International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Morel, Jim E.
2009-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warsa, James S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morel, Jim E [TEXAS A& M UNIV
2008-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Morel, Jim E.
2009-09-01
The Fokker-Planck equation is a widely used approximation for modeling the Compton scattering of photons in high energy density applications. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of three implicit time discretizations for the Compton-Scattering Fokker-Planck equation. Specifically, we examine (i) a Semi-Implicit (SI) scheme that employs backward-Euler differencing but evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their beginning-of-time-step values, (ii) a Fully Implicit (FI) discretization that instead evaluates temperature-dependent coefficients at their end-of-time-step values, and (iii) a Linearized Implicit (LI) scheme, which is developed by linearizing the temperature dependence of the FI discretization within each time step. Our stability analysis shows that the FI and LI schemes are unconditionally stable and cannot generate oscillatory solutions regardless of time-step size, whereas the SI discretization can suffer from instabilities and nonphysical oscillations for sufficiently large time steps. With the results of this analysis, we present time-step limits for the SI scheme that prevent undesirable behavior. We test the validity of our stability analysis and time-step limits with a set of numerical examples.
Stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hari Prasad, M.; Rami Reddy, G.; Srividya, A.; Verma, A.K.
2011-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation describes the time evolution of the probability density function of the velocity of a particle, and can be generalized to other observables as well. It is also known as the Kolmogorov forward equation (diffusion). Hence, for any process, which evolves with time, the probability density function as a function of time can be represented with Fokker-Planck equation. In stochastic reliability analysis one is more interested in finding out the reliability or failure probability of the components or structures as a function of time rather than instantaneous failure probabilities. In this analysis the variables are represented with random processes instead of random variables. A random processes can be either stationary or non stationary. If the random process is stationary then the failure probability doesn't change with time where as in the case of non stationary processes the failure probability changes with time. In the present paper Fokker Planck equations have been used to find out the probability density function of the non stationary random processes. In this paper a flow chart has been provided which describes step by step process for carrying out stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker-Planck equations. As a first step one has to identify the failure function as a function of random processes. Then one has to solve the Fokker-Planck equation for each random process. In this paper the Fokker-Planck equation has been solved by using Finite difference method. As a result one gets the probability density values of the random process in the sample space as well as time space. Later at each time step appropriate probability distribution has to be identified based on the available probability density values. For checking the better fitness of the data Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of fit test has been performed. In this way one can find out the distribution of the random process at each time step. Once one has the probability distribution
Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.
1983-01-01
Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror
Maximum Path Information and Fokker Planck Equation
Li, Wei; Wang A., Q.; LeMehaute, A.
2008-04-01
We present a rigorous method to derive the nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of anomalous diffusion directly from a generalization of the principle of least action of Maupertuis proposed by Wang [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 23 (2005) 1253] for smooth or quasi-smooth irregular dynamics evolving in Markovian process. The FP equation obtained may take two different but equivalent forms. It was also found that the diffusion constant may depend on both q (the index of Tsallis entropy [J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 479] and the time t.
Generalized Fokker-Planck equations for coloured, multiplicative Gaussian noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cetto, A.M.; Pena, L. de la; Velasco, R.M.
1984-01-01
With the help of Novikov's theorem, it is possible to derive a master equation for a coloured, multiplicative, Gaussian random process; the coefficients of this master equation satisfy a complicated auxiliary integro-differential equation. For small values of the Kubo number, the master equation reduces to an approximate generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusion coefficient is explicitly written in terms of correlation functions. Finally, a straightforward and elementary second order perturbative treatment is proposed to derive the same approximate Fokker-Planck equation. (author)
Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations Fundamentals and Applications
Frank, Till Daniel
2005-01-01
Providing an introduction to the theory of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, this book discusses fundamental properties of transient and stationary solutions, emphasizing the stability analysis of stationary solutions by means of self-consistency equations, linear stability analysis, and Lyapunov's direct method. Also treated are Langevin equations and correlation functions. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations addresses various phenomena such as phase transitions, multistability of systems, synchronization, anomalous diffusion, cut-off solutions, travelling-wave solutions and the emergence of power law solutions. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective to quantum statistics, generalized thermodynamics, and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics is given. Theoretical concepts are illustrated where possible by simple examples. The book also reviews several applications in the fields of condensed matter physics, the physics of porous media and liquid crystals, accelerator physics, neurophysics, social sciences, popul...
Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables. Application examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.
1994-01-01
A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic Fokker-Plank equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman- Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t + dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integration is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases. (Author) 9 refs
Chaotic universe dynamics using a Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D.H.; Olynyk, K.O.
1987-07-01
A Fokker-Planck equation that accounts for fluctuations in field and its conjugate momentum is solved numerically for the case of a λ phi 4 potential. Although the amount of inflation agrees closely with that expected classically, in certain cases (large initial fields or large dispersions),the ''slow rolling'' approximation appears invalid. In such cases inflation would stop prematurely before possibly restarting. 18 refs., 2 figs
Derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation for bunched beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.
1993-01-01
This report investigates the derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation which is commonly used to evaluate the evolution with time of an ensemble of particles under the effect of external rf forces, cooling and forces of stochastic nature like intrabeam scattering. The conventional approach based on the classical work by Chandrasekhar is first exposed, where the phase delay and the momentum error of the particle are used. The method is then extended to the case the distribution function is expressed in terms of the amplitude of motion instead of the original rectilinear variables. The new Fokker-Planck equation is obtained with an averaging process over the phase distribution instead of the time-averaging as it was usually performed earlier, to avoid the appearance of a singularity behavior. The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is chosen in the proper form which makes easier the evaluation of the beam lifetime in the presence of the separatrix of the rf buckets. Finally the numerical applications apply the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
Numerical method for the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, D.S.; Wei, G.W.; Kouri, D.J.; Hoffman, D.K.
1997-01-01
A practical method based on distributed approximating functionals (DAFs) is proposed for numerically solving a general class of nonlinear time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. The method relies on a numerical scheme that couples the usual path-integral concept to the DAF idea. The high accuracy and reliability of the method are illustrated by applying it to an exactly solvable nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, and the method is compared with the accurate K-point Stirling interpolation formula finite-difference method. The approach is also used successfully to solve a nonlinear self-consistent dynamic mean-field problem for which both the cumulant expansion and scaling theory have been found by Drozdov and Morillo [Phys. Rev. E 54, 931 (1996)] to be inadequate to describe the occurrence of a long-lived transient bimodality. The standard interpretation of the transient bimodality in terms of the flat region in the kinetic potential fails for the present case. An alternative analysis based on the effective potential of the Schroedinger-like Fokker-Planck equation is suggested. Our analysis of the transient bimodality is strongly supported by two examples that are numerically much more challenging than other examples that have been previously reported for this problem. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker-Planck equations.
Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali
2009-07-07
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori-Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com; Rivas, Jesus Morales [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jmr@correo.azc.uam.mx; Pena Gil, Jose Juan [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jjpg@correo.azc.uam.mx; Garcia-Ravelo, Jesus [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ravelo@esfm.ipn.mx; Roy, Pinaki [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta-700108 (India)], E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in
2009-04-20
We generalize the formalism of nth order Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (n-SUSY) to the Fokker-Planck equation for constant diffusion coefficient and stationary drift potential. The SUSY partner drift potentials and the corresponding solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given explicitly. As an application, we generate new solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation by means of our first- and second-order transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Rivas, Jesus Morales; Pena Gil, Jose Juan; Garcia-Ravelo, Jesus; Roy, Pinaki
2009-01-01
We generalize the formalism of nth order Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (n-SUSY) to the Fokker-Planck equation for constant diffusion coefficient and stationary drift potential. The SUSY partner drift potentials and the corresponding solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given explicitly. As an application, we generate new solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation by means of our first- and second-order transformation.
Integral solution for the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donoso, J.M.; Soler, M.
1993-01-01
We propose an integral method to deal with the spherically symmetric non-linear Fokker-Planck equation appearing in plasma physics. A probability transition expression is obtained, which takes into account the proper domain for the radial velocity component. The analytical and computational results are new, and the time evolution is completely satisfactory. The main achievement of the method is conservation of both the initial norm and energy for unlimited times, which has not been attained in the differential approach to the problem. (orig.)
Integral propagator solvers for Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donoso, J M; Rio, E del
2007-01-01
We briefly discuss the use of short-time integral propagators on solving the so-called Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of a distribution function. For this equation, the diffusion tensor is singular and the usual Gaussian representation of the short-time propagator is no longer valid. However, we prove that the path-integral approach on solving the equation is, in fact, reliable by means of our generalized propagator, which is obtained through the construction of an auxiliary solvable Fokker-Planck equation. The new representation of the grid-free advancing scheme describes the inherent cross- and self-diffusion processes, in both velocity and configuration spaces, in a natural manner, although these processes are not explicitly depicted in the differential equation. We also show that some splitting methods, as well as some finite-difference schemes, could fail in describing the aforementioned diffusion processes, governed in the whole phase space only by the velocity diffusion tensor. The short-time transition probability offers a stable and robust numerical algorithm that preserves the distribution positiveness and its norm, ensuring the smoothness of the evolving solution at any time step. (fast track communication)
Linear analysis of the momentum cooling Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.
1989-01-01
In order to optimize the extraction scheme used to take antiprotons out of the accumulator, it is necessary to understand the basic processes involved. At present, six antiproton bunches per Tevatron store are removed sequentially by RF unstacking from the accumulator. The phase space dynamics of this process, with its accompanying phase displacement deceleration and phase space dilution of portions of the stack, can be modelled by numerical solution of the longitudinal equations of motion for a large number of particles. We have employed the tracking code ESME for this purpose. In between RF extractions, however, the stochastic cooling system is turned on for a short time, and we must take into account the effect of momentum stochastic cooling on the antiproton energy spectrum. This process is described by the Fokker-Planck equation, which models the evolution of the antiproton stack energy distribution by accounting for the cooling through an applied coherent drag force and the competing heating of the stack due to diffusion, which can arise from intra-beam scattering, amplifier noise and coherent (Schottky) effects. In this note we examine the aspects of the Fokker-Planck in the regime where the nonlinear terms due to Schottky effects are small. This discussion ultimately leads to solution of the equation in terms of an orthonormal set of functions which are closely related to the quantum simple-harmonic oscillator wave-functions. 5 refs
Darboux transformations for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel
2012-01-01
We construct a Darboux transformation for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix. Our transformation is based on the two-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for the Schrödinger equation. The transformed Fokker-Planck equation and its solutions are obtained in explicit form.
Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.
1989-01-01
A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order
Solving the Fokker-Planck equation on a massively parallel computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1990-01-01
The Fokker-Planck package FPPAC had been converted to the Connection Machine 2 (CM2). For fine mesh cases the CM2 outperforms the Cray-2 when it comes to time-integrating the difference equations. For long Legendre expansions the CM2 is also faster at computing the Fokker-Planck coefficients. 3 refs
A multigroup flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chengan
1987-01-01
A more perfrect flux-limited method is applied to combine with asymptotic diffusion theory of the radiation transpore, and the high peaked component in the scattering angle is treated with Fokker-Planck methods, thus the flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation has been founded. Since the equation is of diffusion form, it retains the simplity and the convenience of the classical diffusion theory, and improves precision in describing radiation transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.D.
2002-01-01
We study many particle systems in the context of mean field forces, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, generalized equilibrium distributions, and quantum statistics. Using kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics we derive for these systems a generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that this Fokker-Planck equation describes relaxation processes, has stationary maximum entropy distributions, can have multiple stationary solutions and stationary solutions that differ from Boltzmann distributions
Invalidity of the spectral Fokker-Planck equation forCauchy noise driven Langevin equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2004-01-01
-called alpha-stable noise (or Levy noise) the Fokker-Planck equation no longer exists as a partial differential equation for the probability density because the property of finite variance is lost. In stead it has been attempted to formulate an equation for the characteristic function (the Fourier transform...
Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables-Application examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz Roldan, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.
1994-01-01
A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic ''Fokker-Planck'' equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman-Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t+dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integrant is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaquiere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-07-01
In the first paragraphs of this report, the Fokker-Planck equation is presented using the presentation method due to S. Chandrasekhar. Certain conventional resolution methods are given, and then a consideration of the physical interpretation of its various terms leads to a new study method based on the use of Campbell's theorems. This gives a solution to the equation in an integral form. The integral kernel of the solution is a normal centred distribution. Finally, the use of the Laplace transformation leads to a simple determination of the parameters of this integral kernel and connects the present theory to the characteristic function method used in particular in the field of nuclear reactors. The method also makes it possible to calculate the moments of the different orders of the probability distribution without the necessity of solving the Fokker-Planck equation. (author) [French] Dans les premiers paragraphes de ce rapport, l'equation de FOKKER-PLANCK est introduite en utilisant le mode d'expose de S. CHANDRASEKHAR. Puis, apres avoir rappele certaines methodes classiques de resolution, l'interpretation physique de ses differents termes nous conduit a une nouvelle methode d'etude qui repose sur l'utilisation des theoremes de CAMPBELL. On est ainsi conduit a la solution de l'equation sous forme integrale. Le noyau integral de la solution est une distribution normale centree. Enfin l'emploi de la transformation de LAPLACE conduit a une determination simple des parametres de ce noyau integral, et relie la theorie actuelle a la methode de la fonction caracteristique associee, utilisee en particulier dans le domaine des reacteurs nucleaires. Finalement cette methode permet le calcul des moments des differents ordres de la distribution de probabilites, sans passer par la resolution souvent laborieuse de l'equation de FOKKER-PLANCK. (auteur)
Application of Fokker-Planck equation in positron diffusion trapping model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartosova, I.; Ballo, P.
2015-01-01
This paper is a theoretical prelude to future work involving positron diffusion in solids for the purpose of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). PALS is a powerful tool used to study defects present in materials. However, the behavior of positrons in solids is a process hard to describe. Various models have been established to undertake this task. Our preliminary model is based on the Diffusion Trapping Model (DTM) described by partial differential Fokker-Planck equation and is solved via time discretization. Fokker-Planck equation describes the time evolution of the probability density function of velocity of a particle under the influence of various forces. (authors)
Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Chao, E-mail: chaodong@iphy.ac.cn [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Wenlu [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Ding, E-mail: dli@ustc.edu.cn [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)
2016-08-15
The Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is derived which has the same form as the case of no magnetic field but with different Fokker-Planck coefficients. The coefficients are calculated explicitly within the binary collision model, which are free from infinite sums of Bessel functions. They can be used to investigate relaxation and transport phenomena conveniently. The kinetic equation is also manipulated into the Landau form from which it is straightforward to compare with previous results and prove the conservation laws.
Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Chao; Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Ding
2016-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is derived which has the same form as the case of no magnetic field but with different Fokker-Planck coefficients. The coefficients are calculated explicitly within the binary collision model, which are free from infinite sums of Bessel functions. They can be used to investigate relaxation and transport phenomena conveniently. The kinetic equation is also manipulated into the Landau form from which it is straightforward to compare with previous results and prove the conservation laws.
Solving Fokker-Planck Equations on Cantor Sets Using Local Fractional Decomposition Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shao-Hong Yan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The local fractional decomposition method is applied to approximate the solutions for Fokker-Planck equations on Cantor sets with local fractional derivative. The obtained results give the present method that is very effective and simple for solving the differential equations on Cantor set.
Single particle dynamics of many-body systems described by Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.D.
2003-01-01
Using Langevin equations we describe the random walk of single particles that belong to particle systems satisfying Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations. In doing so, we show that Haissinski distributions of bunched particles in electron storage rings can be derived from a particle dynamics model
The Fokker-Planck equation for ray dispersion in gyrotropic stratified media
Golynski, S.M.
1984-01-01
The Hamilton equations of geometrical optics determine the rays of the relevant wave field in the short wavelength. We give a systematic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation for the joint probability density of the position and unit direction vector of rays propagating in a gyrotropic stratified
Numerical solution of modified fokker-planck equation with poissonian input
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Král, Radomil
2010-01-01
Roč. 17, 3/4 (2010), s. 251-268 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710805; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * poisson ian exciation * numerical solution * transition effects Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering
Modelling of thermal transport using Fokker-Planck equations in laser produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakarmi, J.J.; Jha, L.N.
1996-12-01
The kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term has been presented to obtain the distribution function in the corona of inertial confinement fusion, in the presence of the self generated magnetic field. The resulting distribution has non-local form with the convolution in Maxwellian. An expression for thermal flux with self generated magnetic field is obtained. (author). 22 refs
A purely Lagrangian method for the numerical integration of Fokker-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combis, P.; Fronteau, J.
1986-01-01
A new numerical approach to Fokker-Planck equations is presented, in which the integration grid moves according to the solution of a differential system. The method is purely Lagrangian, the mean effect of the diffusion being inserted into the differential system itself
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz, A; Garcia-Olivares, A
1993-07-01
A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic Fokker-Plank equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman- Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t + dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integration is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases. (Author) 9 refs.
An Adjoint-based Numerical Method for a class of nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations
Festa, Adriano; Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto
2017-01-01
Here, we introduce a numerical approach for a class of Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. These equations are the adjoint of the linearization of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using this structure, we show how to transfer the properties of schemes for HJ equations to the FP equations. Hence, we get numerical schemes with desirable features such as positivity and mass-preservation. We illustrate this approach in examples that include mean-field games and a crowd motion model.
An Adjoint-based Numerical Method for a class of nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations
Festa, Adriano
2017-03-22
Here, we introduce a numerical approach for a class of Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. These equations are the adjoint of the linearization of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using this structure, we show how to transfer the properties of schemes for HJ equations to the FP equations. Hence, we get numerical schemes with desirable features such as positivity and mass-preservation. We illustrate this approach in examples that include mean-field games and a crowd motion model.
SU-E-T-22: A Deterministic Solver of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck Equation for Dose Calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, X; Gao, H [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation (BFPE) accurately models the migration of photons/charged particles in tissues. While the Monte Carlo (MC) method is popular for solving BFPE in a statistical manner, we aim to develop a deterministic BFPE solver based on various state-of-art numerical acceleration techniques for rapid and accurate dose calculation. Methods: Our BFPE solver is based on the structured grid that is maximally parallelizable, with the discretization in energy, angle and space, and its cross section coefficients are derived or directly imported from the Geant4 database. The physical processes that are taken into account are Compton scattering, photoelectric effect, pair production for photons, and elastic scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung for charged particles.While the spatial discretization is based on the diamond scheme, the angular discretization synergizes finite element method (FEM) and spherical harmonics (SH). Thus, SH is used to globally expand the scattering kernel and FFM is used to locally discretize the angular sphere. As a Result, this hybrid method (FEM-SH) is both accurate in dealing with forward-peaking scattering via FEM, and efficient for multi-energy-group computation via SH. In addition, FEM-SH enables the analytical integration in energy variable of delta scattering kernel for elastic scattering with reduced truncation error from the numerical integration based on the classic SH-based multi-energy-group method. Results: The accuracy of the proposed BFPE solver was benchmarked against Geant4 for photon dose calculation. In particular, FEM-SH had improved accuracy compared to FEM, while both were within 2% of the results obtained with Geant4. Conclusion: A deterministic solver of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation is developed for dose calculation, and benchmarked against Geant4. Xiang Hong and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000) and the Shanghai Pujiang
The Fokker-Planck equation for coupled Brown-Néel-rotation
Weizenecker, Jürgen
2018-02-01
Calculating the dynamic properties of magnetization of single-domain particles is of great importance for the tomographic imaging modality known as magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Although the assumption of instantaneous thermodynamic equilibrium (Langevin function) after application of time-dependent magnetic fields is sufficient for understanding the fundamental behavior, it is essential to consider the finite response times of magnetic particles for optimizing or analyzing various aspects, e.g. interpreting spectra, optimizing MPI sequences, developing new contrasts, and evaluating simplified models. The change in magnetization following the application of the fields is caused by two different movements: the geometric rotation of the particle and the rotation of magnetization with respect to the fixed particle axes. These individual rotations can be well described using the Langevin equations or the Fokker-Planck equation. However, because the two rotations generally exhibit interdependence, it is necessary to consider coupling between the two equations. This article shows how a coupled Fokker-Planck equation can be derived on the basis of coupled Langevin equations. Two physically equivalent Fokker-Planck equations are derived and transformed by means of an appropriate series expansion into a system of ordinary differential equations, which can be solved numerically. Finally, this system is also used to specify a system of differential equations for various limiting cases (Néel, Brown, uniaxial symmetry). Generally, the system exhibits a sparsely populated matrix and can therefore be handled well numerically.
The Fokker-Planck equation for coupled Brown-Néel-rotation.
Weizenecker, Jürgen
2018-01-22
Calculating the dynamic properties of magnetization of single-domain particles is of great importance for the tomographic imaging modality known as magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Although the assumption of instantaneous thermodynamic equilibrium (Langevin function) after application of time-dependent magnetic fields is sufficient for understanding the fundamental behavior, it is essential to consider the finite response times of magnetic particles for optimizing or analyzing various aspects, e.g. interpreting spectra, optimizing MPI sequences, developing new contrasts, and evaluating simplified models. The change in magnetization following the application of the fields is caused by two different movements: the geometric rotation of the particle and the rotation of magnetization with respect to the fixed particle axes. These individual rotations can be well described using the Langevin equations or the Fokker-Planck equation. However, because the two rotations generally exhibit interdependence, it is necessary to consider coupling between the two equations. This article shows how a coupled Fokker-Planck equation can be derived on the basis of coupled Langevin equations. Two physically equivalent Fokker-Planck equations are derived and transformed by means of an appropriate series expansion into a system of ordinary differential equations, which can be solved numerically. Finally, this system is also used to specify a system of differential equations for various limiting cases (Néel, Brown, uniaxial symmetry). Generally, the system exhibits a sparsely populated matrix and can therefore be handled well numerically.
New Approaches for Solving Fokker Planck Equation on Cantor Sets within Local Fractional Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Kamil Jassim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss new approaches to handling Fokker Planck equation on Cantor sets within local fractional operators by using the local fractional Laplace decomposition and Laplace variational iteration methods based on the local fractional calculus. The new approaches maintain the efficiency and accuracy of the analytical methods for solving local fractional differential equations. Illustrative examples are given to show the accuracy and reliable results.
Fermi-Dirac-Fokker-Planck equation : well-posedness & long-time asymptotics
Carrillo , José A.; Laurençot , Philippe; Rosado , Jesús
2009-01-01
International audience; A Fokker-Planck type equation for interacting particles with exclusion principle is analysed. The nonlinear drift gives rise to mathematical difficulties in controlling moments of the distribution function. Assuming enough initial moments are finite, we can show the global existence of weak solutions for this problem. The natural associated entropy of the equation is the main tool to derive uniform in time a priori estimates for the kinetic energy and entropy. As a con...
Fermi-Dirac-Fokker-Planck equation: well-posedness and long-time asymptotics
Carrillo, José A.; Laurençot, Philippe; Rosado, Jesús
2008-01-01
A Fokker-Planck type equation for interacting particles with exclusion principle is analysed. The nonlinear drift gives rise to mathematical difficulties in controlling moments of the distribution function. Assuming enough initial moments are finite, we can show the global existence of weak solutions for this problem. The natural associated entropy of the equation is the main tool to derive uniform in time a priori estimates for the kinetic energy and entropy. As a consequence, long-time asym...
Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for axially-channeled relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.
1981-01-01
A method of the two dimensional kinetic equation of the Fokker-Planck type for axially-channeled electrons is proposed. This equation has been obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov to describe the diffusion of channeling negative particles over the transverse energy and angular momentum. The results of computation of the dechanneling function of 1 GeV electrons in tungsten are presented. (author)
Time dependent solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.; Heyn, M.
1990-01-01
Approximate time dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions from an isotropic, monoenergetic source are presented, for the problem of D - T - He 3 reactions. The equations include the effect of diffusion, which is particularly noticeable in the distribution of particles of lower energy and in the formation of a tail of particles with energy higher than that of the source. (Author)
Remarks on the chemical Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations: Nonphysical currents at equilibrium.
Ceccato, Alessandro; Frezzato, Diego
2018-02-14
The chemical Langevin equation and the associated chemical Fokker-Planck equation are well-known continuous approximations of the discrete stochastic evolution of reaction networks. In this work, we show that these approximations suffer from a physical inconsistency, namely, the presence of nonphysical probability currents at the thermal equilibrium even for closed and fully detailed-balanced kinetic schemes. An illustration is given for a model case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malescio, G.
1981-04-01
The two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation describing the ion motion in a coherent lower hybrid wave above the stochasticity threshold is analytically solved. An expression is given for the steady state power dissipation
Space distribution and energy straggling of charged particles via Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manservisi, S.; Molinari, V.; Nespoli, A.
1996-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation describing a beam of charged particles entering a homogeneous medium is solved here for a stationary case. Interactions are taken into account through Coulomb cross-section. Starting from the charged-particle distribution as a function of velocity and penetration depth, some important kinetic quantities are calculated, like mean velocity, range and the loss of energy per unit space. In such quantities the energy straggling is taken into account. This phenomenon is not considered in the continuous slowing-down approximation that is commonly used to obtain the range and the stopping power. Finally the well-know Bohr of Bethe formula is found as a first-order approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation
A Simple Map Between Fokker-Planck Equation and its Fractional form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.
2008-01-01
A simple map between Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE) and its fractional form (FFPE), which recently formulates to describe sub diffusive processes, has been suggested. This connection based on a relation between k-orders for moments of ordinary time domain of FPE and the moments associated with fractional time domain of FFPE . Two classes of special interest of FFPE has been considered to outline this map
One-Dimensional Fokker-Planck Equation with Quadratically Nonlinear Quasilocal Drift
Shapovalov, A. V.
2018-04-01
The Fokker-Planck equation in one-dimensional spacetime with quadratically nonlinear nonlocal drift in the quasilocal approximation is reduced with the help of scaling of the coordinates and time to a partial differential equation with a third derivative in the spatial variable. Determining equations for the symmetries of the reduced equation are derived and the Lie symmetries are found. A group invariant solution having the form of a traveling wave is found. Within the framework of Adomian's iterative method, the first iterations of an approximate solution of the Cauchy problem are obtained. Two illustrative examples of exact solutions are found.
Some exact solutions for a unidimensional fokker-planck equation by using lie symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Hernán Ortíz-Álvarez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Fokker Planck equation appears in the study of diffusion phenomena, stochastics processes and quantum and classical mechanics. A particular case fromthis equation, ut − uxx − xux − u=0, is examined by the Lie group method approach. From the invariant condition it was possible to obtain the infinitesimal generators or vectors associated to this equation, identifying the corresponding symmetry groups. Exact solution were found for each one of this generators and new solution were constructed by using symmetry properties.
Kleinert, H.; Zatloukal, V.
2013-11-01
The statistics of rare events, the so-called black-swan events, is governed by non-Gaussian distributions with heavy power-like tails. We calculate the Green functions of the associated Fokker-Planck equations and solve the related stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the subject in the framework of path integration.
Applicability of the Fokker-Planck equation to the description of diffusion effects on nucleation
Sorokin, M. V.; Dubinko, V. I.; Borodin, V. A.
2017-01-01
The nucleation of islands in a supersaturated solution of surface adatoms is considered taking into account the possibility of diffusion profile formation in the island vicinity. It is shown that the treatment of diffusion-controlled cluster growth in terms of the Fokker-Planck equation is justified only provided certain restrictions are satisfied. First of all, the standard requirement that diffusion profiles of adatoms quickly adjust themselves to the actual island sizes (adiabatic principle) can be realized only for sufficiently high island concentration. The adiabatic principle is essential for the probabilities of adatom attachment to and detachment from island edges to be independent of the adatom diffusion profile establishment kinetics, justifying the island nucleation treatment as the Markovian stochastic process. Second, it is shown that the commonly used definition of the "diffusion" coefficient in the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of adatom attachment and detachment rates is justified only provided the attachment and detachment are statistically independent, which is generally not the case for the diffusion-limited growth of islands. We suggest a particular way to define the attachment and detachment rates that allows us to satisfy this requirement as well. When applied to the problem of surface island nucleation, our treatment predicts the steady-state nucleation barrier, which coincides with the conventional thermodynamic expression, even though no thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the adatom diffusion is treated explicitly. The effect of adatom diffusional profiles on the nucleation rate preexponential factor is also discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to analyze the applicability domain of the Fokker-Planck equation and the diffusion effect beyond it. It is demonstrated that a diffusional cloud is slowing down the nucleation process for a given monomer interaction with the nucleus edge.
Multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation analysis using the modified finite element method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Král, Radomil
2016-01-01
Roč. 744, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 012177. ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) /13./ and International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016) /12./. Southampton, 04.07.2016-06.07.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-34467P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * finite element method * single degree of freedom systems (SDOF) Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/744/1/012177
Diffusion coefficients of Fokker-Planck equation for rotating dust grains in a fusion plasma
Bakhtiyari-Ramezani, M.; Mahmoodi, J.; Alinejad, N.
2015-11-01
In the fusion devices, ions, H atoms, and H2 molecules collide with dust grains and exert stochastic torques which lead to small variations in angular momentum of the grain. By considering adsorption of the colliding particles, thermal desorption of H atoms and normal H2 molecules, and desorption of the recombined H2 molecules from the surface of an oblate spheroidal grain, we obtain diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fluctuating angular momentum. Torque coefficients corresponding to the recombination mechanism show that the nonspherical dust grains may rotate with a suprathermal angular velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mozolevski, I.E.
2001-01-01
We consider the splitting of the straight-ahead Boltzmann transport equation in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, decomposing the differential cross-section into a singular part, corresponding to small energy transfer events, and in a regular one, which corresponds to large energy transfer. The convergence of implantation profile, nuclear and electronic energy depositions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, to the respective exact distributions, calculated from Monte-Carlo method, was exanimate in a large-energy interval for various values of splitting parameter and for different ion-target mass relations. It is shown that for the universal potential there exists an optimal value of splitting parameter, for which range and deposited energy distributions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, accurately approximate the exact distributions and which minimizes the computational expenses
Fokker-Planck-Rosenbluth-type equations for self-gravitating systems in the 1PN approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos-Caro, Javier; Gonzalez, Guillermo A
2008-01-01
We present two formulations of Fokker-Planck-Rosenbluth-type (FPR) equations for many-particle self-gravitating systems, with first-order relativistic corrections in the post-Newtonian approach (1PN). The first starts from a covariant Fokker-Planck equation for a simple gas, introduced recently by Chacon-Acosta and Kremer (2007 Phys. Rev. E 76 021201). The second derivation is based on the establishment of an 1PN-BBGKY hierarchy, developed systematically from the 1PN microscopic law of force and using the Klimontovich-Dupree (KD) method. We close the hierarchy by the introduction of a two-point correlation function that describes adequately the relaxation process. This picture reveals an aspect that is not considered in the first formulation: the contribution of ternary correlation patterns to the diffusion coefficients, as a consequence of the nature of 1PN interaction. Both formulations can be considered as a generalization of the equation derived by Rezania and Sobouti (2000 Astron. Astrophys. 354 1110), to stellar systems where the relativistic effects of gravitation play a significant role
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: roj@correo.azc.uam.mx
2003-07-01
There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S{sub 4} with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P{sub 3} order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Olivares, R A; Munoz Roldan, A
1992-07-01
This document describes the use of a library of programs able to solve stochastic Fokker-Planck equations in a N-dimensional space. The input data are essentially: (i) the initial distribution of the stochastic variable, (ii) the drift and fluctuation coefficients as a function of the state (which can be obtained from the transition probabilities between neighboring states) and (iii) some parameters controlling the run. A last version of the library accepts sources and sinks defined in the states space. The output is the temporal evolution of the probability distribution in the space defined by a N-dimensional grid. Some applications and readings in Synergetic, Self-Organization, transport phenomena, Ecology and other fields are suggested. If the probability distribution is interpreted as a distribution of particles then the codes can be used to solve the N-dimensional problem of advection-diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.
Cusping, transport and variance of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations
Carnaffan, Sean; Kawai, Reiichiro
2017-06-01
We study properties of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations through the lens of the probability density functions of anomalous diffusion processes. In particular, we examine solutions in terms of their cusping, travelling wave behaviours, and variance, within the framework of stochastic representations of generalized Fokker-Planck equations. We give our analysis in the cases of anomalous diffusion driven by the inverses of the stable, tempered stable and gamma subordinators, demonstrating the impact of changing the distribution of waiting times in the underlying anomalous diffusion model. We also analyse the cases where the underlying anomalous diffusion contains a Lévy jump component in the parent process, and when a diffusion process is time changed by an uninverted Lévy subordinator. On the whole, we present a combination of four criteria which serve as a theoretical basis for model selection, statistical inference and predictions for physical experiments on anomalously diffusing systems. We discuss possible applications in physical experiments, including, with reference to specific examples, the potential for model misclassification and how combinations of our four criteria may be used to overcome this issue.
Fractional Fokker-Planck equation and oscillatory behavior of cumulant moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, N.; Biyajima, M.
2002-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation is considered, which is connected to the birth and death process with immigration by the Poisson transform. The fractional derivative in time variable is introduced into the Fokker-Planck equation in order to investigate an origin of oscillatory behavior of cumulant moments. From its solution (the probability density function), the generating function (GF) for the corresponding probability distribution is derived. We consider the case when the GF reduces to that of the negative binomial distribution (NBD), if the fractional derivative is replaced to the ordinary one. The H j moment derived from the GF of the NBD decreases monotonically as the rank j increases. However, the H j moment derived in our approach oscillates, which is contrasted with the case of the NBD. Calculated H j moments are compared with those of charged multiplicities observed in pp-bar, e + e - , and e + p collisions. A phenomenological meaning of introducing the fractional derivative in time variable is discussed
Colmenares, Pedro J.
2018-05-01
This article has to do with the derivation and solution of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the momentum-integrated Wigner function of a particle subjected to a harmonic external field in contact with an ohmic thermal bath of quantum harmonic oscillators. The strategy employed is a simplified version of the phenomenological approach of Schramm, Jung, and Grabert of interpreting the operators as c numbers to derive the quantum master equation arising from a twofold transformation of the Wigner function of the entire phase space. The statistical properties of the random noise comes from the integral functional theory of Grabert, Schramm, and Ingold. By means of a single Wigner transformation, a simpler equation than that mentioned before is found. The Wigner function reproduces the known results of the classical limit. This allowed us to rewrite the underdamped classical Langevin equation as a first-order stochastic differential equation with time-dependent drift and diffusion terms.
Quantal Brownian Motion from RPA dynamics: The master and Fokker-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yannouleas, C.
1984-05-01
From the purely quantal RPA description of the damped harmonic oscillator and of the corresponding Brownian Motion within the full space (phonon subspace plus reservoir), a master equation (as well as a Fokker-Planck equation) for the reduced density matrix (for the reduced Wigner function, respectively) within the phonon subspace is extracted. The RPA master equation agrees with the master equation derived by the time-dependent perturbative approaches which utilize Tamm-Dancoff Hilbert spaces and invoke the rotating wave approximation. Since the RPA yields a full, as well as a contracted description, it can account for both the kinetic and the unperturbed oscillator momenta. The RPA description of the quantal Brownian Motion contrasts with the descriptions provided by the time perturbative approaches whether they invoke or not the rotating wave approximation. The RPA description also contrasts with the phenomenological phase space quantization. (orig.)
Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a logarithmic potential and mixed eigenvalue spectrum
Guarnieri, F.; Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.
2017-09-01
Motivated by a problem in climate dynamics, we investigate the solution of a Bessel-like process with a negative constant drift, described by a Fokker-Planck equation with a potential V (x ) =-[b ln(x ) +a x ] , for b >0 and a finance. The Bessel-like process we consider can be solved by seeking solutions through an expansion into a complete set of eigenfunctions. The associated imaginary-time Schrödinger equation exhibits a mix of discrete and continuous eigenvalue spectra, corresponding to the quantum Coulomb potential describing the bound states of the hydrogen atom. We present a technique to evaluate the normalization factor of the continuous spectrum of eigenfunctions that relies solely upon their asymptotic behavior. We demonstrate the technique by solving the Brownian motion problem and the Bessel process both with a constant negative drift. We conclude with a comparison to other analytical methods and with numerical solutions.
Solution of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck transport equation using exponential nodal schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del
2003-01-01
There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S 4 with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P 3 order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)
Numerical Resolution of N-dimensional Fokker-Planck stochastic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Olivares, R. A.; Munoz Roldan, A.
1992-01-01
This document describes the use of a library of programs able to solve stochastic Fokker-Planck equations in a N-dimensional space. The input data are essentially: (i) the initial distribution of the stochastic variable, (ii) the drift and fluctuation coefficients as a function of the state (which can be obtained from the transition probabilities between neighboring states) and (iii) some parameters controlling the run. A last version of the library accepts sources and sinks defined in the states space. The output is the temporal evolution of the probability distribution in the space defined by a N-dimensional grid. Some applications and readings in Synergetic, Self-Organization, transport phenomena, Ecology and other fields are suggested. If the probability distribution is interpreted as a distribution of particles then the codes can be used to solve the N-dimensional problem of advection-diffusion. (Author) 16 refs
Studies of parallel algorithms for the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deck, D.; Samba, G.
1995-11-01
The study of laser-created plasmas often requires the use of a kinetic model rather than a hydrodynamic one. This model change occurs, for example, in the hot spot formation in an ICF experiment or during the relaxation of colliding plasmas. When the gradients scalelengths or the size of a given system are not small compared to the characteristic mean-free-path, we have to deal with non-equilibrium situations, which can be described by the distribution functions of every species in the system. We present here a numerical method in plane or spherical 1-D geometry, for the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that describes the evolution of stich functions in the phase space. The size and the time scale of kinetic simulations require the use of Massively Parallel Computers (MPP). We have adopted a message-passing strategy using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
Solution of the relativistic 2-D Fokker-Planck equation for LH current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, K.; Hewett, D.W.; Bers, A.
1984-03-01
We solve numerically the steady-state two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with strong rf diffusion using spectra relevant to recent experiments in ALCATOR-C. The results (current generated, power dissipated, and the distribution of energetic electrons) are sensitive to the location of the spectrum in momentum space. Relativistic effects play an important role, especially for wide spectra. The dependence on the ionic charge number Z/sub i/ is also investigated. Particular attention is paid to the perpendicular temperature inside the resonant region and beyond, as well as to the angular energetic particle-temperature distribution, T/sub μ/, a function of the pitch angle parameter μ. The dependence of the perpendicular temperature on the location of the spectrum is also investigated analytically with a model based on the method of moments and the results compared with those found numerically
Marin, D.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.
2018-07-01
We investigate the solutions for a set of coupled nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations coupled by the diffusion coefficient in presence of external forces. The coupling by the diffusion coefficient implies that the diffusion of each species is influenced by the other and vice versa due to this term, which represents an interaction among them. The solutions for the stationary case are given in terms of the Tsallis distributions, when arbitrary external forces are considered. We also use the Tsallis distributions to obtain a time dependent solution for a linear external force. The results obtained from this analysis show a rich class of behavior related to anomalous diffusion, which can be characterized by compact or long-tailed distributions.
Efficient statistically accurate algorithms for the Fokker-Planck equation in large dimensions
Chen, Nan; Majda, Andrew J.
2018-02-01
Solving the Fokker-Planck equation for high-dimensional complex turbulent dynamical systems is an important and practical issue. However, most traditional methods suffer from the curse of dimensionality and have difficulties in capturing the fat tailed highly intermittent probability density functions (PDFs) of complex systems in turbulence, neuroscience and excitable media. In this article, efficient statistically accurate algorithms are developed for solving both the transient and the equilibrium solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated with high-dimensional nonlinear turbulent dynamical systems with conditional Gaussian structures. The algorithms involve a hybrid strategy that requires only a small number of ensembles. Here, a conditional Gaussian mixture in a high-dimensional subspace via an extremely efficient parametric method is combined with a judicious non-parametric Gaussian kernel density estimation in the remaining low-dimensional subspace. Particularly, the parametric method provides closed analytical formulae for determining the conditional Gaussian distributions in the high-dimensional subspace and is therefore computationally efficient and accurate. The full non-Gaussian PDF of the system is then given by a Gaussian mixture. Different from traditional particle methods, each conditional Gaussian distribution here covers a significant portion of the high-dimensional PDF. Therefore a small number of ensembles is sufficient to recover the full PDF, which overcomes the curse of dimensionality. Notably, the mixture distribution has significant skill in capturing the transient behavior with fat tails of the high-dimensional non-Gaussian PDFs, and this facilitates the algorithms in accurately describing the intermittency and extreme events in complex turbulent systems. It is shown in a stringent set of test problems that the method only requires an order of O (100) ensembles to successfully recover the highly non-Gaussian transient PDFs in up to 6
Relativistic wave equations and compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutanto, S.H.; Robson, B.A.
1998-01-01
Full text: Recently an eight-component relativistic wave equation for spin-1/2 particles was proposed.This equation was obtained from a four-component spin-1/2 wave equation (the KG1/2 equation), which contains second-order derivatives in both space and time, by a procedure involving a linearisation of the time derivative analogous to that introduced by Feshbach and Villars for the Klein-Gordon equation. This new eight-component equation gives the same bound-state energy eigenvalue spectra for hydrogenic atoms as the Dirac equation but has been shown to predict different radiative transition probabilities for the fine structure of both the Balmer and Lyman a-lines. Since it has been shown that the new theory does not always give the same results as the Dirac theory, it is important to consider the validity of the new equation in the case of other physical problems. One of the early crucial tests of the Dirac theory was its application to the scattering of a photon by a free electron: the so-called Compton scattering problem. In this paper we apply the new theory to the calculation of Compton scattering to order e 2 . It will be shown that in spite of the considerable difference in the structure of the new theory and that of Dirac the cross section is given by the Klein-Nishina formula
Shizgal, Bernie D.
2018-05-01
This paper considers two nonequilibrium model systems described by linear Fokker-Planck equations for the time-dependent velocity distribution functions that yield steady state Kappa distributions for specific system parameters. The first system describes the time evolution of a charged test particle in a constant temperature heat bath of a second charged particle. The time dependence of the distribution function of the test particle is given by a Fokker-Planck equation with drift and diffusion coefficients for Coulomb collisions as well as a diffusion coefficient for wave-particle interactions. A second system involves the Fokker-Planck equation for electrons dilutely dispersed in a constant temperature heat bath of atoms or ions and subject to an external time-independent uniform electric field. The momentum transfer cross section for collisions between the two components is assumed to be a power law in reduced speed. The time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations for both model systems are solved with a numerical finite difference method and the approach to equilibrium is rationalized with the Kullback-Leibler relative entropy. For particular choices of the system parameters for both models, the steady distribution is found to be a Kappa distribution. Kappa distributions were introduced as an empirical fitting function that well describe the nonequilibrium features of the distribution functions of electrons and ions in space science as measured by satellite instruments. The calculation of the Kappa distribution from the Fokker-Planck equations provides a direct physically based dynamical approach in contrast to the nonextensive entropy formalism by Tsallis [J. Stat. Phys. 53, 479 (1988), 10.1007/BF01016429].
Plastino, A. R.; Curado, E. M. F.; Nobre, F. D.; Tsallis, C.
2018-02-01
Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations endowed with power-law diffusion terms have proven to be valuable tools for the study of diverse complex systems in physics, biology, and other fields. The nonlinearity appearing in these evolution equations can be interpreted as providing an effective description of a system of particles interacting via short-range forces while performing overdamped motion under the effect of an external confining potential. This point of view has been recently applied to the study of thermodynamical features of interacting vortices in type II superconductors. In the present work we explore an embedding of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation within a Vlasov equation, thus incorporating inertial effects to the concomitant particle dynamics. Exact time-dependent solutions of the q -Gaussian form (with compact support) are obtained for the Vlasov equation in the case of quadratic confining potentials.
On the quantum-mechanical Fokker-Planck and Kramers-Chandrasekhar equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balazs, N.L.
1978-01-01
In the classical theory of Brownian motion the Langevin equation can be considered as an infinitesimal transformation between the coordinates and momenta of a Brownian particle, given probabilistically, since the impulse appearing is characterized by a Gaussian random process. This probabilistic infinitesimal transformation generates a streaming on the distribution function, expressed by the classical Fokker-Planck and Kramers-Chandrasekhar equations. If the laws obeyed by the Brownian particle are quantum mechanical, the Langevin equation can be reinterpreted as an operator relation expressing an infinitesimal transformation of these operators. Since the impulses are independent of the coordinates and momenta one can think of them as c numbers described by a Gaussian random process. The so resulting infinitesimal operator transformation induces a streaming on the density matrix. One may associate, according to Weyl, functions with operators. The function associated with the density matrix is the Wigner function. Expressing, then, these operator relations in terms of these functions the streaming can be expressed as a continuity equation of the Wigner function. It is found that in this parametrization the extra terms which appear are the same as in the classical theory, augmenting the usual Wigner equation. (Auth.)
Polotto, Franciele; Drigo Filho, Elso; Chahine, Jorge; Oliveira, Ronaldo Junio de
2018-03-01
This work developed analytical methods to explore the kinetics of the time-dependent probability distributions over thermodynamic free energy profiles of protein folding and compared the results with simulation. The Fokker-Planck equation is mapped onto a Schrödinger-type equation due to the well-known solutions of the latter. Through a semi-analytical description, the supersymmetric quantum mechanics formalism is invoked and the time-dependent probability distributions are obtained with numerical calculations by using the variational method. A coarse-grained structure-based model of the two-state protein Tm CSP was simulated at a Cα level of resolution and the thermodynamics and kinetics were fully characterized. Analytical solutions from non-equilibrium conditions were obtained with the simulated double-well free energy potential and kinetic folding times were calculated. It was found that analytical folding time as a function of temperature agrees, quantitatively, with simulations and experiments from the literature of Tm CSP having the well-known 'U' shape of the Chevron Plots. The simple analytical model developed in this study has a potential to be used by theoreticians and experimentalists willing to explore, quantitatively, rates and the kinetic behavior of their system by informing the thermally activated barrier. The theory developed describes a stochastic process and, therefore, can be applied to a variety of biological as well as condensed-phase two-state systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, K.
1984-04-01
The relativistic collisional Fokker-Planck equation combined with an externally imposed unidirectional quasilinear (rf) diffusion is solved for arbitrary values of rf diffusion coefficient under conditions of detailed balance of the staionary joint distribution involved. The detailed balance condition imposes a restriction on the functional form of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient which might be associated with the existence of a saturated spectrum of fluctuation in a quasilinearly rf-driven plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dekker, H.
1978-01-01
The lagrangian for the action occurring in the path integral solution of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with constant diffusion function is derived by means of a straightforward Fourier series analysis. In this manner the path between the prepoint and the postpoint in the short time propagator is not restricted a priori to the usually considered straight line. Earlier results by Graham, Stratonovich, Horsthemke and Back, and the author's are recovered and thus put on much safer ground. (Auth.)
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Monticelli, Cintia O.; Wortmann, Sergio; Segatto, Cynthia F.
2005-01-01
In this work is obtained a hybrid solution to the Fokker-Planck equation with energy dependency, very used in ion implantation problems. The main idea relies on the application of Laplace transform in the energy variable, and finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. This procedure leads to a symbolic matrix problem for the transformed energy. To solve this system, is needed to do the Laplace inverse of the (sI+A) matrix, where s is a complex parameter, I is the identity matrix and A is a square matrix that was proceeded from the finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. The matrix A is not defective, then is taken decomposition of A in a sum of two others matrices, where one is defective. It leads a iterative inversion method, similar the source fixed method combined with the diagonalization method, then is obtained the values to the angular flux. Hereafter we can to determine the energy deposited into the electronic system and in the nuclear system of the target. To comprove the results obtained, the simulation of implantation of B into Si at energies ranging from 1 KeV to 50 MeV was carried out and compared with the results by software SRIM2003. (author)
A transformed path integral approach for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation
Subramaniam, Gnana M.; Vedula, Prakash
2017-10-01
A novel path integral (PI) based method for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. The proposed method, termed the transformed path integral (TPI) method, utilizes a new formulation for the underlying short-time propagator to perform the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) in a transformed computational domain where a more accurate representation of the PDF can be ensured. The new formulation, based on a dynamic transformation of the original state space with the statistics of the PDF as parameters, preserves the non-negativity of the PDF and incorporates short-time properties of the underlying stochastic process. New update equations for the state PDF in a transformed space and the parameters of the transformation (including mean and covariance) that better accommodate nonlinearities in drift and non-Gaussian behavior in distributions are proposed (based on properties of the SDE). Owing to the choice of transformation considered, the proposed method maps a fixed grid in transformed space to a dynamically adaptive grid in the original state space. The TPI method, in contrast to conventional methods such as Monte Carlo simulations and fixed grid approaches, is able to better represent the distributions (especially the tail information) and better address challenges in processes with large diffusion, large drift and large concentration of PDF. Additionally, in the proposed TPI method, error bounds on the probability in the computational domain can be obtained using the Chebyshev's inequality. The benefits of the TPI method over conventional methods are illustrated through simulations of linear and nonlinear drift processes in one-dimensional and multidimensional state spaces. The effects of spatial and temporal grid resolutions as well as that of the diffusion coefficient on the error in the PDF are also characterized.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Radomil; Náprstek, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 54-75 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-34467P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * finite element method * simplex element * multi-dimensional problem * non-symmetric operator Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0965997817301904
Fokker-Planck and quasilinear codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karney, C.F.F.
1985-11-01
The interaction of radio-frequency waves with a plasma is described by a Fokker-Planck equation with an added quasilinear term. Methods for solving this equation on a computer are discussed. 40 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
Fokker-Planck equation for the non-Markovian Brownian motion in the presence of a magnetic field
Das, Joydip; Mondal, Shrabani; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2017-10-01
In the present study, we have proposed the Fokker-Planck equation in a simple way for a Langevin equation of motion having ordinary derivative (OD), the Gaussian random force and a generalized frictional memory kernel. The equation may be associated with or without conservative force field from harmonic potential. We extend this method for a charged Brownian particle in the presence of a magnetic field. Thus, the present method is applicable for a Langevin equation of motion with OD, the Gaussian colored thermal noise and any kind of linear force field that may be conservative or not. It is also simple to apply this method for the colored Gaussian noise that is not related to the damping strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.
1984-08-01
A Lagrangian method is introduced for the integration of non-linear Fokker-Planck equations. Examples of exact solutions obtained in this way are given, and also the explicit scheme used for the computation of numerical solutions. The method is, in addition, shown to be of a Lie-admissible type
Avanzini, Francesco; Moro, Giorgio J
2018-03-15
The quantum molecular trajectory is the deterministic trajectory, arising from the Bohm theory, that describes the instantaneous positions of the nuclei of molecules by assuring the agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. Therefore, it provides the suitable framework for representing the geometry and the motions of molecules without neglecting their quantum nature. However, the quantum molecular trajectory is extremely demanding from the computational point of view, and this strongly limits its applications. To overcome such a drawback, we derive a stochastic representation of the quantum molecular trajectory, through projection operator techniques, for the degrees of freedom of an open quantum system. The resulting Fokker-Planck operator is parametrically dependent upon the reduced density matrix of the open system. Because of the pilot role played by the reduced density matrix, this stochastic approach is able to represent accurately the main features of the open system motions both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium with the environment. To verify this procedure, the predictions of the stochastic and deterministic representation are compared for a model system of six interacting harmonic oscillators, where one oscillator is taken as the open quantum system of interest. The undeniable advantage of the stochastic approach is that of providing a simplified and self-contained representation of the dynamics of the open system coordinates. Furthermore, it can be employed to study the out of equilibrium dynamics and the relaxation of quantum molecular motions during photoinduced processes, like photoinduced conformational changes and proton transfers.
Herda, Maxime; Rodrigues, L. Miguel
2018-03-01
The present contribution investigates the dynamics generated by the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation for charged particles in a steady inhomogeneous background of opposite charges. We provide global in time estimates that are uniform with respect to initial data taken in a bounded set of a weighted L^2 space, and where dependencies on the mean-free path τ and the Debye length δ are made explicit. In our analysis the mean free path covers the full range of possible values: from the regime of evanescent collisions τ → ∞ to the strongly collisional regime τ → 0. As a counterpart, the largeness of the Debye length, that enforces a weakly nonlinear regime, is used to close our nonlinear estimates. Accordingly we pay a special attention to relax as much as possible the τ -dependent constraint on δ ensuring exponential decay with explicit τ -dependent rates towards the stationary solution. In the strongly collisional limit τ → 0, we also examine all possible asymptotic regimes selected by a choice of observation time scale. Here also, our emphasis is on strong convergence, uniformity with respect to time and to initial data in bounded sets of a L^2 space. Our proofs rely on a detailed study of the nonlinear elliptic equation defining stationary solutions and a careful tracking and optimization of parameter dependencies of hypocoercive/hypoelliptic estimates.
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Yoon, E. S.; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, DaeJeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
An approximate two-dimensional solver of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator has been developed using the assumption that the particle probability distribution function is independent of gyroangle in the limit of strong magnetic field. The isotropic one-dimensional scheme developed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Buet and Cordier [J. Comput. Phys. 179, 43 (2002)] and for linear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Chang and Cooper [J. Comput. Phys. 6, 1 (1970)] have been modified and extended to two-dimensional nonlinear equation. In addition, a method is suggested to apply the new velocity-grid based collision solver to Lagrangian particle-in-cell simulation by adjusting the weights of marker particles and is applied to a five dimensional particle-in-cell code to calculate the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity in a tokamak plasma. Error verifications show practical aspects of the present scheme for both grid-based and particle-based kinetic codes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.; Lee, M.J.
1975-09-01
Effects upon longitudinal bunch shape in a storage ring due to linear and nonlinear potential can be calculated by finding the stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the particle distribution. Effects upon transverse bunch shape of a stored electron beam due to photon emissions and damping can be calculated by this method. It has been found that this method can also be used for a case in which the transverse modes of oscillation are coupled to the energy deviation δ. Examples of lattice elements which produce linear coupling between these oscillations are skew quadrupole magnets and solenoid magnets. For the linearly coupled case the stationary solution has been found to be given by exp (ΣΣA/sub ij/ x/sub i/x/sub j/) with x/sub i/ the canonical variables (x,p/sub x/, y, p/sub y/, δ, p/sub δ/) and A /sub ij/ some constants. The solution for the values of A /sub ij/'s will be described in this report. It will be shown that this solution can be expressed in a compact form. For simple cases, this form of solution leads directly to analytic expressions for the values of A /sub ij/'s and the bunch shape can be calculated by integrating the distribution function over some of the coordinates; for the more complex cases, it can be conveniently adapted as an algorithm for numerical evaluation. 16 refs
Shotorban, Babak
2010-04-01
The dynamic least-squares kernel density (LSQKD) model [C. Pantano and B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 76, 066705 (2007)] is used to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. In this model the probability density function (PDF) is approximated by a linear combination of basis functions with unknown parameters whose governing equations are determined by a global least-squares approximation of the PDF in the phase space. In this work basis functions are set to be Gaussian for which the mean, variance, and covariances are governed by a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) or ordinary differential equations (ODEs) depending on what phase-space variables are approximated by Gaussian functions. Three sample problems of univariate double-well potential, bivariate bistable neurodynamical system [G. Deco and D. Martí, Phys. Rev. E 75, 031913 (2007)], and bivariate Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas are studied. The LSQKD is verified for these problems as its results are compared against the results of the method of characteristics in nondiffusive cases and the stochastic particle method in diffusive cases. For the double-well potential problem it is observed that for low to moderate diffusivity the dynamic LSQKD well predicts the stationary PDF for which there is an exact solution. A similar observation is made for the bistable neurodynamical system. In both these problems least-squares approximation is made on all phase-space variables resulting in a set of ODEs with time as the independent variable for the Gaussian function parameters. In the problem of Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas, this approximation is made only for the particle velocity variable leading to a set of PDEs with time and particle position as independent variables. Solving these PDEs, a very good performance by LSQKD is observed for a wide range of diffusivities.
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Shkarofsky, I.P.
1997-01-01
The relativistic Fokker-Planck collision term in Braams and Karney [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1355 (1989)] is expanded using Cartesian tensors (equivalent to associated Legendre spherical harmonics) retaining all non-linear terms and an arbitrary zeroth order distribution background. Expressions are given for collision terms between all harmonics and the background distribution in terms of the j and y functions in Braams and Karney. The results reduce to Braams and Karney for the first order harmonic term with a Maxwellian background and to those given by Shkarofsky [Can. J. Phys. 41, 1753 (1963)] in the non-relativistic limit. Expressions for the energy and momentum transfer associated with relativistic Coulomb collisions are given. The fast two dimensional Fokker-Planck solver in Shoucri and Shkarofsky [Comput. Phys. Commun. 82, 287 (1994)] has been extended to include the second order harmonic term. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
A local analytic approach for the fast solution of the Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sajjadi, S.G.; Nicholas, D.J.
1987-11-01
In this report we describe a method of obtaining a closed form for the Focker-Planck equation rendering it amenable to solution in time-step with a complete hydrodynamic treatment of a plasma. We present a local expression for the heat flux, by solving the Focker-Planck equation for electrons in one space and two velocity dimensions in the presence of a self consistent electronic field. (author)
Numerical resolution of the Fokker-Planck equation for non-lineal cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mastropiero, Daniel
1997-01-01
The author resolves the Fokker-Plank equation of the statistical thermodynamics of irreversible processes for the flow of particles in a medium, considering two cases: a) The diffusion coefficient of the medium depends on concentration; and b) The medium is unhomogeneous, i.e. the diffusion coefficient varies with the position. Different cases are analyzed and compared
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Wehner, M.F.
1983-01-01
A path-integral solution is derived for processes described by nonlinear Fokker-Plank equations together with externally imposed boundary conditions. This path-integral solution is written in the form of a path sum for small time steps and contains, in addition to the conventional volume integral, a surface integral which incorporates the boundary conditions. A previously developed numerical method, based on a histogram representation of the probability distribution, is extended to a trapezoidal representation. This improved numerical approach is combined with the present path-integral formalism for restricted processes and is show t give accurate results. 35 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jumarie, Guy
2004-01-01
There are presently two different models of fractional Brownian motions available in the literature: the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of white noise on the one hand, and the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n defined by using a random walk in the complex plane, on the other hand. The paper provides a comparison between these two approaches, and in addition, takes this opportunity to contribute some complements. These two models are more or less equivalent on the theoretical standpoint for fractional order between 0 and 1/2, but their practical significances are quite different. Otherwise, for order larger than 1/2, the fractional derivative model has no counterpart in the complex plane. These differences are illustrated by an example drawn from mathematical finance. Taylor expansion of fractional order provides the expression of fractional difference in terms of finite difference, and this allows us to improve the derivation of Fokker-Planck equation and Kramers-Moyal expansion, and to get more insight in their relation with stochastic differential equations of fractional order. In the case of multi-fractal systems, the Fokker-Planck equation can be solved by using path integrals, and the fractional dynamic equations of the state moments of the stochastic system can be easily obtained. By combining fractional derivative and complex white noise of order n, one obtains a family of complex-valued fractional Brownian motions which exhibits long-range dependence. The conclusion outlines suggestions for further research, mainly regarding Lorentz transformation of fractional noises
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Peysson, Y.
1997-09-01
A full implicit numerical procedure based on the use of a nine-point difference operator is presented to solve the two dimensional (2 D ) relativistic Fokker-Planck equation for the current drive problem and synergetic effects between the lower hybrid and the electron cyclotron waves in tokamaks. As compared to the standard approach based on the use of a five-point difference operator [M. Shoucri, I. Shkarofsky, Comput. Phys. Comm. 82 (1994) 287], the convergence rate towards the steady state solution may be significantly enhanced with no loss of accuracy on the distribution function. Moreover, it is shown that the numerical stability may be strongly improved without a large degradation of the CPU time consumption as in the five-point scheme, making this approach very attractive for a fast solution of the 2-D Fokker-Planck equation on a fine grid in conjunction with other numerical codes for realistic plasma simulations. This new algorithm, based on an approximate matrix factorization technique, may be applied to all numerical problems with large sets of equations which involve nine-point difference operators. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peysson, Y. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Choucri, M. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada)
1997-09-01
A full implicit numerical procedure based on the use of a nine-point difference operator is presented to solve the two dimensional (2{sub D}) relativistic Fokker-Planck equation for the current drive problem and synergetic effects between the lower hybrid and the electron cyclotron waves in tokamaks. As compared to the standard approach based on the use of a five-point difference operator [M. Shoucri, I. Shkarofsky, Comput. Phys. Comm. 82 (1994) 287], the convergence rate towards the steady state solution may be significantly enhanced with no loss of accuracy on the distribution function. Moreover, it is shown that the numerical stability may be strongly improved without a large degradation of the CPU time consumption as in the five-point scheme, making this approach very attractive for a fast solution of the 2-D Fokker-Planck equation on a fine grid in conjunction with other numerical codes for realistic plasma simulations. This new algorithm, based on an approximate matrix factorization technique, may be applied to all numerical problems with large sets of equations which involve nine-point difference operators. (author) 21 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, B.D.A.; Vilhena, M.T.; Borges, V.; Hoff, G.
2008-01-01
In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P N approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jumarie, Guy
2009-01-01
A probability distribution of fractional (or fractal) order is defined by the measure μ{dx} = p(x)(dx) α , 0 α (D x α h α )f(x) provided by the modified Riemann Liouville definition, one can expand a probability calculus parallel to the standard one. A Fourier's transform of fractional order using the Mittag-Leffler function is introduced, together with its inversion formula; and it provides a suitable generalization of the characteristic function of fractal random variables. It appears that the state moments of fractional order are more especially relevant. The main properties of this fractional probability calculus are outlined, it is shown that it provides a sound approach to Fokker-Planck equation which are fractional in both space and time, and it provides new results in the information theory of non-random functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buet, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Sciences de la Simulation et de l' Information, Service Numerique Environnement et Constantes, 91 (France); Le Thanh, K.C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Service Physique des Plasmas et Electromagnetisme, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee
2008-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case, which models the self-collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focuses on schemes, which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. The Chang and Cooper method is widely used by plasma's physicists for the FPL equation (and for Fokker-Planck type equations). We present a new variant that is both positive and conservative contrary to the existing one's. We propose also a non Chang and Cooper 'type scheme on non-uniform grid, which is also both positive, conservative and equilibrium state preserving contrary to existing one's. The case of Coulombian potential is emphasized. We address also the problem of the time discretization. In particular we show how to recast some implicit methods to get band diagonal system and to solve it by direct method with a linear cost. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P.M.; Cardimona, D.A.
2004-01-01
The dynamics of a many-electron system under both dc and infrared fields is separated into a center-of-mass and a relative motion. The first-order force-balance equation is employed for the slow center-of-mass motion of electrons, and the Fokker-Planck equation is used for the ultrafast relative scattering motion of degenerate electrons. This approach allows us to include the anisotropic energy-relaxation process which has been neglected in the energy-balance equation in the past. It also leads us to include the anisotropic coupling to the incident infrared field with different polarizations. Based on this model, the transport of electrons is explored under strong dc and infrared fields by going beyond the relaxation-time approximation. The anisotropic dependence of the electron distribution function on the parallel and perpendicular kinetic energies of electrons is displayed with respect to the dc field direction, and the effect of anisotropic coupling to an incident infrared field with polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied dc electric field is shown. The heating of electrons is more accurately described beyond the energy-balance equation with the inclusion of an anisotropic coupling to the infrared field. The drift velocity of electrons is found to increase with the amplitude of the infrared field due to a suppressed momentum-relaxation process (or frictional force) under parallel polarization but decreases with the amplitude due to an enhanced momentum-relaxation process under perpendicular polarization
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batishcheva, A.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Craddock, G.G.; Djordjevic, V.
1996-01-01
The recently developed for workstations Fokker-Planck code ALLA simulates the temporal evolution of 1V, 2V and 1D2V collisional edge plasmas. In this work we present the results of code parallelization on the CRI T3D massively parallel platform (ALLAp version). Simultaneously we benchmark the 1D2V parallel vesion against an analytic self-similar solution of the collisional kinetic equation. This test is not trivial as it demands a very strong spatial temperature and density variation within the simulation domain. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, B.D.A. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: barbara.arodriguez@gmail.com; Vilhena, M.T. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Borges, V. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br; Hoff, G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: hoff@pucrs.br
2008-05-15
In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P{sub N} approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section.
Bianucci, Marco
2018-05-01
Finding the generalized Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE) for the reduced probability density function of a subpart of a given complex system is a classical issue of statistical mechanics. Zwanzig projection perturbation approach to this issue leads to the trouble of resumming a series of commutators of differential operators that we show to correspond to solving the Lie evolution of first order differential operators along the unperturbed Liouvillian of the dynamical system of interest. In this paper, we develop in a systematic way the procedure to formally solve this problem. In particular, here we show which the basic assumptions are, concerning the dynamical system of interest, necessary for the Lie evolution to be a group on the space of first order differential operators, and we obtain the coefficients of the so-evolved operators. It is thus demonstrated that if the Liouvillian of the system of interest is not a first order differential operator, in general, the FPE structure breaks down and the master equation contains all the power of the partial derivatives, up to infinity. Therefore, this work shed some light on the trouble of the ubiquitous emergence of both thermodynamics from microscopic systems and regular regression laws at macroscopic scales. However these results are very general and can be applied also in other contexts that are non-Hamiltonian as, for example, geophysical fluid dynamics, where important events, like El Niño, can be considered as large time scale phenomena emerging from the observation of few ocean degrees of freedom of a more complex system, including the interaction with the atmosphere.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prinja, A.K.
1995-08-01
We have developed and successfully implemented a two-dimensional bilinear discontinuous in space and time, used in conjunction with the S N angular approximation, to numerically solve the time dependent, one-dimensional, one-speed, slab geometry, (ion) transport equation. Numerical results and comparison with analytical solutions have shown that the bilinear-discontinuous (BLD) scheme is third-order accurate in the space ad time dimensions independently. Comparison of the BLD results with diamond-difference methods indicate that the BLD method is both quantitavely and qualitatively superior to the DD scheme. We note that the form of the transport operator is such that these conclusions carry over to energy dependent problems that include the constant-slowing-down-approximation term, and to multiple space dimensions or combinations thereof. An optimized marching or inversion scheme or a parallel algorithm should be investigated to determine if the increased accuracy can compensate for the extra overhead required for a BLD solution, and then could be compared to other discretization methods such as nodal or characteristic schemes
Vectorized Fokker-Planck package for the CRAY-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Killeen, J.
1979-08-01
A program for the solution of the time-dependent, two dimensional, nonlinear, multi-species Fokker-Planck equation is described. The programming is written such that the loop structure is highly vectorizable on the CRAY FORTRAN Compiler. A brief discussion of the Fokker-Planck equation itself is followed by a description of the procedure developed to solve the equation efficiently. The Fokker-Planck equation is a second order partial differential equation whose coefficients depend upon moments of the distribution functions. Both the procedure for the calculation of these coefficients and the procedure for the time advancement of the equation itself must be done efficiently if significant overall time saving is to result. The coefficients are calculated in a series of nested loops, while time advancement is accomplished by a choice of either a splitting or an ADI technique. Overall, timing tests show that the vectorized CRAY program realizes up to a factor of 12 advantage over an optimized CDC-7600 program and up to a factor of 365 over a non-vectorized version of the same program on the CRAY
Nier, Francis
2018-01-01
This article is concerned with the maximal accretive realizations of geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries. A general class of boundary conditions is introduced which ensures the maximal accretivity and some global subelliptic estimates. Those estimates imply nice spectral properties as well as exponential decay properties for the associated semigroup. Admissible boundary conditions cover a wide range of applications for the usual scalar Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation or Bismut's hypoelliptic laplacian.
FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.
1976-07-01
A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented
Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck calculations using standard discrete-ordinates codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, J.E.
1987-01-01
The Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equation can be used to describe both neutral and charged-particle transport. Over the past several years, the author and several collaborators have developed methods for representing Fokker-Planck operators with standard multigroup-Legendre cross-section data. When these data are input to a standard S/sub n/ code such as ONETRAN, the code actually solves the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation rather than the Boltzmann equation. This is achieved wihout any modification to the S/sub n/ codes. Because BFP calculations can be more demanding from a numerical viewpoint than standard neutronics calculations, we have found it useful to implement new quadrature methods ad convergence acceleration methods in the standard discrete-ordinates code, ONETRAN. We discuss our BFP cross-section representation techniques, our improved quadrature and acceleration techniques, and present results from BFP coupled electron-photon transport calculations performed with ONETRAN. 19 refs., 7 figs
Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics
2011-07-01
Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that the Fokker-Planck package FPPAC, which solves the complete nonlinear multispecies Fokker-Planck collision operator for a plasma in two-dimensional velocity space, has been rewritten for the Connection Machine 2. This has involved allocation of variables either to the front end or the CM2, minimization of data flow, and replacement of Cray-optimized algorithms with ones suitable for a massively parallel architecture. Calculations have been carried out on various Connection Machines throughout the country. Results and timings on these machines have been compared to each other and to those on the static memory Cray-2. For large problem size, the Connection Machine 2 is found to be cost-efficient
On the Connection between the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman and the Fokker-Planck Control Frameworks
Annunziato, Mario
2014-09-01
In the framework of stochastic processes, the connection between the dynamic programming scheme given by the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a recently proposed control approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation is discussed. Under appropriate assumptions it is shown that the two strategies are equivalent in the case of expected cost functionals, while the FokkerPlanck formalism allows considering a larger class of objectives. To illustrate the connection between the two control strategies, the cases of an Itō stochastic process and of a piecewise-deterministic process are considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-05-01
The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-05-01
The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buet, Ch. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. des Sciences de la Simulation et de l' Information, 91 (France); Le Thanh, K.C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)
2006-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe the discretization of the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) collision term in the isotropic case which models the self collision for the electrons when they are totally isotropized by heavy particles background such as ions. The discussion focus on schemes which could preserve positivity, mass, energy and Maxwellian equilibrium. First, we analyze in detail the popular Chang and Cooper method for this non-linear collision term: derivation, conservation and positivity properties. We show that some variants of this method, based on the drift-diffusion form of the FPL operator, could not be positive or could not conserve the energy. We present a new variant of the Chang and Cooper method derived from the Landau form that is both positive and conservative. We also propose two new alternatives and simpler schemes for the FPL operator which show that the Chang and Cooper method is not the only way to construct positive, energy conservative and equilibrium state preserving schemes for this operator. For all these schemes, we explain clearly the properties of conservation of the density and the energy, the positivity of the solution and the conservation of the equilibrium states, or their lack. The case of Maxwellian and Coulombian potentials are emphasized. (authors)
Simulating transient dynamics of the time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck systems
Kang, Yan-Mei
2016-09-01
For a physically realistic type of time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, derived as the continuous limit of the continuous time random walk with time-modulated Boltzmann jumping weight, a semi-analytic iteration scheme based on the truncated (generalized) Fourier series is presented to simulate the resultant transient dynamics when the external time modulation is a piece-wise constant signal. At first, the iteration scheme is demonstrated with a simple time-dependent time fractional FP equation on finite interval with two absorbing boundaries, and then it is generalized to the more general time-dependent Smoluchowski-type time fractional Fokker-Planck equation. The numerical examples verify the efficiency and accuracy of the iteration method, and some novel dynamical phenomena including polarized motion orientations and periodic response death are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epperlein, E.M.
1992-01-01
Preliminary 1-D studies of nonlocal heat transport in spherical plasmas based on the Fokker-Planck code SPARK indicate significant levels of electron preheat and radial heat flux across a spherical heat sink surface kept at fixed temperature. However, the diffusive approximation to the Fokker-Planck equation is shown to be particularly sensitive to the nature of the inner surface boundary condition chosen. A suggested remedy is the inclusion of a target capsule in future simulations studies with SPARK
Olbrant, Edgar; Frank, Martin
2010-12-01
In this paper, we study a deterministic method for particle transport in biological tissues. The method is specifically developed for dose calculations in cancer therapy and for radiological imaging. Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory [Leakeas and Larsen, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 137 (2001), pp. 236-250] has been developed to improve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation in cases where scattering is forward-peaked and where there is a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering. We compare grid-based numerical solutions to FP and GFP in realistic medical applications. First, electron dose calculations in heterogeneous parts of the human body are performed. Therefore, accurate electron scattering cross sections are included and their incorporation into our model is extensively described. Second, we solve GFP approximations of the radiative transport equation to investigate reflectance and transmittance of light in biological tissues. All results are compared with either Monte Carlo or discrete-ordinates transport solutions.
FOKKER-PLANCK ANALYSIS OF TRANSVERSE COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES IN ELECTRON STORAGE RINGS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindberg, R. R.
2017-06-25
We analyze single bunch transverse instabilities due to wakefields using a Fokker-Planck model. We expand on the work of Suzuki [1], writing out the linear matrix equation including chromaticity, both dipolar and quadrupolar transverse wakefields, and the effects of damping and diffusion due to the synchrotron radiation. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors determine the collective stability of the beam, and we show that the predicted threshold current for transverse instability and the profile of the unstable agree well with tracking simulations. In particular, we find that predicting collective stability for high energy electron beams at moderate to large values of chromaticity requires the full Fokker-Planck analysis to properly account for the effects of damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation.
Fokker-Planck modeling of current penetration during electron cyclotron current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkulov, A.; Westerhof, E.; Schueller, F. C.
2007-01-01
The current penetration during electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) on the resistive time scale is studied with a Fokker-Planck simulation, which includes a model for the magnetic diffusion that determines the parallel electric field evolution. The existence of the synergy between the inductive electric field and EC driven current complicates the process of the current penetration and invalidates the standard method of calculation in which Ohm's law is simply approximated by j-j cd =σE. Here it is proposed to obtain at every time step a self-consistent approximation to the plasma resistivity from the Fokker-Planck code, which is then used in a concurrent calculation of the magnetic diffusion equation in order to obtain the inductive electric field at the next time step. A series of Fokker-Planck calculations including a self-consistent evolution of the inductive electric field has been performed. Both the ECCD power and the electron density have been varied, thus varying the well known nonlinearity parameter for ECCD P rf [MW/m -3 ]/n e 2 [10 19 m -3 ] [R. W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 62, 426 (1989)]. This parameter turns out also to be a good predictor of the synergetic effects. The results are then compared with the standard method of calculations of the current penetration using a transport code. At low values of the Harvey parameter, the standard method is in quantitative agreement with Fokker-Planck calculations. However, at high values of the Harvey parameter, synergy between ECCD and E parallel is found. In the case of cocurrent drive, this synergy leads to the generation of large amounts of nonthermal electrons and a concomitant increase of the electrical conductivity and current penetration time. In the case of countercurrent drive, the ECCD efficiency is suppressed by the synergy with E parallel while only a small amount of nonthermal electrons is produced
Development of parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batishcheva, A.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Koniges, A.E.
1996-01-01
We report on our ongoing development of the 3D Fokker-Planck code ALLA for a highly collisional scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma. A SOL with strong gradients of density and temperature in the spatial dimension is modeled. Our method is based on a 3-D adaptive grid (in space, magnitude of the velocity, and cosine of the pitch angle) and a second order conservative scheme. Note that the grid size is typically 100 x 257 x 65 nodes. It was shown in our previous work that only these capabilities make it possible to benchmark a 3D code against a spatially-dependent self-similar solution of a kinetic equation with the Landau collision term. In the present work we show results of a more precise benchmarking against the exact solutions of the kinetic equation using a new parallel code ALLAp with an improved method of parallelization and a modified boundary condition at the plasma edge. We also report first results from the code parallelization using Message Passing Interface for a Massively Parallel CRI T3D platform. We evaluate the ALLAp code performance versus the number of T3D processors used and compare its efficiency against a Work/Data Sharing parallelization scheme and a workstation version
Tang, Xian-Zhu; Berk, H. L.; Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, C. J.
2014-03-01
Across a transition layer of disparate plasma temperatures, the high energy tail of the plasma distribution can have appreciable deviations from the local Maxwellian distribution due to the Knudson layer effect. The Fokker-Planck equation for the tail particle population can be simplified in a series of practically useful limiting cases. The first is the approximation of background Maxwellian distribution for linearizing the collision operator. The second is the supra-thermal particle speed ordering of vTi ≪ v ≪ vTe for the tail ions and vTi ≪ vTe ≪ v for the tail electrons. Keeping both the collisional drag and energy scattering is essential for the collision operator to produce a Maxwellian tail distribution. The Fokker-Planck model for following the tail ion distribution for a given background plasma profile is explicitly worked out for systems of one spatial dimension, in both slab and spherical geometry. A third simplification is an expansion of the tail particle distribution using the spherical harmonics, which are eigenfunctions of the pitch angle scattering operator. This produces a set of coupled Fokker-Planck equations that contain energy-dependent spatial diffusion terms in two coordinates (position and energy), which originate from pitch angle scattering in the original Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that the well-known diffusive Fokker-Planck model is a poor approximation of the two-mode truncation model, which itself has fundamental deficiency compared with the three-mode truncation model. The cause is the lack of even-symmetry representation in pitch dependence in the two-mode truncation model.
Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.
1989-01-01
Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described
Fokker-Planck description for the queue dynamics of large tick stocks
Garèche, A.; Disdier, G.; Kockelkoren, J.; Bouchaud, J.-P.
2013-09-01
Motivated by empirical data, we develop a statistical description of the queue dynamics for large tick assets based on a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck (diffusion) equation. Our description explicitly includes state dependence, i.e., the fact that the drift and diffusion depend on the volume present on both sides of the spread. “Jump” events, corresponding to sudden changes of the best limit price, must also be included as birth-death terms in the Fokker-Planck equation. All quantities involved in the equation can be calibrated using high-frequency data on the best quotes. One of our central findings is that the dynamical process is approximately scale invariant, i.e., the only relevant variable is the ratio of the current volume in the queue to its average value. While the latter shows intraday seasonalities and strong variability across stocks and time periods, the dynamics of the rescaled volumes is universal. In terms of rescaled volumes, we found that the drift has a complex two-dimensional structure, which is a sum of a gradient contribution and a rotational contribution, both stable across stocks and time. This drift term is entirely responsible for the dynamical correlations between the ask queue and the bid queue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christillin, P.
1986-01-01
The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)
A New Fokker-Planck Approach for the Relaxation-driven Evolution of Galactic Nuclei
Vasiliev, Eugene
2017-10-01
We present an approach for simulating the collisional evolution of spherical isotropic stellar systems based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. A novel aspect is that we use the phase volume as the argument of the distribution function instead of the traditionally used energy, which facilitates the solution. The publicly available code PhaseFlow implements a high-accuracy finite-element method for the Fokker-Planck equation, and can handle multiple-component systems, optionally with the central black hole and taking into account loss-cone effects and star formation. We discuss the energy balance in the general setting, and in application to the Bahcall-Wolf cusp around a central black hole, for which we derive a perturbative solution. We stress that the cusp is not a steady-state structure, but rather evolves in amplitude while retaining an approximately ρ \\propto {r}-7/4 density profile. Finally, we apply the method to the nuclear star cluster of the milky Way, and illustrate a possible evolutionary scenario in which a two-component system of lighter main-sequence stars and stellar-mass black holes develops a Bahcall-Wolf cusp in the heavier component and a weaker ρ \\propto {r}-3/2 cusp in the lighter, visible component, over the period of several Gyr. The present-day density profile is consistent with the recently detected mild cusp inside the central parsec, and is weakly sensitive to initial conditions.
Induced Compton scattering effects in radiation transport approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, D.R. Jr.
1982-01-01
In this thesis the method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions
Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, D.R. Jr.
1982-02-01
The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions
A fractional Fokker-Planck model for anomalous diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kim, Eun-jin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Moradi, Sara [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7648, LPP, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)
2014-12-15
In this paper, we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality of the stable Lévy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized normalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.
New Fokker-Planck derivation of heavy gas models for neutron thermalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, E.W.; Williams, M.M.R.
1990-01-01
This paper is concerned with the derivation of new generalized heavy gas models for the infinite medium neutron energy spectrum equation. Our approach is general and can be used to derive improved Fokker-Planck approximations for other types of kinetic equations. In this paper we obtain two distinct heavy gas models, together with estimates for the corresponding errors. The models are shown in a special case to reduce to modified heavy gas models proposed earlier by Corngold (1962). The error estimates show that both of the new models should be more accurate than Corngold's modified heavy gas model, and that the first of the two new models should generally be more accurate than the second. (author)
A Fokker-Planck based kinetic model for diatomic rarefied gas flows
Gorji, M. Hossein; Jenny, Patrick
2013-06-01
A Fokker-Planck based kinetic model is presented here, which also accounts for internal energy modes characteristic for diatomic gas molecules. The model is based on a Fokker-Planck approximation of the Boltzmann equation for monatomic molecules, whereas phenomenological principles were employed for the derivation. It is shown that the model honors the equipartition theorem in equilibrium and fulfills the Landau-Teller relaxation equations for internal degrees of freedom. The objective behind this approximate kinetic model is accuracy at reasonably low computational cost. This can be achieved due to the fact that the resulting stochastic differential equations are continuous in time; therefore, no collisions between the simulated particles have to be calculated. Besides, because of the devised energy conserving time integration scheme, it is not required to resolve the collisional scales, i.e., the mean collision time and the mean free path of molecules. This, of course, gives rise to much more efficient simulations with respect to other particle methods, especially the conventional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), for small and moderate Knudsen numbers. To examine the new approach, first the computational cost of the model was compared with respect to DSMC, where significant speed up could be obtained for small Knudsen numbers. Second, the structure of a high Mach shock (in nitrogen) was studied, and the good performance of the model for such out of equilibrium conditions could be demonstrated. At last, a hypersonic flow of nitrogen over a wedge was studied, where good agreement with respect to DSMC (with level to level transition model) for vibrational and translational temperatures is shown.
Fokker-Planck theory of electron cyclotron assisted startup and breakdown in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fidone, I.; Granata, G.
1993-04-01
The kinetic theory of plasma startup in a tokamak in the presence of electron cyclotron resonance heating is discussed. The linear theory of the X-mode and the upper-hybrid converted mode damping in low density and temperature plasmas are first reviewed. Then, the kinetic equation for the electron velocity distribution is considered, which is determined by the perpendicular electron cyclotron quasilinear diffusion operator, the parallel electric field, elastic and inelastic electron-neutral collisions and various losses. Two different time scales, namely the elastic electron-neutral collision time and the much longer ionization time, are identified. Thus a two time scale ordering procedure is legitimated for which the velocity distribution is determined by the quasilinear diffusion and the electron-neutral collision frequency; the ionization rate is computed using the Fokker-Planck solution for the electron velocity distribution
Fokker-Planck simulation study of Alfven eigenmode burst
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Sato, T.
2001-01-01
Recurrent bursts of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are reproduced with a Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a fast-ion source and slowing down are incorporated self-consistently. The bursts take place at regular time intervals and the behaviors of all the TAEs are synchronized. The fast-ion transport due to TAE activity spatially broadens the classical fast-ion distribution and significantly reduces its peak value. Only a small change of the distribution takes place with each burst, leading to loss of a small fraction of the fast ions. The system stays close to the marginal stability state established through the interplay of the fast-ion source, slowing down, and TAE activity. (author)
Compton scattering collision module for OSIRIS
Del Gaudio, Fabrizio; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís
2017-10-01
Compton scattering plays a fundamental role in a variety of different astrophysical environments, such as at the gaps of pulsars and the stagnation surface of black holes. In these scenarios, Compton scattering is coupled with self-consistent mechanisms such as pair cascades. We present the implementation of a novel module, embedded in the self-consistent framework of the PIC code OSIRIS 4.0, capable of simulating Compton scattering from first principles and that is fully integrated with the self-consistent plasma dynamics. The algorithm accounts for the stochastic nature of Compton scattering reproducing without approximations the exchange of energy between photons and unbound charged species. We present benchmarks of the code against the analytical results of Blumenthal et al. and the numerical solution of the linear Kompaneets equation and good agreement is found between the simulations and the theoretical models. This work is supported by the European Research Council Grant (ERC- 2015-AdG 695088) and the Fundao para a Céncia e Tecnologia (Bolsa de Investigao PD/BD/114323/2016).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockstroh, J.M.
1977-01-01
Cosmic-ray electrons generate the observed radio-frequency background. Previous attempts in the literature to reconcile quantitatively the measured radio-frequency intensity with the intensity deduced from the electron spectrum measured at earth have culminated in the problem that to get the respective emissivities to agree, an unacceptably high interstellar B field must be chosen. In the light of new experimental data on the emissivity as deduced from H II region studies and on the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient with solar radius and particle rigidity, the assumptions under which the electron emissivity comparison has been made have been reexamined closely. The paradox between predicted and measured emissivity was resolved by ascribing to the magnetic fields of the galaxy a distribution of magnetic field strengths. From modified synchrotron formulas, the interstellar electron spectrum has been constructed from the radio frequency emission data with greatly improved precision. The interstellar electron spectrum has been determined independently of the solar modulation and provides, therefore, an estimate of the absolute depth of the electron modulation. Then the measured electron, proton, and helium-nuclei fluxes were systematically compared to the predictions of the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation using the electron modulation as a base. A previously unnoticed non-tracking of the modulation parameters was observed during the recent recovery that did not occur during the 1965 to 1969 period. Although the argument could be presented just as well by attributing the anomaly to the nuclei, the discussion here arbitrarily tailored it to the electrons, and this new phenomenon was named, the modulation reluctance of the cosmic-ray electrons
On the Connection between the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman and the Fokker-Planck Control Frameworks
Annunziato, Mario; Borzì , Alfio; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2014-01-01
appropriate assumptions it is shown that the two strategies are equivalent in the case of expected cost functionals, while the FokkerPlanck formalism allows considering a larger class of objectives. To illustrate the connection between the two control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)
2010-02-15
We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.
2010-01-01
We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Alexander
2016-01-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm's law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Alexander [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-08-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm’s law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
Compton scattering at high intensities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)
2009-12-01
High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.
Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin
2006-01-01
We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities
Taitano, W. T.; Chacón, L.; Simakov, A. N.
2018-07-01
We consider a 1D-2V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck multi-species ionic description coupled to fluid electrons. We address temporal stiffness with implicit time stepping, suitably preconditioned. To address temperature disparity in time and space, we extend the conservative adaptive velocity-space discretization scheme proposed in [Taitano et al., J. Comput. Phys., 318, 391-420, (2016)] to a spatially inhomogeneous system. In this approach, we normalize the velocity-space coordinate to a temporally and spatially varying local characteristic speed per species. We explicitly consider the resulting inertial terms in the Vlasov equation, and derive a discrete formulation that conserves mass, momentum, and energy up to a prescribed nonlinear tolerance upon convergence. Our conservation strategy employs nonlinear constraints to enforce these properties discretely for both the Vlasov operator and the Fokker-Planck collision operator. Numerical examples of varying degrees of complexity, including shock-wave propagation, demonstrate the favorable efficiency and accuracy properties of the scheme.
Fokker-Planck description of the scattering of radio frequency waves at the plasma edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis; Tsironis, Christos; Ram, Abhay K.
2010-01-01
In magnetic fusion devices, radio frequency (rf) waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) and lower hybrid (LH) range of frequencies are being commonly used to modify the plasma current profile. In ITER, EC waves are expected to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) by providing current in the island region [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The appearance of NTMs severely limits the plasma pressure and leads to the degradation of plasma confinement. LH waves could be used in ITER to modify the current profile closer to the edge of the plasma. These rf waves propagate from the excitation structures to the core of the plasma through an edge region, which is characterized by turbulence--in particular, density fluctuations. These fluctuations, in the form of blobs, can modify the propagation properties of the waves by refraction. In this paper, the effect on rf due to randomly distributed blobs in the edge region is studied. The waves are represented as geometric optics rays and the refractive scattering from a distribution of blobs is formulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. The scattering can have two diffusive effects--one in real space and the other in wave vector space. The scattering can modify the trajectory of rays into the plasma and it can affect the wave vector spectrum. The refraction of EC waves, for example, could make them miss the intended target region where the NTMs occur. The broadening of the wave vector spectrum could broaden the wave generated current profile. The Fokker-Planck formalism for diffusion in real space and wave vector space is used to study the effect of density blobs on EC and LH waves in an ITER type of plasma environment. For EC waves the refractive effects become important since the distance of propagation from the edge to the core in ITER is of the order of a meter. The diffusion in wave vector space is small. For LH waves the refractive effects are insignificant but the diffusion in wave vector space is
Nonparametric estimates of drift and diffusion profiles via Fokker-Planck algebra.
Lund, Steven P; Hubbard, Joseph B; Halter, Michael
2014-11-06
Diffusion processes superimposed upon deterministic motion play a key role in understanding and controlling the transport of matter, energy, momentum, and even information in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and communications technology. Given functions defining these random and deterministic components, the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation is often used to model these diffusive systems. Many methods exist for estimating the drift and diffusion profiles from one or more identifiable diffusive trajectories; however, when many identical entities diffuse simultaneously, it may not be possible to identify individual trajectories. Here we present a method capable of simultaneously providing nonparametric estimates for both drift and diffusion profiles from evolving density profiles, requiring only the validity of Langevin/FP dynamics. This algebraic FP manipulation provides a flexible and robust framework for estimating stationary drift and diffusion coefficient profiles, is not based on fluctuation theory or solved diffusion equations, and may facilitate predictions for many experimental systems. We illustrate this approach on experimental data obtained from a model lipid bilayer system exhibiting free diffusion and electric field induced drift. The wide range over which this approach provides accurate estimates for drift and diffusion profiles is demonstrated through simulation.
Feedback-induced bistability of an optically levitated nanoparticle: A Fokker-Planck treatment
Ge, Wenchao; Rodenburg, Brandon; Bhattacharya, M.
2016-08-01
Optically levitated nanoparticles have recently emerged as versatile platforms for investigating macroscopic quantum mechanics and enabling ultrasensitive metrology. In this paper we theoretically consider two damping regimes of an optically levitated nanoparticle cooled by cavityless parametric feedback. Our treatment is based on a generalized Fokker-Planck equation derived from the quantum master equation presented recently and shown to agree very well with experiment [B. Rodenburg, L. P. Neukirch, A. N. Vamivakas, and M. Bhattacharya, Quantum model of cooling and force sensing with an optically trapped nanoparticle, Optica 3, 318 (2016), 10.1364/OPTICA.3.000318]. For low damping, we find that the resulting Wigner function yields the single-peaked oscillator position distribution and recovers the appropriate energy distribution derived earlier using a classical theory and verified experimentally [J. Gieseler, R. Quidant, C. Dellago, and L. Novotny, Dynamic relaxation of a levitated nanoparticle from a non-equilibrium steady state, Nat. Nano. 9, 358 (2014), 10.1038/nnano.2014.40]. For high damping, in contrast, we predict a double-peaked position distribution, which we trace to an underlying bistability induced by feedback. Unlike in cavity-based optomechanics, stochastic processes play a major role in determining the bistable behavior. To support our conclusions, we present analytical expressions as well as numerical simulations using the truncated Wigner function approach. Our work opens up the prospect of developing bistability-based devices, characterization of phase-space dynamics, and investigation of the quantum-classical transition using levitated nanoparticles.
Analysis of unexpected exits using the Fokker - Planck equation
Herwaarden, van O.A.
1996-01-01
In this thesis exit problems are considered for stochastic dynamical systems with small random fluctuations. We study exit from a domain in the state space through a boundary, or a specified part of the boundary, that is unattainable in the underlying deterministic system. We analyze
Automatic mesh refinement and parallel load balancing for Fokker-Planck-DSMC algorithm
Küchlin, Stephan; Jenny, Patrick
2018-06-01
Recently, a parallel Fokker-Planck-DSMC algorithm for rarefied gas flow simulation in complex domains at all Knudsen numbers was developed by the authors. Fokker-Planck-DSMC (FP-DSMC) is an augmentation of the classical DSMC algorithm, which mitigates the near-continuum deficiencies in terms of computational cost of pure DSMC. At each time step, based on a local Knudsen number criterion, the discrete DSMC collision operator is dynamically switched to the Fokker-Planck operator, which is based on the integration of continuous stochastic processes in time, and has fixed computational cost per particle, rather than per collision. In this contribution, we present an extension of the previous implementation with automatic local mesh refinement and parallel load-balancing. In particular, we show how the properties of discrete approximations to space-filling curves enable an efficient implementation. Exemplary numerical studies highlight the capabilities of the new code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salmon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Caen, 14 (France)
1961-07-01
The author examines the problem of the return to equilibrium of a particle in a plasma and completely explains Fokker-Planck equation. After that, he studies the possibility of interpreting the return of the test particle to Maxwellian distribution, using the development - which is obtained. He discusses the validity limits of the Rosenbluth, MacDonald and Judd approximation. (author) [French] Examinant le probleme du retour a l'equilibre d'une particule test au sein d'un plasma en equilibre, l'auteur cherche a expliciter completement l'expression de l'operateur de Fokker-Planck. Il etudie ensuite les conditions de coherence, c'est-a-dire la possibilite pour le developpement obtenu de traduire le retour de la particule test a l'etat maxwellien et discute des limites de validite de la formule de 'Rosenbluth, Mac Donald et Judd'. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Barbara A.; Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio
2005-01-01
In this work we would like to obtain a formulation of an analytic method for the solution of the three dimensional transport equation considering Compton scattering and an expression for total doses due to gamma radiation, where the deposited energy by the free electron will be considered. For that, we will work with two equations: the first one for the photon transport, considering the Klein-Nishina kernel and energy multigroup model, and the second one considering the free electron with the screened Rutherford scattering. (author)
Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.
2017-06-01
An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberico, W.M.; Molinari, A.
1982-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). We treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from 208 Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment. (orig.)
On the Fokker-Planck theory of electron three-body recombination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sayasov, Yu. S.
1977-01-01
The Fokker-Planck theory of electron three-body recombination based on the concept of electron diffusion along the energy scale in the excited hydrogen-like atoms formed in the recombining plasmas, is extended in several respects. 1) An universal formula for population distribution of the excited atoms in strongly ionized plasmas was found under a sole assumption, that the cross-sections for the inelastic atom-electron collisions are governed by the classical impulse approximation. 2) A general Fokker-Planck theory of the recombination in a slightly ionized, two-temperature plasmas was formulated. The recombination coefficients for such plasmas were shown to possess some peculiar properties in case the electronic temperature differs appreciable from the atomic one. A few limitations of the existing schemas for calculation of the recombination kinetics are briefly discussed. (orig.) [de
Quasilinear simulation of auroral kilometric radiation by a relativistic Fokker-Planck code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.
1991-01-01
An intense terrestrial radiation called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be generated by cyclotron maser instability. We study a quasilinear evolution of this instability by means of a two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code which treats waves and distributions self-consistently, including radiation loss and electron source and sink. We compare the distributions and wave amplitude with spacecraft observations to elucidate physical processes involved. 3 refs., 1 fig
Collective motions and non-polynomial lagrangians in Fokker-Planck dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spina, A.; Vucetich, H.
1986-04-01
A method based on the ideas of collective motion is applied to Fokker-Planck dynamics. The usual diagramatic techniques used in stochastic dynamics are enlarged in order to deal with the non-polynomial Lagrangians that appear in the theory. The technique is tested and applied to the case of a self-sustained sinusoidal oscillator whose statistical behaviour is well understood: the Poincare oscillator. (author)
An application of the ideas of collective motion to Fokker-Planck dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spina, A.
1985-08-01
The implementation of ideas and techniques of field theory to statistical physics have proved invaluable both in deepening our understanding in this second area and as a powerful computational tool. In this paper we analyze some aspects of the application to Fokker-Planck dynamics for the case of self-sustained oscillators driven by white noise of a concept that has been found fruitful in quantum field theory, namely the collective coordinate method. (author)
Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Arthur H. Compton and Compton Scattering Resources with Additional Information * Compton Honored * Compton Scattering Arthur H. Compton Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley , 1923 Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942, DOE Technical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Mais, H.; Ripken, G.
1991-12-01
In the following report we investigate stochastic particle motion in electron-positron storage ring in the framework of a Fokker-Planck treatment. The motion is described by using the canonical variables χ, p χ , z, p z , σ = s - cxt, p σ = ΔE/E 0 of the fully six-dimensional formalism. Thus synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations are treated simultaneously taking into account all kinds of coupling (synchro-betatron coupling and the coupling of the betatron oscillations by skew quadrupoles and solenoids). In order to set up the Fokker-Planck equation, action-angle variables of the linear coupled motion are introduced. The averaged dimensions of the bunch, resulting from radiation damping of the synchro-betatron oscillations and from an excitation of these oscillations by quantum fluctuations, are calculated by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The surfaces of constant density in the six-dimensional phase space, given by six-dimensional ellipsoids, are determined. It is shown that the motion of such an ellipsoid under the influence of external fields can be described by six generating orbit vectors which may be combined into a six-dimenional matrix B(s). This 'bunch-shape matrix', B(s), contains complete information about the configuration of the bunch. Classical spin diffusion in linear approximation has also been included so that the dependence of the polarization vector on the orbital phase space coordinates can be studied and another derivation of the linearized depolarization time obtained. (orig.)
3-D Ray-tracing and 2-D Fokker-Planck Simulations of Radiofrequency Application to Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardinali, A.; Paoletti, F.; Bernabei, S.
1999-01-01
A state of the art numerical tool has been developed to simulate the propagation and the absorption of coexisting different types of waves in a tokamak geometry. The code includes a numerical solution of the three-dimensional (R, Z, Φ) toroidal wave equation for the electric field of the different waves in the WKBJ approximation. At each step of integration, the two-dimensional (v parallel, v perpendicular) Fokker-Planck equation is solved in the presence of quasilinear diffusion coefficients. The electron Landau damping of the waves is modeled taking into account the interaction of the wave electric fields with the quasilinearly modified distribution function. Consistently, the code calculates the radial profiles of non-inductively generated current densities, the transmitted power traces and the total power damping curves. Synergistic effects among the different type of waves (e.g., lower hybrid and ion Bernstein waves) are studied through the separation of the contributions of the single wave from the effects due to their coexistence
FOKN: a relativistic Fokker-Planck code with large angle scattering and radiation losses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, G.; Scharlemann, T.; Wood, L.; Weaver, T.; Chu, T.; Lee, G.
1976-07-01
FOKN is a computer code which employs a relativistic Fokker-Planck algorithm to evolve the distribution functions of the various mutually interacting components of a multi-species plasma forward in time, with the optional addition of high angle, large energy and momentum transfer interactions between the various charged species of the plasma. As a computational expediency, the latter processes are handled by transfer matrices which are generated separately by another code, RNUX, so that once specific transfer matrices are generated, they can be used over and over by FOKN provided the group structures are compatible
Fokker-Planck Modelling of Delayed Loss of Charged Fusion Products in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edenstrasser, J.W.; Goloborod'ko, V.Ya.; Reznik, S.N.; Yavorskij, V.A.; Zweben, S.
1998-01-01
The results of a Fokker-Planck simulation of the ripple-induced loss of charged fusion products in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are presented. It is shown that the main features of the measured ''delayed loss'' of partially thermalized fusion products, such as the differences between deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium discharges, the plasma current and major radius dependencies, etc., are in satisfactory agreement with the classical collisional ripple transport mechanism. The inclusion of the inward shift of the vacuum flux surfaces turns out to be necessary for an adequate and consistent explanation of the origin of the partially thermalized fusion product loss to the bottom of TFTR
Fokker--Planck/transport analyses of fusion plasmas in contemporary beam-driven tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.; McCoy, M.G.; Killeen, J.; Rensink, M.E.; Shumaker, D.E.; Jassby, D.L.; Post, D.E.
1978-04-01
The properties of deuterium plasmas in experimental tokamaks heated and fueled by intense neutral-beam injection are evaluated with a Fokker-Planck/radial transport code coupled with a Monte Carlo neutrals treatment. Illustrative results are presented for the Poloidal Divertor Experiment at PPPL as a function of beam power and plasma recycling coefficient, R/sub c/. When P/sub beam/ = 8 MW at E/sub b/ = 60 keV, and R/sub c/ = 0.2, then approximately 0.5, [ 2 / 3 ] = 22 keV approximately 6 , and the D-D neutron intensity is 10 16 n/sec
Deeply virtual Compton scattering. Results and future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowak, W.D.
2005-03-01
Access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) through deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is briefly described. Presently available experimental results on DVCS are summarized in conjunction with plans for future measurements. (orig.)
Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe
1995-01-01
The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA
Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.
2016-01-01
The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.
Scaling limit of deeply virtual Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. Radyushkin
2000-07-01
The author outlines a perturbative QCD approach to the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {gamma}p{prime} in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer t=(p{prime}{minus}p){sup 2}. The DVCS amplitude in this limit exhibits a scaling behavior described by a two-argument distributions F(x,y) which specify the fractions of the initial momentum p and the momentum transfer r {equivalent_to} p{prime}{minus}p carried by the constituents of the nucleon. The kernel R(x,y;{xi},{eta}) governing the evolution of the non-forward distributions F(x,y) has a remarkable property: it produces the GLAPD evolution kernel P(x/{xi}) when integrated over y and reduces to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution kernel V(y,{eta}) after the x-integration. This property is used to construct the solution of the one-loop evolution equation for the flavor non-singlet part of the non-forward quark distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T D
2009-01-01
Using a nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective we re-formulate the linear discrepancy model proposed by Boster and colleagues that describes the emergence of risky shifts during group decision making. Analytical expressions for the stationary case are derived and risky shifts are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Striking similarities with the Kuramoto model for group synchronization are pointed out
Fokker-Planck simulations of knock-on electron runaway avalanche and bursts in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, S.C.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Chan, V.S.
1998-01-01
The avalanche of runaway electrons in an ohmic tokamak plasma triggered by knock-on collisions of traces of energetic electrons with the bulk electrons is simulated by the bounce averaged Fokker-Planck code, CQL3D. It is shown that even when the electric field is small for the production of Dreicer runaways, the knock-on collisions can produce significant runaway electrons in a fraction of a second at typical reactor parameters. The energy spectrum of these knock-on runaways has a characteristic temperature. The growth rate and temperature of the runaway distribution are determined and compared with theory. In simulations of pellet injection into high temperature plasmas, it is shown that a burst of Dreicer runaways may also occur depending on the cooling rate due to the pellet injection. Implications of these phenomena on disruption control in reactor plasmas are discussed. (author)
Theorems of low energy in Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chahine, J.
1984-01-01
We have obtained the low energy theorems in Compton scattering to third and fouth order in the frequency of the incident photon. Next we calculated the polarized cross section to third order and the unpolarized to fourth order in terms of partial amplitudes not covered by the low energy theorems, what will permit the experimental determination of these partial amplitudes. (Author) [pt
Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, I.
1979-04-01
We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)
MICROBUNCH TEMPORAL DIAGNOSTIC BY COMPTON SCATTERING IN INTERFERING LASER BEAMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AMATUNI, A.TS.; POGORELSKY, I.V.
1998-01-01
The exact solution of the classical nonlinear equation of motion for a relativistic electron in the field of two electromagnetic (EM) waves is obtained. For the particular case of the linearly polarized standing EM wave in the planar optical cavity, the intensity of the nonlinear Compton scattering, the time of flight, and the momentum variation after the relativistic electron passes along the cavity axis are calculated in weak and strong field limits. The extent of these effects depends on the initial phase of the EM wave when the electron enters the cavity. This can be used for the production, diagnosis, and acceleration of relativistic electron (positron) microbunches
Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.
2010-10-01
The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)
Fokker-Planck simulation of runaway electron generation in disruptions with the hot-tail effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nuga, H., E-mail: nuga@p-grp.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukuyama, A. [Department of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Yagi, M. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)
2016-06-15
To study runaway electron generation in disruptions, we have extended the three-dimensional (two-dimensional in momentum space; one-dimensional in the radial direction) Fokker-Planck code, which describes the evolution of the relativistic momentum distribution function of electrons and the induced toroidal electric field in a self-consistent manner. A particular focus is placed on the hot-tail effect in two-dimensional momentum space. The effect appears if the drop of the background plasma temperature is sufficiently rapid compared with the electron-electron slowing down time for a few times of the pre-quench thermal velocity. It contributes to not only the enhancement of the primary runaway electron generation but also the broadening of the runaway electron distribution in the pitch angle direction. If the thermal energy loss during the major disruption is assumed to be isotropic, there are hot-tail electrons that have sufficiently large perpendicular momentum, and the runaway electron distribution becomes broader in the pitch angle direction. In addition, the pitch angle scattering also yields the broadening. Since the electric field is reduced due to the burst of runaway electron generation, the time required for accelerating electrons to the runaway region becomes longer. The longer acceleration period makes the pitch-angle scattering more effective.
Loading, absorption, and Fokker-Planck calculations for upcoming ICRF experiments on ATF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, T.D.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Kwon, M.
1989-01-01
ICRF experiments on ATF at the 100-kW level are planned for the current 1989 operating period. These plans include the 2ω/sub cH/ regime at f/sub RF/ = 28.88 MHz, D(H) at 14.44 MHz, and 4 He( 3 He) and D( 3 He) at 9.63 MHz. ECH target plasmas have n/sub eO/ /approxreverse arrowlt/ 0.15 /times/ 10 20 m/sup /minus/3/ and B = 0.95 T. The density and temperature profiles obtained are broader than those from 1988, owing to recent field error corrections. The values used for target-plasma parameters in the calculations were taken from initial 1989 ATF data. Loading and absorption calculations have been performed using the 3D RF heating code ORION with a helically symmetric equilibrium, and Fokker-Planck calculations were performed using the steady-state code RFTRANS with two velocity dimensions and one spatial dimension. 6 refs., 3 figs
High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources
Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M
2005-01-01
No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2
Future measurements of deeply virtual Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korotkov, V.A.; Nowak, W.D.
2001-09-01
Prospects for future measurements of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering are studied using different simple models for parameterizations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Measurements of the lepton charge and lepton beam helicity asymmetry will yield important input for theoretical models towards the future extraction of GPDs. The kinematics of the HERMES experiment, complemented with a recoil detector, was adopted to arrive at realistic projected statistical uncertainties. (orig.)
Colour dipoles and virtual Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDermott, M.
2002-01-01
An analysis of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is made within the colour dipole model. We compare and contrast two models for the dipole cross-section which have been successful in describing structure function data. Both models agree with the available cross section data on DVCS from HERA. We give predictions for various azimuthal angle asymmetries in HERA kinematics and for the DVCS cross section in the THERA region. (orig.)
A Priori Regularity of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
Berkemeier, Francisco
2018-01-01
In this thesis, we consider parabolic partial differential equations such as the heat equation, the Fokker-Planck equation, and the porous media equation. Our aim is to develop methods that provide a priori estimates for solutions with singular
Dull, J. D.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Murphy, B. W.; Seitzer, P. O.; Callanan, P. J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Charles, P. A.
2003-03-01
It has recently come to our attention that there are axis scale errors in three of the figures presented in Dull et al. (1997, hereafter D97). This paper presented Fokker-Planck models for the collapsed-core globular cluster M15 that include a dense, centrally concentrated population of neutron stars and massive white dwarfs. These models do not include a central black hole. Figure 12 of D97, which presents the predicted mass-to-light profile, is of particular interest, since it was used by Gerssen et al. (2002) as an input to their Jeans equation analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) STIS velocity measurements reported by van der Marel et al. (2002). On the basis of the original, incorrect version of Figure 12, Gerssen et al. (2002) concluded that the D97 models can fit the new data only with the addition of an intermediate-mass black hole. However, this is counter to our previous finding, shown in Figure 6 of D97, that the Fokker-Planck models predict the sort of moderately rising velocity dispersion profile that Gerssen et al. (2002) infer from the new data. Baumgardt et al. (2003) have independently noted this apparent inconsistency. We appreciate the thoughtful cooperation of Roeland van der Marel in resolving this issue. Using our corrected version of Figure 12 (see below), Gerssen et al. (2003) now find that the velocity dispersion profile that they infer from the D97 mass-to-light ratio profile is entirely consistent with the velocity dispersion profile presented in Figure 6 of D97. Gerssen et al. (2003) further find that there is no statistically significant difference between the fit to the van der Marel et al. (2002) velocity measurements provided by the D97 intermediate-phase model and that provided by their model, which supplements this D97 model with a 1.7+2.7-1.7×103Msolar black hole. Thus, the choice between models with and without black holes will require additional model predictions and observational tests. We present corrected versions of
The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.
1982-01-01
A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter
Nucleon structure study by virtual compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvielle, H.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Quemener, G.; Ravel, O.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Boeglin, W.U.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M.; Edelhoff, R.; Friedrich, J.; Geiges, R.; Jennewein, P.; Kahrau, M.; Korn, M.; Kramer, H.; Krygier, K.W.; Kunde, V.; Liesenfeld, A.; Merle, K.; Neuhausen, R.; Offermann, E.A.J.M.; Pospischil, T.; Rosner, G.; Sauer, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schardt, S.; Tamas, G.; Wagner, A.; Walcher, T.; Wolf, S.
1995-01-01
We propose to study nucleon structure by Virtual Compton Scattering using the reaction p(e,e'p)γ with the MAMI facility. We will detect the scattered electron and the recoil proton in coincidence in the high resolution spectrometers of the hall A1. Compton events will be separated from the other channels (principally π 0 production) by missing-mass reconstruction. We plan to investigate this reaction near threshold. Our goal is to measure new electromagnetic observables which generalize the usual magnetic and electric polarizabilities. (authors). 9 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs
Transverse tomography by Compton scattering scintigraphy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askienazy, S.; Lumbroso, J.; Lacaille, J.M.; Fredy, D.; Constans, J.P.; Barritault, L.
The technique of tomography by Compton-scattering was applied to the exploration of the brain. Studies were carried out on phantoms and on patients and the first results are considered highly encouraging. On a phantom skull, holes at a depth of 7 cm are visible even on analogue documents and whatever their position with regard to the bone. On patients the ventricle cavities were revealed and comparisons with gas encephalograpy showed good agreement between the two techniques. The studies on phantoms also testified to the very low dose received by the patient: about 300 mRem for 2 million counts per section [fr
A Simple Stochastic Differential Equation with Discontinuous Drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Maria; Leth, John-Josef; Schiøler, Henrik
2013-01-01
In this paper we study solutions to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with discontinuous drift. We apply two approaches: The Euler-Maruyama method and the Fokker-Planck equation and show that a candidate density function based on the Euler-Maruyama method approximates a candidate density...... function based on the stationary Fokker-Planck equation. Furthermore, we introduce a smooth function which approximates the discontinuous drift and apply the Euler-Maruyama method and the Fokker-Planck equation with this input. The point of departure for this work is a particular SDE with discontinuous...
Virtual compton scattering at low energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lhuillier, D.
1997-09-01
The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debosscher, A.F.; Dutre, W.L.
1979-01-01
The paper deals with the exact stochastic analysis of the low-frequency neutron density fluctuations in an on-off controlled nuclear power reactor without delayed neutrons and perturbed by Gaussian white reactivity noise. The stochastic process, being Markovian, is completely characterized by its first-order probability density function (pdf) and the transition pdf. The first-order pdf is the normalized solution to the time-independent Fokker--Planck equation (FPE). Using this pdf, a general expression for the moments is obtained. The conditions for stochastic stability in probability, in the mean, and in the mean-square are derived. The time-dependent FPE is solved using the Laplace transform technique, which results in four distinct expressions for the transition pdf, according to the relative magnitude of initial and final reactor power with respect to the regulator level. After Laplace inversion, a physical interpretation of the controller's effect on the stochastic process becomes possible. Finally, making use of the obtained pdf's, the spectral density of the reactor power fluctuations is calculated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrov Yuri V.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The bounce-average (BA finite-difference Fokker-Planck (FP code CQL3D [1,2] now includes the essential physics to describe the RF heating of Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW ions in tokamaks. The FP equation is reformulated in terms of Constants-Of-Motion coordinates, which we select to be particle speed, pitch angle, and major radius on the equatorial plane thus obtaining the distribution function directly at this location. Full-orbit, low collisionality neoclassical radial transport emerges from averaging the local friction and diffusion coefficients along guiding center orbits. Similarly, the BA of local quasilinear RF diffusion terms gives rise to additional radial transport. The local RF electric field components needed for the BA operator are usually obtained by a ray-tracing code, such as GENRAY, or in conjunction with full-wave codes. As a new, practical application, the CQL3D-FOW version is used for simulation of alpha-particle heating by high-harmonic waves in ITER. Coupling of high harmonic or helicon fast waves power to electrons is a promising current drive (CD scenario for high beta plasmas. However, the efficiency of current drive can be diminished by parasitic channeling of RF power into fast ions, such as alphas, through finite Larmor-radius effects. We investigate possibilities to reduce the fast ion heating in CD scenarios.
Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.
1994-01-01
A brief introduction to the topic of Compton scattering from bound electrons is presented. The fundamental nature of this process in understanding quantum phenomena is reviewed. Methods for accurate theoretical evaluation of the Compton scattering cross section are presented. Examples are presented for scattering of several keV photons from helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bizarro, J.P.; Peysson, Y.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carrasco, J.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Fuchs, V.; Hoang, G.T.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Pocheau, C.; Shkarofsky, I.P.
1993-04-01
A detailed investigation is presented on the ability of combined ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations to predict the hard x-ray (HXR) emission during lower-hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamaks when toroidally induced-ray-stochasticity is important. A large number of rays is used and the electron distribution function is obtained by self-consistently iterating the appropriate LH power deposition and Fokker-Planck calculations. Most of the experimentally observed features of the HXR emission are correctly predicted. It is found that corrections due to radial diffusion of suprathermal electrons and to radiation scattering by the inner wall can be significant
Boer, Marie
2017-09-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) contain the correlation between the parton's longitudinal momentum and their transverse distribution. They are accessed through hard exclusive processes, such as Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). DVCS has already been measured in several experiments and several models allow for extracting GPDs from these measurements. Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) is, at leading order, the time-reversal equivalent process to DVCS and accesses GPDs at the same kinematics. Comparing GPDs extracted from DVCS and TCS is a unique way for proving GPD universality. Combining fits from the two processes will also allow for better constraining the GPDs. We will present our method for extracting GPDs from DVCS and TCS pseudo-data. We will compare fit results from the two processes in similar conditions and present what can be expected in term of contraints on GPDs from combined fits.
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.
2000-07-01
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.
2000-01-01
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru
2000-07-17
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.
Exclusive compton scattering on the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.
1999-01-01
An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)
Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide
Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.
With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.
Exclusive compton scattering on the proton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others
1999-07-01
An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)
Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.; LeRose, J.; Liang, M.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Liyanage, N.; Rutt, P.; Saha, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Chang, T.H.; Holt, R. J.; Nathan, A. M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Wijesooriya, K.; Williamson, S. E.; Dodge, G.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Radyushkin, A.; Sabatie, F.; Weinstein, L. B.; Ulmer, P.; Bosted, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Jiang, X.; Ransome, R.; Strauch, S.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Fonvielle, H.; Roblin, Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Gilad, S.; Rowntree, D.; Zu, Z.; Brown, D.; Chang, G.; Afanasev, A.; Egiyan, K.; Hoohauneysan, E.; Ketikyan, A.; Mailyan, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Hines, J.; Strobel, G.; Templon, J.; Feldman, G.; Morris, C. L.; Gladyshev, V.; Lindgren, R. A.; Calarco, J.; Hersman, W.; Leuschner, M.; Gasparian, A.
1999-01-01
An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same nonforward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer; currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supercedes E97-108 which was approved by PAC13
Stochastic processes and applications diffusion processes, the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations
Pavliotis, Grigorios A
2014-01-01
This book presents various results and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes that are useful in the study of stochastic problems in the natural sciences. The main focus is analytical methods, although numerical methods and statistical inference methodologies for studying diffusion processes are also presented. The goal is the development of techniques that are applicable to a wide variety of stochastic models that appear in physics, chemistry and other natural sciences. Applications such as stochastic resonance, Brownian motion in periodic potentials and Brownian motors are studied and the connection between diffusion processes and time-dependent statistical mechanics is elucidated. The book contains a large number of illustrations, examples, and exercises. It will be useful for graduate-level courses on stochastic processes for students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering. Many of the topics covered in this book (reversible diffusions, convergence to eq...
The Dynamics of M15: Observations of the Velocity Dispersion Profile and Fokker-Planck Models
Dull, J. D.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Murphy, B. W.; Seitzer, P. O.; Callanan, P. J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Charles, P. A.
1997-05-01
We report a new measurement of the velocity dispersion profile within 1' (3 pc) of the center of the globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078), using long-slit spectra from the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at La Palma Observatory. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for a total of 23 slit positions during two observing runs. During each run, a set of parallel slit positions was used to map out the central region of the cluster; the position angle used during the second run was orthogonal to that used for the first. The spectra are centered in wavelength near the Ca II infrared triplet at 8650 Å, with a spectral range of about 450 Å. We determined radial velocities by cross-correlation techniques for 131 cluster members. A total of 32 stars were observed more than once. Internal and external comparisons indicate a velocity accuracy of about 4 km s-1. The velocity dispersion profile rises from about σ = 7.2 +/- 1.4 km s-1 near 1' from the center of the cluster to σ = 13.9 +/- 1.8 km s-1 at 20". Inside of 20", the dispersion remains approximately constant at about 10.2 +/- 1.4 km s-1 with no evidence for a sharp rise near the center. This last result stands in contrast with that of Peterson, Seitzer, & Cudworth who found a central velocity dispersion of 25 +/- 7 km s-1, based on a line-broadening measurement. Our velocity dispersion profile is in good agreement with those determined in the recent studies of Gebhardt et al. and Dubath & Meylan. We have developed a new set of Fokker-Planck models and have fitted these to the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of M15. We also use the two measured millisecond pulsar accelerations as constraints. The best-fitting model has a mass function slope of x = 0.9 (where 1.35 is the slope of the Salpeter mass function) and a total mass of 4.9 × 105 M⊙. This model contains approximately 104 neutron stars (3% of the total mass), the majority of which lie within 6" (0.2 pc) of the cluster center. Since the
Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.
1996-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, T.; Mima, K.; Norimatsu, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishiguchi, A.
2003-01-01
It is proposed that a thick foam layer on a plastic capsule of fusion pellet is effective not only for reducing the initial imprint, but also for solving the melting problem of cryogenic deuterium-tritium layer, in a reactor chamber. Investigated are the dependences of gain, thermal insulation for preventing the melting, and imprint mitigation of a foam-buffered target on the foam layer thickness. The imprint mitigation, the Rayleigh-Taylor growth factor and the fusion gain of a foam-buffered target are evaluated by the hydrodynamic implosion code HIMICO [A. Nishiguchi et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 417 (1992)], which includes a Fokker-Planck transport code. As the result, it is found that high gain can be achieved by the foam-buffered target together with thermal insulation and imprint mitigation
Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Vlahos, L.; Polymilis, C.
1989-01-01
The relativistic motion of an ensemble of electrons in an intense monochromatic electromagnetic wave propagating obliquely in a uniform external magnetic field is studied. The problem is formulated from the viewpoint of Hamiltonian theory and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov approach analyzed by Hizanidis (1989), leading to a one-dimensional diffusive acceleration along paths of constant zeroth-order generalized Hamiltonian. For values of the wave amplitude and the propagating angle inside the analytically predicted stochastic region, the numerical results suggest that the diffusion probes proceeds in stages. In the first stage, the electrons are accelerated to relatively high energies by sampling the first few overlapping resonances one by one. During that stage, the ensemble-average square deviation of the variable involved scales quadratically with time. During the second stage, they scale linearly with time. For much longer times, deviation from linear scaling slowly sets in.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan-Mei, Kang; Yao-Lin, Jiang
2008-01-01
To explore the influence of anomalous diffusion on stochastic resonance (SR) more deeply and effectively, the method of moments is extended to subdiffusive overdamped bistable fractional Fokker-Planck systems for calculating the long-time linear dynamic response. It is found that the method of moments attains high accuracy with the truncation order N = 10, and in normal diffusion such obtained spectral amplification factor (SAF) of the first-order harmonic is also confirmed by stochastic simulation. Observing the SAF of the odd-order harmonics we find some interesting results, i.e. for smaller driving frequency the decrease of sub diffusion exponent inhibits the stochastic resonance (SR), while for larger driving frequency the decrease of sub diffusion exponent enhances the second SR peak, but the first one vanishes and a double SR is induced in the third-order harmonic at the same time. These observations suggest that the anomalous diffusion has important influence on the bistable dynamics
Proton compton scattering in the resonance region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Takanobu.
1979-12-01
Differential cross sections of the proton Compton scattering have been measured in the energy range between 400 and 1150 MeV at CMS angles of 130 0 , 100 0 and 70 0 . The recoil proton was detected with a magnetic spectrometer using multi-wire proportional chambers and wire spark chambers. In coincidence with the proton, the scattered photon was detected with a lead glass Cerenkov counter of the total absorption type with a lead plate converter, and horizontal and vertical scintillation counter hodoscopes. The background due to the neutral pion photoproduction, was subtracted by using the kinematic relations between the scattered photon and the recoil proton. Theoretical calculations based on an isobar model with two components, that is, the resonance plus background, were done, and the photon couplings of the second resonance region were determined firstly from the proton Compton data. The results are that the helicity 1/2 photon couplings of P 11 (1470) and S 11 (1535), and the helicity 3/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) are consistent with those determined from the single pion photoproduction data, but the helicity 1/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) has a somewhat larger value than that from the single pion photoproduction data. (author)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-08-01
The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.
Compton scattering and γ-quanta monochromatization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goryachev, B.I.; Shevchenko, V.G.
1979-01-01
The γ-quanta monochromatization method is proposed for sdudying high-excited states and mechanisms of nuclei photodisintegration. The method is based on the properties of photon Compton scattering. It permits to obtain high energy resolution without accurate analysis of the particle energies taking part in the scattering process. A possible design of the compton γ- monochromator is presented. The γ-quanta scatterer of the elements with a small nucleus charge (e.g. LiH) is placed inside the β-spectrometer of low resolution. The monochromator is expected to operate in the γ-beam of the high-current synchrotron, and it provides for a rather good energy resolution rho(W) while studying the high-excited nucleus states (rho(W) approximately 2% in the range of the giant dipole resonance). With the γ-quanta energy growth rho(W) increases as Wsup(0.6). The monochromator permits to obtain high statistical accuracy for a smaller period of time (at a considerably better energy resolution) than while working with a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The yield of quasimonochromatic photons related to the ΔW(ΔW = rho(W)W) range of energy resolution increases as Wsup(0.6). This fact makes it promjssing to use monochromator in the energy range considerably exceeding the characteristic energy of the gigantic dipole resonance
Boghosian, Bruce M.; Devitt-Lee, Adrian; Johnson, Merek; Li, Jie; Marcq, Jeremy A.; Wang, Hongyan
2017-06-01
The ;Yard-Sale Model; of asset exchange is known to result in complete inequality-all of the wealth in the hands of a single agent. It is also known that, when this model is modified by introducing a simple model of redistribution based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, it admits a steady state exhibiting some features similar to the celebrated Pareto Law of wealth distribution. In the present work, we analyze the form of this steady-state distribution in much greater detail, using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. We find that, while Pareto's Law is approximately valid for low redistribution, it gives way to something more similar to Gibrat's Law when redistribution is higher. Additionally, we prove in this work that, while this Pareto or Gibrat behavior may persist over many orders of magnitude, it ultimately gives way to gaussian decay at extremely large wealth. Also in this work, we introduce a bias in favor of the wealthier agent-what we call Wealth-Attained Advantage (WAA)-and show that this leads to the phenomenon of ;wealth condensation; when the bias exceeds a certain critical value. In the wealth-condensed state, a finite fraction of the total wealth of the population ;condenses; to the wealthiest agent. We examine this phenomenon in some detail, and derive the corresponding modification to the Fokker-Planck equation. We observe a second-order phase transition to a state of coexistence between an oligarch and a distribution of non-oligarchs. Finally, by studying the asymptotic behavior of the distribution in some detail, we show that the onset of wealth condensation has an abrupt reciprocal effect on the character of the non-oligarchical part of the distribution. Specifically, we show that the above-mentioned gaussian decay at extremely large wealth is valid both above and below criticality, but degenerates to exponential decay precisely at criticality.
Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy
1995-12-01
A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.
Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doria, Luca
2007-10-01
Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p)γ was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q 2 =0.33 (GeV/c) 2 . Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)
Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doria, Luca
2007-10-15
Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off "4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattawy, M.
2015-01-01
The "4He nucleus is of particular interest to study nuclear GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) as its partonic structure is described by only one chirally-even GPD. It is also a simple few-body system and has a high density that makes it the ideal target to investigate nuclear effects on partons. The experiment described in this thesis is JLab-E08-24, which was carried out in 2009 by the CLAS collaboration during the 'EG6' run. In this experiment, a 6 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam was scattered onto a 6 atm "4He gaseous target. During this experiment, in addition to the CLAS detector, a Radial Time Projection Chamber (RTPC), to detect low-energy nuclear recoils, and an Inner Calorimeter (IC), to improve the detection of photons at very forward angles, were used. We carried out a full analysis on our 6 GeV dataset, showing the feasibility of measuring exclusive nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reactions. The analysis included: the identification of the final-state particles, the DVCS event selection, the π"0 background subtraction. The beam-spin asymmetry was then extracted for both DVCS channels and compared to the ones of the free-proton DVCS reaction, and to theoretical predictions from two models. Finally, the real and the imaginary parts of the "4He CFF (Compton Form Factor) HA have been extracted. Different levels of agreement were found between our measurements and the theoretical calculations. This thesis is organized as follows: In chapter 1, the available theoretical tools to study hadronic structure are presented, with an emphasis on the nuclear effects and GPDs. In chapter 2, the characteristics of the CLAS spectrometer are reviewed. In chapter 3, the working principle and the calibration aspects of the RTPC are discussed. In chapter 4, the identification of the final-state particles and the Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. In chapter 5, the selection of the DVCS events, the background subtraction, and uncertainty
Dispersion relations in real and virtual Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drechsel, D.; Pasquini, B.; Vanderhaeghen, M.
2003-01-01
A unified presentation is given on the use of dispersion relations in the real and virtual Compton scattering processes off the nucleon. The way in which dispersion relations for Compton scattering amplitudes establish connections between low energy nucleon structure quantities, such as polarizabilities or anomalous magnetic moments, and the nucleon excitation spectrum is reviewed. We discuss various sum rules for forward real and virtual Compton scattering, such as the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and its generalizations, the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule, as well as sum rules for forward nucleon polarizabilities, and review their experimental status. Subsequently, we address the general case of real Compton scattering (RCS). Various types of dispersion relations for RCS are presented as tools for extracting nucleon polarizabilities from the RCS data. The information on nucleon polarizabilities gained in this way is reviewed and the nucleon structure information encoded in these quantities is discussed. The dispersion relation formalism is then extended to virtual Compton scattering (VCS). The information on generalized nucleon polarizabilities extracted from recent VCS experiments is described, along with its interpretation in nucleon structure models. As a summary, the physics content of the existing data is discussed and some perspectives for future theoretical and experimental activities in this field are presented
Full-wave and Fokker Planck analysis of ICRF heating experiments in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonoli, P.T.; Golovato, S.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.
1996-01-01
The Alcator C-Mod device is a high field, high density, shaped tokamak with parameters a = 0.22 m, R 0 = 0.67 m, B 0 ≤ 9.0 T, κ ≤ 1.8, δ ≤ 0.8, and 1.0 x 10 20 m -3 n e (0) ≤ 1.0 x 10 21 m -3 . Four megawatt of ICRF power is available at 80 MHz. The wide operating range in magnetic field makes several heating schemes possible: (i) Second harmonic heating of hydrogen (f 0 = 2f CH ) at 2.6 T in (D-H); (ii) Fundamental heating of (H) (f 0 = f CH ) at 5.3T in a D-(H) plasma; and (iii) Fundamental heating of ( 3 He) (f 0 = f C 3 He ) at 7.9 T in a D-( 3 He) plasma. The most successful heating regime to date has been (H)-minority heating at 5.3 T. Pellet enhanced performance (PEP) modes have also been achieved in C-Mod in D-(H) at 5.3 T and in D-( 3 He) at 7.9 T, with a combination of intense ICRF heating and Li-pellet injection. A variety of numerical models are used to analyze these heating schemes. A 1-D full-wave code (FELICE) is used to study open-quotes single passclose quotes damping of the ICRF wavefront and damping of mode-converted ion Bernstein waves. A toroidal full-wave code (FISIC) is used to study interference and focussing effects of the ICRF waves as well as damping of the ICRF power upon multiple passes of the ICRF wavefront. A combined bounce averaged Fokker Planck and toroidal full-wave code (FPPRF) is used to study the ion tail formation, orbit losses, and the power partition of the ICRF tail to the background electrons and ions. Full-wave and Fokker Planck analyses confirm the strong single pass absorption of the ICRF power in D-(H) at 5.3 T. Analysis of PEP-mode plasmas in D-( 3 He) indicates improved wave focussing and 3 He-cyclotron absorption of the ICRF waves relative to L-mode. A dramatic increase in the transfer of 3 He tail power to the background deuterium is also found for PEP-mode plasmas
Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, G.; Harding, E.
2010-01-01
This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee
1995-06-28
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.
1995-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Deconvolution of shift-variant broadening for Compton scatter imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, Brian L.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Roggemann, Michael C.
1999-01-01
A technique is presented for deconvolving shift-variant Doppler broadening of singly Compton scattered gamma rays from their recorded energy distribution. Doppler broadening is important in Compton scatter imaging techniques employing gamma rays with energies below roughly 100 keV. The deconvolution unfolds an approximation to the angular distribution of scattered photons from their recorded energy distribution in the presence of statistical noise and background counts. Two unfolding methods are presented, one based on a least-squares algorithm and one based on a maximum likelihood algorithm. Angular distributions unfolded from measurements made on small scattering targets show less evidence of Compton broadening. This deconvolution is shown to improve the quality of filtered backprojection images in multiplexed Compton scatter tomography. Improved sharpness and contrast are evident in the images constructed from unfolded signals
Analysis of materials in ducts by Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouveia, M.A.G.; Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Camerini, C.S.
2000-01-01
This work presents the use of the Compton Scattering Technique as essay, for materials characterization in petroleum ducts. The essay have been accomplished in laboratory ambit, so that the presented results should be analyzed so that the system can come to be used in the field. The inspection was performed using Compton Scattering techniques, with two detectors aligned, in an angle of 90 degrees with a source of Cs-137 with energy of 662 keV. The results demonstrated the good capacity of the system to detect materials deposited in petroleum ducts during petroleum transportation. (author)
Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...
Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering
Haeringen, W. van
The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between
X-ray generator based on Compton scattering
Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.
2005-01-01
Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida Ferreira, A.C. de.
1984-01-01
For problems with azimuthal symmetry in velocity space, the distribution function depends only on the speed and on the pitch angle. The angular dependence of the distribution function is expanded in Legendre polynomials, and the expansions of the collision integrals describing two-body Coulomb interactions in a plasma are determined through the use of the Rosenbluth potentials. The electron distribution function is written as a Maxwellian plus a deviation, and the representation in Legendre polynomials of the electron-electron collision term is given for both its linear and nonlinear part. To determine the representation of the electron-ion collision term it is assumed that the ion distribution is much narrower in velocity space than the electron distribution, and shifted from the origin by a flow velocity. The equations are presented in a form that is suitable for their use in a computer. (Author) [pt
Laser Compton Scattering Gamma Ray Induced Photo-Trasmutation
Li, Dazhi
2004-01-01
High brightness beams of gamma rays produced with laser Compton scattering have the potential to realize photo-transmutation through (γ,n) reaction, implying an efficient method to dispose long-lived fission products. Preliminary investigations have been carried out in understanding the feasibility of development of a transmutation facility to repose nuclear waste. A laser Compton scattering experimental setup based on a storage ring started to generate gamma-ray beams for studying the coupling of gamma photons and nuclear giant resonance. This paper demonstrates the dependency of nuclear transmutation efficiency on target dimensions and gamma ray features. 197Au sample was adopted in our experiment, and experimental results correspond to the theoretical estimations.
Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amrath, D.; Diehl, M.; Lansberg, J.P.; Heidelberg Univ.
2008-07-01
We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)
Model independent dispersion approach to proton Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caprini, I.; Radescu, E.E.
1980-12-01
The proton Compton scattering at low and intermediate energies is studied by means of a dispersion framework which exploits in an optimal way the (fixed momentum transfer) analyticity properties of the amplitudes in conjunction with the consequences of the (s-channel) unitarity. The mathematical background of the work consists of methods specific to boundary value problems for analytic vector-valued functions and interpolation theory. In comparison with previous related work, the external problems to be solved now are much more difficult because of the inclusion of the photoproduction input and also lead to additional computational complications. The lower bounds on the differential cross-section, obtained without any reference to subtractions and annihilation channel contributions, appear sufficiently restrictive to evidentiate rigorously some inconsistencies between results of single pion photoproduction multipole extractions and proton Compton scattering data. (author)
Research of synchrotron radiation by virtual photon and compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xianzhu
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new theory to explain the synchrotron radiation. When charged particle does circular motion in the accelerator, the magnetic field of the accelerator can be taken as periodic, and equivalent to virtual photon. By Compton scattering of virtual photon and charged particle, the virtual photon can be transformed into photon to radiate out. According to this theory, the formula of photon wavelength in synchrotron radiation is found out, and the calculation results of wavelength is consonant with experimental data. (author)
Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering
Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.
2004-01-01
Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...
Deeply virtual Compton scattering: How to test handbag dominance?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gousset, T.; Gousset, T.; Diehl, M.; Pire, B.; Diehl, M.; Ralston, J.P.
1998-01-01
We propose detailed tests of the handbag approximation in exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering. Those tests make no use of any prejudice about parton correlations in the proton which are basically unknown objects and beyond the scope of perturbative QCD. Since important information on the proton substructure can be gained in the regime of light cone dominance we consider that such a class of tests is of special relevance. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Timelike Compton scattering off the neutron and generalized parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)
2016-02-15
We study the exclusive photoproduction of an electron-positron pair on a neutron target in the Jefferson Lab energy domain. The reaction consists of two processes: the Bethe-Heitler and the Timelike Compton Scattering. The latter process provides potentially access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We calculate all the unpolarized, single- and double-spin observables of the reaction and study their sensitivities to GPDs. (orig.)
Compton scatter tomography in TOF-PET
Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammadreza; Ghafarian, Pardis
2017-10-01
Scatter coincidences contain hidden information about the activity distribution on the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system. However, in conventional reconstruction, the scattered data cause the blurring of images and thus are estimated and subtracted from detected coincidences. List mode format provides a new aspect to use time of flight (TOF) and energy information of each coincidence in the reconstruction process. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to reconstruct activity distribution using the scattered data in the PET system. For each single scattering coincidence, a scattering angle can be determined by the recorded energy of the detected photons, and then possible locations of scattering can be calculated based on the scattering angle. Geometry equations show that these sites lie on two arcs in 2D mode or the surface of a prolate spheroid in 3D mode, passing through the pair of detector elements. The proposed method uses a novel and flexible technique to estimate source origin locations from the possible scattering locations, using the TOF information. Evaluations were based on a Monte-Carlo simulation of uniform and non-uniform phantoms at different resolutions of time and detector energy. The results show that although the energy uncertainties deteriorate the image spatial resolution in the proposed method, the time resolution has more impact on image quality than the energy resolution. With progress of the TOF system, the reconstruction using the scattered data can be used in a complementary manner, or to improve image quality in the next generation of PET systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Dongshan; Xie Hongjun
2006-01-01
By comparing the kinematical equation of a shock wave in free air, the study of transmission characteristics of the laser plasma shock wave in Compton scattering is presented. The results show that the attenuation course of the kinematics of he laser plasma shock wave is related not only with the explosion fountainhead and the characteristics of the explosion course, total energy release, air elastic, but also with multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering. Because of the scattering the initial radius of the shock wave increases, the attenuation course shortens, the energy metastasis efficiency rises. The results of the numerical analysis and the actual values of the shock waves in air by a way intense explosion are very tallying. (authors)
The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering
Karlsson, Erik B.
2018-03-01
Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum
Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juraev, F.I.
2006-01-01
Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)
Experimental study of angular dependence in double photon Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandhu, B.S.; Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.
2000-01-01
The collision differential cross-section and energy of one of the final photons for double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of scattering angle θ 1 . The incident photon energy is 0.662 MeV and thin aluminium foils are used as a scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this higher order process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers and 30 ns timing electronics. The measured values for energy and collision differential cross-section agree with theory within experimental estimated error. The present data provide information of angular dependence in this higher order process
Compton scattering by mesons in nuclei: Experiment on 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuhrberg, K.; Martin, G.; Haeger, D.; Ludwig, M.; Schumacher, M.; Andersson, B.E.; Blomqvist, K.I.; Ruijter, H.; Sandell, A.; Schroeder, B.; Hayward, E.; Nilsson, L.; Zorro, R.
1992-01-01
Using 58 and 73 MeV tagged photons and scattering angles from 60deg to 150deg, it is shown that is possible to observe Compton scattering by 'mesons in nuclei ' through an incomplete cancellation of the mesonic (exchange- current) seagull amplitude by parts of the nuclear resonance amplitude related to the giant-dipole resonance of 208 Pb. This phenomenon is a property of an extended nucleus and , therefore, cannot be dtudied on the deuteron. Predictions of the exchange form factor which determines the angular distribution of the exchange seagull amplitude are compared with experimental data. (orig.)
Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA
Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.
2001-01-01
A measurement is presented of elastic Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e^+ + p -> e^+ + photon + p at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the invariant mass, W, of the gamma p system, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 20 GeV^2, 30 < W < 120 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t is the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurement is compared to QCD based calculations.
Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.
2004-01-01
Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced
Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.
2007-01-01
The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type
High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.
1998-01-01
High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model
Comprehensive study of observables in Compton scattering on the nucleon
Grießhammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2018-03-01
We present an analysis of 13 observables in Compton scattering on the proton. Cross sections, asymmetries with polarised beam and/or targets, and polarisation-transfer observables are investigated for energies up to the Δ(1232) resonance to determine their sensitivity to the proton's dipole scalar and spin polarisabilities. The Chiral Effective Field Theory Compton amplitude we use is complete at N4LO, O(e2δ4), for photon energies ω˜ m_{π}, and so has an accuracy of a few per cent there. At photon energies in the resonance region, it is complete at NLO, O(e2δ0), and so its accuracy there is about 20%. We find that for energies from pion-production threshold to about 250 MeV, multiple asymmetries have significant sensitivity to presently ill-determined combinations of proton spin polarisabilities. We also argue that the broad outcomes of this analysis will be replicated in complementary theoretical approaches, e.g., dispersion relations. Finally, we show that below the pion-production threshold, 6 observables suffice to reconstruct the Compton amplitude, and above it 11 are required. Although not necessary for polarisability extractions, this opens the possibility to perform "complete" Compton-scattering experiments. An interactive Mathematica notebook, including results for the neutron, is available from judith.mcgovern@manchester.ac.uk.
Compton Scattering of Quasi-Real Virtual Photons at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, H.J.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2005-01-01
Compton scattering of quasi-real virtual photons, gamma e+- -> gamma e+-, is studied with 0.6fb-1 of data collected by the L3 detector at the LEP e+e- collider at centre-of-mass energies root(s')=189-209GeV. About 4500 events produced by the interaction of virtual photons emitted by e+- of one beam with e-+ of the opposite beam are collected for effective centre-of-mass energies of the photon-electron and photon-positron systems in the range from root(s')= 35GeV up to root(s')=175GeV, the highest energy at which Compton scattering was ever probed. The cross sections of the gamma e+- -> gamma e+- process as a function of root(s') and of the rest-frame scattering angle are measured, combined with previous L3 measurements down to root(s')~20GeV, and found to agree with the QED expectations.
Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray
Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.
2013-03-01
A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohendet, O.
1989-01-01
We consider a quantum system with a finite number N of states and we show that a Markov process evolving in an 'extended' discrete phase can be associated with the discrete Wigner function of the system. This Wigner function is built using the Weyl quantization procedure on the group Z N xZ N . Moreover we can use this process to compute the quantum mean values as probabilistic expectations of functions of this process. This probabilistic formulation can be seen as a stochastic mechanics in phase space. (orig.)
Strong plasma shock structures based on the Navier--Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, K.
1975-01-01
The structure of a plasma collisional shock wave is examined on the basis of the Navier--Stokes equations and simultaneously on the basis of the Fokker--Planck equation. The resultant structures are compared to check the validity of the Navier--Stokes equations applied to the structures of strong shock waves. The Navier--Stokes equations give quite correct structures for weak shock waves. For the strong shock waves, the detailed structures obtained from the Navier--Stokes equations differ from the results of the Fokker--Planck equation, but the shock thicknesses of the two shock waves are in relatively close agreement
Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki
2010-01-01
We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.
Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2011-01-01
We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Studies at Jefferson Lab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabatie, F.
2010-11-01
This document describes the early experimental effort at Jefferson Lab to unravel the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), using the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. The GPDs contain the usual form factors and parton distribution functions, but in addition, they include correlations between states of different longitudinal and transverse momenta. They therefore give access to a three-dimensional picture of the nucleon. DVCS is the cleanest process allowing to extract GPDs, and as early as 2000, a number of experiments were proposed for this purpose. The results of the first exploratory experiments are presented as well as the first measurements of linear combinations of GPDs. In addition, a thorough discussion on the insights gained from these early experiments is proposed, linked with the theoretical tools used to extract GPDs from DVCS data. Finally, improvements on what was done for this first experimental phase are proposed and discussed, and new proposals and measurements are described. (author)
Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertin, P.Y.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10 4 events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10 5 ) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs
Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration
1995-12-31
This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.
Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics: Compton scattering process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.; Schreck, M.
2009-01-01
A Lorentz-noninvariant modification of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered, which has photons described by the nonbirefringent sector of modified Maxwell theory and electrons described by the standard Dirac theory. These photons and electrons are taken to propagate and interact in a Schwarzschild spacetime background. For appropriate Lorentz-violating parameters, the photons have an effective horizon lying outside the Schwarzschild horizon. A particular type of Compton scattering event, taking place between these two horizons (in the photonic ergoregion) and ultimately decreasing the mass of the black hole, is found to have a nonzero probability. These events perhaps allow for a violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Lorentz-noninvariant theory considered.
Electronic properties of Be and Al by Compton scattering technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguiar, J.C.; Di Rocco, H.O.
2011-01-01
In this work, electronic properties of beryllium and aluminum are examined by using Compton scattering technique. The method is based on the irradiation of samples using a beam narrow of mono- energetic photons of 59.54 keV product of radioactive decay of Am -241 . Scattered radiation is collected by a high resolution semiconductor detector positioned at an angle of 90°. The measured spectrum is commonly called Compton profile and contains useful information about the electronic structure of the material. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations such as density functional theory showing a good agreement. However, these results show some discrepancies with many libraries used in codes such as Monte Carlo simulation. Since these libraries are based on the values tabulated by Biggs, Mendelsohn and Mann 1975 thus overestimating the scattered radiation on the material. (authors) [es
Anomalous neutron Compton scattering cross section in zirconium hydride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdul-Redah, T.; Krzystyniak, M.; Mayers, J.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.
2005-01-01
In the last few years we observed a shortfall of intensity of neutrons scattered from protons in various materials including metal hydrogen systems using neutron Compton scattering (NCS) on the VESUVIO instrument (ISIS, UK). This anomaly has been attributed to the existence of short-lived quantum entangled states of protons in these materials. Here we report on results of very recent NCS measurements on ZrH 2 at room temperature. Also here an anomalous shortfall of scattering intensity due to protons is observed. In contrast to previous experiments on NbH 0.8 , the anomalies found in ZrH 2 are independent of the scattering angle (or momentum transfer). These different results are discussed in the light of recent criticisms and experimental tests related to the data analysis procedure on VESUVIO
Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V.T.
2007-01-01
In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A(γ* p → γ* p)/ Im A(γ* p → γ p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)
The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. T. Truong
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.
Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2013-06-15
We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.
Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration
2015-01-01
A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6 GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target, and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for e p →e'p'γ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2 , xB, t , and ϕ , for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of generalized parton distributions, at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight into the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even generalized parton distributions.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko [University of Porto (Portugal)
2013-04-15
We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Djurić, Marko
2013-01-01
We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.
Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA
Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2005-01-01
A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.
Complete $O(\\alpha)$ QED corrections to polarized Compton scattering
Denner, Ansgar
1999-01-01
The complete QED corrections of O(alpha) to polarized Compton scattering are calculated for finite electron mass and including the real corrections induced by the processes e^- gamma -> e^- gamma gamma and e^- gamma -> e^- e^- e^+. All relevant formulas are listed in a form that is well suited for a direct implementation in computer codes. We present a detailed numerical discussion of the O(alpha)-corrected cross section and the left-right asymmetry in the energy range of present and future Compton polarimeters, which are used to determine the beam polarization of high-energetic e^+- beams. For photons with energies of a few eV and electrons with SLC energies or smaller, the corrections are of the order of a few per mille. In the energy range of future e^+e^- colliders, however, they reach 1-2% and cannot be neglected in a precision polarization measurement.
Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars
Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.
2018-02-01
Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-03-01
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Gordon D.
2008-10-15
The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques
Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.
2001-12-01
Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, Gordon D.
2008-08-01
The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
Wide angle Compton scattering within the SCET factorization framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kivel, N.
2016-01-01
Existing data for the electromagnetic proton form factors and for the cross section of the wide angle Compton scattering (WACS) show that the hard two-gluon exchange mechanism (collinear factorization) is still not applicable in the kinematical region where Mandelstam variables s ∼ -t ∼ -u are about a few GeV 2 . On the other hand these observables can be described in phenomenological models where spectator quarks are soft which assumes a large contribution due to the soft-overlap mechanism. It turns out that the simple QCD factorization picture is not complete and must also include the soft-overlap contribution which can be described as a certain matrix element in the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). Then the leading power contribution to WACS amplitude is described as a sum of the hard- and soft-spectator contributions. The existing experimental data allows one to check certain conclusions based on the assumption about dominant role of the soft-spectator mechanism. (author)
Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundin, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics
2002-05-01
A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 < E{sub g} < 70 MeV tagged photons were scattered from a liquid deuterium target and detected simultaneously in three (10{sup x}10{sup )} NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton.
Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundin, Magnus
2002-05-01
A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 g x 10 ) NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10 -4 fm 3 ). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton
Electronic structure of the palladium hydride studied by compton scattering
Mizusaki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Hiraoka, N; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y
2003-01-01
The hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic structure of Pd have been investigated by Compton scattering experiments associated with theoretical calculations. Compton profiles (CPs) of single crystal of Pd and beta phase hydride PdH sub x (x=0.62-0.74) have been measured along the [100], [110] and [111] directions with a momentum resolution of 0.14-0.17 atomic units using 115 keV x-rays. The theoretical Compton profiles have been calculated from the wavefunctions obtained utilizing the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the local density approximation for Pd and stoichiometric PdH. The experimental and the theoretical results agreed well with respect to the difference in the CPs between PdH sub x and Pd, and the anisotropy in the CPs of Pd or PdH sub x. This study provides lines of evidence that upon hydride formation the lowest valance band of Pd is largely modified due to hybridization with H 1s-orbitals and the Fermi energy is raised into the sp-band. (author)
Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohlen, Simon
2016-12-15
Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Gordon D
2008-10-15
The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2015-11-01
We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.
Analysis of the factors that affect photon counts in Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Guang; Xiao, Guangyu
2015-01-01
Compton scattering has been applied in a variety of fields. The factors that affect Compton scattering have been studied extensively in the literature. However, the factors that affect the measured photon counts in Compton scattering are rarely considered. In this paper, we make a detailed discussion on those factors. First, Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. Second, the electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. Third, the factor of attenuation coefficient is discussed. And then, the active degree of electrons is discussed based on the DFT theory. Lastly, the conclusions are made, that the factors affecting Compton scattering photon counts include mainly electron number density, attenuation coefficient and active degree of electrons. - Highlights: • Compton scattering experiments of some alloy series and powder mixture series are explored. • The influence of electron density is researched in terms of atom and lattice constants. • The influence of attenuation coefficient is discussed. • The active degree of electrons is discussed detailedly based on DFT theory
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahon, David Francis
2010-06-15
This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)
Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthot, J.; Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.
2000-01-01
We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep → epγ in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q 2 scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q 2 ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV 2 at x B ∼0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q 2 as low as 1 GeV 2 . If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)
Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthot, J. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E. [National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)] [and others
2000-07-01
We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B}{approx}0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)
Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.
2014-09-01
X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.
Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seipt, Daniel
2012-12-20
The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton
Final state effects in neutron Compton scattering measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fielding, A.L.
1997-10-01
The single atom momentum distributions of condensed matter systems can be derived using the technique of neutron Compton scattering (NCS). The electron Volt spectrometer (eVS) which is situated at the world's most intense pulsed neutron spallation source, ISIS, has been configured to perform NCS measurements. Interpretation of NCS data requires the use of the impulse approximation, however even at the high energy and momentum transfers obtainable on the eVS deviations from the impulse approximation occur. These deviations are generally known as final state effects (FSE) which manifest themselves as an asymmetry in the measured momentum distribution. The aim of the work reported in this thesis is to demonstrate how final state effects can be accounted for in a simple way using the expansion method described by Sears. An advantage of the Sears method is that the first asymmetric term in the expansion is proportional to the mean Laplacian of the potential, 2 V>, thus giving access to further information on the single atom potential. The Sears expansion has been incorporated into data analysis routines and applied to measured data on three systems that were chosen to represent the systems that are regularly investigated using the eVS. Measurements have been carried out on the deuteron in ZrD 2 , a light atom in a heavy lattice, beryllium, a polycrystalline solid and pyrolytic graphite, an aligned crystalline sample with an anisotropic momentum distribution. The study shows how the new analysis method gives more reliable values for the mean kinetic energy k >, which can be derived from the measured momentum distribution. A comparison of measured data with simulated data calculated within the harmonic approximation reveals how 2 V> can be a sensitive probe of anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. An anisotropy in the derived k > and 2 V> of pyrolytic graphite has been measured indicating the dependence of final state effects on bonding strength. The derived 2 V
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rohe, R.C.; Valentine, J.D.
1996-01-01
A Compton scatter camera (CSC) design is proposed for imaging radioisotopes used as biotracers. A clinical version may increase sensitivity by a factor of over 100, while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, as compared with existing Anger cameras that use lead collimators. This novel approach is based on using energy subtraction (ΔE = E 0 - E SC , where E 0 , ΔE, and E SC are the energy of the emitted gamma ray, the energy deposited by the initial Compton scatter, and the energy of the Compton scattered photon) to determine the amount of energy deposited in the primary system. The energy subtraction approach allows the requirement of high energy resolution to be placed on a secondary detector system instead of the primary detector system. Requiring primary system high energy resolution has significantly limited previous CSC designs for medical imaging applications. Furthermore, this approach is dependent on optimizing the camera design for data acquisition of gamma rays that undergo only one Compton scatter in a low-Z primary detector system followed by a total absorption of the Compton scattered photon in a high-Z secondary detector system. The proposed approach allows for a more compact primary detector system, a more simplified pulse processing interface, and a much less complicated detector cooling scheme as compared with previous CSC designs. Analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulation results for some specific detector materials and geometries are presented
Fokker-Planck code for the quasi-linear absorption of electron cyclotron waves in a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, R.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Krivenski, V.
1986-01-01
We present the solution of the kinetic equation describing the quasi-linear evolution of the electron momentum distribution function under the influence of the electron cyclotron wave absorption. Coulomb collisions and the dc electric field in a tokamak plasma. The solution of the quasi-linear equation is obtained numerically using a two-dimensional initial value code following an ADI scheme. Most emphasis is given to the full non-linear and self-consistent problem, namely, the wave amplitude is evaluated at any instant and any point in space according to the actual damping. This is necessary since wave damping is a very sensitive function of the slope of the local momentum distribution function because the resonance condition relates the electron momentum to the location of wave energy deposition. (orig.)
Reduced kinetic equations: An influence functional approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wio, H.S.
1985-01-01
The author discusses a scheme for obtaining reduced descriptions of multivariate kinetic equations based on the 'influence functional' method of Feynmann. It is applied to the case of Fokker-Planck equations showing the form that results for the reduced equation. The possibility of Markovian or non-Markovian reduced description is discussed. As a particular example, the reduction of the Kramers equation to the Smoluchwski equation in the limit of high friction is also discussed
A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.
El Abd, A
2014-12-01
A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spin and orbital magnetisation densities determined by Compton scattering of photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Cooper, M.J.; Lovesey, S.W.; Uppsala Univ.
1990-03-01
Compton scattering of a circularly polarized photon beam is shown to provide direct information on orbital and spin magnetisation densities. Experiments are reported which demonstrate the feasibility of the method by correctly predicting the ratio of spin and orbital magnetisation components in iron and cobalt. A partially polarised beam of 45 keV photons from the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source produces charge-magnetic interference scattering which is measured by a field-difference method. Theory shows that the interference cross section contains the Compton profile of polarised electrons modulated by a structure factor which is a weighted sum of spin and orbital magnetisations. In particular, the scattering geometry for which the structure factor vanishes yields a unique value for the ratio of the magnetisation densities. Compton scattering, being an incoherent process, provides data on total unit cell magnetisations which can be directly compared with bulk data. In this respect, Compton scattering complements magnetic neutron and photon Bragg diffraction. (author)
A Compton scattering technique to determine wood density and locating defects in it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan; Singh, Mohinder
2015-01-01
A Compton scattering technique is presented to determine density and void location in the given wooden samples. The technique uses a well collimated gamma ray beam from 137 Cs along with the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. First, a linear relationship is established between Compton scattered intensity and known density of chemical compounds, and then density of the wood is determined from this linear relation. In another experiment, the ability of penetration of gamma rays is explored to detect voids in wooden (low Z) sample. The sudden reduction in the Compton scattered intensities agrees well with the position and size of voids in the wooden sample. It is concluded that wood density and the voids of size ∼ 4 mm and more can be detected easily by this method
Virtual Compton Scattering off a Spinless Target in the AdS/QCD correspondence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Marquet, Cyrille [IPhT - Institut de Physique Theorique, Orme des Merisiers bat. 774, PC 136, CEA/DSM/IPhT, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Roiesnel, Claude [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2010-07-01
We study the doubly virtual Compton scattering off a spinless target {gamma}* P {yields} {gamma}* P' within the Anti-de Sitter(AdS)/QCD formalism. We find that the general structure allowed by the Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance of the Compton amplitude is not easily reproduced with the standard recipes of the AdS/QCD correspondence. In the soft-photon regime, where the semi-classical approximation is supposed to apply best, we show that the measurements of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of a target like the charged pion in real Compton scattering, can already serve as stringent tests. (author)
Use of implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport with hydrodynamics and compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleck, J.A. Jr.
1971-03-01
It is shown that the combination of implicit radiation transport and hydrodynamics, Compton scattering, and any other energy transport can be simply carried out by a ''splitting'' procedure. Contributions to material energy exchange can be reckoned separately for hydrodynamics, radiation transport without scattering, Compton scattering, plus any other possible energy exchange mechanism. The radiation transport phase of the calculation would be implicit, but the hydrodynamics and Compton portions would not, leading to possible time step controls. The time step restrictions which occur on radiation transfer due to large Planck mean absorption cross-sections would not occur
Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I.
1995-01-01
The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of open-quotes double-to-singleclose quotes ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mai Xuan Phong; Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Xuan Hai; Le Van Ngoc; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Dang Lanh; Tran Quoc Duong
2013-01-01
In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)
Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)
1995-08-01
The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of {open_quotes}double-to-single{close_quotes} ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, P.J.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.
1994-01-01
The off-axis quasilinear fast wave minority heating description of Catto and Myra [Phys. Fluids B 4, 187 (1992)] has been improved and implemented in a code which solves the combined quasilinear and collision operator equation for the minority distribution function. Geometrical complications of a minority resonance nearly tangent to a flux surface in the presence of trapped as well as passing particles are retained. The tangency interactions alter the moments and the fusion reaction rate parameter in a model which explores heating on a single flux surface. The strong tangency interactions enhance the more familiar interactions due to trapped particles turning in the vicinity of the minority resonance. An asymmetry in off-axis heating effects occurs because heating on the low field side of the magnetic axis heats more trapped particles than high field side heating. This asymmetry is responsible for the better performance of the low field side case relative to the high and on-axis cases and provides some control over the power absorbed by and the energy stored in the trapped particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etim, E; Basili, C [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica
1978-08-21
The lagrangian in the path integral solution of the master equation of a stationary Markov process is derived by application of the Ehrenfest-type theorem of quantum mechanics and the Cauchy method of finding inverse functions. Applied to the non-linear Fokker-Planck equation the authors reproduce the result obtained by integrating over Fourier series coefficients and by other methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.D.
2007-01-01
We present a generalized Kramers-Moyal expansion for stochastic differential equations with single and multiple delays. In particular, we show that the delay Fokker-Planck equation derived earlier in the literature is a special case of the proposed Kramers-Moyal expansion. Applications for bond pricing and a self-inhibitory neuron model are discussed
Connections between Compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Benmerrouche, M.
1992-01-01
Using textbook tools like analyticity, unitarity and optical theorem, the authors discuss the relationship between pion-nucleon scattering, pion photoproduction and Compton scattering in the Δ(1232) resonance region. They review the relevant data and draw conclusions pertinent to the QCD-inspired models. 27 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)
1995-12-31
The Bell`s inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from {sup 22}Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell`s inequality. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huddleston, A.L.; Weaver, J.
1980-01-01
Several methods important in the clinical diagnosis of skeletal diseases have been proposed for the determination of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry, computed tomography, and neutron activation. None of these present methods provides for the determination of the physical density of bone. In the Radiological Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the principles of Compton scattering are being investigated with the intent of determining the electron density and the physical density of human bone. A Compton-scatter densitometer has been constructed for the in vivo density determination of the femoral head. This technique utilizes of collimated low energy gamma source and detector system. The method has been tested in cadavers and in known density samples and has an accuracy of 2 %. A second densitometer has been designed for the in vivo determination of electron density of the vertebrae based upon a new technique which employs dual energy Compton scattering in the spinal column. These systems will be discussed; and the principles of dual energy Compton scatter densitometry will be presented. The importance of these isotope techniques and the feasibility of in vivo density determination in the vertebrae and femoral head will be discussed as they relate to clinical diagnosis and research. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z.
1995-01-01
The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22 Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality
Status of Kharkov X-ray Generator based on Compton Scattering NESTOR
Zelinsky, A.; Androsov, V.P.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Peev, F.A.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Skomorkohov, V.; Skyrda, V.; Telegin, Y.; Trotsenko, V.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, B.; Agafonov, A.V.
2004-01-01
Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR
A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Abd, A.
2014-01-01
A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. - Highlights: • Compton scattering of γ−rays was used for determining mass absorption coefficient. • Scattered intensities were determined by the MCSHAPE software. • Mass absorption coefficients were determined for some compounds, mixtures and alloys. • Mass absorption coefficients were calculated by Winxcom software. • Good agreements were found between determined and calculated results
Energy distribution of 0. 279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from bound electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, B; Singh, P; Singh, G; Ghumman, B S
1984-11-01
Energy and intensity distribution of 0.279 MeV gamma rays Compton scattered from K-shell electrons of tantalum is measured at scattering angle of 70deg. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical data. Spectral distribution is also obtained as a function of scatterer thickness to account for the contribution of false events. 13 refs.
Studies of coherent/Compton scattering method for bone mineral content measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakurai, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Imamura, Keiko.
1980-01-01
A measurement of bone mineral content by a coherent/Compton scattering method was described. A bone sample was irradiated by a collimated narrow beam of 59.6 keV gamma-rays emitted from a 300 mCi 241 Am source, and the scattered radiations were detected using a collimated pure germanium detector placed at 90 0 to the incident beam. The ratio of coherent to Compton peaks in a spectrum of the scattered radiations depends on the bone mineral content of the bone sample. The advantage of this method is that bone mineral content of a small region in a bone can be accurately measured. Assuming that bone consists of two components, protein and bone mineral, and that the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering is independent of material, the coherent to Compton scattering ratio is linearly related to the percentage in weight of bone mineral. A calibration curve was obtained by measuring standard samples which were mixed with Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and H 2 O. The error due to the assumption about the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering and to the difference between true bone and standard samples was estimated to be less than 3% within the range from 10 to 60% in weight of bone mineral. The fat in bone affects an estimated value by only 1.5% when it is 20% in weight. For the clinical application of this method, the location to be analyzed should be selected before the measurement with two X-ray images viewed from the source and the detector. These views would be also used to correct the difference in absorption between coherent and Compton scattered radiations whose energies are slightly different from each other. The absorbed dose to the analyzed region was approximately 150 mrad. The time required for one measurement in this study was about 10 minutes. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry – IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salgado, C.M. [Nuclear Engineering Institute – IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2014-09-15
Highlights: •This work describes a procedure for sample self-absorption correction. •The use of Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the mass attenuation coefficients curve was effective. •No need for transmission measurement, saving time, financial resources and effort. •This article provides de curves for the 90° scattering angle. •Calculation on-line at (www.macx.net.br). -- Abstract: X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at (www.macx.net.br)
A Priori Regularity of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
Berkemeier, Francisco
2018-05-13
In this thesis, we consider parabolic partial differential equations such as the heat equation, the Fokker-Planck equation, and the porous media equation. Our aim is to develop methods that provide a priori estimates for solutions with singular initial data. These estimates are obtained by understanding the time decay of norms of solutions. First, we derive regularity results for the heat equation by estimating the decay of Lebesgue norms. Then, we apply similar methods to the Fokker-Planck equation with suitable assumptions on the advection and diffusion. Finally, we conclude by extending our techniques to the porous media equation. The sharpness of our results is confirmed by examining known solutions of these equations. The main contribution of this thesis is the use of functional inequalities to express decay of norms as differential inequalities. These are then combined with ODE methods to deduce estimates for the norms of solutions and their derivatives.
Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass
Dolbeault, Jean; Mouhot, Clé ment; Schmeiser, Christian
2015-01-01
We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf
Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass
Dolbeault, Jean
2015-02-03
We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf
The GPD H and spin correlations in wide-angle Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, P. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany)
2017-06-15
Wide-angle Compton scattering (WACS) is discussed within the handbag approach in which the amplitudes are given by products of hard subprocess amplitudes and form factors, specific to Compton scattering, which represent 1/x-moments of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). The quality of our present knowledge of these form factors and of the underlying GPDs is examined. As will be discussed in some detail the form factor R{sub A} and the underlying GPD H are poorly known. It is argued that future data on the spin correlations A{sub LL} and/or K{sub LL} will allow for an extraction of R{sub A} which can be used to constrain the large -t behavior of H. (orig.)
Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.
2017-01-01
We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.
Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuramoto, M., E-mail: kuramoto@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nakamori, T., E-mail: nakamori@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M. [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2017-02-11
We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.
Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators
Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.
2017-02-01
We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.
Virtual Compton Scattering off a Spinless Target in the AdS/QCD correspondence
Marquet, C.; Wallon, S.
2010-01-01
We perform a study of the doubly virtual Compton scattering off a spinless target gamma* P -> gamma* P' within the Anti-de Sitter(AdS)/QCD formalism. We find that the general structure allowed by the Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance of the Compton amplitude is not easily reproduced with the standard recipes of the AdS/QCD correspondence. In the soft-photon regime, where the semi-classical approximation is supposed to apply best, we show that the measurements of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of a target like the charged pion in real Compton scattering, can already serve as stringent tests, and presumably exclude results based on the AdS/QCD correspondence in its minimal version.
Compton scatter correction in case of multiple crosstalks in SPECT imaging.
Sychra, J J; Blend, M J; Jobe, T H
1996-02-01
A strategy for Compton scatter correction in brain SPECT images was proposed recently. It assumes that two radioisotopes are used and that a significant portion of photons of one radioisotope (for example, Tc99m) spills over into the low energy acquisition window of the other radioisotope (for example, Tl201). We are extending this approach to cases of several radioisotopes with mutual, multiple and significant photon spillover. In the example above, one may correct not only the Tl201 image but also the Tc99m image corrupted by the Compton scatter originating from the small component of high energy Tl201 photons. The proposed extension is applicable to other anatomical domains (cardiac imaging).
The experimental challenge of virtual compton scattering above 8 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pierre Bertin; Yves Roblin; Charles Hyde-Wright
1999-01-01
We discuss the experimental issues confronting measurements of the Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) reaction ep->ep gamma with electron beam energies 6-30 GeV. We specifically address the kinematics of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (Deep Inelastic Scattering, with coincident detection of the exclusive real photon nearly parallel to the virtual photon direction) and large transverse momentum VCS (High energy VCS of arbitrary Q 2 , and the recoil proton emitted with high momentum transverse to the virtual photon direction). We discuss the experimental equipment necessary for these measurements. For the DVCS, we emphasize the importance of the Bethe-Heitler-Compton interference terms that can be measured with the electron-positron (beam charge) asymmetry, and the electron beam helicity asymmetry
Comparative Compton scattering studies in Cu2O and Ag2O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chatterjee, A.K.; Saha, S.K.; Chatterjee, A.
1994-01-01
Compton scattering studies in polycrystalline Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O with 59.54 keV γ radiation are reported. A comparison has been made between the valance Compton profiles of these two components scaled to lattice momentum by normalizing them to equal electron density for outer valence electrons, and this comparison shows some differences between the bonding characters of Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O. (author)
A Glimpse of Gluons through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the Proton
Defurne, M.; Jiménez-Argüello, A. Martì; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.
2017-01-01
The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of...
Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.
2017-01-01
Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.
Finite elements for partial differential equations: An introductory survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Succi, S.
1988-03-01
After presentation of the basic ideas behind the theory of the Finite Element Method, the application of the method to three equations of particular interest in Physics and Engineering is discussed in some detail, namely, a one-dimensional Sturm-Liouville problem, a two-dimensional linear Fokker-Planck equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. 6 refs, 8 figs
Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel
Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T
2003-01-01
A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)
Stationarity-conservation laws for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimek, Malgorzata [Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland)
2002-08-09
In this paper, we study linear fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. It is shown that, by assuming some conditions for the coefficients, the stationarity-conservation laws can be derived. The area where these are valid is restricted by the asymptotic properties of solutions of the respective equation. Applications of the proposed procedure include the fractional Fokker-Planck equation in (1+1)- and (d+1)-dimensional space and the fractional Klein-Kramers equation. (author)
Stationarity-conservation laws for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimek, Malgorzata
2002-01-01
In this paper, we study linear fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. It is shown that, by assuming some conditions for the coefficients, the stationarity-conservation laws can be derived. The area where these are valid is restricted by the asymptotic properties of solutions of the respective equation. Applications of the proposed procedure include the fractional Fokker-Planck equation in (1+1)- and (d+1)-dimensional space and the fractional Klein-Kramers equation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga
2014-11-01
In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate
EXTERNAL COMPTON SCATTERING IN BLAZAR JETS AND THE LOCATION OF THE GAMMA-RAY EMITTING REGION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finke, Justin D., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC, 20375-5352 (United States)
2016-10-20
I study the location of the γ -ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation that is valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein–Nishina regimes, is highly accurate, and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor of ∼10. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, external Compton scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of γ -ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern that could help locate the γ -ray emission region. I show that the bright flare from 3C 454.3 in 2010 November detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is unlikely to originate from a single blob inside the BLR. This is because it moves outside the BLR in a time shorter than the flare duration, although emission by multiple blobs inside the BLR is possible. Also, γ -rays are unlikely to originate from outside of the BLR, due to the scattering of photons from an extended dust torus, since the cooling timescale would be too long to explain the observed short variability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz Garcia, A.; Cabal Rodriguez, A.E.; Rubio Rodriguez, J. A.; Salicio Diez, J.; Perez Morales, J.M.; Vela Morales, O.; Willmott Zappacosta, C.; Van Espen, P.
2011-01-01
Electronically collimated Compton Cameras have been tested in Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems instead of mechanically collimated gamma detectors in order to improve their limited sensitivity. One of the main factors that contribute to the worsening of the angular resolution and thus to the deterioration of the system spatial resolution is Doppler broadening. Double differential Klein-Nishina equation is used to consider the random movement of electron inside the crystal. It is important to perform this analysis for each particular material because is difficult to infer one simple Doppler broadening dependency of the atomic number Z. In high Z materials the internal electrons are strongly linked to the nucleus and therefore there can be found high momentums, but they represent just a small portion of the electrons that suffers Compton scattering. This work estimates the influence of the Doppler broadening in CdZnTe semiconductor for different incoming photon energies. For this means there are analyzed main Compton broadening processes in semiconductor Cd 0,8 Zn 0,2 Te with density ρ=5,85g/cm 3 . (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.
1999-01-01
A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbiellini, Bernardo
2013-01-01
The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.
Barbiellini, Bernardo
2013-06-01
The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricodeau, Jean.
1981-01-01
The present invention concerns a detector for tomography by Compton scattering at 90 0 . The difference between this detector and those currently used previously lies in the fact that the collection aperture of the radiation at normal angle to the incident beam is large and can reach 180 0 and even more. This fact allows to collect an important part of the scattered radiation. A good image quality is obtained with low radiation doses delivered to the body as compared to previous techniques. This detector can be operated in analogical mode which presents the advantage to be faster and easier to realize [fr
Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabowska-Bold, I.
2004-08-01
The cross sections for deeply virtual compton scattering in the reaction ep → e'γp' has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95 pb -1 of e + p and 17 pb -1 of e - p collisions. Cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the γ * p system in the region 5 2 2 and 40 < W < 140 GeV. The obtained results are compared to QCD-based calculations. (orig.)
Photoabsorption and Compton scattering in ionization of helium at high photon energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN
1993-01-01
Production of singly and doubly charged helium ions by impact of keV photons is studied. The ratio R ph = σ ph ++ /σ ph + for photoabsorption is calculated in the photon-energy range 2--18 keV using correlated initial- and final- state wave functions. Extrapolation towards asymptotic photon energies yields R ph (ω → ∞) = 1.66% in agreement with previous predictions. Ionization due to Compton scattering, which becomes comparable to photoabsorption above ω ∼ 3 keV, is discussed
X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source
Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko
2005-01-01
Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80
High-energy electroweak neutrino-nucleon deeply virtual Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V. T.
2007-01-01
In this work we estimate the differential and total cross sections for the high-energy deeply virtual Compton scattering in the weak sector. In the weak neutral sector one considers neutrino scattering off an unpolarized proton target through the exchange of Z 0 . We numerically compute the process Z*p→γp within the QCD color dipole formalism, which successfully describes the current high-energy electromagnetic DVCS experimental data. We also discuss possible applications for the weak charged sector and perform predictions for scattering on nuclear targets
Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu
1976-01-01
The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)
Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering
Bulyak, E V; Karnaukhov, I M; Kononenko, S G; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A O; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A A; Zelinsky, Andrey Yurij
2000-01-01
Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 sup - sup 7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.
Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A.Yu
2000-06-21
Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10{sup -7} m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.
Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.
2000-01-01
Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 -7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam
Collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections in double-photon Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.
2005-01-01
The collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections of double-photon Compton scattering are measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. Two simultaneously emitted gamma quanta are investigated using a slow-fast coincidence technique having 25 ns resolving time. The coincidence spectra for different energy windows of one of the two final photons are recorded using HPGe detector. The experimental data do not suffer from inherent energy resolution of gamma detector and provide more faithful reproduction of the distribution under the full energy peak of recorded coincidence spectra. The present results are in agreement with the currently acceptable theory of this higher order process
Angular distribution of 662keV multiply-Compton scattered gamma rays in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan
2007-01-01
The angular distribution of multiple Compton scattering of 662keV gamma photons, obtained from six Curie 137 Cs source, incident on copper scatterer of varying thickness is studied experimentally in both the forward and backward hemispheres. The scattered photons are detected by a 51mmx51mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The full-energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The optimum thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined at different scattering angles
Compton scattering of 145 keV photons from bound electrons of tin and molybdenum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghumman, B S; Acharya, V B; Singh, B [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1981-10-28
Differential cross sections for Compton scattering of 145 keV gamma rays from K-shell electrons of tin and molybdenum are measured at scattering angles in the range 30 to 150/sup 0/. Measurements are made employing NaI(Tl) detectors and a coincidence set up with resolving time approximately equal to 30 ns. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical data. The total cross section is estimated to be about 0.43 sigmasub(F) for tin and 0.41 sigmasub(F) for molybdenum.
Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu
2007-01-01
Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark
Non-equilibrium effects upon the non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett quantum master equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolivar, A.O.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Classical Brownian motion described by a non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation. → Quantization process. → Quantum Brownian motion described by a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett equation. → A non-equilibrium quantum thermal force is predicted. - Abstract: We obtain a non-Markovian quantum master equation directly from the quantization of a non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation describing the Brownian motion of a particle immersed in a generic environment (e.g. a non-thermal fluid). As far as the especial case of a heat bath comprising of quantum harmonic oscillators is concerned, we derive a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett master equation on the basis of which we work out the concept of non-equilibrium quantum thermal force exerted by the harmonic heat bath upon the Brownian motion of a free particle. The classical limit (or dequantization process) of this sort of non-equilibrium quantum effect is scrutinized, as well.
Frank, T. D.
2008-02-01
We discuss two central claims made in the study by Bassler et al. [K.E. Bassler, G.H. Gunaratne, J.L. McCauley, Physica A 369 (2006) 343]. Bassler et al. claimed that Green functions and Langevin equations cannot be defined for nonlinear diffusion equations. In addition, they claimed that nonlinear diffusion equations are linear partial differential equations disguised as nonlinear ones. We review bottom-up and top-down approaches that have been used in the literature to derive Green functions for nonlinear diffusion equations and, in doing so, show that the first claim needs to be revised. We show that the second claim as well needs to be revised. To this end, we point out similarities and differences between non-autonomous linear Fokker-Planck equations and autonomous nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations. In this context, we raise the question whether Bassler et al.’s approach to financial markets is physically plausible because it necessitates the introduction of external traders and causes. Such external entities can easily be eliminated when taking self-organization principles and concepts of nonextensive thermostatistics into account and modeling financial processes by means of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein
2012-01-01
Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a 137 Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xuewen; Fang Zhenyun; Shi Chengye
2012-01-01
By using the electroweak standard model (SM), we analyzed the framework of electron mixed chain propagator which composed of serious of different physical loops participating in electroweak interaction and completed the relevant analytical calculation. Then, we obtained the analytical result of electron mixed chain propagator. By applying our result to Compton scattering, the differential cross section of Compton scattering dσ SM (chain) /dcosθ is counted accurately. This result is compared with the lowest order differential cross section dσ (tree) /dcosθ and the electronic chain propagator Compton scattering differential cross section dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ in quantum electrodynamics (QED). It can be seen that dσ SM (chain ) /dcosθ can show the radiation correction more subtly than dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-02-01
Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a {sup 137}Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.
2012-01-01
Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Movsisyan, Aram
2011-05-01
Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5) 2 GeV 2 2 X 2 GeV 2 of the squared missing mass. The dependences of these asymmetries on -t, x N , or Q 2 are investigated. The results include the coherent process ed→edγ and the incoherent process ed→epnγ where in addition a nucleon may be excited to a resonance. For an unpolarized deuterium target, the leading Fourier amplitude of the beam-helicity asymmetry that is sensitive to the interference term is found to be substantial, but no significant t dependence is observed. The leading amplitude of the beam-charge asymmetry is substantial at large -t, but becomes small at small values of -t. The amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry that are sensitive to the squared DVCS term are found to be consistent with zero. The deuteron Compton form factor H 1 appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; Laan, G. van der; Fabrizi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Janssen, O. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cooper, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S. [Universität München, Department Chemie, Haus E2.033, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 München (Germany)
2016-02-16
The possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to reveal antisymmetric components of the electron momentum density, as a fingerprint of magnetoelectric sample properties, is investigated experimentally and theoretically by studying the polar ferromagnet GaFeO{sub 3}. This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO{sub 3}. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10{sup −5} of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample.
Performance studies towards a TOF-PET sensor using Compton scattering at plastic scintillators
Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Gunji, S.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Aoki, T.
2018-01-01
We have developed a sensor head for a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner using plastic scintillators that have a very fast timing property. Given the very small cross section of photoelectric absorption in plastic scintillators at 511 keV, we use Compton scattering in order to compensate for detection efficiency. The detector will consist of two layers of scatterers and absorbers which are made of plastic and inorganic scintillators such as GAGG:Ce, respectively. Signals are read by monolithic Multi Pixel Photon Counters, and with energy deposits and interaction time stamps are being acquired. The scintillators are built to be capable of resolving interaction position in three dimensions, so that our system has also a function of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET scanners. TOF resolution of ~ 200 ps (FWHM) is achieved in both cases of using the leading-edge discriminator and time-walk correction and using a configuration sensitive to DOI. Both the position resolution and spectroscopy are demonstrated using the prototype data acquisition system, with Compton scattering events subsequently being obtained. We also demonstrated that the background rejection technique using the Compton cone constraint could be valid with our system.
Nucleon polarizabilities from deuteron Compton scattering within a Green's function hybrid approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hildebrandt, R.P.; Hemmert, T.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Griesshammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet I, Erlangen (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, Washington DC (United States)
2010-10-15
We examine elastic Compton scattering from the deuteron for photon energies ranging from zero to 100MeV, using state-of-the-art deuteron wave functions and NN potentials. Nucleon-nucleon rescattering between emission and absorption of the two photons is treated by Green's functions in order to ensure gauge invariance and the correct Thomson limit. With this Green's function hybrid approach, we fulfill the low-energy theorem of deuteron Compton scattering and there is no significant dependence on the deuteron wave function used. Concerning the nucleon structure, we use the chiral effective field theory with explicit {delta} (1232) degrees of freedom within the small-scale expansion up to leading-one-loop order. Agreement with available data is good at all energies. Our 2-parameter fit to all elastic {gamma} d data leads to values for the static isoscalar dipole polarizabilities which are in excellent agreement with the isoscalar Baldin sum rule. Taking this value as additional input, we find {alpha}{sub E}{sup s} = (11.3{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and {beta}{sub M}{sup s} = (3.2{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and conclude by comparison to the proton numbers that neutron and proton polarizabilities are the same within rather small errors. (orig.)
First measurement of $Z/\\gamma^{*}$ production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons
Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seiler, T.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1998-01-01
We report the first observation of Z/gamma* production in Compton scattering of quasi-real photons. This is a subprocess of the reaction e+e- to e+e-Z/gamma*, where one of the final state electrons is undetected. Approximately 55 pb-1 of data collected in the year 1997 at an e+e- centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP have been analysed. The Z/gamma* from Compton scattering has been detected in the hadronic decay channel. Within well defined kinematic bounds, we measure the product of cross-section and Z/gamma* branching ratio to hadrons to be (0.9+-0.3+-0.1) pb for events with a hadronic mass larger than 60 GeV, dominated by (e)eZ production. In the hadronic mass region between 5 GeV and 60 GeV, dominated by (e)egamma* production, this product is found to be (4.1+-1.6+-0.6) pb. Our results agree with the predictions of two Monte Carlo event generators, grc4f and PYTHIA.
Compton scattering of microwave background radiation by gas in galaxy clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gould, R.J.; Rephaeli, Y.
1978-01-01
Based on data on the X-ray spectrum of the Coma cluster, interpreted as thermal bremsstrahlung, the expected brightness depletion from Compton scattering of the microwave background in the direction of the cluster is computed. The calculated depletion is about one-third that recently observed by Gull and Northover, and the discrepancy is discussed. In comparing the observed microwave depletion in the direction of other clusters which are X-ray sources it is found that there is no correlation with the cluster X-ray luminosity, while a dependence proportional to L/sub x//sup 1/2/ is expected. Consequently, the microwave depletion observations cannot yet be taken as good evidence for a thermal bremsstrahlung origin for the X-ray emission. The perturbation from Compton scattering of photons on the high-frequency (Wien) tail of the blackbody distribution is computed and found to be much larger than predicted in previous calculations. In the Wien tail the effect is a relative increase in the blackbody intensity that is appreciably greater in magnitude than the depletion in the Rayleigh-Jeans domain
Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lhuillier, D
1997-09-01
The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)
A didactic experiment showing the Compton scattering by means of a clinical gamma camera.
Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Campennì, Alfredo; Minutoli, Fabio; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Sindoni, Alessandro; Baldari, Sergio
2017-06-01
We describe a didactic approach aimed to explain the effect of Compton scattering in nuclear medicine imaging, exploiting the comparison of a didactic experiment with a gamma camera with the outcomes from a Monte Carlo simulation of the same experimental apparatus. We employed a 99m Tc source emitting 140.5keV photons, collimated in the upper direction through two pinholes, shielded by 6mm of lead. An aluminium cylinder was placed on the source at 50mm of distance. The energy of the scattered photons was measured on the spectra acquired by the gamma camera. We observed that the gamma ray energy measured at each step of rotation gradually decreased from the characteristic energy of 140.5keV at 0° to 102.5keV at 120°. A comparison between the obtained data and the expected results from the Compton formula and from the Monte Carlo simulation revealed a full agreement within the experimental error (relative errors between -0.56% and 1.19%), given by the energy resolution of the gamma camera. Also the electron rest mass has been evaluated satisfactorily. The experiment was found useful in explaining nuclear medicine residents the phenomenology of the Compton scattering and its importance in the nuclear medicine imaging, and it can be profitably proposed during the training of medical physics residents as well. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P
2011-12-01
Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present.
Redler, Gage; Jones, Kevin C; Templeton, Alistair; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Chu, James C H
2018-03-01
Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from Compton-scattered photons during lung SBRT is presented. To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6 MV FFF beam). MCNP Monte Carlo software is used to develop a model to simulate scatter images. This model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated phantom images. Patient scatter images are then simulated from 4DCT data. Experimental lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise to visualize the tumor with as few as 10 MU (0.5 s temporal resolution). The relative signal intensity from objects of different composition as well as lung tumor contrast for simulated phantom images agree quantitatively with experimental images, thus validating the Monte Carlo model. Scatter images are shown to display high contrast between different materials (lung, water, bone). Simulated patient images show superior (~double) tumor contrast compared to MV transmission images. Compton scatter imaging is a promising modality for directly imaging patient anatomy during treatment without additional radiation, and it has the potential to complement existing technologies and aid tumor tracking and lung SBRT image guidance. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Virtual compton scattering at low energy; Diffusion compton virtuelle a basse energie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lhuillier, D
1997-09-01
The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)
Computer models for kinetic equations of magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Killeen, J.; Kerbel, G.D.; McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Horowitz, E.J.; Shumaker, D.E.
1987-01-01
This paper presents four working computer models developed by the computational physics group of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center. All of the models employ a kinetic description of plasma species. Three of the models are collisional, i.e., they include the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in velocity space. The fourth model is collisionless and treats the plasma ions by a fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell method
From BBGKY hierarchy to non-Markovian evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerasimenko, V.I.; Shtyk, V.O.; Zagorodny, A.G.
2009-01-01
The problem of description of the evolution of the microscopic phase density and its generalizations is discussed. With this purpose, the sequence of marginal microscopic phase densities is introduced, and the appropriate BBGKY hierarchy for these microscopic distributions and their average values is formulated. The microscopic derivation of the generalized evolution equation for the average value of the microscopic phase density is given, and the non-Markovian generalization of the Fokker-Planck collision integral is proposed
On the distribution of electrons in the double ionization of helium-like ions by Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Drukarev, E G [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)
2003-06-28
The Compton scattering of a high energy photon by a helium-like ion, followed by the ionization of two electrons, is considered outside of the Bethe surface of Compton scattering with the knock-out of a single electron. The role of shake-off (SO), of final state interactions (FSI) and of the quasi-free mechanism (QFM) is analysed. The triple and double differential distributions are calculated. It is demonstrated for the first time that in certain kinematical regions the process is dominated by the FSI and by the QFM, while the SO contribution is much smaller.
Stochastic substitute for coupled rate equations in the modeling of highly ionized transient plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliezer, S.; Falquina, R.; Minguez, E.
1994-01-01
Plasmas produced by intense laser pulses incident on solid targets often do not satisfy the conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium, and so cannot be modeled by transport equations relying on equations of state. A proper description involves an excessively large number of coupled rate equations connecting many quantum states of numerous species having different degrees of ionization. Here we pursue a recent suggestion to model the plasma by a few dominant states perturbed by a stochastic driving force. The driving force is taken to be a Poisson impulse process, giving a Langevin equation which is equivalent to a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density governing the distribution of electron density. An approximate solution to the Langevin equation permits calculation of the characteristic relaxation rate. An exact stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation is given as a function of the strength of the stochastic driving force. This stationary solution is used, along with a Laplace transform, to convert the Fokker-Planck equation to one of Schroedinger type. We consider using the classical Hamiltonian formalism and the WKB method to obtain the time-dependent solution
Helffer, B
2004-01-01
Ces derni\\`eres ann\\'ees, les estimations hypoelliptiques ont connu une nouvelle jeunesse en liaison avec des questions provenant de la th\\'eorie cin\\'etique des gaz. Dans cette direction de nombreux auteurs ont en effet eu besoin de d\\'emontrer des estimations maximales pour en d\\'eduire la compacit\\'e de l'op\\'erateur de Fokker-Planck et avoir des estimations sur la r\\'esolvante permettant d'aborder la question du retour \\`a l'\\'equilibre. Dans un article tr\\`es r\\'ecent, F.~H\\'erau et F.~Nier (inspir\\'es par des calculs explicites du livre de Risken) ont mis en \\'evidence les liens \\'etroits entre ces questions et des questions analogues pour un laplacien de Witten. L'\\'etude de ces liens est poursuivie et syst\\'ematis\\'ee dans un livre en pr\\'eparation \\'ecrit en collaboration avec F.~Nier dont nous allons pr\\'esenter quelques aspects ici en pr\\'esentant parfois un \\'eclairage diff\\'erent sur un probl\\`eme qui laisse encore beaucoup de conjectures non r\\'esolues.
Brilliant GeV gamma-ray flash from inverse Compton scattering in the QED regime
Gong, Z.; Hu, R. H.; Lu, H. Y.; Yu, J. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Fu, E. G.; Chen, C. E.; He, X. T.; Yan, X. Q.
2018-04-01
An all-optical scheme is proposed for studying laser plasma based incoherent photon emission from inverse Compton scattering in the quantum electrodynamic regime. A theoretical model is presented to explain the coupling effects among radiation reaction trapping, the self-generated magnetic field and the spiral attractor in phase space, which guarantees the transfer of energy and angular momentum from electromagnetic fields to particles. Taking advantage of a prospective ˜ 1023 W cm-2 laser facility, 3D particle-in-cell simulations show a gamma-ray flash with unprecedented multi-petawatt power and brightness of 1.7 × 1023 photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2/0.1% bandwidth (at 1 GeV). These results bode well for new research directions in particle physics and laboratory astrophysics exploring laser plasma interactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)
2012-06-15
The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep{yields}ep{gamma} events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054{+-}0.016 to -0.328{+-}0.027(stat.){+-}0.045(syst.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.
2012-06-01
The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep→epγ events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054±0.016 to -0.328±0.027(stat.)±0.045(syst.).
Deeply virtual Compton scattering in the Hall A of Jefferson laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz Camacho, C.
2005-12-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the late 90's, provide a universal description of hadrons in terms of the underlying degrees of freedom of Quantum Chromodynamics: quarks and gluons. GPDs appear in a wide variety of hard exclusive reactions and the advent of high luminosity accelerator facilities has made the study of GPDs accessible to experiment. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the golden process involving GPDs. The first dedicated DVCS experiment ran in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab in Fall 2004. An electromagnetic calorimeter and a plastic scintillator detector were constructed for this experiment, together with specific electronics and acquisition system. The experiment preparation, data taking and analysis are described in this document. Results on the absolute cross section difference for opposite beam helicities provide the first measurement of a linear combination of GPDs as a function of the momentum transfer to the nucleon. (author)
Stability analysis and time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.
2010-01-01
A Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering in high energy density applications has been presented that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly [E. Canfield, W.M. Howard, E.P. Liang, Inverse Comptonization by one-dimensional relativistic electrons, Astrophys. J. 323 (1987) 565]. However, implementing this technique typically requires an explicit evaluation of the material temperature, which can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and develop two time-step limits that avoid undesirable behavior. The first time-step limit prevents instabilities, while the second, more restrictive time-step limit avoids both instabilities and nonphysical oscillations. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of these time-step limits.
First experimental observation of double-photon Compton scattering using single gamma detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandhu, B.S.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.
2003-01-01
Full text: The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using single gamma detector, a technique avoiding the use of complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher order process. Here doubly differentiated collision cross-section integrated over direction of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, has been measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process
LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system for laser compton scattering experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Wen; Xu Wang; Pan Qiangyan
2010-01-01
A LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system has been developed for laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiment at the 100 MeV Linac of the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). It mainly consists of a Si (Li) detector, readout electronics and a LabVIEW-based Data Acquisition (DAQ), and possesses the functions of signal spectrum displaying, acquisition control and simple online data analysis and so on. The performance test shows that energy and time resolutions of the system are 184 eV at 5.9 keV and ≤ 1% respectively and system instability is found to be 0.3‰ within a week. As a result, this X-ray detection system has low-cost and high-performance features and can meet the requirements of LCS experiment. (authors)
High energy deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon and related meson exclusive production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V. T.
2007-01-01
In this work we estimate the differential cross section for the high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, γ*γ→γγ, within the QCD dipole-dipole scattering formalism. For the phenomenology, a saturation model for the dipole-dipole cross section for two photon scattering is considered. Its robustness is supported by a good description of current accelerator data. In addition, we consider the related exclusive vector meson production processes, γ*γ→Vγ. This analysis is focused on the light ρ and φ meson production, which produces larger cross sections. The phenomenological results are compared with the theoretical calculation using the color-dipole Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov approach
Attenuation studies near K-absorption edges using Compton scattered 241Am gamma rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullah, K.K.; Ramachandran, N.; Karunakaran Nair, K.; Babu, B.R.S.; Joseph, Antony; Thomas, Rajive; Varier, K.M.
2008-01-01
We have carried out photon attenuation measurements at several energies in the range from 49.38 keV to 57.96 keV around the K-absorption edges of the rare earth elements Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy and Er using 59.54 keV gamma rays from 241 Am source after Compton scattering from an aluminium target. Pellets of oxides of the rare earth elements were chosen as mixture absorbers in these investigations. A narrow beam good geometry set-up was used for the attenuation measurements. The scattered gamma rays were detected by an HPGe detector. The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. (author)
X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)
2015-08-17
We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.
A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton.
Defurne, M; Jiménez-Argüello, A Martí; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P
2017-11-10
The internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) remains one of the greatest outstanding problems in modern nuclear physics. By scattering high-energy electrons off a proton we are able to resolve its fundamental constituents and probe their momenta and positions. Here we investigate the dynamics of quarks and gluons inside nucleons using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS)-a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton, which subsequently radiates a photon. DVCS interferes with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, where the photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the regime where the scattering is expected to occur off a single quark, measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.
Evaluation of geometrical contributions to the spread of the Compton-scatter energy distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, A.L.; Gigante, G.E.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma I, ''La Sapienza,'' Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 244, 00186 Roma, Italy)
1989-01-01
The spectrum from Compton-scattered x rays is an inherently broad distribution. This distribution is the sum of several Gaussian-like distributions, which gives the sum its unique shape. The Gaussian-like distributions are the result of convoluting the so-called Compton profile, the spread in the scattered-x-ray energies due to the momentum distributions of the target electrons, with the detector response and the geometrical effects. The distribution is then further modified by the absorption within the sample. A formulation for both qualitatively and quantitatively determining the magnitude of the geometrical contributions is presented. This formulation is based on a recently devised approach to the scattering geometry [Hanson, Gigante, Meron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 135 (1988)]. A methodology for determining the geometrical spread in the energy of the scattered x rays is presented. The results can be conveniently used to optimize scattering geometries for the reduction of the geometry-caused spread
Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA
H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2008-01-01
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering γp→γp using ep collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the γp system in the kinematic domain 6.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quirk, Thomas J. IV
2004-01-01
The Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) is a software package that solves coupled electron-photon transport problems. ITS performs analog photon tracking for energies between 1 keV and 1 GeV. Unlike its deterministic counterpart, the Monte Carlo calculations of ITS do not require a memory-intensive meshing of phase space; however, its solutions carry statistical variations. Reducing these variations is heavily dependent on runtime. Monte Carlo simulations must therefore be both physically accurate and computationally efficient. Compton scattering is the dominant photon interaction above 100 keV and below 5-10 MeV, with higher cutoffs occurring in lighter atoms. In its current model of Compton scattering, ITS corrects the differential Klein-Nishina cross sections (which assumes a stationary, free electron) with the incoherent scattering function, a function dependent on both the momentum transfer and the atomic number of the scattering medium. While this technique accounts for binding effects on the scattering angle, it excludes the Doppler broadening the Compton line undergoes because of the momentum distribution in each bound state. To correct for these effects, Ribbefor's relativistic impulse approximation (IA) will be employed to create scattering cross section differential in both energy and angle for each element. Using the parameterizations suggested by Brusa et al., scattered photon energies and angle can be accurately sampled at a high efficiency with minimal physical data. Two-body kinematics then dictates the electron's scattered direction and energy. Finally, the atomic ionization is relaxed via Auger emission or fluorescence. Future work will extend these improvements in incoherent scattering to compounds and to adjoint calculations.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Movsisyan, Aram
2011-05-15
Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}
Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.
1978-01-01
The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)
Quasi-free Compton scattering and the polarizabilities of the neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kossert, K.; Camen, M.; Wissmann, F.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Caselotti, G.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Olmos de Leon, V.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G.; Grabmayr, P.; Natter, A.; Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.; Petrun'kin, V.A.; Smend, F.; Thomas, A.; Weihofen, W.; Zapadtka, F.
2003-01-01
Differential cross-sections for quasi-free Compton scattering from the proton and neutron bound in the deuteron have been measured using the Glasgow/Mainz photon tagging spectrometer at the Mainz MAMI accelerator together with the Mainz 48cm diameter x 64cm NaI(Tl) photon detector and the Goettingen SENECA recoil detector. The data cover photon energies ranging from 200MeV to 400MeV at θ LAB γ =136.2 . Liquid deuterium and hydrogen targets allowed direct comparison of free and quasi-free scattering from the proton. The neutron detection efficiency of the SENECA detector was measured via the reaction p(γ,π + n). The ''free'' proton Compton scattering cross-sections extracted from the bound proton data are in reasonable agreement with those for the free proton which gives confidence in the method to extract the differential cross-section for free scattering from quasi-free data. Differential cross-sections on the free neutron have been extracted and the difference of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the neutron has been determined to be α n -β n =9.8±3.6(stat) +2.1 -1.1 (syst)±2.2(model) in units of 10 -4 fm 3 . In combination with the polarizability sum α n +β n =15.2±0.5 deduced from photoabsorption data, the neutron electric and magnetic polarizabilities, α n =12.5±1.8(stat) + 1 .1 -0.6 (syst)±1.1(model) and β n =2.7±1.8(stat) +0.6 -1.1 (syst)±1.1(model) are obtained. The backward spin polarizability of the neutron was determined to be γ (n) π =(58.6±4.0) x 10 -4 fm 4 . (orig.)
THE WIGNER–FOKKER–PLANCK EQUATION: STATIONARY STATES AND LARGE TIME BEHAVIOR
ARNOLD, ANTON
2012-11-01
We consider the linear WignerFokkerPlanck equation subject to confining potentials which are smooth perturbations of the harmonic oscillator potential. For a certain class of perturbations we prove that the equation admits a unique stationary solution in a weighted Sobolev space. A key ingredient of the proof is a new result on the existence of spectral gaps for FokkerPlanck type operators in certain weighted L 2-spaces. In addition we show that the steady state corresponds to a positive density matrix operator with unit trace and that the solutions of the time-dependent problem converge towards the steady state with an exponential rate. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Frank, T D; Beek, P J
2001-08-01
Recently, Küchler and Mensch [Stochastics Stochastics Rep. 40, 23 (1992)] derived exact stationary probability densities for linear stochastic delay differential equations. This paper presents an alternative derivation of these solutions by means of the Fokker-Planck approach introduced by Guillouzic [Phys. Rev. E 59, 3970 (1999); 61, 4906 (2000)]. Applications of this approach, which is argued to have greater generality, are discussed in the context of stochastic models for population growth and tracking movements.
Finite element method analysis of Fokker-Plank equation in stationary and evolutionary versions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Král, Radomil
2014-01-01
Roč. 72, June (2014), s. 28-38 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710902 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * numerical solution * transition effects * stochastic mechanics * probability density function * non-linear dynamic systems Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.402, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965997813001142
Measurements of Compton Scattering on the Proton at 2 - 6 GeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danagoulian, Areg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2006-01-01
Similar to elastic electron scattering, Compton Scattering on the proton at high momentum transfers(and high p⊥) can be an effective method to study its short-distance structure. An experiment has been carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton for 2.3-5.7 GeV electron beam energies and a wide distribution of large scattering angles. The 25 kinematic settings sampled a domain of s = 5-11(GeV/c)^{2},-t = -7(GeV/c)^{2} and -u = 0.5-6.5(GeV/c)^{2}. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfer asymmetries was made at a 3.48 GeV beam energy and a scattering angle of θ_{cm }= 120°. These measurements were performed to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process as well as to determine RCS form factors. At the heart of the scientific motivation is the desire to understand the manner in which a nucleon interacts with external excitations at the above listed energies, by comparing and contrasting the two existing models – Leading Twist Mechanism and Soft Overlap “Handbag” Mechanism – and identify the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, the Handbag Mechanism allows one to calculate reaction observables in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), which have the function of bridging the wide gap between the exclusive(form factors) and inclusive(parton distribution functions) description of the proton. The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). It used a polarized and unpolarized electron beam, a 6% copper radiator with the thickness of 6.1% radiation lengths (to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam), the Hall A liquid hydrogen target, a high resolution spectrometer with a focal plane polarimeter, and a photon hodoscope calorimeter. Results of the differential cross sections are presented, and discussed in the general context of the scientific motivation.
X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source
Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi
2004-12-01
Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Curatolo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a
X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi
2004-01-01
Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year
Linearized gyro-kinetic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, P.J.; Tsang, K.T.
1976-01-01
An ordering of the linearized Fokker-Planck equation is performed in which gyroradius corrections are retained to lowest order and the radial dependence appropriate for sheared magnetic fields is treated without resorting to a WKB technique. This description is shown to be necessary to obtain the proper radial dependence when the product of the poloidal wavenumber and the gyroradius is large (k rho much greater than 1). A like particle collision operator valid for arbitrary k rho also has been derived. In addition, neoclassical, drift, finite β (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure), and unperturbed toroidal electric field modifications are treated
Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2008-12-05
The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov
2001-06-01
Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panek, P.; Kaminski, J.Z.; Ehlotzky, F.
2003-01-01
Presently available laser sources can yield powers for which the ponderomotive energy of an electron U p can be equal to or even larger than the rest energy mc 2 of an electron. Therefore it has become of interest to consider fundamental radiation-induced or assisted processes in such powerful laser fields. In the present work we consider laser-induced Compton scattering and laser-assisted electron atom scattering in such fields, assuming that the laser beam has arbitrary elliptic polarization. We investigate in detail the angular and polarisation dependence of the differential cross-sections of the two laser-induced or laser-assisted nonlinear processes as a function of the order N of absorbed or emitted laser photons ω. The present work is a generalization of our previous analysis of Compton scattering and electron-atom scattering in a linearly polarized laser field. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov
2001-01-01
Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom
Compact FEL-driven inverse compton scattering gamma-ray source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Placidi, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Di Mitri, S., E-mail: simone.dimitri@elettra.eu [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Pellegrini, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Penn, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-05-21
Many research and applications areas require photon sources capable of producing gamma-ray beams in the multi-MeV energy range with reasonably high fluxes and compact footprints. Besides industrial, nuclear physics and security applications, a considerable interest comes from the possibility to assess the state of conservation of cultural assets like statues, columns etc., via visualization and analysis techniques using high energy photon beams. Computed Tomography scans, widely adopted in medicine at lower photon energies, presently provide high quality three-dimensional imaging in industry and museums. We explore the feasibility of a compact source of quasi-monochromatic, multi-MeV gamma-rays based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high intensity ultra-violet (UV) beam generated in a free-electron laser by the electron beam itself. This scheme introduces a stronger relationship between the energy of the scattered photons and that of the electron beam, resulting in a device much more compact than a classic ICS for a given scattered energy. The same electron beam is used to produce gamma-rays in the 10–20 MeV range and UV radiation in the 10–15 eV range, in a ~4×22 m{sup 2} footprint system.
Electric and magnetic polarizabilities of hadrons via elastic Compton scattering at KAON
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moinester, M.A.; Blecher, M.
1990-08-01
The study of dynamic properties of hadrons presents a challenge. Among the most basic of these are the electric and magnetic polarizabilities describing the electromagnetic structure of hadrons. They characterize the induced transient dipole moments of hadrons in an external electromagnetic field. During gamma-hadron Compton scattering the lowest order scattering is determined by the charge and magnetic moment. The next order scattering is determined by the induced dipole moments. The dipole polarizabilities probe the rigidity of the internal structure of baryons and mesons, the dipole moments being induced by the rearrangement of the hadron constituents driven by the presence of the electric and magnetic fields of the photon during scattering. A sophisticated understanding of hadrons within the framework of QCD will be tested, in part, by the prediction of these quantities. For the light charged pion, chiral symmetry leads to a precise prediction for the polarizabilities. For the heavier charged kaon, chiral perturbation theory can be applied to predict the polarizabilities. For these cases, the experimental polarizabilities subject the underlying chiral symmetry and chiral perturbation techniques of QCD to new and serious tests. Here the physics of electromagnetic polarizabilities is first described, followed by a review of previous experimental and theoretical polarizability results for the proton, neutron, pion, and kaon. A brief description is then given of how polarizabilities for these hadrons can be studied at the proposed TRIUMF KAON facility. (36 refs., 4 figs.)
Transverse Extension of Partons in the Proton probed by Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Juraskova, K.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.
2018-01-01
We report on the first measurement of exclusive single-photon muoproduction on the proton by COMPASS using 160 GeV/$c$ polarized $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ beams of the CERN SPS impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. We determine the dependence of the average of the measured $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ cross sections for deeply virtual Compton scattering on the squared four-momentum transfer $t$ from the initial to the final final proton. The slope $B$ of the $t$-dependence is fitted with a single exponential function, which yields $B=(4.3 \\ \\pm \\ 0.6_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.3}^{+ \\ 0.1}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}})\\,(\\text{GeV}/c)^{-2}$. This result can be converted into an average transverse extension of partons in the proton, $\\sqrt{\\langle r_{\\perp}^2 \\rangle} = (0.58 \\ \\pm \\ 0.04_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.02}^{+ \\ 0.01}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}}) \\text{fm}$. For this measurement, the average virtuality of the photon mediating the interaction is $\\langle Q^2 \\rangle = 1.8\\,(\\text{GeV/}c)^2$ and the average value of the Bjorken va...
Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki
2013-01-01
The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)
Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering and its t-dependence at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaron, F.D. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aktas, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Insitute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)
2007-09-15
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering {gamma}{sup *}p {yields} {gamma}p using e{sup -}p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb{sup -1}. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q{sup 2} of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the {gamma}{sup *}p system in the kinematic domain 6.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.
1978-01-01
The full radiation spectrum of quasars and BL Lac objects is interpreted as due to a dependent combination of a soft plasma oscillation source at 2ν/sub P/ and bremsstrahlung. Previous work of the plasma oscillation radiation is extended into the radio part of the spectrum and it is shown how the high brightness temperature observations of BL Lac objects [kT/sub b/ (100 MHz) approximate = 3 x 10 5 mc 2 ] are a reasonable consequence of a lower external plasma density and ejection as required for the observed lack of emission lines. Two extreme cases are considered, the one where the plasma oscillations are suddenly extinguished and only stimulated Compton scattering remains and a second case of a constant source of plasma oscillations but a graded surface density. The first case gives 1/100 of the required brightness temperature and the second gives 100 times too large a brightness temperature and also a x 10 too large a radius. It is believed reasonable to invoke a combination of both processes to explain the observed radio spectrum. This model circumvents the self-Compton x-ray flux difficulty of incoherent synchrotron emission
Deeply virtual Compton scattering off an unpolarised hydrogen target at HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burns, Jonathan R.T.
2010-08-15
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) i.e. ep {yields} ep{gamma} is the simplest interaction that allows access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), a theoretical framework describing nucleon structure. The strong interest in GPDs results from the fact that they can be used to determine the total angular momentum of quarks inside the nucleon and provide a 3-dimensional picture of nucleon structure. The measurement of the DVCS process is facilitated by the interference with a competing interaction known as the Bethe-Heitler process which has the same nal state. DVCS information is obtained from the asymmetrical in distribution of the real photon around the azimuthal angle {phi} at HERMES. Beam charge and beam helicity asymmetries, extracted from DVCS events with an unpolarised hydrogen target recorded during the 2006-2007 and 1996-2007 data taking periods, are presented in this thesis. The asymmetry amplitudes are presented over the range of HERMES kinematic acceptance, with their dependence on kinematic variables t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} also shown and compared to a phenomenological model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girod, F.X.
2006-12-01
The structure of the nucleon, among the first fundamental problems in hadronic physics, is the subject of a renewed interest. The lightest baryonic state has historically been described in two complementary approaches: through elastic scattering, measuring form factors which reflect the spatial shape of charge distributions, and through deep inelastic scattering, providing access to parton distribution functions which encode the momentum content carried by the constituents. The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions unifies those approaches and provides access to new informations. The cleanest process sensitive to GPDs is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) contributing to the ep → epγ reaction. This work deals with a dedicated experiment accomplished with the CLAS detector, completed with two specific equipments: a lead tungstate calorimeter covering photon detection at small angles, and a superconducting solenoid actively shielding the electromagnetic background. The entire project is covered: from the upgrade of the experimental setup, through the update of the software, data taking and analysis, up to a first comparison of the beam spin asymmetry to model predictions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrimpton, P.C.
1981-01-01
Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)
The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulse, Charlotte van
2011-03-15
The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)
Optimal sum-rule inequalities for spin 1/2 Compton scattering. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filkov, L.V.
1980-10-01
The analyticity (optimal) bounds for proton Compton scattering presented in the preceding paper are herewith considered from the point of view of experimental tests. An essential function occuring in this new dispersion framework is constructed numerically making use of existing cross-section data above the pion photoproduction threshold. To secure a safer construction new measurements in the photon laboratory energy region 150 MeV - 240 MeV and at small momentum transfers are necessary. The bounds on the scattering amplitudes in the low energy region below the pion photoproduction threshold are in general sufficiently restrictive so as to be useful in discriminating among variants of theoretical phenomenological analyses but subsequent extremizations needed in bounding only one combination of the amplitudes (the unpolarized differential cross-section) are weakening much the results. The question of strengthening the bounds by means of the combined use of analyticity and unitarity is discussed within a very crude example which nonetheless illustrates that the inclusion of the pion photoproduction data through more elaborate mathematical procedures would deserve the effort. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)
2005-07-21
This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30{sup 0}. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.
Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.; Flinton, David M.
2005-07-01
This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The Kα2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30°. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.
Spin Polarisabilities and Compton Scattering from χEFT: Bridging QCD and Data
Griesshammer, Harald W.; McGovern, Judith A.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2017-01-01
Compton scattering from protons and neutrons probes their two-photon response in electric and magnetic fields of real photons, exploring the symmetries and interaction strengths of the internal degrees of freedom. With the scalar polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 now reasonably understood, the focus turns to the so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. They parametrise the stiffness of the nucleon spin in external electro-magnetic fields, analogous to rotations of the polarisation of light by optically active media (bi-refringence/Faraday effect) and are particularly sensitive to the directional dependence of the πNγ interactions dictated by chiral symmetry and its breaking. This contribution addresses the potential of Chiral Effective Field Theory to relate between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at MAX-lab, HI γS and MAMI. We discuss high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams which will allow the extraction of the spin-polarisabilities; χEFT predictions which indicate which observables for polarised protons, deuterons and 3 He are particularly sensitive; convergence, residual theoretical uncertainties and possibilities for improvement; and chiral extrapolations in mπ for lattice computations. Supported in part by UK STFC, US DOE and George Washington University.
Compton scattering of photons from electrons in magnetically insulated transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, K.L.; VanDevender, J.P.
1979-01-01
Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are used for power transport between the vacuum insulator and the diode in high current particle accelerators. Since the efficiency of the power transport depends on the details of the initial line geometry, i.e., the injector, the dependence of the electron canonical momentum distribution on the injector geometry should reveal the loss mechanism. We propose to study that dependence experimentally through a Compton scattering diagnostic. The spectrum of scattered light reveals the electron velocity distribution perpendicular to the direction of flow. The design of the diagnostic is in progress. Our preliminary analysis is based on the conservation of energy and canonical momentum for a single electron in the anti E and anti B fields determined from 2-D calculations. For the Mite accelerator with power flow along Z, the normalized canonical momentum, μ, is in the range - 0.7 < μ less than or equal to 0. For anti k/sub i/ parallel to circumflex Y, and anti k/sub s/ circumflex X, our analysis indicates that the scattered photons have 1.1 eV less than or equal to h nu/sub s/ < 5.6 eV for ruby laser scattering and can be detected with PM tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosse, L.
2002-02-01
The experimental and theoretical aspects of the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) are presented in the first chapter. The prevailing amplitude of DVCS is developed to lead to the introduction of the generalized distributions of partons. The second chapter is centered on the measurement campaigns performed throughout the world concerning DVCS processes and meson production. The experimental achieving of DVCS is difficult because it is an exclusive process that requires a perfect identification and moreover its cross-section is low. In the third chapter the author presents a feasibility study of a DVCS experiment using Compass installation in CERN, this experiment requires the designing of a recoil detector. By developing the theoretical studies presented in the first chapter, the author has computed an estimation of the expected counting rate. The main difficulty of this work is to be able to discriminate some events that lead to the same final state as DVCS. It is the case of the event characterized by the production of pions with very low impulse, the fourth chapter is dedicated to determination of the value of the cross-section of that event. A prototype of a recoil detector has been designed and tested and the first preliminary results are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)
Status of Kharkov X-Ray Generator Based on Compton Scattering NESTOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zelinsky, A.
2005-04-11
Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR based on electron storage ring with beam energy 43-225 MeV and Nd:YAG laser is described. The layout of the facility is presented and latest results are described. The designed lattice includes 4 dipole magnets with combined focusing functions, 20 quadrupole magnets and 19 sextupoles with correcting components of magnetic field. At the present time a set of quadrupole magnet is under manufacturing and bending magnet reconstruction is going on. The main parameters of developed vacuum system providing residual gas pressure in the storage ring vacuum chamber up to 10{sup -9} torr are presented. The basic parameters of the X-ray source laser and injection systems are presented. The facility is going to be in operation in the middle of 2006 and generated X-rays flux is expected to be of about 10{sup 13} phot/s.
Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its t-dependence at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2008-01-01
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e-p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb^-1. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma*p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. The measurements are compared to a NLO QCD calculation based on generalised parton distributions. In the context of the dipole approach, the geometric scaling property of the DVCS cross section is studied for different values of t.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M
2005-01-01
This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K α2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30 0 . At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types
Optimal sum rules inequalities for spin 1/2 Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guiasu, I.; Radescu, E.E.; Razillier, I.
1979-08-01
A formalism appropriate for model independent dispersion theoretic investigations of the (not necessarily forward) Compton scattering off spin 1/2 hadronic targets, which fully exploits the analyticity properties of the amplitudes (to lowest order in electromagnetism) in ν 2 at fixed t(ν=(s-u)/4) s,t,u = Mandelstam variables), is developed. It relies on methods which are specific to boundary value problems for analytic matrix-valued functions. An analytic factorization of the positive definite hermitian matrix associated with the bilinear expression of the unpolarized differential cross section (u.d.c.s.) in terms of the Bardeen-Tung (B.T.) invariant amplitudes is explicitly obtained. For t in a specified portion of the physical region, six new amplitudes describing the process are thereby constructed which have the same good analyticity structure in ν 2 as the (crossing symmetrized) B.T. amplitudes, while their connection with the usual helicity amplitudes is given by a matrix which is unitary on the unitarity cut. A bound on a certain integral over the u.d.c.s. above the first inelastic threshold, established in terms of the target's charge and anomalous magnetic moment, improves a previous weaker result, being now optimal under the information accepted as known. (author)
Coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off 3He and neutron generalized parton distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rinaldi Matteo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available It has been recently proposed to study coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS off 3He nuclei to access neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs. In particular, it has been shown that, in Impulse Approximation (IA and at low momentum transfer, the sum of the quark helicity conserving GPDs of 3He, H and E, is dominated by the neutron contribution. This peculiar result makes the 3He target very promising to access the neutron information. We present here the IA calculation of the spin dependent GPD H See Formula in PDF of 3He. Also for this quantity the neutron contribution is found to be the dominant one, at low momentum transfer. The known forward limit of the IA calculation of H See Formula in PDF , yielding the polarized parton distributions of 3He, is correctly recovered. The extraction of the neutron information could be anyway non trivial, so that a procedure, able to take into account the nuclear effects encoded in the IA analysis, is proposed. These calculations, essential for the evaluation of the coherent DVCS cross section asymmetries, which depend on the GPDs H,E and H See Formula in PDF , represent a crucial step for planning possible experiments at Jefferson Lab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camsonne, A.
2005-11-01
The Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment used the 5.757 GeV polarized electron beam available at Jefferson Laboratory and ran from september until december 2004. Using the standard Hall A left high resolution spectrometer three kinematical points were taken at a fixed x b (jorken) = 0.32 value for three Q 2 values: 1.5 GeV 2 , 1.91 GeV 2 , 2.32 GeV 2 . An electromagnetic Lead Fluoride calorimeter and a proton detector scintillator array designed to work at a luminosity of 10 37 cm -2 s -1 were added to ensure the exclusivity of the DVCS reaction. In addition to the new detectors new custom electronics was used: a calorimeter trigger module which determines if an electron photon coincidence has occurred and a sampling system allowing to deal with pile-up events during the offline analysis. Finally the data from the kinematic at Q 2 = 2.32 GeV 2 and s = 5.6 GeV 2 allowed to get a preliminary result for the exclusive π 0 electroproduction on the proton. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2012-07-15
Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan
2006-01-01
The simultaneous effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma photons was studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci 137 Cs source, is allowed to impinge on cylindrical aluminium samples of varying diameter and the scattered photons are detected by a 51 mmx51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at 90 o to the incident beam. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. The thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined for different detector collimators. The parameters like signal-to-noise ratio and multiply scatter fraction (MSF) have also been deduced and support the work carried out by Shengli et al. [2000. EGS4 simulation of Compton scattering for nondestructive testing. KEK proceedings 200-20, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 216-223] and Barnea et al. [1995. A study of multiple scattering background in Compton scatter imaging. NDT and E International 28, 155-162] based upon Monte Carlo calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chi-Jen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2013-01-01
In this thesis, we analyze both the spatiotemporal behavior of: (A) non-linear “reaction” models utilizing (discrete) reaction-diffusion equations; and (B) spatial transport problems on surfaces and in nanopores utilizing the relevant (continuum) diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations. Thus, there are some common themes in these studies, as they all involve partial differential equations or their discrete analogues which incorporate a description of diffusion-type processes. However, there are also some qualitative differences, as shall be discussed below.
Fujihara, Kento; Emoto, Yusaku; Ito, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kaneko, Hideyuki; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takahiro
2018-01-01
Existing PET (Positron Emission Tomography) systems make clear images in demonstration (measuring small PET reagent in pure water), however images in real diagnosis become unclear. The authors suspected that this problem was caused by Compton scattering in a detector. When PET systems observe plural photomultiplier tube outputs, an original emission point is regarded as centroid of the outputs. However, even if plural emission in Compton scattering occur, these systems calculate original point in the same way as single emission. Therefore, the authors considered that rejecting Compton scattering events makes PET systems much better, and made prototype counter. Main components of the prototype counter are plate-like high-growth-rate (HGR) La-GPS scintillators and wavelength shifting fibers (WLSF). HGR crystals grow 10 times as fast as a mono-crystal (a normal mono-crystal grows at 2 - 3 mm an hour). Thus, it includes microbubble and its transparency get worth. Consequently, HGR crystals usually are not used in radiation measuring instruments. However, this time they are used on the purpose. Because of their low transparency, scintillation lights come out right above and right under of emission position. Therefore, Compton scattering events is rejected easily. The prototype detector has an effective area of 300 by 300 square mm. The detector consists of 24 layers. One layer consists of HGR La-GPS scintillator of 1 mm thickness. Top and bottom surface of scintillator were covered by dual sheets of WLSF with a diameter of 0.2 mm. Sheets of WLSF on top and bottom of the scintillator make a right angle with each other, and measure X- and Y-components. Z-component is measured by difference of WLSF outputs between top and bottom. If plural layers output signals, this counter regards the event as Compton scattering event, and reject the event. Even if only a layer output signals, the event is rejected when number output signals from WLSF is more than 1.5 times of single
Turcksin, Bruno; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.
2012-01-01
It is well known that the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) methods for the Sn equations become ineffective in the Fokker-Planck forward-peaked scattering limit. In response to this deficiency, Morel and Manteuffel (1991) developed an angular multigrid method for the 1-D Sn equations. This method is very effective, costing roughly twice as much as DSA per source iteration, and yielding a maximum spectral radius of approximately 0.6 in the Fokker-Planck limit. Pautz, Adams, and Morel (PAM) (1999) later generalized the angular multigrid to 2-D, but it was found that the method was unstable with sufficiently forward-peaked mappings between the angular grids. The method was stabilized via a filtering technique based on diffusion operators, but this filtering also degraded the effectiveness of the overall scheme. The spectral radius was not bounded away from unity in the Fokker-Planck limit, although the method remained more effective than DSA. The purpose of this article is to recast the multidimensional PAM angular multigrid method without the filtering as an Sn preconditioner and use it in conjunction with the Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) Krylov method. The approach ensures stability and our computational results demonstrate that it is also significantly more efficient than an analogous DSA-preconditioned Krylov method.
Feasibility of Strong and Quasi-Monochromatic Gamma-Ray Generation by the Laser Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
This is because LCS γ-rays are energy-tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and beam-like. The photon intensity of the mono-chromatic LCS gamma-ray should be high or strong for efficient and high transmutation rate. It was recently reported that a so-called energy-recovery linac system is able to produce a very high-intensity LCS photons in the order of approximately 1013 photons/s economically. It however did not evaluate quality of the LCS photon beam although a quasi-monoenergetic LCS beam is of huge importance in the photo-nuclear transmutation reactions. It is upon this observation that this paper was prepared. Specifically, this work attempts to quantify intensity of the quasi-monochromatic LCS beam from the said linac system. In addition, this paper aims to discuss general characteristics of the LCS photon, and possible approaches to increase its intensity. This paper presents essential characteristics of the laser Compton scattering (LCS) in terms of its photon energy, cross-section and photon intensity. By using different combinations of electron energy, laser energy and scattering angle, we can effectively generate high-intensity and highly-chromatic LCS gamma-rays. Our preliminary analyses indicate that, in view of Compton cross-section, higher-energy photon can be better generated by increasing the electron energy rather than increasing the laser energy. However, in order to maximize the intensity of monochromatic beam, the laser energy should be maximized for a targeted LCS photon energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blomberg, Adam [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2016-12-01
Non-spherical components of the nucleon wave function are measured through p(e,e'p)π^{0} experiment at the Δ^{+}(1232) resonance for Q^{2} = 0.04, 0.09, and 0.13 (GeV=c)^{2} utilizing the Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) pulsed beam and Hall A spectrometers. The new data extend the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements. The Coulomb to magnetic multipole ratio (CMR) and generalized polarizability (GP) of the nucleon are also measured through virtual Compton scattering (VCS) for Q^{2} = 0.2(GeV=c)^{2} utilizing the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) continuous beam and A1 spectrometers. This data represents the first low Q^{2} GP measurement at the Δ^{+}(1232) resonance. The GP measurement explores a region where previous data and theoretical calculations disagree. The CMR measurement will be the first VCS extraction to compare with world data generated through pion electroproduction. The Dispersion Relation (DR) model used for the VCS extraction provides a new theoretical framework for the data signal and backgrounds that is largely independent from the pion electroproduction models. The independence of the DR from the traditional models provides a strong crosscheck on the ability of the models to isolate the data signal.
Determination of electron beam parameters by means of laser-Compton scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Chouffani
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Laser-Compton scattering (LCS experiments were carried out at the Idaho Accelerator Center using the 5 ns (FWHM and 22 MeV electron beam. The electron beam was brought to an approximate head-on collision with a 29 MW, 7 ns (FWHM, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser. Clear and narrow x-ray peaks resulting from the interaction of relativistic electrons with the Nd:YAG laser second harmonic line at 532 nm were observed. We have developed a relatively new method of using LCS as a nonintercepting electron beam monitor. Our method focused on the variation of the shape of the LCS spectrum rather than the LCS intensity as a function of the observation angle in order to extract the electron beam parameters at the interaction region. The electron beam parameters were determined by making simultaneous fits to spectra taken across the LCS x-ray cone. This scan method allowed us also to determine the variation of LCS x-ray peak energies and spectral widths as a function of the detector angles. Experimental data show that in addition to being viewed as a potential bright, tunable, and quasimonochromatic x-ray source, LCS can provide important information on the electron beam pulse length, direction, energy, angular and energy spread. Since the quality of LCS x-ray peaks, such as degree of monochromaticity, peak energy and flux, depends strongly on the electron beam parameters, LCS can therefore be viewed as an important nondestructive tool for electron beam diagnostics.
Beam Diagnostics of the Compton Scattering Chamber in Jefferson Lab's Hall C
Faulkner, Adam; I&C Group Collaboration
2013-10-01
Upcoming experimental runs in Hall C will utilize Compton scattering, involving the construction and installation of a rectangular beam enclosure. Conventional cylindrical stripline-style Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) are not appropriate due to their form factor; therefore to facilitate measurement of position, button-style BPMs are being considered due to the ease of placement within the new beam enclosure. Button BPM experience is limited at JLAB, so preliminary measurements are needed to characterize the field response, and guide the development of appropriate algorithms for the Analog to Digital receiver systems. -field mapping is performed using a Goubau Line (G-Line), which employs a surface wave to mimic the electron beam, helping to avoid problems associated with vacuum systems. Potential algorithms include simplistic 1/r modeling (-field mapping), look-up-tables, as well as a potential third order power series fit. In addition, the use of neural networks specifically the multi-layer Perceptron will be examined. The models, sensor field maps, and utility of the neural network will be presented. Next steps include: modification of the control algorithm, as well as to run an in-situ test of the four Button electrodes inside of a mock beam enclosure. The analysis of the field response using Matlab suggests the button BPMs are accurate to within 10 mm, and may be successful for beam diagnostics in Hall C. More testing is necessary to ascertain the limitations of the new electrodes. The National Science Foundation, Old Dominion University, The Department of Energy, and Jefferson Lab.
Brownian motion of classical spins: Anomalous dissipation and generalized Langevin equation
Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Jayannavar, A. M.
2017-10-01
In this work, we derive the Langevin equation (LE) of a classical spin interacting with a heat bath through momentum variables, starting from the fully dynamical Hamiltonian description. The derived LE with anomalous dissipation is analyzed in detail. The obtained LE is non-Markovian with multiplicative noise terms. The concomitant dissipative terms obey the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The Markovian limit correctly produces the Kubo and Hashitsume equation. The perturbative treatment of our equations produces the Landau-Lifshitz equation and the Seshadri-Lindenberg equation. Then we derive the Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to LE and the concept of equilibrium probability distribution is analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.
2009-11-01
The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pippig, G
1975-01-01
Taking the Compton scattering of pions and deuterons as an example it is shown that low-energy theorems which are valid for the order e/sup 2/ are also valid for the next higher order of electromagnetic interactions. The imaginary component of the scattering amplitude was exactly calculated for the energy of incident photons in the order e/sup 4/ up to the desired one, whereas the real component was obtained from dispersion relations. It is proved that the results derived from the dispersion theory of strong interactions are equivalent to those obtained from quantum electrodynamics for spin 0 and spin 1, respectively.
A measurement of the Q2, W and t dependences of deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
Deeply virtual Compton scattering, γ*p → γp, has been measured in e + p collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 61.1 pb -1 . Cross sections are presented as a function of the photon virtuality, Q 2 , and photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, W, for a wide region of the phase space, Q 2 > 1.5 GeV 2 and 40 -1 , is used for the first direct measurement of the differential cross section as a function of t, where t is the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex.
Raylman, R. R.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Popov, V.
2001-06-01
Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of /sup 18/F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom. Finally, the effect of object size on image counts and a correction for this effect were explored. The imager used in this study consisted of two PEM detector heads mounted 20 cm apart on a Lorad biopsy apparatus. The results demonstrated that a majority of the accidental coincidence events (/spl sim/80%) detected by this system were produced by radiotracer uptake in the adipose and muscle tissue of the torso. The presence of accidental coincidence events was shown to reduce lesion detectability. Much of this effect was eliminated by correction of the images utilizing estimates of accidental-coincidence contamination acquired with delayed coincidence circuitry built into the PEM system. The Compton scatter fraction for this system was /spl sim/14%. Utilization of a new scatter correction algorithm reduced the scatter fraction to /spl sim/1.5%. Finally, reduction of count recovery due to object size was measured and a correction to the data applied. Application of correction techniques
Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2004-01-01
The proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q^2, down to 0.5 GeV^2, and Bjorken x up to \\sim 0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groiselle, C.; Rocchisani, J.M.; Moretti, J.L.; Dreuille, O. de; Gaillard, J.F.; Bendriem, B.
1997-01-01
SPECT quantification: a review of the different correction methods with Compton scatter attenuation and spatial deterioration effects. The improvement of gamma-cameras, acquisition and reconstruction software opens new perspectives in term of image quantification in nuclear medicine. In order to meet the challenge, numerous works have been undertaken in recent years to correct for the different physical phenomena that prevent an exact estimation of the radioactivity distribution. The main phenomena that have to betaken into account are scatter, attenuation and resolution. In this work, authors present the physical basis of each issue, its consequences on quantification and the main methods proposed to correct them. (authors)
A measurement of the Q2, W and t dependences of deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2008-12-01
Deeply virtual Compton scattering, γ * p→γp, has been measured in e + p collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 61.1 pb -1 . Cross sections are presented as a function of the photon virtuality, Q 2 , and photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, W, for a wide region of the phase space, Q 2 >1.5 GeV 2 and 40 -1 , is used for the first direct measurement of the differential cross section as a function of t, where t is the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.
2017-07-01
A high-brilliance (~10^{22} photon s^{-1} mm^{-2} mrad^{-2} /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (E_{γ}≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.
Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopytin, M.
2006-01-01
As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x B and Q 2 are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to detect the
Deeply Virtual Compton scattering at CERN. What is the size of the proton?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joerg, Philipp
2017-04-27
Tremendous efforts have been made to understand the Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism, which led to the successful discovery of the Higgs Boson and the clarification of the origin of the mass of fundamental particles. However, it is often forgotten that the vast majority of visible matter is given by baryons, which gain most of their mass dynamically within poorly known non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics processes. The best laboratory to study the underlying mechanisms of non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics is still given by the nucleon and the central question of how the macroscopic properties of a nucleon like its mass, spin and size can be comprehensively decomposed into the microscopic description in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains still open. A major part of the COMPASS-II program is dedicated to the investigation of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), which aim for the most complete description of the partonic structure of the nucleon, comprising both, spacial and kinematic distributions. By including transverse degrees of freedom, a three dimensional picture of baryonic matter is created, which will revolutionise our understanding of what comprises 99 percent of the visible matter. GPDs are experimentally accessible via lepton-induced exclusive reactions, in particular the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). At COMPASS, those processes are investigated using a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV/c together with a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target and an open field two stage spectrometer, to detect and identify charged and neutral particles. In order to optimize the selection of exclusive reactions at those energies, the target is surrounded by a new barrel-shaped time-of-flight system, which detects the recoiling target particles. A pilot run dedicated to the measurement of Generalized Parton distributions performed in 2012 allows for detailed performance studies
Longitudinal target-spin azimuthal asymmetry in Deeply-Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopytin, M.
2006-08-22
As a generalization of the usual Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced a decade ago, contain additional information about quark and gluon distributions in the plane transverse to the direction of motion of the nucleon. Strong interest in GPDs was triggered by the work of X. Ji who demonstrated that in the forward limit GPDs can give information about the total angular momentum carried by quarks (gluons) in the nucleon. The hard exclusive electroproduction of a real photon, called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), appears to be the theoretically cleanest way to access GPDs experimentally. This process has a final state identical to that of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process where the photon is radiated from either incoming or outgoing lepton. Both processes are experimentally indistinguishable as their amplitudes interfere. The interference term involves linearly the amplitudes of the DVCS process giving access to GPDs. In this thesis results from HERMES are reported on an azimuthal asymmetry with respect to the spin of the proton target, which is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the DVCS process. The asymmetry, also referred to as the longitudinal target-spin asymmetry (LTSA), gives access mainly to the polarized GPD H. The kinematic dependences of the LTSA on t, x{sub B} and Q{sup 2} are measured and compared with the corresponding measurements on the deuteron. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and with the recent CLAS measurements. The data, used for analysis in this thesis, have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY scattering the HERA 27.6 GeV positron beam off hydrogen and deuterium gas targets. Additionally, production tests of the HELIX128 3.0 chip are discussed. The chip is the frontend readout chip of the silicon recoil detector. The latter is a part of the HERMES recoil detector, which is built around the target area in order to
Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jochmann, Axel
2014-01-01
will serve as a milestone and starting point for the scaling of the X-ray flux based on available interaction parameters of an ultrashort bright X-ray source at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources. The knowledge of the spatial and spectral distribution of photons from an inverse Compton scattering source is essential in designing future experiments as well as for tailoring the X-ray spectral properties to an experimental need.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, R.W.
2009-01-01
This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over the whole
Sikora, Mark
2016-09-01
The electric (αn) and magnetic (βn) polarizabilities of the neutron are fundamental properties arising from its internal structure which describe the nucleon's response to applied electromagnetic fields. Precise measurements of the polarizabilities provide crucial constraints on models of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the low energy regime such as Chiral Effective Field Theories as well as emerging ab initio calculations from lattice-QCD. These values also contribute the most uncertainty to theoretical determinations of the proton-neutron mass difference. Historically, the experimental challenges to measuring αn and βn have been due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable targets and sufficiently intense beams, leading to significant statistical uncertainties. To address these issues, a program of Compton scattering experiments on the deuteron is underway at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI γS) at Duke University with the aim of providing the world's most precise measurement of αn and βn. We report measurements of the Compton scattering differential cross section obtained at incident photon energies of 65 and 85 MeV and discuss the sensitivity of these data to the polarizabilities.
Sikora, Mark; Compton@HIGS Team
2017-01-01
The electric (αn) and magnetic (βn) polarizabilities of the neutron are fundamental properties arising from its internal structure which describe the nucleon's response to applied electromagnetic fields. Precise measurements of the polarizabilities provide crucial constraints on models of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the low energy regime such as Chiral Effective Field Theories as well as emerging ab initio calculations from lattice-QCD. These values also contribute the most uncertainty to theoretical determinations of the proton-neutron mass difference. Historically, the experimental challenges to measuring αn and βn have been due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable targets and sufficiently intense beams, leading to significant statistical uncertainties. To address these issues, a program of Compton scattering experiments on the deuteron is underway at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI γS) at Duke University with the aim of providing the world's most precise measurement of αn and βn. We report measurements of the Compton scattering differential cross section obtained at an incident photon energy of 65 MeV and discuss the sensitivity of these data to the polarizabilities.
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its Beam Charge Asymmetry in $e^{\\pm} p$ Collisions at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.
2009-01-01
A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e^+ p and e^- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb^-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma* p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. Using e^+ p and e^- p data samples, a beam charge asymmetry is extracted for the first time in the low Bjorken x kinematic domain. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are dis...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bildsten, L.; Zurek, W.H.
1988-01-01
Two observations of the gamma-ray spectrum from the direction of the Galactic center were made by HEAO 3 in the fall of 1979 and the spring of 1980. The 2-gamma 511 keV annihilation line flux decreased by a factor of about three during the 6 months between these observations, while the excess gamma-ray continuum below the annihilation line, often interpreted as 3-gamma decay of orthopositronium, barely changed. This discrepancy in temporal behavior makes the identification of the bulk of excess continuum as 3-gamma decay of positronium difficult. It is shown that Compton scattering of the line and high-energy radiation provides a natural explanation for the surprisingly small changes seen in the excess continuum. Scattered photons are delayed by a time corresponding to the size of the scattering region. For the annihilation source in the Galactic center, this distance is probably a fraction of a parsec. Thus, even after the high-energy continuum and annihilation line are gone, low-energy Compton-scattered photons can still be detected with an almost unchanged flux. 23 references
Introduction to fractional and pseudo-differential equations with singular symbols
Umarov, Sabir
2015-01-01
The book systematically presents the theories of pseudo-differential operators with symbols singular in dual variables, fractional order derivatives, distributed and variable order fractional derivatives, random walk approximants, and applications of these theories to various initial and multi-point boundary value problems for pseudo-differential equations. Fractional Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations associated with a large class of stochastic processes are presented. A complex version of the theory of pseudo-differential operators with meromorphic symbols based on the recently introduced complex Fourier transform is developed and applied for initial and boundary value problems for systems of complex differential and pseudo-differential equations.
Stochastic Calculus and Differential Equations for Physics and Finance
McCauley, Joseph L.
2013-02-01
1. Random variables and probability distributions; 2. Martingales, Markov, and nonstationarity; 3. Stochastic calculus; 4. Ito processes and Fokker-Planck equations; 5. Selfsimilar Ito processes; 6. Fractional Brownian motion; 7. Kolmogorov's PDEs and Chapman-Kolmogorov; 8. Non Markov Ito processes; 9. Black-Scholes, martingales, and Feynman-Katz; 10. Stochastic calculus with martingales; 11. Statistical physics and finance, a brief history of both; 12. Introduction to new financial economics; 13. Statistical ensembles and time series analysis; 14. Econometrics; 15. Semimartingales; References; Index.
Equations of multiparticle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.
1987-01-01
The description of the motion of charged-particle beams in an accelerator proceeds in steps of increasing complexity. The first step is to consider a single-particle picture in which the beam is represented as a collection on non-interacting test particles moving in a prescribed external electromagnetic field. Knowing the external field, it is then possible to calculate the beam motion to a high accuracy. The real beam consists of a large number of particles, typically 10 11 per beam bunch. It is sometimes inconvenient, or even impossible, to treat the real beam behavior using the single particle approach. One way to approach this problem is to supplement the single particle by another qualitatively different picture. The commonly used tools in accelerator physics for this purpose are the Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck equations. These equations assume smooth beam distributions and are therefore strictly valid in the limit of infinite number of micro-particles, each carrying an infinitesimal charge. The hope is that by studying the two extremes -- the single particle picture and the picture of smooth beam distributions -- we will be able to describe the behavior of our 10 11 -particle system. As mentioned, the most notable use of the smooth distribution picture is the study of collective beam instabilities. However, the purpose of this lecture is not to address this more advanced subject. Rather, it has the limited goal to familiarize the reader with the analytical tools, namely the Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck equations, as a preparation for dealing with the more advanced problems at later times. We will first derive these equations and then illustrate their applications by several examples which allow exact solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, S L; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1978-04-01
Integral K-shell Compton scattering cross-sections in elements Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and Sb have been determined for 1250 keV photons. The results when compared with theory suggest that K-shell electrons in the elements under investigation behave as free electrons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puumalainen, P.; Uimarihuhta, A.; Olkkonen, H.
1982-01-01
Results showed that the x-ray generator could be used as a radiation source in the coherent/Compton scattering method of measuring trabecular bone mineral content. The quasimonoenergetic x-ray beam was produced from the continuous bremsstrahlung radiation with the aid of a spectral filter. Of the two measuring arrangements that were tested, the semiconductor detector geometry appeared to give distinctly more reproducible results than the two NaI detector system. However, to improve the counting efficiency of the coherent radiation, the 'coherent' NaI detector could be replaced by a bore-through scintillation probe (bore diameter about 10mm). By placing the x-ray fluorescence target inside the bore, the yield would be considerably higher. The present method is suitable for TBMC measurements of small animal and human peripheral bones. Errors are discussed in relation to increase of bone size. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuschareon, S., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand and Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 (Thailand)
2014-03-24
Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.
Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M. J.
2008-12-01
Here we report the first ever 137Cs Compton spectroscopy study of lithium fluoride. The spherical average Compton profiles of lithium fluoride are deduced from Compton scattering measurements on poly crystalline sample at gamma ray energy of 662 keV. To compare the experimental data, we have computed the spherical average Compton profiles using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The directional Compton profiles and their anisotropic effects are also calculated using the same HF-LCAO approximation. The experimental spherical average profiles are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding HF-LCAO calculations and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values. The present experimental isotropic and calculated directional profiles are also compared with the available experimental isotropic and directional Compton profiles using 59.54 and 159 keV γ-rays.
Suzuki, K; Barbiellini, B; Orikasa, Y; Go, N; Sakurai, H; Kaprzyk, S; Itou, M; Yamamoto, K; Uchimoto, Y; Wang, Yung Jui; Hafiz, H; Bansil, A; Sakurai, Y
2015-02-27
We present an incisive spectroscopic technique for directly probing redox orbitals based on bulk electron momentum density measurements via high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering. Application of our method to spinel Li_{x}Mn_{2}O_{4}, a lithium ion battery cathode material, is discussed. The orbital involved in the lithium insertion and extraction process is shown to mainly be the oxygen 2p orbital. Moreover, the manganese 3d states are shown to experience spatial delocalization involving 0.16±0.05 electrons per Mn site during the battery operation. Our analysis provides a clear understanding of the fundamental redox process involved in the working of a lithium ion battery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa
2007-01-01
High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)
A measurement of the Q{sup 2}, W and t dependences of deeply virtual Compton scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2008-12-15
Deeply virtual Compton scattering, {gamma}{sup *}p{yields}{gamma}p, has been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 61.1 pb{sup -1}. Cross sections are presented as a function of the photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}, and photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, W, for a wide region of the phase space, Q{sup 2}>1.5 GeV{sup 2} and 40
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saddi, M.B.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, B.
2006-01-01
The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using a single γ detector, a technique avoiding the use of the complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher-order process. Here doubly differential collision cross-sections integrated over the directions of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, are measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident γ photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Horikawa
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In 1957, Agodi predicted that the neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with a 100% linearly polarized γ-ray beam for dipole excitation should be anisotropic and universally described by the simple function of a+b⋅cos(2ϕ at the polar angle θ=90°, where ϕ is the azimuthal angle. However, this prediction has not been experimentally confirmed in over half a century. We have verified experimentally this angular distribution in the (γ, n reaction for 197Au, 127I, and natural Cu targets using linearly polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays. The result suggests that the (γ→, n reaction is a novel tool to study nuclear physics in the giant dipole resonance region.
Compton scattering on the proton, neutron, and deuteron in chiral perturbation theory to O(Q{sup 4})
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S.R. Beane; M. Malheiro; J.A. McGovern; D.R. Phillips; U. van Kolck
2004-03-01
We study Compton scattering in systems with A=1 and 2 using chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order. For the proton we fit the two undetermined parameters in the O(Q{sup 4}) {gamma}p amplitude of McGovern to experimental data in the region {omega}, {radical}|t| {le} 180 MeV, obtaining a {chi}{sup 2}/d.o.f. of 133/113. This yields a model-independent extraction of proton polarizabilities based solely on low-energy data: {alpha}{sub p} = (12.1 {+-} 1.1 (stat.)){sub -0.5}{sup +0.5} (theory) and {beta}{sub p} = (3.4 {+-} 1.1 (stat.)){sub -0.1}{sup +0.1} (theory), both in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}. We also compute Compton scattering on deuterium to O(Q{sup 4}). The {gamma}d amplitude is a sum of one- and two-nucleon mechanisms, and contains two undetermined parameters, which are related to the isoscalar nucleon polarizabilities. We fit data points from three recent {gamma}d scattering experiments with a {chi}{sup 2}/d.o.f. = 26.3/20, and find {alpha}{sub N} = 8.9 {+-} 1.5 (stat.){sub -0.9}{sup +4.7} (theory) and {beta}{sub N} = 2.2 {+-} 1.5 (stat.){sub -0.9}{sup +1.2} (theory), again in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, M.; Kattein, J.; Kueck, H.; Leu, P.; Marne, K.D. de; Wedemeyer, R.; Wermes, N.
1981-05-01
Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering have been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. 78 data points are presented as angular distributions at photon lab energies of 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, and 950 MeV. The c.m. scattering angle ranges from 40 0 to 130 0 , corresponding to a variation of the four momentum transfer squared between t = -0.10 to t = -0.96 GeV 2 at 700 and 950 MeV, respectively. Two additional differential cross sections have been measured at 1000 MeV, 35.6 0 and 47.4 0 . The angular distributions show forward peaks whose extrapolations to 0 0 are consistent with calculated forward cross sections taken from literature. The small angle data ( vertical stroke t vertical stroke approx. 2 ) together with the calculated cross sections at 0 0 are also consistent with the assumption of a slope parameter B of 5 GeV -2 . For the first time a re-rise of the angular distributions towards backward angles has been observed. It becomes less steep with increasing energy. The most interesting feature of the angular distributions is a sharp structure which appears between t = -0.55 GeV 2 at 700 MeV and t = -0.72 GeV 2 at 950 MeV. Such a rapid variation of the differential cross section with t has never been observed in elastic hadron-hadron scattering or photoproduction processes. It indicates the existence of a dynamical mechanism which could be a peculiarity of Compton scattering. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiter, G F; Deb, Aniruddha
2014-01-01
Neutron Compton scattering(NCS) measurements of the momentum distribution of light ions using the Vesuvio instrument at ISIS provide a sensitive local probe of the environment of those ions. NCS measurements of the proton momentum distribution in bulk water show only small deviations from the usual picture of water as a collection of molecules, with the protons covalently bonded to an oxygen and interacting weakly, primarily electrostatically, with nearby molecules. However, a series of measurements of the proton momentum distribution in carbon nanotubes, xerogel, and Nafion show that the proton delocalizes over distances of 0.2-0.3Å when water is confined on the scale of 20Å. This delocalization must be the result of changes in the Born-Oppenheimer surface for the protons, which would imply that there are large deviations in the electron distribution from that of a collection of weakly interacting molecules. This has been observed at Spring-8 using x-ray Compton scattering. The observed deviation in the valence electron momentum distribution from that of bulk water is more than an order of magnitude larger than the change observed in bulk water as the water is heated from just above melting to just below boiling. We conclude that the protons and electrons in nano-confined water are in a qualitatively different ground state from that of bulk water. Since the properties of this state persist at room temperature, and the confinement distance necessary to observe it is comparable to the distance between the elements of biological cells, this state presumably plays a role in the functioning of those cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chighvinadze, T; Pistorius, S
2014-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the dependence of the reconstructed image quality on the number of projections in multi-projection Compton scatter tomography (MPCST). The conventional relationship between the projection number used for reconstruction and reconstructed image quality pertained to CT does not necessarily apply to MPCST, which can produce images from a single projection if the detectors have sufficiently high energy and spatial resolution. Methods: The electron density image was obtained using filtered-backprojection of the scatter signal over circular arcs formed using Compton equation. The behavior of the reconstructed image quality as a function of the projection number was evaluated through analytical simulations and characterized by CNR and MTF. Results: The increase of the projection number improves the contrast with this dependence being a function of fluence. The number of projections required to approach the asymptotic maximum contrast decreases as the fluence increases. Increasing projection number increases the CNR but not spatial resolution. Conclusions: For MPCST using a 500eV energy resolution and a 2×2mm 2 size detector, an adequate image quality can be obtained with a small number of projections provided the incident fluence is high enough. This is conceptually different from conventional CT where a minimum number of projections is required to obtain an adequate image quality. While increasing projection number, even for the lowest dose value, the CNR increases even though the number of photons per projection decreases. The spatial resolution of the image is improved by increasing the sampling within a projection rather than by increasing the number of projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio
2004-01-01
This paper shows a modeling technique to forecast probability density curves for the flows that represent the monthly affluence to hydropower reservoirs. Briefly, the factors that require affluence forecast in terms of probabilities, the ranges of existing forecast methods as well as the contradiction between those techniques and the real requirements of decision-making procedures are pointed out. The mentioned contradiction is resolved applying the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation that describes the time evolution of a stochastic process that can be considered as markovian. We show the numerical scheme for this equation, its initial and boundary conditions, and its application results in the case of Betania's reservoir
Coffey, W T; Titov, S V
2003-01-01
A theory of orientational relaxation for the inertial rotational Brownian motion of a symmetric top molecule is developed using the Langevin equation rather than the Fokker-Planck equation. The infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the orientational correlation functions for the relaxation behaviour is derived by averaging the corresponding Euler-Langevin equations. The solution of this hierarchy is obtained using matrix continued fractions allowing the calculation of the correlation times and the spectra of the orientational correlation functions for typical values of the model parameters.
Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); UTM Center for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.
Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granita; Bahar, Arifah
2015-01-01
The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaleil, A.; Le Flanchec, V.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.P.; Devaux, J.F.; Jacob, V.; Millerioux, M.; Bayle, A.; Balleyguier, P. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Prazeres, R. [CLIO/LCP, Bâtiment 201, Université Paris-Sud, F-91450 Orsay (France)
2016-12-21
An inverse Compton scattering source is under development at the ELSA linac of CEA, Bruyères-le-Châtel. Ultra-short X-ray pulses are produced by inverse Compton scattering of 30 ps-laser pulses by relativistic electron bunches. The source will be able to operate in single shot mode as well as in recurrent mode with 72.2 MHz pulse trains. Within this framework, an optical multipass system that multiplies the number of emitted X-ray photons in both regimes has been designed in 2014, then implemented and tested on ELSA facility in the course of 2015. The device is described from both geometrical and timing viewpoints. It is based on the idea of folding the laser optical path to pile-up laser pulses at the interaction point, thus increasing the interaction probability. The X-ray output gain measurements obtained using this system are presented and compared with calculated expectations.
Bohlen, TT; Patera, V; Sala, P R
2012-01-01
An accurate description of the basic physics processes of Compton scattering and positron annihilation in matter requires the consideration of atomic shell structure effects and, in specific, the momentum distributions of the atomic electrons. Two algorithms which model Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation at rest accounting for shell structure effects are proposed. Two-quanta positron annihilation is a physics process which is of particular importance for applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Both models use a detailed description of the processes which incorporate consistently Doppler broadening and binding effects. This together with the relatively low level of complexity of the models makes them particularly suited to be employed by fast sampling methods for Monte Carlo particle transport. Momentum distributions of shell electrons are obtained from parametrized one-electron Compton profiles. For conduction electrons, momentum distributions are derived in the framework...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suric, T.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R.H.
1996-01-01
We examine the charge (Z) dependence of the nonrelativistic high energy limit for the double to total ionization ratio by Compton scattering of a photon, as well as by the photoeffect, utilizing our approach based on the impulse approximation or on the generalized shake-off theory. For all Z our high energy Compton ratio is about half the corresponding photoeffect ratio, calculated using the same assumptions or, alternatively, the ratio of double ionization by Compton scattering to double ionization by the photoeffect is about half the ratio for single ionization. We conclude that all current Compton calculations are consistent with this result, and we show that the recent calculation of Amusia and Mikhailov [Phys. Lett. A 199 (1995) 209] corresponds to our high Z results. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahl, T.
1976-01-01
Compton scattering on hydrogen, deuterium and heavy nuclei up to hold was studied at very small momentum transfer and at two energies. Measurements were carried out in the region 0.002LT= /t/ LT=0.06 (GeV/c)**2 at 5 GeV and in the region 0.001 LT=/t/LT=0.02 (GeV/c)**2 at 3 GeV. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fanelli, C.; Salme, G.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.
2014-01-01
A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70 degrees), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized. The preliminary results appear consistent with GPD's based and Regge predictions. This is not sufficient yet to exclude pQCD COZ (Chernyak-Oglobin-Zhitnistsky) model, but it is another preliminary indication that the handbag approach seems to be the dominant mechanism at the energy of the experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gigante, G.E.; Sciuti, S.
1985-01-01
In this paper, experiments and related theoretical deductions on coherent/Compton scattering of 59.5-keV Am241 gamma line by bonelike materials are described. In particular, the authors demonstrate that a photon scattering mineralometer (PSM) can attain the best working conditions when it operates in a backscattering geometry mode. In fact, the large scattering angle they chose, theta = 135 degrees, allowed them to assemble a very compact source-detector device. Further, the relative sensitivity at 135 degrees turns out to be congruent to 1.7 and congruent to 6 times bigger than at 90 degrees and 45 degrees, respectively. The performances of the theta = 135 degrees PSM were experimentally investigated; i.e., in a measuring time of 10(3) s, a congruent to 5% statistical precision for bonelike materials, such as K 2 HPO 4 -water solutions, was obtained. The large-angle PSM device seems to be very promising for trabecular bone mineral density measurements in vivo in peripheral anatomic sites
First observation of multi-pulse X-ray train via multi-collision laser Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, R.; Toyokawa, H.; Yasumoto, M.; Ikeura-Sekiguchi, H.; Koike, M.; Yamada, K.; Yanagida, T.; Nakajyo, T.; Sakai, F.
2009-01-01
A compact hard X-ray source via laser Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed for biological and medical applications at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan. The multi-collision LCS has been investigated in order to enhance the X-ray yields. The first observation of multi-pulse X-ray train with 6 pulses via the multi-collision LCS has been successfully demonstrated between the multi-bunch electron train with 6 bunches and the multi-pulse Ti:Sa laser train with 6 pulses. The 32 MeV electron train was generated from a Cs 2 Te photocathode rf gun with a multi-pulse UV laser and the S-band linac. The Ti:Sa laser train was obtained with the chirp pulse amplification (CPA) including the modified regenerative amplifier. The X-ray train with 6 pulses with 12.6 ns spacing was observed with the micro-channel plate (MCP). The maximum energy of the X-ray is analytically estimated to be about 24 keV and the total number of generated photons was calculated to be about 1.8x10 6 photons/train.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Yi; Xiong Shengqing; Zhou Jianxin; Fan Zhengguo; Ge Liangquan
2014-01-01
γ-ray released by the radon daughter has severe impact on airborne γ-ray spectrometry. The spectral-ratio method is one of the best mathematical methods for radon background deduction in airborne γ-ray spectrometry. In this paper, an advanced spectral-ratio method was proposed which deducts Compton scattering ray by the fast Fourier transform rather than tripping ratios, the relationship between survey height and correction coefficient of the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction method was studied, the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction mathematic model was established, and the ground saturation model calibrating technology for correction coefficient was proposed. As for the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction method, its applicability and correction efficiency are improved, and the application cost is saved. Furthermore, it can prevent the physical meaning lost and avoid the possible errors caused by matrix computation and mathematical fitting based on spectrum shape which is applied in traditional correction coefficient. (authors)
A Spectral Geometrical Model for Compton Scatter Tomography Based on the SSS Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kazantsev, Ivan G.; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Poulsen, Henning Friis
2016-01-01
The forward model of single scatter in the Positron Emission Tomography for a detector system possessing an excellent spectral resolution under idealized geometrical assumptions is investigated. This model has the form of integral equations describing a flux of photons emanating from the same ann...
Spin effects in nonlinear Compton scattering in a plane-wave laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the electron angular and energy distribution in the non-linear Compton effect in a finite plane-wave laser pulse. We first present analytical and numerical results for unpolarized electrons (described by a Volkov solution of the Dirac equation), in comparison with those corresponding to a spinless particle (obeying the Klein–Gordon equation). Then, in the spin 1/2 case, we include results for the spin flip probability. The regime in which the spin effects are negligible, i.e. the results for the unpolarized spin 1/2 particle coincide practically with those for the spinless particle, is the same as the regime in which the emitted radiation is well described by classical electrodynamics.
Potential in stochastic differential equations: novel construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ao, P
2004-01-01
There is a whole range of emergent phenomena in a complex network such as robustness, adaptiveness, multiple-equilibrium, hysteresis, oscillation and feedback. Those non-equilibrium behaviours can often be described by a set of stochastic differential equations. One persistent important question is the existence of a potential function. Here we demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into stochastic differential equation allows us to construct such a global optimization potential function. We present an explicit construction procedure to obtain the potential and relevant quantities. In the procedure no reference to the Fokker-Planck equation is needed. The availability of the potential suggests that powerful statistical mechanics tools can be used in nonequilibrium situations. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larroche, O.
2007-01-01
A locally split-step explicit (LSSE) algorithm was developed for efficiently solving a multi-dimensional advection-diffusion type equation involving a highly inhomogeneous and highly anisotropic diffusion tensor, which makes the problem very ill-conditioned for standard implicit methods involving the iterative solution of large linear systems. The need for such an optimized algorithm arises, in particular, in the frame of thermonuclear fusion applications, for the purpose of simulating fast charged-particle slowing-down with an ion Fokker-Planck code. The LSSE algorithm is presented in this paper along with the results of a model slowing-down problem to which it has been applied
Photo-transmutation of {sup 100}Mo to {sup 99}Mo with Laser-Compton Scattering Gamma-ray
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
This paper presents a photonuclear transmutation method using laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-ray beam. Potential production rate (reaction rate) of 99Mo using the photonuclear (γ,n) reaction is evaluated. Rigorous optimization of the LCS spectrum has also been performed to maximize production of the 99Mo. Cyclotron proton accelerators are used worldwide to produce many short-living medical isotopes. However, few are capable of producing Mo-99 and none are suitable for producing more than a small fraction of the required amounts. More than 90% of the world's demand of 99Mo is sourced from five nuclear reactors. Two of these reactors have already been decommissioned and the rest are more than 45 years old. Relatively short half-life of the parent 99Mo requires continuous re-supply to meet the requirements of medical industry. Therefore, there is an urgent need to produce the 99Mo and 99mTc isotopes by alternative ways. One such alternative is giant dipole resonance (GDR) based photonuclear transmutation of 100Mo to 99Mo. For 99Mo production with the LCS photons using GDR-based (γ,n) reaction, the gamma-ray energy should be around 15 MeV. This study indicates that optimization of LCS spectrum by varying the electron and laser energies within practical limits can enhance the transmutation of Mo-100 to M-99 quite significantly. It has been found that irradiation time should be rather short, e.g., less than 6 hours, to maximize the weekly production of Mo-99 in the GDR-based Mo-99 production facility using the LCS photons. The analysis shows that production of 99Mo using a high-performance LCS facility offers a potentially-promising alternative for the production of 99mTc.
Compton scatter in germanium and its effect on imaging with gamma-ray position-sensitive detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherman, I.S.; Strauss, M.G.; Brenner, R.
1978-01-01
The spatial spread due to Compton scatter in Ge was measured to study the reduction in image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) resulting from erroneous readout in Ge position-sensitive detectors. The step response revealing this spread was obtained by scanning with a 122 keV γ-ray beam across a boundary of two sectors of a slotted coaxial Ge(Li) detector that is 40 mm diameter by 22 mm long. The derived line-spread function at 140 keV (/sup 99m/Tc) exhibits much shorter but thicker tails than those due to scatter in tissue as observed with a NaI detector through 5.5 cm of scattering material. Convolutions of rectangular profiles of voids with the Ge(Li) line-spread function show marked deterioration in contrast for voids less than 10 mm across, which in turn results in even greater deterioration of the S/N. As a result, the contrast for voids in Ge images is only 20 to 30 percent higher than that in NaI and the S/N is only comparable for equal detector areas. The degradation in image contrast due to scatter in Ge detectors can be greatly reduced by either using thin detectors (approximately 5 mm), where scatter virtually does not exist, or by using thicker detectors and rejecting scatter electronically. To reduce the effects of scatter on the S/N as well as on contrast, the erroneous position readouts must actually be corrected. A more realizable approach to achieving the ultimate potential of Ge detectors may be a scanning array of discrete detectors (not position sensitive) in which readout is not affected by scatter
High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartin, A.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Hamburg Univ.
2011-06-01
Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)
High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartin, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2011-06-15
Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)
Moment equation approach to neoclassical transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirshman, S.P.
1978-01-01
The neoclassical cross-field fluxes for a toroidally confined, axisymmetric plasma are calculated in terms of the thermodynamic forces from the fluid continuity and momentum balance equations. This macroscopic formulation of neoclassical transport theory unifies the numerous complex expressions for the transport coefficients, previously obtained by solving the Fokker--Planck equation, and elucidates their physical basis. In the large aspect ratio limit, the continuous transition in the scaling of the diffusion coefficient throughout various collisionality regimes is shown to depend on the ratio of parallel viscosity coefficients of the plasma species. Comparison of the present results with the kinetic theory expressions for the neoclassical fluxes determines the parallel viscosity coefficients for a multispecies plasma in the long-mean-free-path regime
Fonvieille, H; Laveissiere, G; Degrande, N; Jaminion, S; Jutier, C; Todor, L; Di Salvo, R; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Alexa, LC; Anderson, BD; Aniol, KA; Arundell, K; Audit, G; Auerbach, L; Baker, FT
2012-01-01
Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) on the proton has been studied at the Jefferson Laboratory using the exclusive photon electroproduction reaction ep -> ep gamma. This paper gives a detailed account of the analysis which has led to the determination of the structure functions P-LL - P-TT/epsilon and P-LT and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) alpha(E) (Q(2)) and beta(M) (Q(2)) at values of the four-momentum transfer squared Q(2) = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. These data, toget...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.
2009-09-01
Hard exclusive leptoproduction of real photons from an unpolarized proton target is studied in an effort to elucidate generalized parton distributions. The data accumulated during the years 1996-2005 with the HERMES spectrometer are analyzed to yield asymmetries with respect to the combined dependence of the cross section on beam helicity and charge, thereby revealing previously unseparated contributions from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The integrated luminosity is sufficient to show correlated dependences on two kinematic variables, and provides the most precise determination of the dependence on only the beam charge. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guegan, Baptiste [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
2012-11-01
The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schopferer, Sebastian
2013-12-16
The COMPASS-II experiment at CERN is focusing on a measurement of the deeply virtual Compton scattering. Several upgrades of the experimental setup have been performed in 2012, namely the construction of a long liquid hydrogen target and a surrounding recoil proton detector called CAMERA. Based on a time-of-flight measurement between two barrels of scintillators, the CAMERA detector allows to detect protons with a kinetic energy down to 35 MeV, which leave the target under large polar angles. At the same time, protons can be distinguished from other particles resulting from background processes by means of an energy loss measurement in the scintillating material. In order to extend the existing COMPASS trigger scheme, a digital trigger system has been developed, which is detailed in the thesis at hand. The trigger system is able to select events with a recoil proton in the final state while suppressing background events, using the particle identification capabilities of the CAMERA detector. Challenging selection criteria based on both the time-of-flight and the energy loss measurement call for a powerful programmable logic board. At the same time, the integration into the existing COMPASS trigger system poses strict constraints on the latency of the trigger decision. For the implementation of the proton trigger system, a new FPGA-based trigger and DAQ hardware called TIGER has been built. The module is operated in two firmware configurations, serving two distinct purposes. Firstly, the trigger processor is responsible for the generation of a trigger signal based on recoil particles, which is included in the global first-level trigger decision. Secondly, a readout concentrator allows to multiplex the data streams of up to 18 readout modules into one link to the DAQ. The CAMERA detector and the corresponding readout and trigger electronics was commissioned during a test run in autumn 2012. This thesis contains details about the trigger concept, the development of the
Pion Virtual Compton Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ocherashvili, Aharon [Tel Aviv U.
2000-01-01
Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming electron beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes the neutral vapor. Experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization in a neutral lithium (Li) vapor. By independently varying the bunch length, transverse spot size or number of electrons per bunch, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments. Based on the experimental results, the incoming beam ionizes the neutral Li vapor when its peak electric field is approximately 5 G V / m and higher. This electric field translates into a peak charge density of approximately 3x 1016 cm-3 . The experimental conditions are approximated and simulated in a 2-D particle-in-cell code, OOPIC. The code and the data correspond well in terms of the correct threshold conditions and the dependence on the critical beam parameters. In addition to the ionization threshold, the field ionization effects are characterized by the beam's energy loss through the Li vapor column due to the plasma wake field production. The peak and average energy loss as a result of wake production and beam propagation through the plasma is compared with simulation results from OOPIC. The simulation code accurately predicts the peak energy loss of the beam, but approximations in the code produce differences between the average energy loss measured and the loss calculated by the simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchand, D.
1998-11-01
This thesis presents the radiative corrections to the virtual compton scattering and the magnetic method adopted in the Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory, to measure the electrons beam energy with an accuracy of 10 4 . The virtual compton scattering experiments allow the access to the generalised polarizabilities of the protons. The extraction of these polarizabilities is obtained by the experimental and theoretical cross sections comparison. That's why the systematic errors and the radiative effects of the experiments have to be controlled very seriously. In this scope, a whole calculation of the internal radiative corrections has been realised in the framework of the quantum electrodynamic. The method of the dimensional regularisation has been used to the treatment of the ultraviolet and infra-red divergences. The absolute measure method of the energy, takes into account the magnetic deviation, made up of eight identical dipoles. The energy is determined from the deviation angle calculation of the beam and the measure of the magnetic field integral along the deviation
A mixed finite element method for nonlinear diffusion equations
Burger, Martin; Carrillo, José
2010-01-01
We propose a mixed finite element method for a class of nonlinear diffusion equations, which is based on their interpretation as gradient flows in optimal transportation metrics. We introduce an appropriate linearization of the optimal transport problem, which leads to a mixed symmetric formulation. This formulation preserves the maximum principle in case of the semi-discrete scheme as well as the fully discrete scheme for a certain class of problems. In addition solutions of the mixed formulation maintain exponential convergence in the relative entropy towards the steady state in case of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with uniformly convex potential. We demonstrate the behavior of the proposed scheme with 2D simulations of the porous medium equations and blow-up questions in the Patlak-Keller-Segel model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fanelli, Cristiano V. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)
2015-03-01
In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedala, Y.
2008-10-01
The main goal of this thesis is the study and design of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to amplify a laser beam in order to achieve power gains ranging from 10 4 to 10 5 . This cavity is dedicated to the production of intense and monochromatic X-ray for medical applications (medical RADIOTHOMX ring) and gamma rays for a Compton based polarized positron source by Compton scattering of a high power laser beam and electron beam. To increase the brightness of the Compton interaction at the collision points, it is essential to have not only a high power laser beam but also very small laser beam radii at the interaction points. To achieve such performances, 2 scenarios are possible: a concentric 2 mirrors cavity which is mechanically unstable or a 4 mirrors cavity more complex but more stable. We tested numerically mechanical stability and stability of Eigen modes polarization of various planar and non-planar geometries of 4 mirrors cavities. Experimentally, we have developed a four mirrors tetrahedral 'bow-tie' cavity; radii of the order of 20 microns were made. The Eigen modes of such a cavity, in both planar and non planar geometries, were measured and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement was observed. In a second time, the impact of Compton interaction on the transverse dynamics, in the case of the polarized positrons source, and the longitudinal dynamic, in the case of the medical ring of the electron beam was studied. Compton scattering causes energy loss and induces an additional dispersion of energy in electron beam. For the polarized positrons source, 10 collision points are planned. The transport line has been determined and the modelling of the Compton interaction effect with a simple matrix calculation was made. For the medical ring, Compton scattering causes bunch lengthening and the increase of energy dispersion which are to influence the produced X-ray flux. A study of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron beam in the ring was
Master equations in the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuo, M.; Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Zhuo, Y.
1988-07-01
In the first half of this paper, the authors describe briefly a recent theoretical approach where the mechanism of the large-amplitude dissipative collective motions can be investigated on the basis of the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics. Namely, we derive the general coupled master equations which can disclose, in the framework of the TDHF theory, not only non-linear dynamics among the collective and the single-particle modes of motion but also microscopic dynamics responsible for the dissipative processes. In the latter half, the authors investigate, without relying on any statistical hypothesis, one possible microscopic origin which leads us to the transport equation of the Fokker-Planck type so that usefullness of the general framework is demonstrated. (author)
From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galetti, D.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1985-01-01
Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author) [pt
Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons?
Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru
2009-12-01
The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.
Is the Langevin phase equation an efficient model for oscillating neurons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ota, Keisuke; Tsunoda, Takamasa; Aonishi, Toru; Omori, Toshiaki; Okada, Masato; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi
2009-01-01
The Langevin phase model is an important canonical model for capturing coherent oscillations of neural populations. However, little attention has been given to verifying its applicability. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for neural oscillators by using the machine learning method in two steps: (a) Learning of the Langevin phase model. We estimated the parameters of the Langevin phase equation, i.e., a phase response curve and the intensity of white noise from physiological data measured in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (b) Test of the estimated model. We verified whether a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the Langevin phase equation with the estimated parameters could capture the stochastic oscillatory behavior of the same neurons disturbed by periodic perturbations. The estimated model could predict the neural behavior, so we can say that the Langevin phase equation is an efficient model for oscillating neurons.
Laveissière, G; Todor, L; Degrande, N; Jaminion, S; Jutier, C; Di Salvo, R; Van Hoorebeke, L; Alexa, L C; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K A; Arundell, K; Audit, G; Auerbach, L; Baker, F T; Baylac, M; Berthot, J; Bertin, P Y; Bertozzi, W; Bimbot, L; Boeglin, W U; Brash, E J; Breton, V; Breuer, H; Burtin, E; Calarco, J R; Cardman, L S; Cavata, C; Chang, C-C; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dale, D S; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A; d'Hose, N; Dodge, G E; Domingo, J J; Elouadrhiri, L; Epstein, M B; Ewell, L A; Finn, J M; Fissum, K G; Fonvieille, H; Fournier, G; Frois, B; Frullani, S; Furget, C; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gomez, J; Gorbenko, V; Grenier, P; Guichon, P A M; Hansen, J O; Holmes, R; Holtrop, M; Howell, C; Huber, G M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jardillier, J; Jones, M K; Kahl, W; Kato, S; Katramatou, A T; Kelly, J J; Kerhoas, S; Ketikyan, A; Khayat, M; Kino, K; Kox, S; Kramer, L H; Kumar, K S; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Leone, A; LeRose, J J; Liang, M; Lindgren, R A; Liyanage, N; Lolos, G J; Lourie, R W; Madey, R; Maeda, K; Malov, S; Manley, D M; Marchand, C; Marchand, D; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marroncle, J; Martino, J; McCormick, K; McIntyre, J; Mehrabyan, S; Merchez, F; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Mougey, J Y; Nanda, S K; Neyret, D; Offermann, E A J M; Papandreou, Z; Pasquini, B; Perdrisat, C F; Perrino, R; Petratos, G G; Platchkov, S; Pomatsalyuk, R; Prout, D L; Punjabi, V A; Pussieux, T; Quémenér, G; Ransome, R D; Ravel, O; Real, J S; Renard, F; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rutledge, G; Rutt, P M; Saha, A; Saito, T; Sarty, A J; Serdarevic, A; Smith, T; Smirnov, G; Soldi, K; Sorokin, P; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Templon, J A; Terasawa, T; Tieulent, R; Tomasi-Gustaffson, E; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Vanderhaeghen, M; Van De Vyver, R; Van der Meer, R L J; Vernin, P; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wijesooriya, K; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zainea, D G; Zhang, W-M; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z-L
2004-09-17
We report a virtual Compton scattering study of the proton at low c.m. energies. We have determined the structure functions P(LL)-P(TT)/epsilon and P(LT), and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities (GPs) alpha(E)(Q2) and beta(M)(Q2) at momentum transfer Q(2)=0.92 and 1.76 GeV2. The electric GP shows a strong falloff with Q2, and its global behavior does not follow a simple dipole form. The magnetic GP shows a rise and then a falloff; this can be interpreted as the dominance of a long-distance diamagnetic pion cloud at low Q2, compensated at higher Q2 by a paramagnetic contribution from piN intermediate states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz Camacho, C
2005-12-15
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the late 90's, provide a universal description of hadrons in terms of the underlying degrees of freedom of Quantum Chromodynamics: quarks and gluons. GPDs appear in a wide variety of hard exclusive reactions and the advent of high luminosity accelerator facilities has made the study of GPDs accessible to experiment. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the golden process involving GPDs. The first dedicated DVCS experiment ran in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab in Fall 2004. An electromagnetic calorimeter and a plastic scintillator detector were constructed for this experiment, together with specific electronics and acquisition system. The experiment preparation, data taking and analysis are described in this document. Results on the absolute cross section difference for opposite beam helicities provide the first measurement of a linear combination of GPDs as a function of the momentum transfer to the nucleon. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Washio, M.; Sakaue, K.; Hama, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Moriyama, R.; Hezume, K.; Saito, T.; Kuroda, R.; Kashiwagi, S.; Ushida, K.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.
2006-01-01
High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm·mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzini, M.; Leoni, L.; Saitta, M.
1976-01-01
By utilizing a reflection geometry, an accurate mass absorption coefficient of a sample can be determined by measuring the Ag Kα Compton intensity. Intensities of Ag Kα Compton scattered radiation have been collected by using either the usual reflection geometry of a Philips PW 1450 automatic x-ray spectrometer or a more refined reflection geometry, achieved on a Philips PW 1540/10A manual x-ray spectrometer. The experimental results have shown that the relationship between the Ag Kα Compton intensity and the mass absorption is a logarithmic function. The experimental results are not in agreement with those reported in literature, but a theoretical explanation to account for this fact has not been achieved as yet. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, C.S.; Tornai, M.P.; Cherry, S.R.; MacDonald, L.R.; Hoffman, E.J.
1997-01-01
To improve spatial resolution, positron emission tomography (PET) systems are being developed with finer detector elements. Unfortunately, using a smaller crystal size increases intercrystal Compton scatter and X-ray escape crosstalk, causing positioning errors that can lead to degradation of image contrast. The authors investigated the use of extremely thin lead strips for passive shielding of this intercrystal crosstalk. Using annihilation gamma rays and small Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystal detectors in coincidence, crosstalk studies were performed with either two small adjacent crystals [(one-dimensional) (1-D)] or one crystal inside a volume of BGO [(two-dimensional) (2-D)]. The fraction of Compton scattered events from one crystal into an adjacent one was reduced, on average, by a factor of 3.2 (2.2) in the 1-D experiment and by a factor of 3.0 (2.1) in 2-D one, with a 300 (150)-microm-thick lead strip in between the crystals and a 300--700-keV energy window in both crystals. The authors could not measure a reduction in bismuth X-ray crosstalk with the sue of lead septa due to the production of lead X-rays of similar energy. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the coincident point-spread function (CPSF) was not significantly different for the 1- and 2-D studies, with or without the different septa in place. However, the FWTM was roughly 20% smaller with the 300-microm lead shielding in place. These results indicate that intercrystal crosstalk does not affect the positioning resolution at FWHM, but does affect the tails of the CPSF. Thus, without introducing any additional dead area, an insertion of very thin lead strips can reduce the extent of positioning errors. Reducing the intercrystal crosstalk in a high-resolution PET detector array could potentially improve tomographic image contrast in situations where intercrystal crosstalk plays a significant role in event mispositioning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thanh, Tran Thien; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Tran, Le Bao; Tam, Hoang Duc; Binh, Nguyen Thi; Tao, Chau Van
2015-01-01
This article focuses on the possible application of a "1"3"7Cs low-radioactive source (5 mCi) and a NaI(Tl) detector for measuring the saturation thickness of solid cylindrical steel targets. In order to increase the reliability of the obtained experimental results and to verify the detector response function of Compton scattering spectrum, simulation using Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP5) code is performed. The obtained results are in good agreement with the response functions of the simulation scattering and experimental scattering spectra. On the basis of such spectra, the saturation depth of a steel cylinder is determined by experiment and simulation at about 27 mm using gamma energy of 662 keV ("1"3"7Cs) at a scattering angle of 120°. This study aims at measuring the diameter of solid cylindrical objects by gamma-scattering technique. - Highlights: • This study aims a possible application a "1"3"7Cs low-radioactive source (5 mCi) and a NaI(Tl) detector for measuring the saturation thickness of solid cylindrical steel targets by gamma-scattering technique. • Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP5) code is performed to verify on the detector response function of Compton scattering spectrum. • The results show a good agreement in response function of the experimental and simulation scattering spectra. • The saturation depth of a steel cylinder is determined by experiment and simulation at about 27 mm using gamma energy of 662 keV ("1"3"7Cs) at a scattering angle of 120°.
Isostable reduction with applications to time-dependent partial differential equations.
Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff
2016-07-01
Isostables and isostable reduction, analogous to isochrons and phase reduction for oscillatory systems, are useful in the study of nonlinear equations which asymptotically approach a stationary solution. In this work, we present a general method for isostable reduction of partial differential equations, with the potential power to reduce the dimensionality of a nonlinear system from infinity to 1. We illustrate the utility of this reduction by applying it to two different models with biological relevance. In the first example, isostable reduction of the Fokker-Planck equation provides the necessary framework to design a simple control strategy to desynchronize a population of pathologically synchronized oscillatory neurons, as might be relevant to Parkinson's disease. Another example analyzes a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with relevance to action potential propagation in a cardiac system.
Treatment of constraints in the stochastic quantization method and covariantized Langevin equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikegami, Kenji; Kimura, Tadahiko; Mochizuki, Riuji
1993-01-01
We study the treatment of the constraints in the stochastic quantization method. We improve the treatment of the stochastic consistency condition proposed by Namiki et al. by suitably taking into account the Ito calculus. Then we obtain an improved Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation which naturally leads to the correct path integral quantization of the constrained system as the stochastic equilibrium state. This treatment is applied to an O(N) non-linear σ model and it is shown that singular terms appearing in the improved Langevin equation cancel out the δ n (0) divergences in one loop order. We also ascertain that the above Langevin equation, rewritten in terms of independent variables, is actually equivalent to the one in the general-coordinate transformation covariant and vielbein-rotation invariant formalism. (orig.)
Parabolic equations in biology growth, reaction, movement and diffusion
Perthame, Benoît
2015-01-01
This book presents several fundamental questions in mathematical biology such as Turing instability, pattern formation, reaction-diffusion systems, invasion waves and Fokker-Planck equations. These are classical modeling tools for mathematical biology with applications to ecology and population dynamics, the neurosciences, enzymatic reactions, chemotaxis, invasion waves etc. The book presents these aspects from a mathematical perspective, with the aim of identifying those qualitative properties of the models that are relevant for biological applications. To do so, it uncovers the mechanisms at work behind Turing instability, pattern formation and invasion waves. This involves several mathematical tools, such as stability and instability analysis, blow-up in finite time, asymptotic methods and relative entropy properties. Given the content presented, the book is well suited as a textbook for master-level coursework.
Transport equation and shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnard, D.
1981-04-01
A multi-group method is derived from a one dimensional transport equation for the slowing down and spatial transport of energetic positive ions in a plasma. This method is used to calculate the behaviour of energetic charged particles in non homogeneous and non stationary plasma, and the effect of energy deposition of the particles on the heating of the plasma. In that purpose, an equation for the density of fast ions is obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation, and a closure condition for the second moment of this equation is deduced from phenomenological considerations. This method leads to a numerical method, simple and very efficient, which doesn't require much computer storage. Two types of numerical results are obtained. First, results on the slowing down of 3.5 MeV alpha particles in a 50 keV plasma plublished by Corman and al and Moses are compared with the results obtained with both our method and a Monte Carlo type method. Good agreement was obtained, even for energy deposition on the ions of the plasma. Secondly, we have calculated propagation of alpha particles heating a cold plasma. These results are in very good agreement with those given by an accurate Monte Carlo method, for both the thermal velocity, and the energy deposition in the plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duda, J.; Hoefner, F.W.; Jung, M.; Kleissler, R.; Kueck, H.; Leu, P.; Marne, K.D. de; Munk, B.; Vogl, W.; Wedemeyer, R.
1982-11-01
Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering have been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. The experiment covers photon laboratory energies between 1.2 GeV and 1.7 GeV and the square of the four-momentum transfer ranges from t = -0.17 GeV 2 to -0.98 GeV 2 corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 35 0 and 80 0 . The cross sections exhibit a forward peak followed by a monotone fall-off up to the largest measured vertical stroketvertical stroke-values. Fits of the form dsigma/dt = A.exp(Bt) to the data points with vertical stroketvertical stroke 2 yield forward cross sections A, which are consistent with the 0 0 cross sections calculated from the measured total photon-proton cross section. The average slope is B = 5.6 +- 0.14 GeV 2 . (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, H.S.
2007-03-01
The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the 1990's, provide the most complete description of the structure (in quarks and gluons) of the nucleon. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which corresponds to the 'hard' exclusive electroproduction of photons on the nucleon, is a key process among the reactions allowing access to the GPDs. A DVCS-dedicated experiment was carried out in 2005 with the CLAS detector of Jefferson Lab, using a polarized electron beam of 5.776 GeV and a hydrogen target. For this experiment, we built and used a dedicated electromagnetic calorimeter capable of detecting the final-state photon. The collected data allowed us to study the DVCS in the widest kinematic range ever accessed for this reaction: 1 2 2 , 0.1 B 2 . The work performed during this PhD includes simulation work done for the preparation of the experiment, timing calibration of one of the CLAS subsystems, and data analysis. The aim of the data analysis was the extraction of the unpolarized cross sections of the studied reaction and of the difference of the polarized cross sections, this latter observable being linearly proportional to the GPDs. The obtained results were compared to DVCS theoretical calculations based on one of the most up-to-date GPD parametrizations. (author)
Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun
2017-08-01
Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delithiation processes is thus of great fundamental and practical interest for understanding the workings of battery materials. We show that inelastic scattering spectroscopy using high-energy x-ray photons (Compton scattering) can yield faithful momentum space images of the redox orbitals by considering lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 or LFP) as an exemplar cathode battery material. Our analysis reveals a new link between voltage and the localization of transition metal 3d orbitals and provides insight into the puzzling mechanism of potential shift and how it is connected to the modification of the bond between the transition metal and oxygen atoms. Our study thus opens a novel spectroscopic pathway for improving the performance of battery materials.
Kwiatkowska, J.; Maniawski, F.; Matsumoto, I.; Kawata, H.; Shiotani, N.; Lityńska, L.; Kaprzyk, S.; Bansil, A.
2004-08-01
We have measured high resolution Compton scattering profiles for momentum transfer along a series of 28 independent directions from Cu0.842Al0.158 disordered alloy single crystals with normals to the surfaces oriented along the [100], [110], and [111] directions. The experimental spectra are interpreted via parallel first-principles KKR-CPA (Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation) computations of these directional profiles. The Fermi surface determined by inverting the Compton data is found to be in good agreement with the KKR-CPA predictions. An electron diffraction study of the present Cu0.842Al0.158 sample is additionally undertaken to gain insight into short-range ordering effects. The scattering pattern displays not only the familiar diffuse scattering peaks, but also shows the presence of weak streaks interconnecting the four diffuse scattering spots around the (110) reciprocal lattice points. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the evolution of the shape of the Fermi surface of Cu with the addition of Al . Our results are consistent with the notion that Fermi surface nesting is an important factor in driving short-range ordering effects in disordered alloys.