (remodeling index >1.05) was significantly higher in the STE-ACS group (81.5% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.031). The patients with STE-ACS had significantly lower MDCT density of culprit lesions than patients with NSTE-ACS (25.8 {+-} 13.9 HU vs. 43.5 {+-} 19.1 HU, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sixty-four-slice MDCT can accurately evaluate the stenotic severity and composition of culprit lesions in selected patients with either STE-ACS or NSTE-ACS. Culprit lesions in NSTE-ACS patients had significantly lower luminal area stenosis, plaque burden, remodeling index and higher MDCT density, which possibly reflect differences in the composition of vulnerable culprit plaques and thrombi.

  12. Physics and instrumentation of emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Transverse emission computed tomography can be divided into two distinct classes: single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). SPECT is usually accomplished with specially-adapted scintillation cameras, although dedicated SPECT scanners are available. The special SPECT cameras are standard cameras which are mounted on gantries that allow 360 degree rotation around the long axis of the head or body. The camera stops at a number of angles around the body (usually 64-128), acquiring a ''projection'' image at each stop. The data from these projections are used to reconstruct transverse images with a standard ''filtered back-projection'' algorithm, identical to that used in transmission CT. Because the scintillation camera acquires two-dimensional images, a simple 360 degree rotation around the patient results in the acquisition of data for a number of contiguous transverse slices. These slices, once reconstructed, can be ''stacked'' in computer memory, and orthogonal coronal and sagittal slices produced. Additionally, reorienting algorithms allow the generation of slices that are oblique to the long axis of the body

  13. Computed tomography in intracranial malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, S; Odake, G; Fujimoto, M; Yamaki, T; Mizukawa, N [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1978-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system has been found more and more often in recent years, partly because of the increased use of radiation and such drugs as steroids and antibiotics. However, the definite diagnosis of this disease is difficult until histological verification has been done by operation or autopsy. Since the revolutionary development of computed tomography, however, several reports have been presented, on the computed tomography of malignant lymphoma of the thorax and abdomen. Nevertheless, only a few cases of intracranial malignant lymphoma have been reported. The purpose of this paper, using four patients, is to emphasize the value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of intracranial malignant lymphoma. The characteristic CT findings of intracranial malignant lymphoma may be summarized follows: (1) the tumors are demonstrated to be well-defined, nodular-shaped, and homogenous isodensity - or slightly high-density - lesions in plain scans, and the tumors homogenously increase in density upon contrast enhancement; (2) the disease always has multifocal intracranial lesions, which are shown simultaneously or one after another, and (3) perifocal edema is prominent around the tumors in the cerebral hemisphere.

  14. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment...

  15. Basic principles of cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Kenneth; Rice, Dwight D

    2014-07-01

    At the end of the millennium, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) heralded a new dental technology for the next century. Owing to the dramatic and positive impact of CBCT on implant dentistry and orthognathic/orthodontic patient care, additional applications for this technology soon evolved. New software programs were developed to improve the applicability of, and access to, CBCT for dental patients. Improved, rapid, and cost-effective computer technology, combined with the ability of software engineers to develop multiple dental imaging applications for CBCT with broad diagnostic capability, have played a large part in the rapid incorporation of CBCT technology into dentistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computed tomography-controlled stereotactic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keizo; Shichijo, Fumio; Gyoten, Tetsuya; Tomida, Keisuke; Miyake, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    A single use of coordinate system of computed tomography (CT) scanner is utilized for CT-controlled stereotactic surgery. Depth, direction and readjustment of target trajectory were defined by known values of cursor number in CT images and numbers of the sliding table indicator. We loaded calculation formulas into hand held computer to obtain immediate answers. Stereotactic apparatus consisted two main parts: the patient's head fixation and probe holder. Surgery was performed in cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage for evacuation of the hematomas successfully. Target accuracy was satisfactory. With further advance of this surgery, automatic stereotactic control with a special robot machine seeing possible. (author)

  17. Use of multidetector computed tomography angiography of upper limb circulation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan B Altinsoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the bilateral forehand circulation using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT as a noninvasive method to define criteria for an upper extremity arterial anatomy and pathology prior to the use of arterial conduits. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with coronary artery disease who underwent total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG were randomly selected for this prospective study. MDCT angiography was performed for 110 examinations of forearm and hand arterial anatomy. Prior to MDCT, Allen tests were performed in all patients with a normal result, except four. Thirteen patients had diabetes mellitus (DM, 8 had peripheral artery occlusive disease, and 19 had a history of smoking. Results: All arteries, including axillary, ulnar artery (UA and radial artery (RA, were clearly visualized in all patients. Upper extremity anatomical and pathological results were examined in 16 patients (29.1%. Severely calcified RA and/or UA were found in 6 patients who had a moderate renal failure. Nearly total occlusion of the RA was detected in another two patients. Focal intimal RA calcification was recorded in 1 female and 3 male patients. Ten patients who had severe calcification or intimal sclerosis of the upper extremity arteries had DM. The remaining patients had normal forehand arterial circulation. A persistent median artery with the absence of radial and ulnar arteries and a high bifurcation of RA from the brachial artery was detected as an anatomic variation in seven patients (12.7%. Conclusions: The major advantages of MDCT angiography are its non-invasiveness and the ability to detect calcific subadventitial plaques, which are difficult to diagnose using conventional angiography. MDCT may be used as a safe and non-invasive method to assess RA and UA prior to harvesting the upper limb artery. Preoperative imaging of forehand arteries is a means to avoid unnecessary forearm

  18. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR imaging for management of hemorrhagic esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Hideaki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Azakami, Takahiro; Katamura, Yoshio; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Takahashi, Shoichi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between changes in portosystemic collaterals, evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography imaging using multiplanar reconstruction (MDCT-MPR), and prognosis in patients with hemorrhagic esophageal varices (EV) after endoscopic treatment. Methods: Forty-nine patients with primary hemostasis for variceal bleeding received radical endoscopic treatment: endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Patients were classified according to the rate of reduction in feeding vessel diameter on MDCT-MPR images, into the narrowing (n = 24) and no-change (n = 25) groups. We evaluated changes in portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR before and after treatment, and determined rebleeding and survival rates. Results: The left gastric and paraesophageal (PEV) veins were recognized as portosystemic collaterals in 100 and 80%, respectively, of patients with EV on MDCT-MPR images. The rebleeding rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after endoscopic treatment were 10, 15, 23, and 23%, respectively, for the narrowing group, and 17, 24, 35, and 67%, respectively, for the no-change group (P = 0.068). Among no-change group, the rebleeding rate in patients with large PEV was significantly lower than that with small PEV (P = 0.027). The rebleeding rate in patients with small PEV of the no-change group was significantly higher than that in the narrowing group (P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in rebleeding rates between the no-change group with a large PEV and narrowing group (P = 0.435). Conclusion: Changes in portosystemic collaterals evaluated by MDCT-MPR imaging correlate with rebleeding rate. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in this manner would provide useful information for the management of hemorrhagic EV.

  19. Detection of occult vertebral fractures by quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henes, Frank Oliver; Groth, Michael; Kramer, Harald; Schaefer, Christian; Regier, Marc; Derlin, Thorsten; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine a cut-off value of Hounsfield attenuation units (HU) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for valid and reliable detection of bone marrow oedema (BME) related to occult vertebral fractures. Methods: 36 patients underwent both MDCT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for evaluation of vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine and were included in this retrospective study. Two readers independently assessed HU values at MDCT in a total of 196 vertebrae. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman analysis. For each patient we determined the vertebra with the lowest HU value and calculated the HU-difference to each other vertebral body. HU-differences were subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy for detection of BME as determined by MRI, which served as the reference standard. Results of HU-measurements were compared with standard visual evaluation of MDCT. Results: HU measurements demonstrated a high interrater reliability (ICC = 0.984). ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.978) exhibited an ideal cut-off value of 29.6 HU for detection of BME associated with vertebral fractures with an accuracy of 97.4% as compared to 93.4% accuracy of visual evaluation. Particularly, HU-measurements increased the sensitivity for detection of vertebral fractures from 78.0% to 92.7% due to the detection of 7 of 9 occult fractures that were missed by visual evaluation alone. Conclusions: Assessing bone marrow density by HU measurements using the cut-off of 29.6 HU is a valid and reliable tool for detection of BME related to occult vertebral fractures in MDCT. The introduced technique may allow more accurate treatment decisions and may make further diagnostic work-up with MRI unnecessary

  20. Detection of occult vertebral fractures by quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, Frank Oliver, E-mail: f.henes@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, Harald [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Schaefer, Christian [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, Spine Center, Center for Surgical Sciences, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Regier, Marc; Derlin, Thorsten; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To determine a cut-off value of Hounsfield attenuation units (HU) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for valid and reliable detection of bone marrow oedema (BME) related to occult vertebral fractures. Methods: 36 patients underwent both MDCT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for evaluation of vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine and were included in this retrospective study. Two readers independently assessed HU values at MDCT in a total of 196 vertebrae. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman analysis. For each patient we determined the vertebra with the lowest HU value and calculated the HU-difference to each other vertebral body. HU-differences were subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy for detection of BME as determined by MRI, which served as the reference standard. Results of HU-measurements were compared with standard visual evaluation of MDCT. Results: HU measurements demonstrated a high interrater reliability (ICC = 0.984). ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.978) exhibited an ideal cut-off value of 29.6 HU for detection of BME associated with vertebral fractures with an accuracy of 97.4% as compared to 93.4% accuracy of visual evaluation. Particularly, HU-measurements increased the sensitivity for detection of vertebral fractures from 78.0% to 92.7% due to the detection of 7 of 9 occult fractures that were missed by visual evaluation alone. Conclusions: Assessing bone marrow density by HU measurements using the cut-off of 29.6 HU is a valid and reliable tool for detection of BME related to occult vertebral fractures in MDCT. The introduced technique may allow more accurate treatment decisions and may make further diagnostic work-up with MRI unnecessary.

  1. Chronic mitral regurgitation detected on cardiac MDCT: differentiation between functional and valvular aetiologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) can differentiate between functional and valvular aetiologies of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared with echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional or valvular MR diagnosed by TTE and 19 controls prospectively underwent cardiac MDCT. The morphological appearance of the mitral valve (MV) leaflets, MV geometry, MV leaflet angle, left ventricular (LV) sphericity and global\\/regional wall motion were analysed. The coronary arteries were evaluated for obstructive atherosclerosis. RESULTS: All control and MR cases were correctly identified by MDCT. Significant differences were detected between valvular and control groups for anterior leaflet length (30 +\\/- 7 mm vs. 22 +\\/- 4 mm, P < 0.02) and thickness (3.0 +\\/- 1 mm vs. 2.2 +\\/- 1 mm, P < 0.01). High-grade coronary stenosis was detected in all patients with functional MR compared with no controls (P < 0.001). Significant differences in those with\\/without MV prolapse were detected in MV tent area (-1.0 +\\/- 0.6 mm vs. 1.3 +\\/- 0.9 mm, P < 0.0001) and MV tent height (-0.7 +\\/- 0.3 mm vs. 0.8 +\\/- 0.8 mm, P < 0.0001). Posterior leaflet angle was significantly greater for functional MR (37.9 +\\/- 19.1 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees , P < 0.018) and less for valvular MR (0.6 +\\/- 35.5 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees, P < 0.017). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 100%, 95%, 96% and 100%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac MDCT allows the differentiation between functional and valvular causes of MR.

  2. Demonstration of vascular abnormalities compressing esophagus by MDCT: Special focus on dysphagia lusoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Fatih; Akgun, Metin; Kantarci, Mecit; Eroglu, Atilla; Ceyhan, Elvan; Onbas, Omer; Duran, Cihan; Okur, Adnan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia lusoria (DL) is described in the literature as difficulty in swallowing caused by vascular abnormalities. The most common cause is an aberrant right subclavian artery (SCA) which passes behind the esophagus and is also called arteria lusoria (AL). Our aim was to demonstrate the use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of AL, as there is no comprehensive study investigating the role of MDCT in such cases. Material and methods: A total of 38 consecutive patients, comprising of 23 females (61%) and 15 males (39%), who had extrinsic compression were included in the study. These patients are selected from the cases who were admitted due to their gastrointestinal symptoms, such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, chronic nausea, vomiting, etc. The mean age of patients was 40 ± 25 years (range 15-65). Following barium esophagogram and then endoscopy performed, MDCT angiography was carried out on the same or the following few days. MDCT sections were examined to determine the following: presence of vascular abnormality; the diameter and angle of that vascular structure; and the compressed area of esophagus. Radiological findings and dysphagia scores were also compared. Results: In each of 15 cases, there was a compression due to vascular abnormality which were all located between the esophagus and the spine. There was an esophageal compression in each of 12 cases, due to right aberrant SCA, in one case due to right superior aortic arch and in two cases due to both right aortic arch and left SCA with Kommerell's diverticulum. The mean diameter and the angle of AL were 16.4 mm and 48.8 o , respectively, and the mean area of pressured esophagus was 194.7 mm 2 . Dysphagia scores of the cases was 1 in thirteen cases and 2 in two cases. However, dysphagia scores were not correlated with these parameters. Conclusions: MDCT angiography is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation of patients with dysphagia, especially caused by a vascular

  3. Hybrid Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Sulphur Colloid Scintigraphy in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Amit; Gayana, Shankramurthy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    It is important to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign condition of liver most commonly affecting women, from other neoplasm such as hepatic adenoma and metastasis. The functional reticuloendothelial features of FNH can be demonstrated by scintigraphy. We present a case of breast cancer in whom fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) showed a homogenous hyperdense lesion in liver, which on Tc99m sulfur colloid single-photon emission computed tomography/CT was found to have increased focal tracer uptake suggestive of FNH

  4. Applications of X-ray Computed Tomography and Emission Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seletchi, Emilia Dana; Sutac, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Computed Tomography is a non-destructive imaging method that allows visualization of internal features within non-transparent objects such as sedimentary rocks. Filtering techniques have been applied to circumvent the artifacts and achieve high-quality images for quantitative analysis. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) can be used to identify the position of the growth axis in speleothems by detecting subtle changes in calcite density between growth bands. HRXCT imagery reveals the three-dimensional variability of coral banding providing information on coral growth and climate over the past several centuries. The Nuclear Medicine imaging technique uses a radioactive tracer, several radiation detectors, and sophisticated computer technologies to understand the biochemical basis of normal and abnormal functions within the brain. The goal of Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) is to accurately determine the three-dimensional radioactivity distribution resulting from the radiopharmaceutical uptake inside the patient instead of the attenuation coefficient distribution from different tissues as obtained from X-ray Computer Tomography. ECT is a very useful tool for investigating the cognitive functions. Because of the low radiation doses associated with Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this technique has been applied in clinical research, allowing the direct study of human neurological diseases. (authors)

  5. Minimizing Contrast Medium Doses to Diagnose Pulmonary Embolism with 80-kVp Multidetector Computed Tomography in Azotemic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmquist, F. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden)); Hansson, K.; Pasquariello, F. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden)); Bjoerk, J. (Competence Center for Clinical Research, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Lund, Lund (Sweden)); Nyman, U. (Dept. of Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Univ. of Lund, Trelleborg (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Background: In diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in azotemic patients, scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently inconclusive or not available in many hospitals. Computed tomography is readily available, but relatively high doses (30-50 g I) of potentially nephrotoxic iodine contrast media (CM) are used. Purpose: To report on the diagnostic quality and possible contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after substantially reduced CM doses to diagnose PE in azotemic patients using 80-peak kilovoltage (kVp) 16-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with CM doses tailored to body weight, fixed injection duration adapted to scan time, automatic bolus tracking, and saline chaser. Material and Methods: Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <50 ml/min were scheduled to undergo 80-kVp MDCT using 200 mg I/kg, and those with eGFR =50 ml/min, 120-kVp MDCT with 320 mg I/kg. Both protocols used an 80-kg maximum dose weight and a fixed 15-s injection time. Pulmonary artery density and contrast-to-noise ratio were measured assuming 70 Hounsfield units (HU) for a fresh clot. CIN was defined as a plasma creatinine rise >44.2 mumol/l from baseline. Results: 89/148 patients (63/68 females) underwent 80-/120-kVp protocols, respectively, with 95% of the examinations being subjectively excellent or adequate. Mean values in the 80-/120-kVp cohorts regarding age were 82/65 years, body weight 66/78 kg, effective mAs 277/117, CM dose 13/23 g I, pulmonary artery density 359/345 HU, image noise (1 standard deviation) 24/21 HU, contrast-to-noise ratio 13/13, and dose-length product 173/258 mGycm. Only 1/65 and 2/119 patients in the 80- and 120-kVp cohorts, respectively, with negative CT and no anticoagulation suffered non-fatal thromboembolism during 3-month follow-up. No patient developed CIN. Conclusion: 80-kVp 16-row MDCT with optimization of injection parameters may be performed with preserved diagnostic quality, using markedly reduced CM

  6. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Cun; Xie, Qiang; Lv, Wei-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a phenotypically heterogeneous, chronic, destructive inflammatory disease of the synovial joints. A number of imaging tools are currently available for evaluation of inflammatory conditions. By targeting the upgraded glucose uptake of infiltrating granulocytes and tissue macrophages, positron emission tomography/computed tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG PET/CT) is available to delineate inflammation with high sensitivity. Recently, several studies have indicated that FDG uptake in affected joints reflects the disease activity of RA. In addition, usage of FDG PET for the sensitive detection and monitoring of the response to treatment has been reported. Combined FDG PET/CT enables the detailed assessment of disease in large joints throughout the whole body. These unique capabilities of FDG PET/CT imaging are also able to detect RA-complicated diseases. Therefore, PET/CT has become an excellent ancillary tool to assess disease activity and prognosis in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Therapy response evaluation with positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, George M

    2010-12-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose is widely used for evaluation of therapy response in patients with solid tumors but has not been as readily adopted in clinical trials because of the variability of acquisition and processing protocols and the absence of universal response criteria. Criteria proposed for clinical trials are difficult to apply in clinical practice, and gestalt impression is probably accurate in individual patients, especially with respect to the presence of progressive disease and complete response. Semiquantitative methods of determining tissue glucose metabolism, such as standard uptake value, can be a useful descriptor for levels of tissue glucose metabolism and changes in response to therapy if technical quality control measures are carefully maintained. The terms partial response, complete response, and progressive disease are best used in clinical trials in which the terms have specific meanings and precise definitions. In clinical practice, it may be better to use descriptive terminology agreed upon by imaging physicians and clinicians in their own practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Multi-detector row computed tomography angiography of peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Marc C.J.M.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Pattynama, Peter M.T.; Myriam Hunink, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), scan speed and image quality has improved considerably. Since the longitudinal coverage is no longer a limitation, multi-detector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is increasingly used to depict the peripheral arterial runoff. Hence, it is important to know the advantages and limitations of this new non-invasive alternative for the reference test, digital subtraction angiography. Optimization of the acquisition parameters and the contrast delivery is important to achieve a reliable enhancement of the entire arterial runoff in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using fast CT scanners. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different scanning and injection protocols using 4-, 16-, and 64-detector row CT scanners, to propose effective methods to evaluate and to present large data sets, to discuss its clinical value and major limitations, and to review the literature on the validity, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of multi-detector row CT in the evaluation of PAD. (orig.)

  9. Mathematics in computed tomography and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of computed tomography (CT) was formulated in 1917 by Radon. His theorem states that the 2-D function f(x,y) can be determined at all points from a complete set of its line integrals. Modern methods of image reconstruction include three approaches: algebraic reconstruction techniques with simultaneous iterative reconstruction or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction; convolution back projection; and the Fourier transform method. There is no one best approach. Because the experimental data do not strictly satisfy theoretical models, a number of effects have to be taken into account; in particular, the problems of beam geometry, finite beam dimensions and distribution, beam scattering, and the radiation source spectrum. Tomography with truncated data is of interest, employing mathematical approximations to compensate for the unmeasured projection data. Mathematical techniques in image processing and data analysis are also extensively used. 13 refs

  10. Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Han

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until July 4, 2014, using combinations of the following terms: gadoxetic acid disodium, Gd-EOB-DTPA, multidetector CT, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Inclusion criteria were as follows: confirmed diagnosis of primary HCC by histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen; comparative study of MRI using Gd-EOB-DTPA and MDCT for diagnosis of HCC; and studies that provided quantitative outcome data. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 2 methods were compared, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed with alternative-free response receiver-operating characteristic analysis.Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, and a total of 1439 lesions were examined. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for 1.5T MRI were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively, for 3.0T MRI were 0.91 and 0.96, respectively, and for MDCT were 0.74 and 0.93, respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio for 1.5T and 3.0T MRI was 242.96, respectively, and that of MDCT was 33.47. To summarize, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (1.5T and 3.0T) has better diagnostic accuracy for HCC than MDCT.

  11. Evaluation of radiation doses from MDCT-imaging in otolaryngology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C.; Fujii, K.; Aoyama, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Koyama, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify patient doses in the current otolaryngological multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) examinations. Patient doses were measured with an in-phantom dosimetry system which was composed of 48 photodiode dosemeters embedded within an anthropomorphic phantom. Organ and effective doses were evaluated according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. In neck CT, doses for salivary glands and for thyroid were high, 7.6-29.9 and 13.4-60.3 mGy, respectively. In sinus CT, brain and lens doses were high, 7.6-24.6 and 10.6-32.0 mGy, respectively, and in inner ear CT, lens dose was 8.0-35.3 mGy. Effective doses were 1.8-6.6 mSv in neck CT, 0.5-0.9 mSv in sinus CT and 0.3-0.6 mSv in inner ear CT. The present dose data would be used to estimate radiation risks for patients undergoing otolaryngological MDCT examinations. (authors)

  12. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  13. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  14. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends

  15. RELIABILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF TESTICULAR CARCINOMA PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoletić, Katarina; Mihailović, Jasna; Matovina, Emil; Žeravica, Radmila; Srbovan, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the reliability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in evaluation of testicular carcinoma patients. The study sample consisted of 26 scans performed in 23 patients with testicular carcinoma. According to the pathohistological finding, 14 patients had seminomas, 7 had nonseminomas and 2 patients had a mixed histological type. In 17 patients, the initial treatment was orchiectomy+chemotherapy, 2 patients had orchiectomy+chemotherapy+retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, 3 patients had orchiectomy only and one patient was treated with chemotherapy only. Abnormal computed tomography was the main cause for the oncologist to refer the patient to positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan (in 19 scans), magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in 1 scan, high level oftumor markers in 3 and 3 scans were perforned for follow-up. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging results were compared with histological results, other imaging modalities or the clinical follow-up of the patients. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans were positive in 6 and negative in 20 patients. In two patients, positron emission tomography-computed tomography was false positive. There were 20 negative positron emission omography-computed tomography scans perforned in 18 patients, one patient was lost for data analysis. Clinically stable disease was confirmed in 18 follow-up scans performed in 16 patients. The values of sensitivty, specificity, accuracy, and positive- and negative predictive value were 60%, 95%, 75%, 88% and 90.5%, respectively. A hgh negative predictive value obtained in our study (90.5%) suggests that there is a small possibility for a patient to have future relapse after normal positron emission tomography-computed tomography study. However, since the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the study ire rather low, there are limitations of positive

  16. Total variation-based neutron computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Richard C.; Bilheux, Hassina; Toops, Todd; Nafziger, Eric; Finney, Charles; Splitter, Derek; Archibald, Rick

    2018-05-01

    We perform the neutron computed tomography reconstruction problem via an inverse problem formulation with a total variation penalty. In the case of highly under-resolved angular measurements, the total variation penalty suppresses high-frequency artifacts which appear in filtered back projections. In order to efficiently compute solutions for this problem, we implement a variation of the split Bregman algorithm; due to the error-forgetting nature of the algorithm, the computational cost of updating can be significantly reduced via very inexact approximate linear solvers. We present the effectiveness of the algorithm in the significantly low-angular sampling case using synthetic test problems as well as data obtained from a high flux neutron source. The algorithm removes artifacts and can even roughly capture small features when an extremely low number of angles are used.

  17. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  18. Computed tomography scans of metastatic hepatic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Nemoto, Yutaka [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography scans of 114 metastatic hepatic tumors were reviewed. Central low density was found in 82 cases (71.9%) and seems to be characteristic to metastatic hepatic tumors. Dynamic CT was performed on 34 cases, and 21 (61.8%) of these had ring enhancement at the arterial phase. Most of metastatic hepatic tumors could be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma. However, metastatic hepatic tumors from renal cell carcinoma, renal rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma could not be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, even with use of dynamic study.

  19. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  20. An industrial application of computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonner, P.D.; Tosello, G.

    1984-10-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) scanning is a nondestructive testing technique used to obtain quantitatively accurate mappings of the distribution of linear attenuation coefficients inside an object. To demonstrate the potential of the technique for accurately locating defects in three dimensions a sectioned 5 cm gate valve, with a shrink cavity made visible by the sectioning, was tomographically imaged using a Co-60 source. The tomographic images revealed a larger cavity below the sectioned surface. The position of this cavity was located with an in-plane and axial precision of approximately +- 1 mm. The volume of the cavity was estimated to be approximately 40 mm 3