WorldWideScience

Sample records for compressors air inlet

  1. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  2. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun; Tan, Ji Jian

    2016-01-01

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets

  3. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Tan, Ji Jian [Dept. of Research and Development, Shenyang Blower Works Group Co., Ltd., Shenyang (China)

    2016-11-15

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets.

  4. Impact of inlet coherent motions on compressor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlese, Jacopo; Spoleti, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Automotive engine induction systems may be characterized by significant flow angularity and total pressure distortion at the compressor inlet. The impact of the swirl on compressor performance should be quantified to guide the design of the induction systems. In diesel engines, the presence of a valve for flow reduction and control of low pressure EGR recirculation could generate coherent motion and influence the performance of the compressor. Starting from experimental map, the compressor speed-lines have been simulated using a 3D CFD commercial code imposing different concept motion at the inlet. The swirl intensity, the direction and the number of vortices have been imposed in order to taking into account some combinations. Finally, a merit function has been defined to evaluate the performance of the compressor with the defined swirl concepts. The aim of the current work is to obtain an indication on the effect of a swirling motion at the compressor inlet on the engine performance and provide a guideline to the induction system design.

  5. A systematic approach to find the best road map for enhancement of a power plant with dew point inlet air pre-cooling of the air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohani, Ali; Farasati, Yashar; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew-point cooler was proposed in order to enhance a power plant. • A systematic method to find the best road map was offered. • Investigation was done considering four optimization scenarios and different investment plans. • Payback period of the final plan was 2.67 years. • Annual net power and steam generation’s capability were improved 6.02% and 8.92%. - Abstract: Dimensional characteristics and operating parameters of the optimized Maisotsenko indirect evaporative cooler for pre-cooling of the compressor’s inlet air and consequently enhancement of the gas-turbine power generation system as well as the best investment strategy for it were found for an in-operation combined cycle power plant through a systematic approach. Four optimization scenarios were proposed considering different combinations of annual average of net power of the gas-turbine power generation system, payback period time and enthalpy difference of exhaust gases compared to the reference state of each gas-turbine power generation system as objective functions. In each scenario, optimization was conducted for different possible percentages of investment allocated to the research and development of the project. After that, analytical hierarchy process was used to find the best percentage of investment allocated to the research and development of the project of each scenario and the final selected one. Having introduced the approach, it was implemented for Montazer-Ghaem combined cycle power plant in Iran. The results showed for that case study, the analytical hierarchy process selected an optimization scenario in which the annual average of the net power and the enthalpy difference of the exhaust gases compared to the reference state were the objective functions and 15% of the total profit of the gas-turbine power generation system sold electricity was dedicated to the improvement project. This optimization had the payback period time of 2.67 years and it also improved

  6. Experimental Investigation of Inlet Distortion in a Multistage Axial Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Razvan

    The primary objective of this research is to present results and methodologies used to study total pressure inlet distortion in a multi-stage axial compressor environment. The study was performed at the Purdue 3-Stage Axial Compressor Facility (P3S) which models the final three stages of a production turbofan engine's high-pressure compressor (HPC). The goal of this study was twofold; first, to design, implement, and validate a circumferentially traversable total pressure inlet distortion generation system, and second, to demonstrate data acquisition methods to characterize the inter-stage total pressure flow fields to study the propagation and attenuation of a one-per-rev total pressure distortion. The datasets acquired for this study are intended to support the development and validation of novel computational tools and flow physics models for turbomachinery flow analysis. Total pressure inlet distortion was generated using a series of low-porosity wire gauze screens placed upstream of the compressor in the inlet duct. The screens are mounted to a rotatable duct section that can be precisely controlled. The P3S compressor features fixed instrumentation stations located at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) and downstream and upstream of each vane row. Furthermore, the compressor features individually indexable stator vanes which can be traverse by up to two vane passages. Using a series of coordinated distortion and vane traverses, the total pressure flow field at the AIP and subsequent inter-stage stations was characterized with a high circumferential resolution. The uniformity of the honeycomb carrier was demonstrated by characterizing the flow field at the AIP while no distortion screens where installed. Next, the distortion screen used for this study was selected following three iterations of porosity reduction. The selected screen consisted of a series of layered screens with a 100% radial extent and a 120° circumferential extent. A detailed total

  7. Investigation on inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Wang, Yingjun; Lao, Dazhong; Tong, Ding; Wei, Longyu; Liu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    The inlet recirculation characteristics of double suction centrifugal compressor with unsymmetrical inlet structures were studied in numerical method, mainly focused on three issues including the amounts and differences of the inlet recirculation in different working conditions, the circumferential non-uniform distributions of the inlet recirculation, the recirculation velocity distributions of the upstream slot of the rear impeller. The results show that there are some differences between the recirculation of the front impeller and that of the rear impeller in whole working conditions. In design speed, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is larger than that of the front impeller in the large flow range, but in the small flow range, the recirculation flow rate of the rear impeller is smaller than that of the front impeller. In different working conditions, the recirculation velocity distributions of the front and rear impeller are non-uniform along the circumferential direction and their non-uniform extents are quite different. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity varies with the working conditions change. The circumferential non-uniform extent of the recirculation velocity of front impeller and its distribution are determined by the static pressure distribution of the front impeller, but that of the rear impeller is decided by the coupling effects of the inlet flow distortion of the rear impeller, the circumferential unsymmetrical distribution of the upstream slot and the asymmetric structure of the volute. In the design flow and small flow conditions, the recirculation velocities at different circumferential positions of the mean line of the upstream slot cross-section of the rear impeller are quite different, and the recirculation velocities distribution forms at both sides of the mean line are different. The recirculation velocity distributions in the cross-section of the upstream slot depend on the static pressure

  8. Preliminary Results of the Determination of Inlet-Pressure Distortion Effects on Compressor Stall and Altitude Operating Limits of the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, L. E.; Lubick, R. J.; Chelko, L. J.

    1955-01-01

    During an investigation of the J57-P-1 turbojet engine in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel, effects of inlet-flow distortion on engine stall characteristics and operating limits were determined. In addition to a uniform inlet-flow profile, the inlet-pressure distortions imposed included two radial, two circumferential, and one combined radial-circumferential profile. Data were obtained over a range of compressor speeds at an altitude of 50,000 and a flight Mach number of 0.8; in addition, the high- and low-speed engine operating limits were investigated up to the maximum operable altitude. The effect of changing the compressor bleed position on the stall and operating limits was determined for one of the inlet distortions. The circumferential distortions lowered the compressor stall pressure ratios; this resulted in less fuel-flow margin between steady-state operation and compressor stall. Consequently, the altitude operating Limits with circumferential distortions were reduced compared with the uniform inlet profile. Radial inlet-pressure distortions increased the pressure ratio required for compressor stall over that obtained with uniform inlet flow; this resulted in higher altitude operating limits. Likewise, the stall-limit fuel flows required with the radial inlet-pressure distortions were considerably higher than those obtained with the uniform inlet-pressure profile. A combined radial-circumferential inlet distortion had effects on the engine similar to the circumferential distortion. Bleeding air between the two compressors eliminated the low-speed stall limit and thus permitted higher altitude operation than was possible without compressor bleed.

  9. Cooling system at the compressors air inlet of the gas turbines from the Tula`s combined cycle central; Sistema de enfriamiento en la succion del compresor de las turbinas de gas de la central de ciclo combinado de Tula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez F, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico); Romero Paredes, Hernando; Vargas, Martin; Gomez, Jose Francisco [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    It has been formerly evaluated that it is possible to enhance notably the electric power generation in gas turbine power plants by cooling the air at the compressor inlet. It has been pointed out that provided a source of waste heat is available it can be very attractive the use of absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper the technical and the economical benefits of bringing the air inlet temperature down 8 Celsius degrees of the four gas turbines of the Combined Cycle Central of Tula, in the State of Hidalgo (combined cycle central-Tula) are evaluated. The results show that it is possible to achieve an efficiency enhancement of at least 1%, and that in very warm days up to 48 additional Megawatts can be generated, or about 10% of the installed capacity. The final economic result is very encouraging and an annual economical benefit in the order of 50 million pesos can be obtained and the refrigeration units can be amortized in approximately one year. [Espanol] Se ha evaluado anteriormente que es posible mejorar notablemente la capacidad de generacion electrica en plantas que utilizan turbinas de gas, mediante el enfriamiento del aire de succion del compresor. Se ha senalado que en la medida en que se encuentre disponible una fuente termica de desecho puede ser muy atractivo el uso de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion. En el presente trabajo se evaluan los beneficios tecnicos y economicos que puede tener el llevar el aire de succion hasta una temperatura de 8 grados Celsius, de las cuatro unidades de gas de la Central de Ciclo Combinado de Tula, Hidalgo (CCC-Tula). Los resultados muestran que es posible alcanzar un aumento en la eficiencia de al menos 1% y que se pueden generar, en dias muy calurosos, hasta 48 MW extras, equivalente al 10% de la capacidad instalada. El resultado economico final es muy alentador y puede llegar a tenerse un beneficio economico del orden de los 50 millones de pesos anuales y las unidades de refrigeracion podran pagarse en

  10. Cooling system at the compressors air inlet of the gas turbines from the Tula`s combined cycle central; Sistema de enfriamiento en la succion del compresor de las turbinas de gas de la central de ciclo combinado de Tula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez F, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico); Romero Paredes, Hernando; Vargas, Martin; Gomez, Jose Francisco [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    It has been formerly evaluated that it is possible to enhance notably the electric power generation in gas turbine power plants by cooling the air at the compressor inlet. It has been pointed out that provided a source of waste heat is available it can be very attractive the use of absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper the technical and the economical benefits of bringing the air inlet temperature down 8 Celsius degrees of the four gas turbines of the Combined Cycle Central of Tula, in the State of Hidalgo (combined cycle central-Tula) are evaluated. The results show that it is possible to achieve an efficiency enhancement of at least 1%, and that in very warm days up to 48 additional Megawatts can be generated, or about 10% of the installed capacity. The final economic result is very encouraging and an annual economical benefit in the order of 50 million pesos can be obtained and the refrigeration units can be amortized in approximately one year. [Espanol] Se ha evaluado anteriormente que es posible mejorar notablemente la capacidad de generacion electrica en plantas que utilizan turbinas de gas, mediante el enfriamiento del aire de succion del compresor. Se ha senalado que en la medida en que se encuentre disponible una fuente termica de desecho puede ser muy atractivo el uso de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion. En el presente trabajo se evaluan los beneficios tecnicos y economicos que puede tener el llevar el aire de succion hasta una temperatura de 8 grados Celsius, de las cuatro unidades de gas de la Central de Ciclo Combinado de Tula, Hidalgo (CCC-Tula). Los resultados muestran que es posible alcanzar un aumento en la eficiencia de al menos 1% y que se pueden generar, en dias muy calurosos, hasta 48 MW extras, equivalente al 10% de la capacidad instalada. El resultado economico final es muy alentador y puede llegar a tenerse un beneficio economico del orden de los 50 millones de pesos anuales y las unidades de refrigeracion podran pagarse en

  11. A study on flow development in an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangyuan

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the flow development inside an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance. The motivation arises from the increased applications of gas turbine engines installed with APU-style inlets such as unmanned aerial vehicles, auxiliary power units, and helicopters. The inlet swirl distortion created from these complicated inlet systems has become a major performance and operability concern. To improve the integration between the APU-style inlet and gas turbine engines, better understanding of the flow field in the APU-style inlet and its effect on gas turbine is necessary. A research facility for the purpose of performing an experimental investigation of the flow field inside an APU-style inlet was developed. A subcritical air ejector is used to continuously flow the inlet at desired corrected mass flow rates. The facility is capable of flowing the APU inlet over a wide range of corrected mass flow rate that matches the same Mach numbers as engine operating conditions. Additionally, improvement in the system operational steadiness was achieved by tuning the pressure controller using a PID control method and utilizing multi-layer screens downstream of the APU inlet. Less than 1% relative unsteadiness was achieved for full range operation. The flow field inside the rectangular-sectioned 90? bend of the APU-style inlet was measured using a 3-Component LDV system. The structures for both primary flow and the secondary flow inside the bend were resolved. Additionally, the effect of upstream geometry on the flow development in the downstream bend was also investigated. Furthermore, a Single Stage Centrifugal Compressor research facility was developed at Purdue University in collaboration with Honeywell to operate the APU-style inlet at engine conditions with a compressor. To operate the facility, extensive infrastructure for facility health monitoring and performance control (including lubrication

  12. Air compressor efficiency in a Vietnamese enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [3E and T International, Suite 1506, Building No. 10, Luo Ma Shi Street, Xuan Wu District, Beijing 100052 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Compressed air systems in a Vietnamese footwear manufacturing enterprise consume about 10% of enterprise's total electric power supply. Energy efficiency of these air compressor systems, either equipped with new and efficient compressors or old and inefficient ones, can only reach between 5% and 10%. In other words, regardless whatever air compressors were installed, energy loss from the compressor systems was over 80%. This study discovered that energy loss was due to non-optimized operations of the air compressor systems and air leakages. The objectives of the paper are to uncover energy saving potential in Vietnamese air compressor systems, demonstrate methodologies used in the auditing and assessment, share auditing and assessment results, and serve a guide on how to analyze energy efficiency in a compressed air system. This paper concludes that energy efficiency investment in air compressor systems in the Vietnamese enterprise could be extremely cost-effective. If the enterprise invests USD 84,000 in the air compressors to improve efficiency performance, the investment capital will be recovered in about six months. The net present value of the investment will be about USD 864,000 at a discount rate of 12%. (author)

  13. Air compressor efficiency in a Vietnamese enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ming [3E and T International, Suite 1506, Building No. 10, Luo Ma Shi Street, Xuan Wu District, Beijing 100052 (China)], E-mail: ming.yang7@gmail.com

    2009-06-15

    Compressed air systems in a Vietnamese footwear manufacturing enterprise consume about 10% of enterprise's total electric power supply. Energy efficiency of these air compressor systems, either equipped with new and efficient compressors or old and inefficient ones, can only reach between 5% and 10%. In other words, regardless whatever air compressors were installed, energy loss from the compressor systems was over 80%. This study discovered that energy loss was due to non-optimized operations of the air compressor systems and air leakages. The objectives of the paper are to uncover energy saving potential in Vietnamese air compressor systems, demonstrate methodologies used in the auditing and assessment, share auditing and assessment results, and serve a guide on how to analyze energy efficiency in a compressed air system. This paper concludes that energy efficiency investment in air compressor systems in the Vietnamese enterprise could be extremely cost-effective. If the enterprise invests USD 84,000 in the air compressors to improve efficiency performance, the investment capital will be recovered in about six months. The net present value of the investment will be about USD 864,000 at a discount rate of 12%.

  14. Air compressor efficiency in a Vietnamese enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2009-01-01

    Compressed air systems in a Vietnamese footwear manufacturing enterprise consume about 10% of enterprise's total electric power supply. Energy efficiency of these air compressor systems, either equipped with new and efficient compressors or old and inefficient ones, can only reach between 5% and 10%. In other words, regardless whatever air compressors were installed, energy loss from the compressor systems was over 80%. This study discovered that energy loss was due to non-optimized operations of the air compressor systems and air leakages. The objectives of the paper are to uncover energy saving potential in Vietnamese air compressor systems, demonstrate methodologies used in the auditing and assessment, share auditing and assessment results, and serve a guide on how to analyze energy efficiency in a compressed air system. This paper concludes that energy efficiency investment in air compressor systems in the Vietnamese enterprise could be extremely cost-effective. If the enterprise invests USD 84,000 in the air compressors to improve efficiency performance, the investment capital will be recovered in about six months. The net present value of the investment will be about USD 864,000 at a discount rate of 12%.

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of impact of inlet air cooling techniques on gas turbine and combined cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Alok Ku; Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (T i , C ), turbine inlet temperature (T i , T ), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum T i , T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K

  16. The effect of inlet distorted flow on steady and unsteady performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2005-01-01

    Effects of inlet distorted flow on performance, stall and surge are experimentally investigated for a high-speed centrifugal compressor. Tested results for the distorted inlet flow cases are compared with the result of the undistorted one. The performance of compressor is slightly deteriorated due to the inlet distortion. The inlet distortion does not affect the number of stall cell and the propagation velocity. It also does not change stall inception flow rate. However, as the distortion increases, stall starts at the higher flow rate for low speed at the lower flow rate for high speed. For 50,000 rpm stall occurs as the flow rate decreases, however disappears for the smaller flow rate. This is due to the interaction of surge and stall. After the stall and surge interact, the number of stall cell decreases

  17. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  18. Orbiting compressor for residential air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Ahn, Jong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Incheon, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    A new type of compressor, called an orbiting compressor, is introduced in this paper. The orbiting compressor is characterized by an orbiting piston, and the piston or orbiter consists of a circular base plate and a ring type vane protruding vertically from the base plate. The orbiter is made to orbit in an annular space formed between two concentric circular walls via an Oldham-ring mechanism, producing two sealed gas pockets on both sides of the vane wrap with a 180 phase difference. This operating mechanism leads to alternating compression and discharge processes, which results in low torque variation. The orbiting compressor has been designed for an R410A residential air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 10.0 kW. The performance of the orbiting compressor model has been analytically investigated, where the volumetric, adiabatic and mechanical efficiencies were calculated to be 94.8%, 90.4% and 93.4%, respectively for the ARI condition. The EER was estimated to be about 10.86 with a motor efficiency of 89%. (author)

  19. Automatic efficiency optimization of an axial compressor with adjustable inlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Chen, Jingyi

    2012-04-01

    The inlet attack angle of rotor blade reasonably can be adjusted with the change of the stagger angle of inlet guide vane (IGV); so the efficiency of each condition will be affected. For the purpose to improve the efficiency, the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) controller is designed to adjust the stagger angle of IGV automatically in order to optimize the efficiency at any operating condition. The A/D signal collection includes inlet static pressure, outlet static pressure, outlet total pressure, rotor speed and torque signal, the efficiency can be calculated in the DSP, and the angle signal for the stepping motor which control the IGV will be sent out from the D/A. Experimental investigations are performed in a three-stage, low-speed axial compressor with variable inlet guide vanes. It is demonstrated that the DSP designed can well adjust the stagger angle of IGV online, the efficiency under different conditions can be optimized. This establishment of DSP online adjustment scheme may provide a practical solution for improving performance of multi-stage axial flow compressor when its operating condition is varied.

  20. Effect of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative numerical studies to investigate the effects of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades. A series of swept and straight cascades was modeled in order to obtain a general understanding of the inlet flow field that is induced by sweep. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD package was used to simulate the cascades and obtain the required three-dimensional (3D flow parameters. A circumferentially averaged method was introduced which provided the circumferential fluctuation (CF terms in the momentum equation. A program for data reduction was conducted to obtain a circumferentially averaged flow field. The influences of the inlet flow fields of the cascades were studied and spanwise distributions of each term in the momentum equation were analyzed. The results indicate that blade sweep does affect inlet radial equilibrium. The characteristic of radial fluid transfer is changed and thus influencing the axial velocity distributions. The inlet flow field varies mainly due to the combined effect of the radial pressure gradient and the CF component. The axial velocity varies consistently with the incidence variation induced by the sweep, as observed in the previous literature. In addition, factors that might influence the radial equilibrium such as blade camber angles, solidity and the effect of the distance from the leading edge are also taken into consideration and comparatively analyzed.

  1. Performance of a Low Speed Axial Compressor Rotor Blade Row under Different Inlet Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taghavi Zenouz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Responses of an axial compressor isolated rotor blade row to various inlet distortions have been investigated utilizing computational fluid dynamic technique. Distortions have been imposed by five screens of different geometries, but with the same blockage ratio. These screens were embedded upstream of the rotor blade row. Flow fields are simulated in detail for compressor design point and near stall conditions. Performance curves for distorted cases are extracted and compared to the undisturbed case. Flow simulations and consequent performance characteristics show that the worst cases belong to non-symmetric blockages, i.e., those of partial circumferential configurations. These cases produce the largest wakes which can disturb the flow, considerably. Superior performances correspond to the inner and outer continuous circumferential distortion screens. Since, they produce no significant disturbances to the main flow in comparison to the non-symmetric screens.

  2. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  3. Development of an Experimental Data Base to Validate Compressor-Face Boundary Conditions Used in Unsteady Inlet Flow Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajben, Miklos; Freund, Donald D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to predict the dynamics of integrated inlet/compressor systems is an important part of designing high-speed propulsion systems. The boundaries of the performance envelope are often defined by undesirable transient phenomena in the inlet (unstart, buzz, etc.) in response to disturbances originated either in the engine or in the atmosphere. Stability margins used to compensate for the inability to accurately predict such processes lead to weight and performance penalties, which translate into a reduction in vehicle range. The prediction of transients in an inlet/compressor system requires either the coupling of two complex, unsteady codes (one for the inlet and one for the engine) or else a reliable characterization of the inlet/compressor interface, by specifying a boundary condition. In the context of engineering development programs, only the second option is viable economically. Computations of unsteady inlet flows invariably rely on simple compressor-face boundary conditions (CFBC's). Currently, customary conditions include choked flow, constant static pressure, constant axial velocity, constant Mach number or constant mass flow per unit area. These conditions are straightforward extensions of practices that are valid for and work well with steady inlet flows. Unfortunately, it is not at all likely that any flow property would stay constant during a complex system transient. At the start of this effort, no experimental observation existed that could be used to formulate of verify any of the CFBC'S. This lack of hard information represented a risk for a development program that has been recognized to be unacceptably large. The goal of the present effort was to generate such data. Disturbances reaching the compressor face in flight may have complex spatial structures and temporal histories. Small amplitude disturbances may be decomposed into acoustic, vorticity and entropy contributions that are uncoupled if the undisturbed flow is uniform. This study

  4. Variable speed gas engine-driven air compressor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. R.; Ruggles, A. E.; Chen, T. N.; Gehret, J.

    1992-11-01

    Tecogen Inc. and Ingersoll-Rand Co. as a subcontractor have designed a nominal 150-hp gas engine-driven air compressor utilizing the TECODRIVE 8000 engine and the Ingersoll-Rand 178.5-mm twin screw compressor. Phase 1 included the system engineering and design, economic and applications studies, and a draft commercialization plan. Phase 2 included controls development, laboratory prototype construction, and performance testing. The testing conducted verified that the compressor meets all design specifications.

  5. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav, K. V.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an in...

  6. Experimental Investigation of an Automobile Air-Conditioning System using Integrated Brushless Direct Current Motor Rotary Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of condenser air inlet temperature and dimensionless parameter of X on the performance of automobile air-conditioning (AAC system using integrated brushless direct current motor-rotary compressor and electronic expansion valve. The other components of AAC system are from original component of AAC system used for medium size passenger car. The experimental results showed that the increment of the condenser air inlet temperature and X caused an increase in condensing temperature, cooling capacity and compressor work, while decreasing the coefficient of performance (COP. Meanwhile, the evaporating temperature increase with the increment of condenser air inlet temperature, but decrease with decrement of X. In general, AAC system have to work at higher value of X in order to produce more cooling capacity, thereby increment in compressor work also occurs due to energy balance. However, at higher value of X, the COP of the system dropped due to dominant increase in compressor power, as opposed to a rise in cooling capacity. Due to this reason, the best operation of this compressor occurs at X = 4.96 for constant T5 (35ºC, or at T5 = 30ºC for constant X (4.96.

  7. Sound reduction of air compressors using a systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Justin Tharp

    The noise emitted by portable electric air compressors can often be a nuisance or potentially hazardous to the operator or others nearby. Therefore, reducing the noise of these air compressors is desired. This research focuses on compressors with a reciprocating piston design as this is the most common type of pump design for portable compressors. An experimental setup was developed to measure the sound and vibration of the air compressors, including testing inside a semi-anechoic chamber. The design of a quiet air compressor was performed in four stages: 1) Teardown and benchmarking of air compressors, 2) Identification and isolation of noise sources, 3) Development of individual means to quiet noise sources, 4) Selection and testing of integrated solutions. The systematic approach and results for each of these stages will be discussed. Two redesigned solutions were developed and measured to be approximately 65% quieter than the previous unmodified compressor. An additional analysis was performed on the solutions selected by the participants involved in the selection process. This analysis involved determining which of the design criteria each participant considered most important when selecting solutions. The results from each participant were then compared to their educational background and experience and correlations were identified. The correlations discovered suggest that educational background and experience may be key determinants for the preference models developed.

  8. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Yasui, Ryutaro; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2017-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, the compressed air at the exit of centrifugal compressor was re-circulated and injected to the impeller inlet by using two injection nozzles in order to suppress the surge phenomenon. The most effective circumferential position was examined to reduce the flow rate at the surge inception. Moreover, the influences of the injection on the fluctuating property of the flow field before and after the surge inception were investigated by examining the frequency of static pressure fluctuation on the wall surface and visualizing the compressor wall surface by oil-film visualization technique.

  9. Air Compressor Driving with Synchronous Motors at Optimal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliu Petrica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of optimal compensation of the reactive load by the synchronous motors, driving the air compressors, used in mining enterprises is presented, taking into account that in this case, the great majority of the equipment (compressors, pumps are generally working a constant load.

  10. Study on the coupling performance of a turboexpander compressor applied in cryogenic reverse Brayton air refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shanju; Chen, Shuangtao; Chen, Xingya; Zhang, Xingqun; Hou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations on expansion and compression processes were carried out. • A coupling model was built based on analysis and simulation and verified by test. • Relations and interactions among coupling parameters were quantitatively described. • When T_0_C = 0.39 MPa, the cooling capacity of refrigerator reached 221 W at 129.6 K. - Abstract: A small cryogenic reverse Brayton air refrigerator with turboexpander compressor (TEC) is presented in this study. Because of stable process, simple matching between expander and brake blower, and easy regulation, a turboexpander with brake blower is usually used in small reverse Brayton refrigerator. However, a turboexpander with brake blower just consumes and wastes the output energy during the enthalpy drop. In contrast, the output energy of TEC is absorbed by its coupled compressor for recycling. Thus when employing a TEC, the reverse Brayton refrigerator will achieve lower refrigeration temperature, larger cooling capacity and more effective energy use. TEC overall performance, which has an important impact on the refrigerator thermal performance, is mainly determined by the coupling between expander and compressor. In a TEC, the compressor and expander should seek balance among energy, rotating speed, mass flow rate and pressure, though restricted by individual working characteristics. The coupling relations among compressor efficiency, expander efficiency, compressor pressure ratio and expander expansion ratio are quite complex. In this study, theoretical coupling analysis between expander and compressor was conducted. The aerodynamic performances of compressor and expander were calculated using CFX simulation with SST model. The performance curves of compressor and expander were obtained through simulation results, which were validated by experimental data. Based on the coupling analysis and numerical simulations, the automatic coupling model between compression process and expansion process

  11. Numerical simulation of air flow through turbocharger compressors with dual volute design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo; Wu, Hao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Sun, Harold; Schram, Tim [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48126 (United States); Krivitzky, Eric; Larosiliere, Louis M. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VT 05001 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, turbocharger centrifugal compressors with dual volute design were investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The numerical simulation focused on the air flow from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, and the overall performance level and range are predicted. The numerical investigation revealed that the dual volute design could separate the compressor into two operating regions: ''high efficiency'' and ''low efficiency'' regions with different air flow characteristics, and treating these two regions separately with dual diffuser design showed extended stable operating range and improved efficiency by comparing with conventional single volute design. The ''dual sequential volute'' concept also showed the potential to further extend the stable operating range by closing one of the volutes at low air flow rates. Furthermore, by comparing with other alternate designs such as variable diffuser vanes and variable inlet guide vanes, the operation of the dual sequential volute also features relatively simple control and calibration. (author)

  12. PIV measurements of the flow at the inlet of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with recirculation casing treatment near the inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Guillou, Erwann

    2016-02-01

    Turbocharging reciprocating engines is a viable solution in order to meet the new regulations for emissions and fuel efficiency in part because turbochargers allow to use smaller, more efficient engines (downsizing) while maintaining power. A major challenge is to match the flow range of a dynamic turbomachine (the centrifugal compressor in the turbocharger) with a positive displacement pump (the engine) as the flow range of the latter is typically higher. The operating range of the compressor is thus of prime interest. At low mass flow rate (MFR), the compressor range is limited by the occurrence of surge. To control and improve it, numerous and varied methods have been used. Yet, an automotive application requires that the solution remains relatively simple and preferably passive. A common feature that has been demonstrated to improve the surge line is the use of flow recirculation in the inducer region through a circumferential bleed slot around the shroud, also called "ported shroud", similar to what has been developed for axial compressors in the past. The compressor studied here features such a device. In order to better understand the effect of the recirculation slot on the compressor functioning, flow measurements were performed at the inlet using particle image velocimetry and the results were correlated with pressure measurements nearby. Measurements were taken on a compressor with and without recirculation and across the full range of normal operation and during surge using a phase-locking method to obtain average flow fields throughout the entire surge cycle. When the recirculation is blocked, it was found that strong backflow develops at low MFR perturbing the incoming flow and inducing significant preswirl. The slot eliminated most of the backflow in front of the inducer making the compressor operation more stable. The measurements performed during surge showed strong backflow occurring periodically during the outlet pressure drop and when the

  13. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  14. Turbulence measurements in the inlet plane of a centrifugal compressor vaneless diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinarbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Detailed flow measurements at the inlet of a centrifugal compressor vaneless diffuser are presented. The mean 3-d velocities and six Reynolds stress components tensor are used to determine the turbulence production terms which lead to total pressure loss. High levels of turbulence kinetic energy were observed in both the blade and passage wakes, but these were only associated with high Reynolds stresses in the blade wakes. For this reason the blade wakes mixed out rapidly, whereas the passage wake maintained its size, but was redistributed across the full length of the shroud wall. Peak levels of Reynolds stress occurred in regions of high velocity shear and streamline curvature which would tend to destabilize the shear gradient. Four regions in the flow are identified as potential sources of loss - the blade wake, the shear layers between passage wake and jet, the thickened hub boundary layer and the interaction region between the secondary flow within the blade wake and the passage vortex. The blade wakes generate most turbulence, with smaller contributions from the hub boundary layer and secondary flows, but no significant contribution is apparent from the passage wake shear layers.

  15. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookongchai Kritsada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point with high accuracy, fast, and precise processes was proposed. In a preprocessing procedure to detect the air bubbles, threshold and median filter techniques have been used. Connected component labeling technique is used to detect the air bubbles while blob analysis is searching technique to analyze group of the air bubbles in sequential images. The experiments are tested with proposed algorithm to determine the leakage point of an air conditioning compressor. The location of the leakage point was presented as coordinated point. The results demonstrated that leakage point during process could be accurately detected. The estimation point had error less than 5% compared to the real leakage point.

  16. Numerical investigation on pressure fluctuations in centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes pre-whirl angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Shi, M.; Cao, S. L.; Li, Z. H.

    2013-12-01

    The pressure fluctuations in a centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes (IGV) pre-whirl angles were investigated numerically, as well as the pre-stress model and static structural of blade. The natural frequency was evaluated by pre-stress model analysis. The results show that, the aero-dynamic pressure acting on blade surface is smaller than rotation pre-stress, which wouldn't result in large deformation of blade. The natural frequencies with rotation pre-stress are slightly higher than without rotation pre-stress. The leading mechanism of pressure fluctuations for normal conditions is the rotor-stator (IGVs) interaction, while is serious flow separations for conditions that are close to surge line. A few frequency components in spectra are close to natural frequency, which possibly result in resonant vibration if amplitude is large enough, which is dangerous for compressor working, and should be avoided.

  17. Numerical investigation on pressure fluctuations in centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes pre-whirl angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y C; Shi, M; Cao, S L; Li, Z H

    2013-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations in a centrifugal compressor with different inlet guide vanes (IGV) pre-whirl angles were investigated numerically, as well as the pre-stress model and static structural of blade. The natural frequency was evaluated by pre-stress model analysis. The results show that, the aero-dynamic pressure acting on blade surface is smaller than rotation pre-stress, which wouldn't result in large deformation of blade. The natural frequencies with rotation pre-stress are slightly higher than without rotation pre-stress. The leading mechanism of pressure fluctuations for normal conditions is the rotor-stator (IGVs) interaction, while is serious flow separations for conditions that are close to surge line. A few frequency components in spectra are close to natural frequency, which possibly result in resonant vibration if amplitude is large enough, which is dangerous for compressor working, and should be avoided

  18. Operational test procedure for Bldg 241-A-701 air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    This document is an Operability Test Procedure (OTP) which will verify and record that the 241-A-701 air compressor and associated equipment operates within their intended design parameters. The activities defined in this OTP will be performed to ensure the daily operation of the new compressed air system can be reliable and efficient. The Compressed Air System (CAS) for 241-A-701 supplies process and instrument air to the A, AX, AY, and AZ tank farms. The primary use of the CAS is for tank farms instrumentation, air operated valves, and air lift circulators

  19. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  20. Impact of the use of a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling system in arid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ansary, Hany A.; Orfi, Jamel A.; Ali, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cooling the air entering the compressor section of a gas turbine is a proven method of increasing turbine power output, especially during peak summer demand, and it is increasingly being used in powerplants worldwide. Two turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) systems are widely used: evaporative cooling and mechanical chilling. In this work, the prospects of using a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling. Such a system is capable of achieving a significant reduction in inlet air temperature that satisfies desired power output levels, while consuming less power than conventional mechanical chilling and less water than conventional evaporative cooling, thus combining the benefits of both approaches. Two hybrid system configurations are studied. In the first configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers that are coupled with dry coolers such that the condenser cooling water remains in a closed loop. In the second configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers but with conventional cooling towers. An assessment of the performance and economics of those two configurations is made by comparing them to conventional mechanical chilling and using realistic data. It was found that the TIAC systems are capable of boosting the power output of the gas turbine by 10% or more (of the power output of the ISO conditions). The cost operation analysis shows clearly the hybrid TIAC method with wet cooling has the advantage over the other methods and It would be profitable to install it in the new gas turbine power plants. The figure below shows a comparison of the water consumption for the three different cases. - Highlights: • New hybrid system for the turbine inlet air cooling is studied. • Hybrid system of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling is used. • Hybrid turbine inlet air cooling

  1. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given...

  2. Performance modeling of industrial gas turbines with inlet air filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Effiom

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inlet air filtration on the performance of two industrial gas turbines (GT is presented. Two GTs were modeled similar to GE LM2500+ and Alstom GT13 E2-2012, using TURBOMATCH and chosen to operate at environmental conditions of Usan offshore oilfield and Maiduguri dessert in Nigeria. The inlet pressure recovered (Precov from the selected filters used in Usan offshore, and Maiduguri ranged between 98.36≤Precov≤99.51% and 98.67≤Precov≤99.56% respectively. At reduced inlet Precov by 98.36% (1.66 kPa and, at a temperature above 15 °C (ISA, a reduction of 16.9%, and 7.3% of power output and efficiency was obtained using GT13 E2-2012, while a decrease of 14.8% and 4.7% exist for power output and efficiency with GE LM2500+. In addition, a reduction in mass flow rate of air and fuel under the same condition was between 4.3≤mair≤10.6% and 10.4≤mfuel≤11.5% for GT13 E2-2012 and GE LM2500+, correspondingly. However, the GE LM2500+ was more predisposed to intake pressure drops since it functioned at a higher overall pressure ratio. The results obtained were found worthwhile and could be the basis for filter selection and efficient compressor housing design in the locations concerned.

  3. Potential of flow pre-whirl at the compressor inlet of automotive engine turbochargers to enlarge surge margin and overcome packaging limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Margot, X.; Tiseira, A.; Schorn, N.; Kindl, H.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the packaging constraints to which turbocharged engines are submitted in passenger cars, the inlet duct of the centrifugal compressor often requires a 90 o bend. The compressor inlet perpendicular to its axis disturbs the flow and reduces the compressor performance. This paper presents an interesting solution based on a specifically designed inlet swirl-generator device (SGD) that palliates these negative effects. In addition, the SGD can be used to extend the surge margin of the compressor if the position of the SGD blades is modified in function of the reciprocating engine operation conditions. The paper describes how the swirl level and the pressure losses generated by the device have been characterized in a continuous flow test rig. After this the SGD plus a centrifugal compressor from a turbocharger unit have been tested in a specific turbocharger test bench. The results obtained show the influence of the SGD blades position on the compressor performance. In order to better understand the influence of the SGD on the turbocharger behaviour, the flow velocity triangles near the inducer have been reconstructed using an approach based on CFD calculations

  4. Instability of automotive air conditioning system with a variable displacement compressor. Part 1. Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Changqing; Dou, Chunpeng; Yang, Xinjiang; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (People' s Republic of China)

    2005-11-01

    A test system is built first in order to investigate the instability of the automotive air conditioning (AAC) system with a variable displacement compressor (VDC), and hunting phenomena caused by the large external disturbance in the AAC system with a VDC and a thermal expansion valve, and in the AAC system with a VDC and a fixed-area throttling device are investigated experimentally in part 1 of this paper. The experimental results indicate that there also exist the hunting phenomena in the AAC system with a fixed-area throttling device. The system stability is found to be dependent on the direction of the external disturbance, and the system is apt to cause hunting when the condensing pressure decreases excessively since it may cause two-phase state at the throttling device inlet and make a large disturbance to the system. The piston stroke length will oscillate only when the oscillation amplitudes of forces acting on the wobble plate are great enough, otherwise the piston stroke length will be kept invariable, and then the system instability rule is also suitable for the AAC system with a fixed displacement compressor. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the two-phase flow at the throttling device inlet or at the evaporator outlet is the necessary condition but not sufficient condition for system hunting. Finally, a new concept, conservative stable region, is proposed based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis. (author)

  5. Numerical investigation of variable inlet guide vanes with trailing-edge dual slots to decrease the aerodynamic load on centrifugal compressor impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchi Xin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice, most centrifugal compressors use variable inlet guide vanes which can provide pre-whirl and control volume flow rates. As the impeller of a centrifugal compressor passes through the wakes created from the guide vanes, the aerodynamic parameters change significantly. The concept of adding dual slots at the trailing-edge of the guide vanes is proposed for reducing the aerodynamic load on the compressor impeller blades. In this article, the steady and unsteady performances of the new guide vanes are analysed under two compressor operating conditions (winter and design conditions. The results show that the average amplitude of the impeller passing frequency at the leading edge has a 13% decrease under the winter condition, especially at the middle and root parts. Moreover, the dual slots structure has no effect on the overall compressor performance.

  6. Coatings for Fuel Cell Propulsion Compressor Bearings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fuel cell air handling systems require clean and contaminant-free inlet air, which dictates that oil-free, motorized, compressor/expander systems should be used....

  7. Evaluation of effect of inlet distortion on aerodynamic performance of helium gas compressor for gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Yan, Xing; Kurokouchi, Naohiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2006-02-01

    Because the main pipe is connected perpendicular to the flow direction inside the distributing header in the inlet casing of the helium gas compressor design of GTHTR300, the main flow flowing into the header tends to separate from the header wall and to cause reverse flow, which increases flow resistance in the header. This phenomenon increases the total pressure loss in the header and inlet distortion, which is considered to deteriorate the aerodynamic performance of the compressor. Tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of inlet distortion on aerodynamic performance of compressor by using a 1/3-scale helium gas compressor model by varying a level of inlet distortion. Flow was injected from the wall of header to make circumferential velocities uniform before and after the reverse flow region to dissipate the separation and reverse flow. At the design point, inlet distortion was reduced by 2-3% by injection, which resulted in increasing adiabatic efficiency of blade section by 0.5%. A modified flow rate at surge point was lowered from 10.0 kg/s to 9.6 kg/s. At the same time, pressure loss of the inlet casing was reduced by 3-5 kPa, which is equivalent to adiabatic efficiency improvement around 0.8%. By setting orifice at the inlet of the inlet casing, the level of inlet distortion became 3% higher and the adiabatic efficiency of blade section became 1% higher at the design point. The modified flow rate at surge point increased from 10.6 to 10.9 kg/s. A new correlation between inlet distortion and adiabatic efficiency of blade section at the rated flow rate was derived based on compressor-in-parallel model and fitted to the test results. An overall adiabatic efficiency of full-scale compressor was predicted 90.2% based on the test results of efficiency and Reynolds number correlation, which was close to 89.7% that was predicted by test calibrated design through-flow code. (author)

  8. Exergy, Economic and Environmental Analyses of Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling with a Heat Pump Using a Novel System Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Majdi Yazdi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines incur a loss of output power during hot seasons due to high ambient air temperatures, and input air cooling systems are often used to partly offset this problem. Here, results are reported for an investigation of the utilization of a heat pump to cool the inlet air of a gas turbine compressor. The analyses are carried out for two climates: the city of Yazd, Iran, which has a hot, arid climate, and Tehran, Iran, which has a temperate climate. The heat pump input power is obtained from the gas turbine. The following parameters are determined, with and without the heat pump: net output power, first and second law efficiencies, quantities and costs of environmental pollutants, entropy generation and power generation. The results suggest that, by using the air-inlet cooling system, the mean output power increases during hot seasons by 11.5% and 10% for Yazd and Tehran, respectively, and that the costs of power generation (including pollution costs decrease by 11% and 10% for Yazd and Tehran, respectively. Also, the rate of generation of pollutants such as NOx and CO decrease by about 10% for Yazd and 35% for Tehran, while the average annual entropy generation rate increases by 9% for Yazd and 7% for Tehran, through air-inlet cooling. The average increase of the system first law efficiency is 2% and of the system second law efficiency is 1.5% with the inlet-air cooling system.

  9. Simplified Model and Response Analysis for Crankshaft of Air Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao-bo, Li; Jing-jun, Lou; Zhen-hai, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    The original model of crankshaft is simplified to the appropriateness to balance the calculation precision and calculation speed, and then the finite element method is used to analyse the vibration response of the structure. In order to study the simplification and stress concentration for crankshaft of air compressor, this paper compares calculative mode frequency and experimental mode frequency of the air compressor crankshaft before and after the simplification, the vibration response of reference point constraint conditions is calculated by using the simplified model, and the stress distribution of the original model is calculated. The results show that the error between calculative mode frequency and experimental mode frequency is controlled in less than 7%, the constraint will change the model density of the system, the position between the crank arm and the shaft appeared stress concentration, so the part of the crankshaft should be treated in the process of manufacture.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis of Twin Screw Air Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is proposed in this paper in order to study the performance of oil-less and oil-injected twin screw air compressors. Based on this model, a computer simulation program is developed and the effects of different design parameters including rotor profile, geometric clearance, oil-injected angle, oil temperature, oil flow rate, built-in volume ratio and other operation conditions on the performance of twin screw air compressors are investigated. The simulation program gives us output variables such as specific power, compression ratio, compression efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and discharge temperature. Some of the above results are then compared with experimentally measured data and good agreement is found between the simulation results and the measured data.

  11. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  12. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...

  13. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  14. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  15. Deaths Due to Accidental Air Conditioner Compressor Explosion: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Bodwal, Jatin; Sikary, Asit K; Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Bijarnia, Manjul

    2017-01-01

    In an air-conditioning system, the compressor is a large electric pump that pressurizes the refrigerant gas as part of the process of turning it back into a liquid. The explosion of an air conditioner (AC) compressor is an uncommon event, and immediate death resulted from the blast effect is not reported in forensic literature. We report three such cases in which young AC mechanics were killed on the spot due to compressor blast, while repairing the domestic split AC unit. The autopsy findings, the circumstances leading to the explosion of the compressor, are discussed in this study. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Combining effect of optimized axial compressor variable guide vanes and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sangjo; Son, Changmin; Kim, Kuisoon

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is to provide evidence of the effectiveness of combined use of the variable guide vanes (VGVs) and bleed air on the thermodynamic performance of aircraft engine system. This paper performed the comparative study to evaluate the overall thermal performance of an aircraft engine with optimized VGVs and bleed air, separately or simultaneously. The low-bypass ratio turbofan engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum schedule of VGVs and bleed air. There are four types of design variables: (1) the inlet guide vane (IGV) angle, (2) the IGV and 1st stator vane (SV) angles, (3) bleed air mass flow rate at the exit of the axial compressor, and (4) both type 2 and type 3. The optimization is conducted with surge margin constraints of more than 10% and 15% in the axial compressor. The results show that the additional use of the bleed air increases the efficiency of the compressors. Overall, the percentage reductions of the total fuel consumption for the engine with the IGV, 1st SV and bleed air schedule is 1.63% for 15% surge margin constraints when compared with the engine with the IGV schedule. - Highlights: • The effect of combined use of variable guide vanes and bleed air is evaluated. • The genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimum setting angle and bleed air. • A low bypass ratio mixed turbofan engine is analyzed for optimization. • Additional use of the bleed air shows improved overall performance of the engine.

  17. Energy efficiency of freezing tunnels: towards an optimal operation of compressors and air fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widell, Kristina Norne

    2012-07-01

    blade installed in the air flow at a critical location improved the air velocity distribution compared with no guide blade. Without the guide blade, the freezing times of the products were between 16 h and 32 h, but with a guide blade they were between 17h and 21 h, a span of only 4 h. These freezing times were calculated with a modified Planks equation. A numerical model was programmed in MATLAB and it was used to simulate the temperatures of the products. The model was a two-dimensional finite difference approximation of the heat conduction equation. The simulation results were compared to measured temperatures, to validate the model. The measured temperatures were also used for validation of another simulation program, programmed in Modelica. The final stage of this research involved testing different alternatives for reduced fan operation. The program for the product model was extended with models for calculating the energy consumption of the air fans and the compressors and using Airpak-simulated velocities. The air fan speed was reduced to 83%, 67%, 50% and 33% of full air fan speed. This was tested at 5 different points during the freezing period, to see how the freezing times were affected. Full air speed during the freezing period resulted in a total freezing time of 20 h. A reduction in air fan speed to 33% after 8 h resulted in an increase in total freezing time of 10 hours (47% longer) but reduced energy consumption to 73.8% of the baseline case. An alternative with only 4 h longer freezing time resulted in an energy consumption of 80.5% of the baseline case. It was assumed that the fans had variable speed drives. The effect of reduced air inlet temperature was also tested and the results show that this can reduce freezing times. The effect on the total energy consumption was not large and also depends on the rest of the refrigeration system. Issues raised by this thesis are relevant for future research. It is suggested that the main simulation program is

  18. 241-U-701 new compressor building and instrument air piping analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Building anchorage analysis is performed to qualify the design of the new compressor building foundation given in the ECN ''241-U-701 New Compressor Building.'' Recommendations for some changes in the ECN are made accordingly. Calculations show that the 6-in.-slab is capable of supporting the pipe supports, and that the building foundation, air compressor and dryer anchorage, and electric rack are adequate structurally. Analysis also shows that the instrument air piping and pipe supports for the compressed air system meet the applicable code requirements and are acceptable. The building is for the U-Farm instrument air systems

  19. Electrical efficiency losses occurred by the air compressor for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrock, J.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel Cells are characterised by a high efficiency and comparatively small emissions. Depending on their partial load behaviour and their high efficiency, Fuel Cells are well suited for net connected or isolated autonomous energy generators for thermal and electricity power production. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell systems need several external components to produce electricity and thermal power. However, the high theoretical degree of efficiency of 83% is decreased by these components. To reach higher fuel utilisation it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of these components. In this study, the influence of the air supply compressor on the fuel utilisation is investigated and an optimization strategy was developed. The results were reviewed by a real test set up using an autonomous PEM Fuel Cell system. (authors)

  20. Thermodynamic assessment of power requirements and impact of different gas-turbine inlet air cooling techniques at two different locations in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawoud, B.; Zurigat, Y.H.; Bortmany, J.

    2005-01-01

    Gas-turbine inlet air cooling has been considered for boosting the power output during hot seasons. In this paper, the power requirements of several inlet air cooling techniques for gas-turbine power plants in two locations; namely, Marmul and Fahud, in Oman have been evaluated using typical meteorological year (TMY) data. The considered techniques are evaporative cooling, fogging cooling, absorption cooling using both LiBr-H 2 O and aqua-ammonia, and vapour-compression cooling systems. For evaporative cooling, an 88% approach to the wet-bulb temperature has been considered, compared with a 98% approach for fogging cooling. A design compressor inlet air temperature of 14 deg C has been assigned to LiBr-water chilling systems. For both aqua-ammonia absorption and vapour-compression refrigerating systems, a design compressor inlet air temperature of 8 deg C has been selected to avoid the formation of ice fragments as the air is drawn into the mouth of the compressor. These technologies have been compared with respect to their effectiveness in power boosting of small-size gas-turbine power plants used in two oil fields at Marmul and Fahud in the Sultanate of Oman. Fogging cooling is accompanied with 11.4% more electrical energy in comparison with evaporative cooling in both locations. The LiBr-H 2 O cooling offers 40% and 55% more energy than fogging cooling at Fahud and Marmul, respectively. Applying aqua-ammonia-water and vapour-compression cooling, a further annual energy production enhancement of 39% and 46% is expected in comparison with LiBr-H 2 O cooling at Fahud and Marmul, respectively

  1. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  2. Performance of a hydraulic air compressor for use in compressed air energy storage power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. A.; Ahrens, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fluid mechanical analysis of a hydraulic air compression system for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) application is presented. With this compression concept, air is charged into an underground reservoir, for later use in power generation, by entraining bubbles into a downward flow of water from a surface reservoir. Upon releasing the air in the underground reservoir, the water is pumped back to the surface. The analytical model delineated is used to predict the hydraulic compressor performance characteristics (pumping power, pump head, compression efficiency) as a function of water flow rate and system geometrical parameters. The results indicate that, although large water pumps are needed, efficiencies as high as 90% (relative to ideal isothermal compression) can be expected. This should result in lower compression power than for conventional compressor systems, while eliminating the need for the usual intercoolers and aftercooler.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  4. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Zhang Chunlu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  5. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Jiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. (author)

  6. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weijiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Chunlu, E-mail: chunlu.zhang@carrier.utc.co [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  7. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  8. Leak-tight compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolova, L.K.; Vasilenko, A.T.

    1974-01-01

    The publication describes the construction and operating principle of the sealed uniflow compressor. This compressor insures against substantial contamination of the medium handled. Use of the slot-type sealing of the piston and rejection of the sliding bearings result in insuring high purity of the medium handled. The compressor performance is as follows: maximum air throughput - 262.6 1/h at 24 deg C and absolute outlet pressure being 1.14 kgf/cm 2 , minimum air throughput - 82.6 1/h at 24 deg C and absolute outlet pressure being 1.4 kgf/cm 2 ; inlet pressure equals 1 kgf/cm 2 . The compressor is provided with a solenoid-operated drive. The prototype has been in service for 6 months, with accumulated service time amounting to 500 h. The compressor has given a good account of itself within this period. The compressor is to be used in the gas purification circuit when this gas is used as a working medium in the spark or streamer chambers

  9. Design of energy saving monitoring system on isothermal oilless lubricated air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. N.; Liu, Q.; Xu, B. L.; Liu, Y.; Hu, F.

    2017-10-01

    This design introduces a kind of STM32F051C8T6 circuit monitoring system which is based on the ARM core. According to the operating principle of air compressor, the reduction of temperature and current is converted to save electricity and directly displayed, save electricity information stored at the same time, to achieve real-time monitoring air compressor energy saving effect in the process of operation.

  10. Flow Range of Centrifugal Compressor Being Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    General Aviation will benefit from turbine engines that are both fuel-efficient and reliable. Current engines fall short of their potential to achieve these attributes. The reason is compressor surge, which is a flow stability problem that develops when the compressor is subjected to conditions that are outside of its operating range. Compressor surge can occur when fuel flow to the engine is increased, temporarily back pressuring the compressor and pushing it past its stability limit, or when the compressor is subjected to inlet flow-field distortions that may occur during takeoff and landing. Compressor surge can result in the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. Unfortunately, the most efficient operating line for the compressor is usually closer to its stability limit line than it is to the line that provides an adequate margin of safety. A wider stable flow range will permit operation along the most efficient operating line of the compressor, improving the specific fuel consumption of the engine and reducing emissions. The NASA Glenn Research Center is working to extend the stable flow range of the compressor. Significant extension has been achieved in axial compressors by injecting air upstream of the compressor blade rows. Recently, the technique was successfully applied to a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor by injecting streams of air into the diffuser. Both steady and controlled unsteady injection were used to inject air through the diffuser shroud surface and extend the range. Future work will evaluate the effect of air injection through the diffuser hub surface and diffuser vanes with the goal of maximizing the range extension while minimizing the amount of injected air that is required.

  11. Aluminium matrix heterophase composites for air compressor pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dyzia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of surface test of composite shaped in the permanent mould casting process. As part of the research anddevelopment project realized in the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology, a pilot plant scale stand was built to manufacture of more than 50 kg suspensions in a single technological cycle. Made in industrial conditions castings to form in the five inner core mould mounted in GM110 permanent mould casting machine confirmed the possibility of the shaping the composite pistons. Castings made from composite suspension AlSi7Mg/SiC and AlSi7Mg/SiC + Cg according to the technology procedure were classified as correct and devoted to the proper machining forming working surfaces of the piston to the air compressor. Comparative tests were performed for the casting of unreinforced AlSi7Mg alloy and composite castings. To assess the ability to fill the mold cavity and the accuracy of mapping used in contour shape FRT analysis of the distance between the grooves on the surface of the piston skirt. Studies have confirmed the differences in the fluidity of alloy matrix and composites suspensions. The difference in the accuracy of the dimensional mapping mould does not disqualify of composite materials, all castings are classified as correct and used for machining.

  12. Investigation on output capacity control strategy of variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with multi-compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Qiu; Zou, Deqiu; Deng, Chenmian; Zhang, Jie; Hou, Lifeng; Yang, Min; Nong, Guicai; Feng, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The control model of compressor output capacity has been built. • The control strategy of compressor switching has been presented. • The switching process of standard compressor has been described. • The characteristics of EER and noise have been presented. • The control strategy and model have been proved by experiments. - Abstract: A set of 14 HP variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system (VRF AC) with multi-compressor has been designed, and the output capacity control strategy of compressor(s) including the switching control model of standard compressor has been built. In the output capacity control model, a certain suction pressure is used as the pressure control target to adjust the output capacity of compressors, and a little pressure fluctuation is taken into account to amend the target pressure. Furthermore, in the compressor switching control model, the most favorable operation frequency region is determined on base of the energy efficiency characteristic and noise characteristic of the compressor. And, in order to solve the large fluctuation problem of the system running and frequent ON-OFF action of the standard compressor, the equal output capacity switching principle can be used to determine the thermo-on and thermo-off switched frequency points, and control the switching process of the compressor. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this control strategy to ensure the stability and reliability, improve the energy efficiency and reduce the compressor noise.

  13. Conceptual Design of Automotive Compressor for Integrated Portable Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Muhammad Ikman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new concept of portable air conditioner which integrated with some available components in automotive air conditioning system. This new idea intends to solve the storage problems as well as to reduce the price of current portable air conditioner since some devices could directly be used from the automotive air conditioning system. The primary emphasis of this study was on the modification of automotive compressor design so as the system may alternately be operated. The length of conventional compressor shaft is extended to place an additional clutch pulley, a drive plate and a clutch coil. The new concept particularly the shaft and pulley were analysed through slope deflection and computational finite element analyses. The result of engineering analyses exhibited that the new design of compressor shaft and clutch pulleys promote a low risk of failure as the data values recorded are lower than the critical value for each criterion investigated.

  14. Part load efficiency of packaged air-cooled water chillers with inverter driven scroll compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In this paper different packaged air-cooled systems, operating on scroll compressors, are experimentally analysed from the point of view of the relation between energy efficiency and actual capacity. Single compressor, double compressors and double compressors with uneven volumetric capacity units are tested. Experimental tests demonstrated that cooling capacity control by means of variation of rotational speed is an suitable solution for improving the part load efficiency of these systems. Step capacity units obtained by splitting the system volumetric capacity between two compressors are also effective solutions. Nevertheless they appear to be more efficient than single inverter driven chillers only for part load conditions lower than 60%. In the analysed cooling capacity range (25-50 kW), tandem compressors chillers with one inverter driven compressor appear the most efficient solution combining rotational speed with step capacity control. Seasonal energy efficiency ratios were obtained with prEN 14825 calculation method confirming reduced energy consumption associated to continuous and step cooling capacity control.

  15. Design and Development of an air-cooled Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.

    2003-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no wearing parts. This paper discusses the design features of a TSAC hardware that uses air as the cooling medium and has Space Station application.

  16. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  17. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok; Yi, Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  18. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sun [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  19. Reliability and Maintainability Analysis of a High Air Pressure Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Ring, Robert W.; Cole, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) independent assessment conducted to support the refurbishment of the Compressor Station at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The paper discusses the methodologies used by the assessment team to derive the repair by replacement (RR) strategies to improve the reliability and availability of the Compressor Station (Ref.1). This includes a RAPTOR simulation model that was used to generate the statistical data analysis needed to derive a 15-year investment plan to support the refurbishment of the facility. To summarize, study results clearly indicate that the air compressors are well past their design life. The major failures of Compressors indicate that significant latent failure causes are present. Given the occurrence of these high-cost failures following compressor overhauls, future major failures should be anticipated if compressors are not replaced. Given the results from the RR analysis, the study team recommended a compressor replacement strategy. Based on the data analysis, the RR strategy will lead to sustainable operations through significant improvements in reliability, availability, and the probability of meeting the air demand with acceptable investment cost that should translate, in the long run, into major cost savings. For example, the probability of meeting air demand improved from 79.7 percent for the Base Case to 97.3 percent. Expressed in terms of a reduction in the probability of failing to meet demand (1 in 5 days to 1 in 37 days), the improvement is about 700 percent. Similarly, compressor replacement improved the operational availability of the facility from 97.5 percent to 99.8 percent. Expressed in terms of a reduction in system unavailability (1 in 40 to 1 in 500), the improvement is better than 1000 percent (an order of magnitude improvement). It is worthy to note that the methodologies, tools, and techniques used in the LaRC study can be used to evaluate

  20. Viscous flow considerations in the design of the Busemann hypersonic air inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.C.; Tahir, R.B.; Molder, S.

    2002-01-01

    A cost effective means of traveling to a low earth orbit is using an aircraft that relies on air-breathing engine technology for most of its trajectory while in the atmosphere. The scramjets that would be used to provide propulsion require inlet air diffusion with minimal total pressure losses to maintain efficiency. The Busemann inlet was designed using inviscid flow assumptions specifically for such purposes. This paper presents an investigation into the effects of viscosity on inlet performance in terms of static pressure rise and internal shockwave configuration. The viscous effects within the inlet can alter the design pressure ratio as much as 50%. It was shown that a correction based on a displacement radius calculation was sufficient to restore the static pressure performance of the inviscid design. An improvement of 16% in total pressure losses was observed with the corrected Busemann profile. Results are compared to experimentally determined surface pressure values. (author)

  1. The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wegman, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A phase-controllable, air injection exciter system was developed to enable measurement of the forced response properties of a transonic axial compressor blisk. The project was performed as part of the FP7 European framework program project FUTURE...

  2. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  3. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  4. Development of a High Efficiency Compressor/Expander for an Air Cycle Air Conditioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    bearing, lb PHUB - Hub pressure (initial guess), psia RLG - Rotor length 1 ’B-2 RPM - Rotational speed, RPM R - Gas constant, lb -ft/lb - R CP - Specific...Compressor discharge port pressure ratio (PCD/PC2).:- CDP - Compressor pressure change, PCD-PCl PHUB - Pressure in compressor hub (acting on base of vanes

  5. Economical analysis of the spray drying process by pre-dehumidification of the inlet air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeira, A.N.; Camargo, J.R. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Spray drying is a dehumidification process by atomization in a closed chamber that aims to remove moisture of a product by heat and mass transfer from the product's contained water to the air that, in this process is previously heated. This paper presents a case study for an industry that produces food ingredients. The current process applied in the product to heat the air can uses one of these two systems: a direct heating process that burns liquid petroleum gas in contact with the inlet air or indirect heating that uses a heat exchanger which heat the air. This heating system consumes 90% of the total process energy. However, this inlet air can reach the dehumidifier with high moisture from the atmosphere condition requesting, in this case, more energy consumption according to the year's seasons. This paper promotes a utilization study of the current process through the installation of a pre-dehumidification device of the inlet air and shows a study to three different dehumidification systems that means by refrigeration, adsorption and actual comparing their performance in an energetic and economical point of view. The goals of this study are to analyze the capacity of moisture removing of each removing device, the influence of moisture variation of the inlet air in the process as well as the economic impact of each device in the global system. It concludes that the utilization of dehumidification devices can eliminate the heating system reducing this way the energy consumption. Moreover it promotes the increasing of moisture gradient between the inlet air and the product optimizing the drying process and increasing the global energy efficiency in the global system. Choosing the most appropriate system for the pre-dehumidification device depends on the desired initial and final moisture content of the product, but applying pre-dehumidifiers at the inlet air promotes an energetic optimization in the spray drying process. (author)

  6. The effect of inlet conditions on the air side hydraulic resistance and flow maldistribution in industrial air heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann-Vocke, Jonas, E-mail: jh63@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Energy Research Group, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Neale, James, E-mail: jamesn@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Energy Research Group, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Walmsley, Michael, E-mail: walmsley@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Department of Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Measured the effects of air heater inlet header geometry on hydraulic performance. > Measured the effects of inlet header flow maldistribution on hydraulic performance. > Inlet header flow maldistribution increases air heater system hydraulic resistance. - Abstract: Experimental system hydraulic resistance measurements on a scale air heater unit have highlighted the excessive hydraulic resistance of typical industry configurations. Both poor header inlet conditions and large header expansion angles are shown to contribute to system hydraulic resistance magnitudes 20-100% higher than suitable benchmark cases. Typical centrifugal fan system efficiencies well under 80% multiply the system resistance effects resulting in larger fan power penalties. Velocity profile measurements taken upstream and downstream of the test heat exchanger under flow maldistribution conditions provide insight into the flow maldistribution spreading caused by the heat exchanger resistance. The anisotropic resistance of the plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger is shown to result in resistance induced flow dispersion being concentrated in the axis parallel to the plate fins.

  7. Market Investigation for Surface Supplied Diving Air Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-12

    39P SolT I I .t an Ai rt . C,.*J, r; r r~d Flcua: (7. DPe..•.ah1 Code .•l. 3d M.I. fld ; I lIP; t ’ ,I v r • of C. ! r•( , I v is , i , 1 I.15 r ’,q... Druck - verh~Itnisse und Stufenzah len. ~ * Druckschmierung. C Cut-away illustration of a typical four stace >~ o water cooled compressor _7~K 17;1. -ne

  8. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  9. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started

  10. Improving the performance of a compression ignition engine by directing flow of inlet air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Carlton

    1946-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the results of tests performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effect on engine performance of directing the flow of the inlet air to a 5-inch by 7-inch cylinder, solid injection, compression ignition engine, After a few preliminary tests, comparative runs were made at a speed of 1500 r.p.m. with and without directed air flow. It was found that directing the flow of the inlet air toward the fuel injection valve gave steadier engine operation, and an appreciable increase in power, and decreased fuel consumption. The results indicate the possibility of improving the performance of a given type of combustion chamber without changing its shape and with no change in valve timing. They would also seem to prove that directional turbulence, set up before the inlet valve of a four-stroke cycle engine, continues in the engine cylinder throughout the compression stroke.

  11. Paratracheal air cysts of thoracic inlet in adults: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of a paratracheal cyst on CT in an adult, and to compare the degree of loculation and the patient's age with the longest diameter of the air cysts. Of 1520 patients, who underwent a CT scan, 41 patients with paratracheal cysts were enrolled in this study. There were 26-males and 15 females, whose ranged from 24 to 82 years (mean, 59.8). The CT findings were evaluated to determine the relationship between the degree of loculation and the longest diameter of the air cysts. Another tracheal diverticula or an air cyst, as well as the tracheal communication were also evaluated. The longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts was 1 cm (ρ = 0.043). The paratracheal air cysts 2 cm were multilocular. Four patients had another small tracheal diverticula, and one patient had another small paratracheal air cyst. Tracheal communication was observed in 7 patients (17%). The frequency of paratracheal air cysts in adults undergoing a CT scan was 2.7%. The longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts was associated with the patient's age. The shape of air cysts became more multilocular as the longest diameter of the paratracheal air cysts increased. Another small tracheal diverticula or air cysts were observed in 12% of patients

  12. Technical Requirements and Principles for the Standards Development of the Key Parts for Rotor Air-conditioning Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min; Wen Yun; Fan Zhangzeng

    2011-01-01

    ntroductionSince 2000,air-conditioning sales continues to grow,and the development of air-conditioning market makes a booming market of compressor.At the present time,compressor production rising all the way,and the sales steps up the new steps constantly.Tendency chart is shown in figure 1.Rotor compressor with its simple structure,small volume,light weight,easy processed mechanical parts,reliable operation and other excellent characteristics occupied the dominant position in the market.Compared with reciprocating compressor on the same application situation,decreased in the size by 40%~50%,weight was reduced by 40%~50%.But there were also disadvantages,mainly large friction loss,friction power consumption was about 10%of compressor's total power input.

  13. Characteristics Air Flow in Room Chamber Test Refrigerator Household Energy Consumption with Inlet Flow Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Edy; Idrus Alhamid, M.; Nasruddin; Budihardjo

    2018-03-01

    Room Chamber is the most important in making a good Testing Laboratory. In this study, the 2-D modeling conducted to assess the effect placed the inlet on designing a test chamber room energy consumption of household refrigerators. Where the geometry room chamber is rectangular and approaching the enclosure conditions. Inlet varied over the side parallel to the outlet and compared to the inlet where the bottom is made. The purpose of this study was to determine and define the characteristics of the airflow in the room chamber using CFD simulation. CFD method is used to obtain flow characteristics in detail, in the form of vector flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the chamber room. The result found that the position of the inlet parallel to the outlet causes air flow cannot move freely to the side of the floor, even flow of air moves up toward the outlet. While by making the inlet is below, the air can move freely from the bottom up to the side of the chamber room wall as well as to help uniform flow.

  14. Experimental evidence of the thermal effect of lubricating oil sprayed in sliding-vane air compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valenti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A way to increase the efficiency of positive-displacement air compressor is spraying the lube oil to exploit it not only as lubricating and sealing agent but also as thermal ballast. This work seeks the experimental evidence in sliding-vane compressors by measuring the air standard volume flow rate and the electrical power input of three diverse configurations. The first configuration, taken as the reference, employs a conventional injection system comprising calibrated straight orifices. The other two, referred to as advanced, adopt smaller orifices and pressure-swirl full-cone nozzles designed for the purpose; the third configuration utilizes a pump to boost the oil pressure. The laser imagining technique shows that the nozzles generate sprays that break-up within a short distance into spherical droplets, ligaments, ramifications and undefined structures. Tests on the packaged compressors reveal that the advanced configurations provide almost the same air flow rate while utilizing half of the oil because the sprays generate a good sealing. Moreover, the sprayed oil is acting as a thermal ballast because the electrical input is reduced by 3.5% and 3.0%, respectively, if the pump is present or not , while the specific energy requirement, accounting for the slightly reduced air flow, by 2.4% and 2.9%, respectively.

  15. Study on the relationship between uranium mine cage hoisting system and quality of inlet air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Penghua; Li Xianjie; Hong Changshou; Li Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Those skip hoisting shafts and cage hoisting shafts with over 100000-ton hoisting capacity per year can not be designed as air inlet shafts is particularly emphasized in nuclear industrial standard Technical Regulations for Radon Exhaustion and Ventilation in Underground Uranium Mine (EJ/T 359-2006) referring to previous production experiences of the former Soviet Union's uranium mines. Cage hoisting shafts are generally served as the main air inlet shafts for the widely adopted of exhaust ventilation in terms of uranium mines in China. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned standard has been considered as a constraint on designing and producing of China's prospective large uranium mines. Through theoretical analysis and field experiments on the main influencing factors over the quality of inlet air of selected experimental uranium mines hoisting system such as piston wind pressure, ore heap's radon emanation of shaft station, radon contamination of loaded mine cars etc, we finally established the calculation model of inlet air contamination deriving from ore heap and loaded mine cars' radon emanation in vertical shaft station. The acquired research achievements would lav a theoretical foundation for further works on revising relevant standards. (authors)

  16. Effect of Inlet-Air Temperature on Physico-Chemical and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary investigation carried out on this study showed that samples produced at air inlet temperatures below 200oC exhibited wet and agglomerated particles. The recovered powdered samples were analyzed for proximate composition, pH, available lysine, total solids, pack bulk density, viscosity, solubility and ...

  17. Operational test report for the 241-A-701 air compressor upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwsen, W.E.

    1997-06-30

    A description and safety class designation of the accumulator and 701-A compressor system is contained in VTHC-SD-@-DA-137, Safety Classification (of the 241-A-70) Compressed Air System and shown on drawings H-2-62895, Sheet 2 and H-14-20308, Sheet 3. The design basis for the 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator is contained in @-C-SD-@-DB-016, 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator Design Basis.

  18. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  19. Performance and Adaptive Surge-Preventing Acceleration Prediction of a Turboshaft Engine under Inlet Flow Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Dalu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to research the inlet flow distortion influence on overall performance of turboshaft engine and put forward a method called Distortion Factor Item (DFI to improve the fuel supply plan for surge-preventing acceleration when turboshaft engine suddenly encounters inlet flow distortion. Based on the parallel compressor theory, steady-state and transition-state numerical simulation model of turboshaft engine with sub-compressor model were established for researching the influence of inlet flow distortion on turboshaft engine. This paper made a detailed analysis on the compressor operation from the aspects of performance and stability, and then analyzed the overall performance and dynamic response of the whole engine under inlet flow distortion. Improved fuel supply plan with DFI method was applied to control the acceleration process adaptively when encountering different inlet flow distortion. Several simulation examples about extreme natural environments were calculated to testify DFI method’s environmental applicability. The result shows that the inlet flow distortion reduces the air inflow and decreases the surge margin of compressor, and increase the engine exhaust loss. Encountering inlet flow distortion has many adverse influences such as sudden rotor acceleration, turbine inlet temperature rise and power output reduction. By using improved fuel supply plan with DFI, turboshaft engine above-idle acceleration can avoid surge effectively under inlet flow distortion with environmental applicability.

  20. Foundations for computer simulation of a low pressure oil flooded single screw air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, T. W.

    1981-12-01

    The necessary logic to construct a computer model to predict the performance of an oil flooded, single screw air compressor is developed. The geometric variables and relationships used to describe the general single screw mechanism are developed. The governing equations to describe the processes are developed from their primary relationships. The assumptions used in the development are also defined and justified. The computer model predicts the internal pressure, temperature, and flowrates through the leakage paths throughout the compression cycle of the single screw compressor. The model uses empirical external values as the basis for the internal predictions. The computer values are compared to the empirical values, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. Recommendations are made for future efforts to improve the computer model and to verify some of the conclusions that are drawn.

  1. Aging and service wear of air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Compressed air systems and their associated compressors and dryers as incorporated in LWR power plants usually are not classified as safety related systems and components because their continued operation is not required to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition. However, control air is a vital requirement for maintaining stable plant operation and its loss often results in a reactor trip and, on occasion, the actuation of engineered safety feature systems. Concerns caused by repeated instances of failures in air systems resulted in the high-priority ranking of Generic Issue No. 43, ''Reliability of Air Systems'' by the NRC. In support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is carrying out a Phase I aging assessment of air compressors and dryers used in LWR power plants. The objectives of this study include: (1) determination of the types and ratings of equipment utilized in typical plants; (2) identification of aging and service wear stressors imposed on the machines; (3) evaluation of operating experience with the machines; (4) comparison of user and manufacturer-recommended inspection, surveillance, and monitoring (ISM) methods; and (5) the identification of any improved ISM methods that might lead to longer, more reliable, service. 2 refs

  2. Thermal effect of lubricating oil in positive-displacement air compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Colombo, Luigi; Murgia, Stefano; Lucchini, Andrea; Sampietro, Andrea; Capoferri, Andrea; Araneo, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    The isentropic efficiency of positive-displacement compressors may be improved in order to follow an increasing demand for energy savings. This work analyzes the thermal effect of the lubricating oil presence in the air during compression with the scope of exploiting it as a thermal ballast to mitigate both the gas temperature rise and its compression work. The bibliographic review shows that other authors suggested that oil can have positive effects if properly injected. Here an energy balance analysis is executed with the scope of deriving relations for the gas–liquid compression in analogy with those typical for the gas-only compression and of confirming that ideally the liquid presence may have beneficial effects, making the gas–liquid compression even better than 1- and 2-time intercooled gas compressions. Given these positive results, a heat transfer analysis is conducted to model the thermal interaction between gas and oil droplets within a mid-size rotary vane air compressor. A droplet diameter of the order of 100 μm leads to large reductions of both temperature increase and compression work: air can exit the discharge port at a temperature as low as 60 °C and compression work can be lowered by 23–28% with respect to conventional compressors. Finally, a test rig is constructed and operated to investigate a large-flow and large-angle oil nozzle taken from the market showing that, at the operating conditions of a compressor, oil breaks up into small droplets and undefined structures with large exchange surfaces. -- Highlights: ► Exploitation of thermal effect of oil in gas compressors is assessed numerically. ► Oil in 100 μm-diameter droplets mitigates effectively the gas temperature rise. ► Discharge temperature and compression work result to be much smaller than typical. ► An experimental setup is used to investigate oil atomization via commercial nozzles. ► A tested nozzle creates fine oil droplets and structures at conditions of

  3. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Controlled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    It shows the variation in compressor mass flow with time as the mass flow is throttled to drive the compressor into surge. Surge begins where wide variations in mass flow occur. Air injection is then turned on to bring about a recovery from the initial surge condition and stabilize the compressor. The throttle is closed further until surge is again initiated. Air injection is increased to again recover from the surge condition and stabilize the compressor.

  4. The effect of inlet conditions on the air side hydraulic resistance and flow maldistribution in industrial air heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann-Vocke, Jonas; Neale, James; Walmsley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Measured the effects of air heater inlet header geometry on hydraulic performance. → Measured the effects of inlet header flow maldistribution on hydraulic performance. → Inlet header flow maldistribution increases air heater system hydraulic resistance. - Abstract: Experimental system hydraulic resistance measurements on a scale air heater unit have highlighted the excessive hydraulic resistance of typical industry configurations. Both poor header inlet conditions and large header expansion angles are shown to contribute to system hydraulic resistance magnitudes 20-100% higher than suitable benchmark cases. Typical centrifugal fan system efficiencies well under 80% multiply the system resistance effects resulting in larger fan power penalties. Velocity profile measurements taken upstream and downstream of the test heat exchanger under flow maldistribution conditions provide insight into the flow maldistribution spreading caused by the heat exchanger resistance. The anisotropic resistance of the plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger is shown to result in resistance induced flow dispersion being concentrated in the axis parallel to the plate fins.

  5. Air Motion and Thermal Environment in Pig Housing Facilities with Diffuse Inlet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lis

    A ventilation system with ambient air supply through diffuse ceiling used in pig production facilities is presented. The climatic conditions were examined both experimentally and numerically in an full scale experimental room and the inlet boundary conditions of the diffuse inlet were examined...... in ambient temperature and air exchange rate. The effect of housing equipment on environmental conditions has been examined both experimental and numerically and it was found that impervious housing equipment has a significant effect on the climatic conditions close to the wall in the occupational zone...... in a wind tunnel model. In the full scale experiments the focus has been on the correlation between variations in ambient climatic conditions and changes in environmental condition in the occupational zone. It was found that the environmental conditions in the occupational zone were independent on changes...

  6. Cogen-absorption plants for refrigeration purposes and turbine air inlet cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, Juergen [Colibri bv (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Most cogeneration systems produce power and heat but with absorption refrigeration plants (ARP) the products are power and 'cold'. An ARP driven by heat from a turbine exhaust can provide the cooling for the inlet air with very low consumption of electricity, consequently there is a significant increase in power output from the cogeneration unit. Two different ARP systems are currently available but the author describes only the ammonia-water system, which can achieve temperatures down to -60 degrees C. The article discusses the principle behind ARP, the capital cost and returns on investment, how the cogeneration plant is linked to the ARP, ARP for turbine inlet air cooling, and the potential applications of cogeneration-ARP.

  7. Air compressor battery duration with mechanical ventilation in a field anesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Giberman, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Compressed air to power field anesthesia machine ventilators may be supplied by air compressor with battery backup. This study determined the battery duration when the compPAC ventilator's air compressor was powered by NiCd battery to ventilate the Vent Aid Training Test Lung modeling high (HC = 0.100 L/cm H2O) and low (LC = 0.020 L/cm H2O) pulmonary compliance. Target tidal volumes (VT) were 500, 750, and 1,000 mL. Respiratory rate = 10 bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio = 1:2, and fresh gas flow = 1 L/min air. N = 5 in each group. Control limits were determined from the first 150 minutes of battery power for each run and lower control limit = mean VT - 3SD. Battery depletion occurred when VT was below the lower control limit. Battery duration ranged from 185.8 (±3.2) minutes in the LC-1000 group to 233.3 (±3.6) minutes in the HC-750 group. Battery duration of the LC-1000 group was less than all others (p = 0.027). The differences among the non-LC-1000 groups were not clinically significant. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. NASA Glenn's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility Upgraded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokopp, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility was upgraded in fiscal year 2003 to expand and improve its research capabilities for testing high-speed fans and compressors. The old 3000-hp drive motor and gearbox were removed and replaced with a refurbished 7000-hp drive motor and gearbox, with a maximum output speed of 21,240 rpm. The higher horsepower rating permits testing of fans and compressors with higher pressure ratio or higher flow. A new inline torquemeter was installed to provide an alternate measurement of fan and compressor efficiency, along with the standard pressure and temperature measurements. A refurbished compressor bearing housing was also installed with bidirectional rotation capability, so that a variety of existing hardware could be tested. Four new lubrication modules with backup capability were installed for the motor, gearbox, torquemeter, and compressor bearing housing, so that in case the primary pump fails, the backup will prevent damage to the rotating hardware. The combustion air supply line for the facility inlet air system was activated to provide dry air for repeatable inlet conditions. New flow conditioning hardware was installed in the facility inlet plenum tank, which greatly reduced the inlet turbulence. The new inlet can also be easily modified to accommodate 20- or 22-in.-diameter fans and compressors, so a variety of existing hardware from other facilities (such as Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel) can be tested in the Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility. An exhaust line was also installed to provide bleed capability to remove the inlet boundary layer. To improve the operation and control of the facility, a new programmable logic controller (PLC) was installed to upgrade from hardwired relay logic to software logic. The PLC also enabled the usage of human-machine interface software to allow for easier operation of the facility and easier reconfiguration of the facility controls when

  9. Operational test report for the 241-A-701 air compressor upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeuwsen, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    A description and safety class designation of the accumulator and 701-A compressor system is contained in VTHC-SD-at sign-DA-137, Safety Classification (of the 241-A-70) Compressed Air System and shown on drawings H-2-62895, Sheet 2 and H-14-20308, Sheet 3. The design basis for the 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator is contained in at sign-C-SD-at sign-DB-016, 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator Design Basis

  10. Experimental investigation of a two-inlet air-based building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tingting; Athienitis, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BIPV/T system thermal efficiency is 5% higher using two inlets compared to one. • BIPV/T thermal efficiency is 7.6% higher using semi-transparent than opaque PV. • Detailed air temperature profile in BIPV/T channel is obtained. • Nusselt number correlations are developed. - Abstract: An experimental study of thermal characteristics of a novel two-inlet air-based open-loop building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system using a full-scale solar simulator is presented. Experimental prototypes of one-inlet and two-inlet BIPV/T systems were constructed for conducting comparative experiments. Variations of BIPV/T systems are also investigated including systems employing opaque mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and systems employing semi-transparent mono-crystalline PV panels. Experimental results demonstrate that an equivalent two-inlet system with frameless PV panels can increase the thermal efficiency by 5% compared to a conventional one-inlet system, and that the BIPV/T system with semi-transparent PV panels achieves 7.6% higher thermal efficiency due to the absorption of some solar radiation at the bottom surface in the BIPV/T system cavity. Also, the two-inlet BIPV/T design is easily implemented and does not add significant cost. Detailed air temperature measurements reveal that the mixing of the warm outlet air from the first section and the cool ambient air drawn in from the second inlet contributes to the improved performance of the two-inlet system. Based on a thermal network model of the BIPV/T system and experimental data, correlations are developed for the convective heat transfer coefficients in the two sections. These are necessary for further analysis and development of BIPV/T system with multiple inlets.

  11. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, Kenji (Energy International, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Compressor motor for air conditioners realizing high efficiency and low cost; Kokoritsu tei cost wo jitsugenshita eakonyo asshukuki motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Imazawa, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The compressor motor accounts for most of the consumption of electric power in an air conditioner. To promote energy-saving, Toshiba has been progressively changing the compressor motors in its air conditioners to high-efficiency brushless DC motors. We have now developed a new compressor motor in order to achieve even greater energy-saving. A concentrated winding system was adopted featuring direct winding on the teeth of the stator core, for the first time in the industry. As a result, it was possible to realize a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight, and low-cost motor. Moreover, by constructing a new system for production, we were able to improve productivity and quality. The newly developed motor is expected to contribute to the further diffusion of energy-saving air conditioners. (author)

  13. Optimization of fog inlet air cooling system for combined cycle power plants using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehyaei, Mehdi A.; Tahani, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Pouria; Esfandiari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant is first conducted and the effects of gas turbine inlet fogging system on the first and second law efficiencies and net power outputs of combined cycle power plants are investigated. The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) considered for this study consist of a double pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to utilize the energy of exhaust leaving the gas turbine and produce superheated steam to generate electricity in the Rankine cycle. In order to enhance understanding of this research and come up with optimum performance assessment of the plant, a complete optimization is using a genetic algorithm conducted. In order to achieve this goal, a new objective function is defined for the system optimization including social cost of air pollution for the power generation systems. The objective function is based on the first law efficiency, energy cost and the external social cost of air pollution for an operational system. It is concluded that using inlet air cooling system for the CCPP system and its optimization results in an increase in the average output power, first and second law efficiencies by 17.24%, 3.6% and 3.5%, respectively, for three warm months of year. - Highlights: • To model the combined cycle power plant equipped with fog inlet air cooling method. • To conduct both exergy and economic analyses for better understanding. • To conduct a complete optimization using a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal design parameters of the system

  14. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, H.A.; Hoffman, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  15. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  16. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  17. Optimisation of Design of Air Inlets in Air Distribution Channels of a Double-Skin Transparent Façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielek, Boris; Szabó, Daniel; Palko, Milan; Rychtáriková, Monika

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on an optimization of design of air inlets in naturally ventilated double-skin transparent facades; the design aims at the proper functioning of these facades from the point of view of their aerodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour. A comparison was made of five different variants of ventilation louvers used in air openings with different shapes, positions and overall geometry. The aerodynamic response of the louvers was determined by 2D simulations using ANSYS software. The hydrodynamic properties were investigated by conducting driven-rain measurements in a large rain chamber at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava.

  18. Optimisation of Design of Air Inlets in Air Distribution Channels of a Double-Skin Transparent Façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielek Boris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optimization of design of air inlets in naturally ventilated double-skin transparent facades; the design aims at the proper functioning of these facades from the point of view of their aerodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour. A comparison was made of five different variants of ventilation louvers used in air openings with different shapes, positions and overall geometry. The aerodynamic response of the louvers was determined by 2D simulations using ANSYS software. The hydrodynamic properties were investigated by conducting driven-rain measurements in a large rain chamber at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava.

  19. REDUCTION OF CYCLE TIME IN SCREW AIR COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY LINE USING KAIZEN SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rajenthirakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive world, any company has to fulfill its customer needs to survive in the market. Lean manufacturing is a technique that can be adopted in a company to improve the quality of its products, reduce the cost of the production and also deliver the products in less time. The goal of this work is to show the applicability of lean manufacturing’s body of knowledge in a screw air compressor manufacturing company. Here, the main objective is to evolve and test several methodologies to eliminate wastes in the assembly line as the company at present unable to meet the customer demand. A systematic approach is suggested for the implementation of lean principles to showcase that lean could be applied to the compressor assembly line to enhance the productivity thereby making the line more efficient. In the current assembly line there was no work standardization followed by absence of kaizen that has led to an increased assembly time. Thus with the help of lean tools and techniques such as 5S, kaizen, standardization, visual management, poke yoke and string diagram the total cycle time has been reduced from 236 to 209 minutes. This reduction has benefitted the company in meeting the customer demand, increased profit and work satisfaction.

  20. Integration of steam injection and inlet air cooling for a gas turbine generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.J.; Chiou, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of exhaust gases from simple cycle gas turbine generation sets (GENSETs) is usually very high (around 500 deg. C), and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is often used to recover the energy from the exhaust gases and generate steam. The generated steams can be either used for many useful processes (heating, drying, separation etc.) or used back in the power generation system for enhancing power generation capacity and efficiency. Two well-proven techniques, namely steam injection gas turbine (STIG) and inlet air cooling (IAC) are very effective features that can use the generated steam to improve the power generation capacity and efficiency. Since the energy level of the generated steam needed for steam injection is different from that needed by an absorption chiller to cool the inlet air, a proper arrangement is required to implement both the STIG and the IAC features into the simple cycle GENSET. In this study, a computer code was developed to simulate a Tai power's Frame 7B simple cycle GENSET. Under the condition of local summer weather, the benefits obtained from the system implementing both STIG and IAC features are more than a 70% boost in power and 20.4% improvement in heat rate

  1. Fairchild 7B compressor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.E.; Neely, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Fairchild 7B centrifugal compressor used in the X-326 isotopic ''top'' cascade at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been modeled using a proprietary computer code called COMPAL by Concepts E.T.I., Inc. of Norwich, VT. The 7B compressor is described and some results of the modeling calculations are presented. Performance characteristics curves (PR/sub b/vs. flow and PR/sub a/) are included for UF 6 gas for two compressor inlet temperatures

  2. Feasibility analysis of gas turbine inlet air cooling by means of liquid nitrogen evaporation for IGCC power augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele; Spina, Pier Ruggero; Vaccari, Anna; Venturini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) are energy systems mainly composed of a gasifier and a combined cycle power plant. Since the gasification process usually requires oxygen as the oxidant, an Air Separation Unit (ASU) is also part of the plant. In this paper, a system for power augmentation in IGCC is evaluated. The system is based on gas turbine inlet air cooling by means of liquid nitrogen spray. In fact, nitrogen is a product of the ASU, but is not always exploited. In the proposed plant, the nitrogen is first liquefied to be used for inlet air cooling or stored for later use. This system is not characterized by the limits of water evaporative cooling systems (the lower temperature is limited by air saturation) and refrigeration cooling (the effectiveness is limited by the pressure drop in the heat exchanger). A thermodynamic model of the system is built by using a commercial code for energy conversion system simulation. A sensitivity analysis on the main parameters is presented. Finally the model is used to study the capabilities of the system by imposing the real temperature profiles of different sites for a whole year and by comparing to traditional inlet air cooling strategies. - Highlights: • Gas turbine inlet air cooling by means of liquid nitrogen spray. • Humidity condensation may form a fog which provides further power augmentation. • High peak and off peak electric energy price ratios make the system profitable

  3. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  4. An Analysis of Flow in Rotating Passage of Large Radial-Inlet Centrifugal Compressor at Tip Speed of 700 Feet Per Second

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prian, Vasily

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made of the flow in the rotating passages of a 48-inch diameter radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at a tip speed of 700 feet per second in order to provide more knowledge on the flow...

  5. Adaptive unstructured simulations of diaphragm rupture and perforation opening to start hypersonic air inlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, E.V.; Tahir, R.B.; Voinovich, P.A.; Moelder, S.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of 'twin' grid nodes is discussed in the context of unstructured, adaptive meshes that are suitable for highly unsteady flows. The concept is applicable to internal boundary contours (within the computational domain) where the boundary conditions may need to be changed dynamically; for instance, an impermeable solid wall segment can be redefined as a fully permeable invisible boundary segment during the course of the simulation. This can be used to simulate unsteady gas flows with internal boundaries where the flow conditions may change rapidly and drastically. As a demonstration, the idea is applied to study the starting process in hypersonic air inlets by rupturing a diaphragm or by opening wall-perforations. (author)

  6. Automated Control of a Solar Microgrid-Powered Air Compressor for Use in a Small-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    26 xii Figure 21. Simplified Control Program Flowchart .....................................................30 Figure 22...for manual operation. Figure 21 shows the overall control program flowchart . The details of the PLC and the HMI programs are contained in Appendix C...Figure 21. Simplified Control Program Flowchart 31 3. Solar Power Production Status Since the air compressor cannot function without

  7. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  8. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...

  9. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, Air-Cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and Sabatier Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Miller, Lee; Campbell, Melissa; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from the space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. The Sabatier Engineering Development Unit (EDU) processes waste CO2 to provide water to the crew. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS, air-cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor (TSAC), and Sabatier EDU testing. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of the 4BMS and Sabatier.

  10. Metingen aan twee luchtwassystemen in een vleeskuikenstal met conditionering van ingaande ventilatielucht = Measurements on two air scrubbing systems on broiler houses with heat exchanger for inlet ventilation air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hattum, van T.G.; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H.; Gerrits, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of two experimental air scrubber was investigated during 9 months on two broiler houses. The inlet ventilation air of the houses is led through a subsoil heat exchanger. In this report the removal efficiencies of the scrubber are reported for ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10 and

  11. Nonlinear control of rotating stall and surge with axisymmetric bleed and air injection on axial flow compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)

    The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are

  12. Aging of control and service air compressors and dryers used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, J.C.

    1990-07-01

    This report was produced under the Detection of Defects and Degradation Monitoring of Nuclear Plant Safety Equipment element of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. This element includes the identification of practical and cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging) of control and service air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants. These methods are to provide capabilities for establishing degradation trends prior to failure and developing guidance for effective maintenance. The topics of this Phase 1 assessment report are failure modes and causes resulting from aging, manufacturer--recommended maintenance and surveillance practices, and measurable parameters (including functional indicators) for use in assessing operational readiness, establishing degradation trends, and detecting incipient failure. the results presented are based on information derived from operating experience records, manufacturer-supplied information, and input from plant operators. For each failure mode, failure causes are listed by subcomponent, and parameters potentially useful for detecting degradation that could lead to failure are identified. 13 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 15 -- Rotary screw air compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 15 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to rotary screw air compressors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  14. The analysis on centrifugal compressor rotating stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shin, You Hwan

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the performance characteristics and the number of stall cell during rotating stall of a centrifugal air compressor were experimentally investigated. Rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser were investigated by measuring unsteady pressure fluctuations at several different diffuser radius using a high frequency pressure transducer. The number of stall cell and their rotational speeds are distinctive features of the rotating stall phenomenon. The present study is mainly forced on the analysis for the stall cell number and its propagation speed unstable operating region of the compressor. The interpretation method of visualization is based on the pressure distribution in the circumference pressure fields while plotting the pressure and its harmonics variations in time in polar coordinates. To obtain the visualize the existence rotating stall, auto-correlation function and the frequency spectra of the pressure fluctuations were measured at r/r2=1.52. When the flow coefficient is lower than 0.150, the static pressure at impeller inlet is higher than that at inlet duct of the compressor. And the flow coefficient is lower than 0.086, several stall cell groups of discrete frequencies are observed

  15. Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets for new surveillance air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to adapt an existing sampling inlet or develop a new one to collect airborne dust particles <10-μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter. These inlets are necessary to meet new EPA and DOE guidelines for surveillance of nuclear facilities

  16. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  17. Enhancement of centrifugal compressor stable operation using an internal recirculation channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressors with a high pressure ratio are widely used in small aircraft turbine engines and turbocharges. At high rotational speeds they have a narrow stable operating region and the commonly used impellers with back swept blades are not able to ensure requested stability. In order to achieve a wider stable operating region, some other anti-surge measures can be used such as an Internal Recirculation Channel (IRC located in the inlet area of the compressor impeller. This paper analyses the influence of various IRC inlet slot geometries on air flow parameters. The flow velocity profiles downstream of the IRC outlet slot are evaluated and the influence of various channel configurations on compressor performance map is shown. Results from experiments as well as CFD simulations enable us to analyse the airflow in IRC and find out its most suitable geometry.

  18. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  19. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  20. Experimental investigation of a forced response condition in a multistage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William Louis, III

    The objective of this research is twofold. Firstly, the design, development, and construction of a test facility for a Honeywell APU-style centrifugal compressor was implemented, as well as the design and construction of an inlet flow experiment. Secondly, the aeromechanical response of an embedded stage in the Purdue 3-Stage axial research compressor was analyzed through a suite of different measurement techniques in the fulfillment of the end of the GUIde IV Consortium contract. The purpose of the first phase of Honeywell work was to comprehensively measure the flow field of an APU-style centrifugal compressor inlet through the use of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A portion of a Honeywell supplied inlet was modified to provide optical access to the elbow, and a gas ejector system was designed and constructed to provide the same suction to the inlet that it would see during operation with the compressor. A performance and health monitoring electronics system was designed and purchased to support the testing of the Honeywell inlet ejector system and eventually it will be used for testing with a centrifugal compressor. Additionally, a secondary air and oil system has been designed and is currently being constructed in the test cell in preparation for the arrival of the Honeywell compressor this summer. An embedded rotor stage in the Purdue 3-stage compressor, with a Campbell diagram crossing of the 1T vibratory mode was analyzed with a suite of measurement systems. In addition to steady state compressor performance measurements, other types of measurements were used to characterize the aerodynamic forcing function for this forced response condition including: NSMS, high-frequency pressure transducers mounted in the casing and in a downstream stator, and cross-film thermal anemometry. Rotor geometry was measured by Aerodyne using an in-situ laser scanning technique. Vibrometry testing was performed at WPAFB to characterize safe operating speeds for stator

  1. Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets for new surveillance air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.

    1986-01-01

    The inlet for the present Rock Flats Plant surveillance sampler does not meet the new but still tentative PM-10 (<10-μm particle mass) criterion for sampling the hazardous fraction of airborne dust. Since this criterion relates mainly to non-radioactive emissions, DOE and EPA are presently in the process of promulgating emission guidelines specifically for non-reactor DOE nuclear facilities. The authors present approach is to select a commercial inlet and modify its, if necessary, to meet the PM-10 criterion, keeping in mind that they may have to recover the dust collected in the inlet. There is no EPA-approved PM-10 inlet design; instead, EPA issued a performance specification. As a nuclear operation, Rocky Flats has to sample continuously to ensure no period remains unmonitored, instead of every sixth day, as set forth by EPA for non-nuclear installations. During this study period, the authors developed an inlet evaluation methodology to meet the above, anticipated EPA requirements. Also, they started testing two potential inlets. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  2. Compressors. These little things that improve the operation of air conditioners. Danfoss-Turbocor: magnetic bearings for a centrifugal compressor. Copeland: the group stresses on the Digital power variation; Dossier compresseurs. Ces petits plus qui ameliorent le fonctionnement des climatiseurs. Danfoss-Turbocor: des paliers magnetiques pour un compresseur centrifuge. Copeland: le groupe met l'accent sur la variation de puissance Digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, J.

    2005-09-01

    This dossier about compressors for air conditioners comprises three articles dealing with: the improvements made by manufacturers of air-conditioning systems to increase the coefficient of performance and the lifetime of compressors, to reduce the refrigerant leaks and to reduce the power consumption; the electromagnetic bearings, the speed variation and the double stage compression used in the Danfoss-Turbocor centrifugal compressor; and the 'Digital' mechanical power variation system used by Copeland which does not change the motor velocity nor the operation limits of the compressor. (J.S.)

  3. Algorithm for Controlling a Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for controlling a centrifugal compressor that serves as the prime mover in a heatpump system. Experimental studies have shown that the operating conditions for maximum compressor efficiency are close to the boundary beyond which surge occurs. Compressor surge is a destructive condition in which there are instantaneous reversals of flow associated with a high outlet-to-inlet pressure differential. For a given cooling load, the algorithm sets the compressor speed at the lowest possible value while adjusting the inlet guide vane angle and diffuser vane angle to maximize efficiency, subject to an overriding requirement to prevent surge. The onset of surge is detected via the onset of oscillations of the electric current supplied to the compressor motor, associated with surge-induced oscillations of the torque exerted by and on the compressor rotor. The algorithm can be implemented in any of several computer languages.

  4. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel; Kyung Kyu-Hyung; Rivarola, Martin; Gonzalez Jose; Florido, Pablo; Orellano, Pablo; Bergallo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

  5. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  7. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  8. Smart actuation of inlet guide vanes for small turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovici, Razvan; Kwok Choon, Stephen T.; Sepri, Paavo; Feys, Joshuo

    2011-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity over the past few years to become an indispensable part of aerial missions that include reconnaissance, surveillance, and communication [1]. As a result, advancements in small jet-engine performance are needed to increase the performance (range, payload and efficiency) of the UAV. These jet engines designed especially for UAV's are characterized by thrust force on the order of 100N and due to their size and weight limitations, may lack advanced flow control devices such as IGV [2]. The goal of the current study was to present a conceptual design of an IGV smart-material based actuation mechanism that would be simple, compact and lightweight. The compressor section of an engine increases the pressure and conditions the flow before the air enters the combustion chamber [3]. The airflow entering the compressor is often turbulent due to the high angle of incidence between engine inlet and free-stream velocity, or existing atmospheric turbulence. Actuated IGV are used to help control the relative angle of incidence of the flow that enters the engine compressor, thereby preventing flow separation, compressor stall and thus extending the compressor's operating envelope [4]. Turbine jet- engines which employ variable IGV were developed by Rolls Royce (Trent DR-900) and General Electric (J79).

  9. Oil-free piston compressors for compressed air and gas; Oellose Kolbenkompressoren fuer Druckluft und Gase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frefel, B. [Fritz Haug AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2002-11-01

    Oil-free compressors are lubricated with special materials in dry operation. The technology was developed 35 years ago by the Swiss company, Fritz Haug AG. Originally developed for 10 - 40 bar, oil-free compressors are now available for both the low-pressure and high-pressure range. [German] Unter dem Begriff ''oellose Kompressoren'' versteht man Verdichter, die in der ganzen Anlage keinen Tropfen Oel verwenden, weder im Fuehrungs- und Verdichtungstell noch im Triebwerk. Die Schmierung erfolgt mit speziellen Materiallen im Trockenlauf. Die Technik der oellosen und trockenlaufenden Kolbenkompressoren wurde bereits vor rund 35 Jahren von der schweizer Firma Fritz Haug AG entwickelt. Anfaenglich war die Anwendung der Verdichtung von Luft auf 10 bis 40 bar vorbehalten. Durch Weiterentwicklungen in neue Materiallen und in der Konstruktion besteht heute auch ein umfangreiches Sortiment an Kompressoren fuer die oellose und trockene Verdichtung von Gasen fuer den Nieder- und Hochdruckbereich. (orig.)

  10. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  11. Real-time measurement of plutonium in air by direct-inlet surface ionization mass spectrometry. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, J.J.

    1980-04-01

    A new technique is being developed for monitoring low-level airborne plutonium on a real-time basis. The technique is based on surface ionization mass spectrometry of airborne particles. It will be capable of measuring plutonium concentrations below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) level. A complete mass spectrometer was designed and constructed for this purpose. Major components which were developed and made operational for the instrument include an efficient inlet for directly sampling particles in air, a wide dynamic range ion detector and a minicomputer-based ion-burst measurement system. Calibration of the direct-inlet mass spectrometer (DIMS) was initiated to establish the instrument's response to plutonium dioxide as a function of concentration and particle size. This work revealed an important problem - bouncing of particles upon impact with the ionizing filament. Particle bounce results in a significant loss of measurement sensitivity. The feasibility of using an oven ionizer to overcome the particle bounce problem has been demonstrated. A rhenium oven ionizer was designed and constructed for the purpose of trapping particles which enter via the direct inlet. High-speed particles were trapped in the oven yielding a measurement sensitivity comparable to that for particles which are preloaded. Development of the Pu DIMS can now be completed by optimizing the oven design and calibrating the instrument's performance with UO 2 and CeO 2 particles as analogs to PuO 2 particles

  12. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    2016-03-22

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the air flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).

  13. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothilal, T.; Pitchandi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%

  14. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothilal, T. [T. J. S. Engineering College, Gummidipoond (India); Pitchandi, K. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India)

    2015-10-15

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%.

  15. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  16. Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr-H2O thermal compressor cooled by air/water and driven by low grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Venegas, M.; Garcia, N.; Palacios, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide-water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5 deg. C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids without crystallization problems up to condensation-absorption temperatures equal to 50 deg. C. The results obtained give the entropy generated, the exergy destroyed and the exergetic efficiency of the double stage thermal compressor as a function of the absorption temperature. The conclusions obtained show that the irreversibilities generated by the double stage thermal compressor will tend to increase with the absorption temperature up to 45 deg. C. The maximum value corresponds to 1.35 kJ kg -1 K -1 . The entropy generated and the exergy destroyed by the air cooled system are higher than those by the water cooled one. The difference between the values increases when the absorption temperature increases. For an absorption temperature equal to 50 deg. C, the air cooled mode generates 14% more entropy and destroys 14% more exergy than the water cooled one. Also, the results are compared with those of previous studies for single and double effect air cooled and water cooled thermal compressors. The conclusions show that the double stage system has about 22% less exergetic efficiency than the single effect one and 32% less exergetic efficiency than the double effect one

  17. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  18. Integrated Testing of a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.; Mulloth, Lila; Frederick, Kenneth; Affleck, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper describes the integrated test results of a flight-like CDRA and a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for carbon dioxide removal and compression. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  19. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  20. Transient modeling of an air-cooled chiller with economized compressor. Part II: Application to control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ding Shufu; Zhang Chunlu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the transient modeling developed in the previous paper, the control design of the air-cooled chiller is studied. The main electronic expansion valve (EXV) controls the suction superheat, the compressor controls the leaving water temperature and the sub EXV regulates the injection superheat. Since the system reliability is sensitive to the control of the suction superheat, it is the focus in this paper. Dynamic simulation cases are built to compare two control algorithms, PID and fuzzy logic. The case studies show that the fuzzy controller has higher reliability and performance. Both the two controllers are fully tested and tuned on a chiller test facility and the experiments indicate that the fuzzy controller works better as well.

  1. The Performance of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and other Room Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jakubowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses different room air distribution systems, and describes a design chart which can be used for the evaluation of variables as air quality, air velocity and temperature gradient as a function of flow rate and temperature difference in the supply system. The design chart can also be...

  2. Numerical simulation for the influence of laser-induced plasmas addition on air mass capture of hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian

    2012-03-01

    The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.

  3. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  4. Effects of bending-torsional duct-induced swirl distortion on aerodynamic performance of a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongjuan; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yanzhao

    2017-04-01

    A turbocharger compressor working in commercial vehicles, especially in some passenger cars, often works together with some pipes with complicated geometry as an air intake system, due to limit of available space in internal combustion engine compartments. These pipes may generate various distortions of physical parameters of the air at the inlet of the compressor and therefore the compressor aerodynamic performance deteriorates. Sometimes, the turbocharging engine fails to work at some operation points. This paper investigates the effects of various swirl distortions induced by different bending-torsional intake ducts on the aerodynamic performance of a turbocharger compressor by both 3D numerical simulations and experimental measurements. It was found that at the outlet of the pipes the different inlet ducts can generate different swirl distortions, twin vortices and bulk-like vortices with different rotating directions. Among them, the bulk-like vortices not only affect seriously the pressure distribution in the impeller domain, but also significantly deteriorate the compressor performance, especially at high flow rate region. And the rotating direction of the bulk-like vortices is also closely associated with the efficiency penalty. Besides the efficiency, the transient flow rate through a single impeller channel, or the asymmetric mass flow crossing the whole impeller, can be influenced by two disturbances. One is from the upstream bending-torsional ducts; other one is from the downstream volute.

  5. Performance improvement of standard turbo-compressor; Han`yo turbo asshukuki no seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokari, T.; Hasegawa, K.; Ozaki, S.; Majima, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    Abradable materials are soft and cause no contact damage to the impeller of the turbo-compressor. Using such materials for the inlet casing facing to the impeller allows very small clearances between the impeller and inlet casing, thus improving the compressor efficiency by 10% over conventional types. Changing the area of abradable material applied to the inlet casing identified the optimum area in which decrease of the compressor surge margin is minimized and efficiency is improved by 10%. As a result, turbo-compressors have the best performance when the abradable materials are applied from the impeller outlet to two-thirds of the forward location of the inlet casing. (author)

  6. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G [Los Angeles, CA; McCabe, Niall [Torrance, CA; Gee, Mark [South Pasadena, CA

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  7. Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr-H{sub 2}O thermal compressor cooled by air/water and driven by low grade heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M. [Instituto C.C. Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Edificacion y Habitabilidad, Madrid (Spain); Venegas, M.; Garcia, N. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y Fluidos; Palacios, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Mecanica Industrial

    2005-05-01

    In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide-water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5{sup o} C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids without crystallization problems up to condensation-absorption temperatures equal to 50 {sup o}C. The results obtained give the entropy generated, the exergy destroyed and the exergetic efficiency of the double stage thermal compressor as a function of the absorption temperature. The conclusions obtained show that the irreversibilities generated by the double stage thermal compressor will tend to increase with the absorption temperature up to 45 {sup o}C. The maximum value corresponds to 1.35 kJ kg{sup -}1{sup K-1}. The entropy generated and the exergy destroyed by the air cooled system are higher than those by the water cooled one. The difference between the values increases when the absorption temperature increases. For an absorption temperature equal to 50 {sup o}C, the air cooled mode generates 14% more entropy and destroys 14% more exergy than the water cooled one. Also, the results are compared with those of previous studies for single and double effect air cooled and water cooled thermal compressors. The conclusions show that the double stage system has about 22% less exergetic efficiency than the single effect one and 32% less exergetic efficiency than the double effect one. (author)

  8. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling effecti...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  9. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  10. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  11. Study on restriction method for end-wall boundary layer thickness in axial helium gas compressor for gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance test was carried out using a 1/3 scale, 4-stage model of the helium gas compressor to investigate an effect of end-wall over-camber to prevent decrease of axial velocity in the end-wall boundary layer. The model compressor consists of a rotor, 500 mm in diameter, which is driven by an electric motor at a rotational speed of 10800 rpm. The rotor blade span of the first stage is 34 mm. The test was carried out under the condition that the helium gas pressure of 0.88 MPa, temperature of 30degC, and mass flow rate of 12.47 kg/s at the inlet. A 3-dimensional aerodynamic code, which was verified using the test data, showed that axial velocity was lowered by using a blade which increased the inlet blade angle around the end-wall region of the casing side in comparison with that using the original design blade, because the inlet flow angle mismatched with the inlet blade angle of the rotor blade, as opposed to the prediction by a conventional air compressor design method. The overall adiabatic efficiency of the full scale 20-stage helium gas compressor was predicted 89.7% from the Reynolds number dependency of the test data by using the original design blade. (author)

  12. Inlet Diameter and Flow Volume Effects on Separation and Energy Efficiency of Hydrocyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikli, Ş.; Olcay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates hydrocyclone performance of an oil injected screw compressor. Especially, the oil separation efficiency of a screw compressor plays a significant role for air quality and non-stop working hour of compressors has become an important issue when the efficiency in energy is considered. In this study, two separation efficiency parameters were selected to be hydrocyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top of the hydrocyclone. Nine different cases were studied in which cyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top were investigated in regards to separation and energy performance aspects and the effect of the parameters on the general performance appears to be causing powerful influence. Flow inside the hydrocyclone geometry was modelled by Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and hydro particles were tracked by Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Besides, particle break up was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The reversed vortex generation was observed at different planes. The upper limit of the inlet diameter of the cyclone yields the centrifugal force on particles to decrease while the flow becomes slower; and the larger diameter implies slower flow. On the contrary, the lower limit is increment in speed causes breakup problems that the particle diameters become smaller; consequently, it is harder to separate them from gas.

  13. Rotary Compressor Noise Analysis Using Mechanisms and Electromagnetics Coupled Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jinah; Lee, Uiyoon; Lee, Jeongbae; Lee, Unseop; Han, Eunsil; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2016-01-01

    This research is conducted to investigate noise source and design low noise compressors. For improving energy efficiency, the rotary compressor with variable speed brushless DC motor is increasingly adopted for appliances. However brushless DC motor makes more compressor vibration than constant speed motor compressor at high speed operating condition. Therefore it is necessary to reduce noise and vibration for improving air conditioner quality. In this study, compressor’s noise and vibrat...

  14. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  15. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  16. Quantitative analysis and design of a spray aerosol inhaler. Part 1: effects of dilution air inlets and flow paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of modifying inhaler design variables on aerosol drug deposition within the mouthpiece for a representative spray system using a quantitative analysis and design approach. Capillary aerosol generation (CAG) was selected as a model spray aerosol system in conjunction with four prototype inhaler body and mouthpiece combinations. In vitro experiments were used to determine drug deposition in the mouthpiece and induction port. Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were implemented to establish relationships between design variables, transport characteristics, and aerosol drug deposition. Results of this study indicated that both the size of the upstream dilution air inlets and the flow pathway configuration near the spray nozzle significantly influenced aerosol transport and deposition. CFD results showed that the primary transport characteristics associated with drug deposition were turbulence intensity and the effective diameter of the mouthpiece. Strong quantitative correlations were developed between the identified transport characteristics and mouthpiece drug deposition. Based on quantitative analysis and design, turbulence intensity and effective mouthpiece diameter were identified as key transport characteristics within the design space that directly influenced aerosol deposition and may be used to predict and optimize drug delivery to the patient.

  17. Report on an investigational research on energy conservation by a combination system between air compressor and pneumatic equipment in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo kuki asshukuki to kukiatsu kiki no kumiawase system ni yoru sho energy no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The air compressor which rises pneumatics for actuating pneumatic equipment is very low in energy efficiency also including the power source. Conventionally, at works which use large lots of compressor power, for example, improvements have been made on such as leakage of pneumatics from compressor and pneumatic equipment and piping for power reduction, but the present situation is that processing including compressor and pneumatic compressor through exhaust gas treatment is not regarded as a synthetic system. Therefore, the following problems should be studied: (1) distributed installation of compressors at right place from centralized installation, reduction of pressure loss of piping, etc., and how to use pneumatic equipment and how to improve its performance; (2) energy conservation by lessening gap between compressor pressure and pressure in using pneumatic equipment; (3) energy conservation by improving exhaust gas treatment, etc. This time, an investigational research on these items was systematically conducted to study measures for energy reduction of power source and increase of efficiency. The study was made on making guides such as manuals which becomes effective for energy conservation measures and policies to be guidelines on the development of equipment. 9 refs., 46 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Air conditioning in a CINEMAXX cinema. Innovative solution involving a screw compressor and direct evaporation; Klimatisierung in einem CINEMAXX-Kino. Innovative Loesung mit Schraubenverdichter und Direktverdampfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    The new CINEMAXX cinema building in the Trier city centre has fully glazed walls and a modern air conditioning system. The system was installed by local organisations. Its key components are two Comer-Dorin screw compressors. [German] Im Trierer Stadtzentrum befindet sich ein neues CINEMAXX-Kino, hinter dessen glaeserner Fassade die Klimaanlage diskret verborgen bleibt. Oertliche Firmen der Branche konnten die Ausschreibung der Klimaanlage zu ihren Gunsten entscheiden und mit Erfahrung und handwerklichem Koennen unter Verwendung zweier Comer-Dorin-Schraubenverdichter eine nachahmenswerte Loesung planen und installieren. (orig.)

  19. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syka, T.; Luňáček, O.

    2013-04-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  20. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    OpenAIRE

    Luňáček O.; Syka T.

    2013-01-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  1. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luňáček O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  2. Design features of fans, blowers, and compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    Fan engineering and compression machines are discussed. Basic aspects of fan performance and design are reviewed, and the design and performance characteristics of radial-flow fans, axial-flow fans, and controllable pitch fans are examined in detail. Air-conditioning systems are discussed, and noise, vibration, and mechanical considerations in fans are extensively examined. The thermodynamic principles governing compression machines are reviewed, and piston compressors, rotary compressors, blowers, and centrifugal compressors are discussed.

  3. Effect of self recirculation casing treatment on the performance of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Matthieu

    Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred

  4. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  5. Turbofan compressor dynamics during afterburner transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of afterburner light-off and shut-down transients on the compressor stability are investigated. The reported experimental results are based on detailed high response pressure and temperature measurements on the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine. The tests were performed in an altitude test chamber simulating high altitude engine operation. It is shown that during both types of transients, flow breaks down in the forward part of the fan bypass duct. At a sufficiently low engine inlet pressure this resulted in a compressor stall. Complete flow breakdown within the compressor was preceded by a rotating stall. At some locations in the compressor, rotating stall cells initially extended only through part of the blade span. For the shutdown transient the time between first and last detected occurrence of rotating stall is related to the flow Reynolds number. An attempt was made to deduce the number and speed of propagation of rotating stall cells.

  6. Modeling and control of compressor flow instabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Compressors are widely used for the pressurization of fluids. Applications involve air compression for use in aircraft engines and pressurization and transportation of gas in the process and chemical industries. The article focuses on two commonly used types of continuous flow compressors: the axial

  7. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  8. The method of the gas-dynamic centrifugal compressor stage characteristics recalculation for variable rotor rotational speeds and the rotation angle of inlet guide vanes blades if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyashov, A. D.; Karabanova, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical description of the method for obtaining gas-dynamic characteristics of a centrifugal compressor stage is proposed, taking into account the control action by varying the rotor speed and the angle of rotation of the guide vanes relative to the "basic" characteristic, if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met. The formulas of the correction terms for the non-dimensional coefficients of specific work, consumption and efficiency are obtained. A comparative analysis of the calculated gas-dynamic characteristics of a high-pressure centrifugal stage with experimental data is performed.

  9. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  10. Thermal–economic–environmental analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ice thermal energy storage system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Najafi, Behzad; Aminyavari, Mehdi; Rinaldi, Fabio; Taylor, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of an ice thermal energy storage (ITES) system for gas turbine cycle inlet air cooling is developed and thermal, economic, and environmental (emissions cost) analyses have been applied to the model. While taking into account conflicting thermodynamic and economic objective functions, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal design parameters of the plant. Exergetic efficiency is chosen as the thermodynamic objective while the total cost rate of the system including the capital and operational costs of the plant and the social cost of emissions, is considered as the economic objective. Performing the optimization procedure, a set of optimal solutions, called a Pareto front, is obtained. The final optimal design point is determined using TOPSIS decision-making method. This optimum solution results in the exergetic efficiency of 34.06% and the total cost of 28.7 million US$ y −1 . Furthermore, the results demonstrate that inlet air cooling using an ITES system leads to 11.63% and 3.59% improvement in the output power and exergetic efficiency of the plant, respectively. The extra cost associated with using the ITES system is paid back in 4.72 years with the income received from selling the augmented power. - Highlights: • Mathematical model of an ITES system for a GT cycle inlet air cooling is developed. • Exergetic, economic and environmental analyses were performed on the developed model. • Exergy efficiency and total cost rate were considered as the objective functions. • The total cost rate involves the capital, maintenance, operational and emissions costs. • Multi-objective optimization was applied to obtain the Pareto front

  11. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  12. Prediction of active control of subsonic centrifugal compressor rotating stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the suppression of rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser. This model is based on the employment of a control vortical waveform generated upstream of the impeller inlet to damp weak potential disturbances that are the early stages of rotating stall. The control system is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. The model was effective at predicting the stalling behavior of the Purdue Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor for two distinctly different stall patterns. Predictions made for the effect of a controlled inlet vorticity wave on the stability of the compressor show that for minimum control wave magnitudes, on the order of the total inlet disturbance magnitude, significant damping of the instability can be achieved. For control waves of sufficient amplitude, the control phase angle appears to be the most important factor in maintaining a stable condition in the compressor.

  13. Low-temperature centrifugal helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, M.; Togo, S.; Akiyama, Y.; Wada, R.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifugal helium compressor with gas bearings, which can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, has been investigated. This compressor has the advantages that the compression ratio should be higher than the room temperature operation and that the contamination of helium could be eliminated. The outer diameter of the rotor is 112 mm. The experimental result for helium gas at low temperature shows a flow rate of 47 g/s and a compression ratio of 1.2 when the inlet pressure was 1 ata and the rotational speed 550 rev/s. The investigation is now focused on obtaining a compression ratio of 1.5. (author)

  14. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS and liquid-cooled TSAC testing conducted during the period of March 3 to April 18, 2003. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  15. Experimental study of enhancing heating performance of the air-source heat pump by using a novel heat recovery device designed for reusing the energy of the compressor shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bi; Jian, Qifei; Luo, Lizhong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heat recovery device was designed and tested. • Aiming at avoiding liquid slugging in cold areas. • Recovery of the waste energy of compressor housing. • Refrigerant is heated with the energy recovered before it is sucked into the compressor. • Requires no extra power while the recovery system is operating. - Abstract: A novel heat recovery device designed to recover the heat that is released from the outer surface of heat pump compressors, and to enhance the performance of heat pumps in cold areas was made and tested in this study. The novel heat recovery device consists of three fundamental units: a heat absorption unit, a heat emission unit and heat pipes. An amount of work focused on recovering the heat of compressors through oil system, but few studies concentrated on the housing. The main advantage of the heat recovery device is no need for extra energy consumption for its only driving force is the temperature difference between the compressor shell and the working fluid inside the suction line. The experimental results were obtained from a series of tests with a R410A air-source heat pump. Effects of the device are analyzed with respect of the suction temperature, temperature distribution among the housing, input power and exergy destruction. Moreover, the impact on the heating capacity is also discussed. Further, direction for improvement is also given based on the analysis.

  16. Preliminary Data on the Effects of Inlet Pressure Distortions on the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Einstein, Thomas H.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation to determine the steady-state and surge characteristics of the J57-P-1 two-spool turbojet engine with various inlet air-flow distortions was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Along with a uniform inlet total-pressure distribution, one circumferential and three radial pressure distortions were investigated. Data were obtained over a complete range of compressor speeds both with and without intercompressor air bleed at a flight Mach number of 0.8 and at altitudes of 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Total-pressure distortions of the magnitudes investigated had very little effect on the steady-state operating line for either the outer or inner compressor. The small radial distortions investigated also had engine over that obtained with the uniform inlet pressure distribution. The circumferential distortion, however, raised the minimum speed at which the engine could operate without encountering surge when the intercompressor bleeds were closed. This increase in minimum speed resulted in a substantial reduction in the operable speed range accompanied by a reduction in the altitude operating limit.

  17. Supersonic compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2016-04-12

    A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  18. A Computational and Experimental Study of Coflow Laminar Methane/Air Diffusion Flames: Effects of Fuel Dilution, Inlet Velocity, and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S.; Ma, B.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Giassi, D.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Long, M. B.; Smooke, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The influences of fuel dilution, inlet velocity, and gravity on the shape and structure of laminar coflow CH4-air diffusion flames were investigated computationally and experimentally. A series of nitrogen-diluted flames measured in the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) on board the International Space Station was assessed numerically under microgravity (mu g) and normal gravity (1g) conditions with CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 and average inlet velocity ranging from 23 to 90 cm/s. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modeled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, flame shape and soot temperature were determined by flame emission images recorded by a digital color camera. Very good agreement between computation and measurement was obtained, and the conclusions were as follows. (1) Buoyant and nonbuoyant luminous flame lengths are proportional to the mass flow rate of the fuel mixture; computed and measured nonbuoyant flames are noticeably longer than their 1g counterparts; the effect of fuel dilution on flame shape (i.e., flame length and flame radius) is negligible when the flame shape is normalized by the methane flow rate. (2) Buoyancy-induced reduction of the flame radius through radially inward convection near the flame front is demonstrated. (3) Buoyant and nonbuoyant flame structure is mainly controlled by the fuel mass flow rate, and the effects from fuel dilution and inlet velocity are secondary.

  19. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  20. Case Study regarding the test of the new screw compressor with high delivery pressure - 45 bara - on the test bench (with air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PETRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Screw compressors, which are part of positive displacement compressors, can find an increasing use in gas industry and beyond due to their advantages. Maximal parameters of these devices, done by Comoti under GHH-Rand license stop at a maximum flow of 3000 Nm3/hour and 26 bara discharge pressure. The needs of potential beneficiaries have imposed the necessity to design and manufacture a new family of screw compressors and oil injection able to develop a discharge pressure of 45 bara with flow rates up to 5000 Nm3/hour. This paper presents the design and experimental test phases – for the first screw compressor with discharge of pressure up to 45 bara – CU90 HP. Continue research and development have allowed to this type of screw-compressor – to find a market position, diversifying its size range in the last decade in a manner more explosive, if we refer to other types of compressors.

  1. Effect of Reynolds Number on Separation Bubbles on Controlled-Diffusion Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hobson, Garth

    2001-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of second- generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor stator blades at an off-design inlet-flow angle was performed in a low-speed cascade wind tunnel primarily...

  2. Modeling the Deterioration of Engine and Low Pressure Compressor Performance During a Roll Back Event Due to Ice Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip, C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) of NASA Glenn Research Center. A data point was selected for analysis during which the engine experienced a full roll back event due to the ice accretion on the blades and flow path of the low pressure compressor. The computational tool consists of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine system thermodynamic cycle code, and an Euler-based compressor flow analysis code, that has an ice particle melt estimation code with the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Decreasing the performance characteristics of the low pressure compressor (LPC) within the NPSS cycle analysis resulted in matching the overall engine performance parameters measured during testing at data points in short time intervals through the progression of the roll back event. Detailed analysis of the fan-core and LPC with the compressor flow analysis code simulated the effects of ice accretion by increasing the aerodynamic blockage and pressure losses through the low pressure compressor until achieving a match with the NPSS cycle analysis results, at each scan. With the additional blockages and losses in the LPC, the compressor flow analysis code results were able to numerically reproduce the performance that was determined by the NPSS cycle analysis, which was in agreement with the PSL engine test data. The compressor flow analysis indicated that the blockage due to ice accretion in the LPC exit guide vane stators caused the exit guide vane (EGV) to be nearly choked, significantly reducing the air flow rate into the core. This caused the LPC to eventually be in stall due to increasing levels of diffusion in the rotors and high incidence angles in the inlet guide vane (IGV) and EGV stators. The flow analysis indicating

  3. Development of ZL400 Mine Cooling Unit Using Semi-Hermetic Screw Compressor and Its Application on Local Air Conditioning in Underground Long-Wall Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxiang; Ji, Jianhu; Zhang, Xijun; Yan, Hongyuan; Dong, Haomin; Liu, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    Aiming at heat injuries occurring in the process of deep coal mining in China, a ZL400 mine-cooling unit employing semi-hermetic screw compressor with a cooling capacity of 400 kW is developed. This paper introduced its operating principle, structural characteristics and technical indexes. By using the self-built testing platform, some parameters for indication of its operation conditions were tested on the ground. The results show that the aforementioned cooling unit is stable in operation: cooling capacity of the unit was 420 kW underground-test conditions, while its COP (coefficient of performance) reached 3.4. To address the issue of heat injuries existing in No. 16305 U-shaped long-wall ventilation face of Jining No. 3 coal mine, a local air conditioning system was developed with ZL400 cooling unit as the system's core. The paper presented an analysis of characteristics of the air current flowing in the air-mixing and cooling mode of ZL400 cooling unit used in air intake way. Through i-d patterns we described the process of the airflow treatment, such as cooling, mixing and heating, etc. The cooling system decreased dry bulb temperature on working face by 3°C on average and 3.8°C at most, while lowered the web bulb temperature by 3.6°C on average and 4.8°C at most. At the same time, it reduced relative humidity by 5% on average and 8.6% at most. The field application of the ZL400 cooling unit had gain certain effects in air conditioning and provided support for the solution of mine heat injuries in China in terms of technology and equipment.

  4. Centrifugal Compressors, Flow Phenomena and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    r2 = 1.975 situated near diffuser exit/ collector entrance. Total temperature measure- ments have been performed at the compressor inlet and exit...non-square mesh is used in a two-dimensional flow calculation. In fact, this term is compounded of the product of a constant coefficient multiplying the...terms of the finite difference equations are evaluated from the zeroth approximation, i.e., the solution of Katsanis and McNally (1), while parabolic

  5. An Investigation of Backflow Phenomenon in Centrifugal Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benser, William A; Moses, Jason J

    1945-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the nature and the extent of the reversal of flow, which occurs at the inlet of centrifugal compressors over a considerable portion of the operating range. Qualitative studies of this flow reversal were made by lampblack patterns taken on a mixed-flow-type impeller and by tuft studies made on a conventional centrifugal compressor. Quantitative studies were made on a compressor specially designed to enable survey of angularity of flow, static and total pressures, and temperatures to be taken very close to the impeller front housing.

  6. Air cooled heat pumps with mono-screw compressors. A good alternative; Luchtgekoelde warmtepompen met mono-schroefcompressoren. Een goed alternatief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, W. [Daikin Airconditioning Netherlands, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Heat pumps are becoming increasingly popular. Often water/water heat pumps are used that are linked to heat/cold storage systems or another source system. The air-cooled alternatives are advancing in house construction and are also applied in small-scale utility and schools sometimes. In the larger utility projects and the industry, however, the air-cooled heat pump has not quite yet found its way, while it can be a good alternative for the heat/cold storage systems that are much more expensive to purchase. This is due to new compressor techniques. [Dutch] Warmtepompen worden steeds populairder. Veelal wordt gebruikgemaakt van water/water-warmtepompen, die gekoppeld worden aan een koude/warmte-opslagsysteem (KWO) of ander bronsysteem. De luchtgekoelde alternatieven zijn in de woningbouw in opmars en worden soms ook in kleinschalige utiliteit en scholen toegepast. In de grotere utiliteitsprojecten en industrie heeft de luchtgekoelde warmtepomp echter zijn weg nog niet echt gevonden, terwijl het een goed alternatief kan zijn voor de in aanschaf veel duurdere KWO-systemen. Dit mede dankzij nieuwe compressortechnieken.

  7. CFD Analysis to Study Effect of Circular Vortex Generator Placed in Inlet Section to Investigate Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Air Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin B. Gawande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate.

  8. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate.

  9. Miniature Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Miniature turbocompressor designed for reliability and long life. Cryogenic system includes compressor, turboexpander, and heat exchanger provides 5 W of refrigeration at 70 K from 150 W input power. Design speed of machine 510,000 rpm. Compressor has gas-lubricated journal bearings and magnetic thrust bearing. When compressor runs no bearing contact and no wear.

  10. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inlet Geomorphology Evolution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Std Z39-18 Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP evaluates

  11. Multi-Temperature Heat Pump with Cascade Compressor Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is a multifunctional heat pump with several evaporators and condensers designed for simultaneous provision of technological processes with heat and cold. The aim of the work is the development and study of the scheme for this type of heat pumps, which ensures minimum irreversibility in the "compressor-gas coolers" chain, without the use of adjustable ejectors installed after evaporators and used as flow mixers. The obtained technical solution ensures the stabilization of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP and prescribed thermal regimes of heat exchangers at a variable flow rate of the refrigerant. The novelty of the elaboration is inclusion a compressor of the first stage with a serially connected intermediate heat exchanger and a control valve that are located before the compressor inlet of the second stage of the heat pump, which allows to establish a rational pressure after the first stage of the compressors. A scheme is proposed for regulating the temperature at the inlet of the first stage compressors by regulating the flow through the primary circuits of the recuperative heat exchangers. The first stage compressor control system allows providing the required modes of operation of the heat pump. It is established, because of the exergetic analysis of the sections of the hydraulic circuit of heat pump located between the evaporators and gas coolers that the reduction of irreversible losses in the heat pump is ensured due to the optimal choice of the superheat value of the gas after the evaporators.

  12. Active unsteady aerodynamic suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Centrifugal Compressor Stabilization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to investigate techniques for extending the stable flow range of a centrifugal compressor are reported. The research was conducted in a high-speed centrifugal compressor at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The stabilizing effect of steadily flowing air-streams injected into the vaneless region of a vane-island diffuser through the shroud surface is described. Parametric variations of injection angle, injection flow rate, number of injectors, injector spacing, and injection versus bleed were investigated for a range of impeller speeds and tip clearances. Both the compressor discharge and an external source were used for the injection air supply. The stabilizing effect of flow obstructions created by tubes that were inserted into the diffuser vaneless space through the shroud was also investigated. Tube immersion into the vaneless space was varied in the flow obstruction experiments. Results from testing done at impeller design speed and tip clearance are presented. Surge margin improved by 1.7 points using injection air that was supplied from within the compressor. Externally supplied injection air was used to return the compressor to stable operation after being throttled into surge. The tubes, which were capped to prevent mass flux, provided 9.3 points of additional surge margin over the baseline surge margin of 11.7 points.

  14. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  15. Performance study for inlet installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, Donald C.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design trade study was conducted by McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) and NASA LARC PAB to determine the impact of inlet design features incorporated for reduced detectability on inlet performance, weight, and cost, for both fighter and attack-type aircraft. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques were used to prioritize trade study issues, and select 'best' air induction system configurations for each of two notional aircraft, the Multi-Role Fighter (MRF) and the Advanced Medium Attack (AMA) bomber. Database deficiencies discovered in the trade study process were identified, and technology roadmaps were developed to address these deficiencies. Finally, two high speed inlet wind tunnel model concepts were developed for follow-on wind tunnel investigations.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in Flow Over Second-Generation, Controlled-Diffusion, Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Peter

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of vortex shedding downstream of a cascade of second-generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor stator blades, at off-design inlet-flow angles of 31, 33 and 35 degrees and Reynolds...

  17. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  18. Numerical Calculation of the Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor Volute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seon Mo; Kang, Shin Hyoung; Cho, Kyung Seok; Kim, Woo June

    2007-01-01

    Flows in the centrifugal compressor volute with circular cross section are numerically investigated. The computational domain contained inlet passage, impeller, radial and axial diffuser, and volute. The volute grid for the calculation utilized a multi-block arrangement to form a butterfly grid and flow calculations are performed using commercial CFD software, CFX-TASCflow. The centrifugal compressor of this study has the inlet passage like steps and axial diffuser after radial diffuser because of the shape of the motor cooling fins and installation constraints. Due to this feature the swirling flow pattern is different from the other investigations. The loss in through the inlet passage was considerable and the flow inside volute is very complex and three dimensional with strong vortex and recirculation through volute tongue

  19. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  20. Double-yoke balanced compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durenec, P.

    1981-01-01

    A double-yoke balanced compressor for a cryogenic cooler that has only linear motion imparted to balanced piston and cylinder masses. A piston yoke is driven in the linear stroke direction by a piston axially offset crankshaft cam and a cylinder yoke is driven linearly by a cylinder axially offset crankshaft cam that is exactly offset 180 0 from the other cam. A large circular bushing in the compressor housing covers the entire outer cylinder head during linear operation to prevent blow by and to guide the cylinder linearly. The lower portion of the piston and cylinder connecting rods fit into linear guides that are further comprised of low molecular weight gas filled cavities to provide additional air bearing smoothness to the linear motion of the piston and cylinder

  1. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  2. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J P [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  3. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  4. [Lubricant-free piston compressors for mechanized medical instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, V Kh; Repin, V A; Kil'kinov, A A

    1988-01-01

    Piston compressor without lubrication with air blow to packing rings by plunger, disposed in subpiston space, is recommended as the basic scheme of construction of a power supply unit for medical pneumatic tooling. The construction reduces a leak of the compressive medium, increasing the efficiency of a compressor and seal reliability.

  5. Novel Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor for Energy Efficient Jaggery Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, M. V.; Uphade, D. B.

    2017-08-01

    Novel Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor is analysed for jaggery making while avoiding burning of bagasse for concentrating juice. Heat of evaporated water vapour along with small compressor work is recycled to enable boiling of juice. Condensate formed during heating of juice is pure water, as oil-less compressor is used. Superheat of compressor is suppressed by flow of superheated vapours through condensate. It limits heating surface temperature and avoids caramelization of sugar. Thereby improves quality of jaggery and eliminates need to use chemicals for colour improvement. Stroke to bore ratio is 0.6 to 1.2 in conventional reciprocating drives. Long stroke in reciprocating compressors enhances heat dissipation to surrounding by providing large surface area and increases isentropic efficiency by reducing compressor outlet temperature. Longer stroke increases inlet and exit valve operation timings, which reduces inertial effects substantially. Thereby allowing use of sturdier valves. This enables handling liquid along with vapour in compressors. Thereby supressing the superheat and reducing compressor power input. Longer stroke increases stroke to clearance ratios which increases volumetric efficiency and ability of compressor to compress through higher pressure ratios efficiently. Stress-strain simulation is performed in SolidWorks for gear drive. Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor is developed at Heat Pump Laboratory, stroke/bore 292 mm/32 mm. It is operated and tested successfully at different speeds for operational stability of components. Theoretical volumetric efficiency is 93.9% at pressure ratio 2.0. Specific energy consumption is 108.3 kWhe/m3 separated water, considering free run power.

  6. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Fuerst, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    Fermilab has tested two cold helium compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Operating conditions required to obtain an overall Tevatron energy upgrade from 900 to 1000 GeV are (for each of 24 machines): 52 g/s mass flow rate, 0.7 atm inlet pressure, 1.4 atm exhaust pressure. Acceptable efficiency is in the 60% range. Both Creare, Inc., and Cryogenic Consultants, Inc. (CCI), have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine is a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor which yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency (including an approximately 20 watt heat leak) with a 1.0 atm inlet pressure and 55 g/s flow rate. Certain mechanical difficulties were present, chiefly the device's inability to withstand two-phase flow. CCI supplied a reciprocating unit which, after initial testing and modification, achieved 59% efficiency with an approximate 35 watt heat leak at a 0.7 atm inlet pressure and 48 g/s flow rate. Although the device lacks the smooth, quiet operating characteristics of a turbomachine, it has endured mechanically throughout testing and is entirely insensitive to two-phase flow

  7. Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Yin, Yuting; Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.

  8. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  9. Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Beijing (China); Yin, Yuting [China North Engine Research Institute, Datong (China); Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong [Science and Technology Diesel Engine Turbocharging Laboratory, Datong (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.

  10. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success

  11. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  12. Automated control of a solar microgrid-powered air compressor for use in a small-scale compressed air energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joshua N.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As part of the Office of Naval Research's study of advanced energy technologies, this research examined the development and implementation of a control system for the compression phase of a small-scale compressed air energy storage system, using a solar-powered microgrid to store energy as compressed air for later use. The compression system is composed of numerous commercial-off-the-shelf components wherever possible. All electronic c...

  13. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  14. The New S-RAM Air Variable Compressor/Expander for Heat Pump and Waste Heat to Power Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jestings, Lee [S-RAM Dynamics; Conde, Ricardo [S-RAM Dynamics

    2016-05-23

    S-RAM Dynamics (S-RAM) has designed an innovative heat pump system targeted for commercial and industrial applications. This new heat pump system is more efficient than anything currently on the market and utilizes air as the refrigerant instead of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, leading to lower operating costs, minimal environmental costs or concerns, and lower maintenance costs. The heat pumps will be manufactured in the United States. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing to make the heat exchanger device for the new heat pump system. ORNL and S-RAM Dynamics collaborated on determining the prototype performance and subsequently printing of the prototype using additive manufacturing. Complex heat exchanger designs were fabricated using the Arcam electron beam melting (EBM) powder bed technology using Ti-6Al-4V material. An ultrasonic welding system was utilized in order to remove the powder from the small openings of the heat exchanger. The majority of powder in the small chambers was removed, however, the amount of powder remaining in the heat exchanger was a function of geometry. Therefore, only certain geometries of heat exchangers could be fabricated. SRAM Dynamics evaluated a preliminary heat exchanger design. Although the results of the additive manufacturing of the heat exchanger were not optimum, a less complex geometry was demonstrated. A sleeve valve was used as a demonstration piece, as engine designs from S-RAM Dynamics require the engine to have a very high density. Preliminary designs of this geometry were successfully fabricated using the EBM technology.

  15. Experimental Research on Optimizing Inlet Airflow of Wet Cooling Towers under Crosswind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Liang; Shi, Yong Feng; Hao, Jian Gang; Chang, Hao; Sun, Feng Zhong

    2018-01-01

    A new approach of installing air deflectors around tower inlet circumferentially was proposed to optimize the inlet airflow and reduce the adverse effect of crosswinds on the thermal performance of natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT). And inlet airflow uniformity coefficient was defined to analyze the uniformity of circumferential inlet airflow quantitatively. Then the effect of air deflectors on the NDWCT performance was investigated experimentally. By contrast between inlet air flow rate and cooling efficiency, it has been found that crosswinds not only decrease the inlet air flow rate, but also reduce the uniformity of inlet airflow, which reduce NDWCT performance jointly. After installing air deflectors, the inlet air flow rate and uniformity coefficient increase, the uniformity of heat and mass transfer increases correspondingly, which improve the cooling performance. In addition, analysis on Lewis factor demonstrates that the inlet airflow optimization has more enhancement of heat transfer than mass transfer, but leads to more water evaporation loss.

  16. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.

    2017-08-01

    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  17. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  18. Retrofitting reciprocating compressors for noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Qualfe, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board recently enacted their noise control directive ID 88-1. The effects of this regulation on the operation of an oil and gas facility are discussed, and a specific case history is presented to provide a disciplined strategy for noise attenuation retrofits. An investigation was carried out into sound sources at a reciprocating compressor gas plant, revealing several sound sources: engine exhaust stacks, engine exhaust silencer shells, direct-drive fan cooler inlets, direct drive fan cooler outlets, aerial cooler inlets and aerial cooler outlets. Details are presented of the investigative techniques and order-ranking of sources by decibel level. When controlling engine exhaust noise, silencers or mufflers are the preferred treatment. Choice of type (reactive or absorptive) and specification of acoustical performance of a silencer are discussed. The gas plant achieved noise reductions of 6-13 dB, measured at affected residences, through the use of engine exhaust silencers. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Parametric optimization of the MVC desalination plant with thermomechanical compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagin, E. V.; Biryuk, V. V.; Anisimov, M. Y.; Shimanov, A. A.; Gorshkalev, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    This article deals with parametric optimization of the Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) desalination plant with thermomechanical compressor. In this plants thermocompressor is used instead of commonly used centrifugal compressor. Influence of two main parameters was studied. These parameters are: inlet pressure and number of stages. Analysis shows that it is possible to achieve better plant performance in comparison with traditional MVC plant. But is required reducing the number of stages and utilization of low or high initial pressure with power consumption maximum at approximately 20-30 kPa.

  20. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Sameh M.; Khalil, Mohamed I.; Abouel-seoud, Shawki A. [Automotive and Tractors Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  1. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  2. Wet gas compression. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics within a centrifugal compressor exposed to wet gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Trond Gammelsaeter

    2012-07-01

    The demand for more efficient oil and gas production requires improved technology to increase production rates and enhance profitable operation. The centrifugal compressor is the key elements in the compression system. Preliminary studies of wet gas compressor concepts have demonstrated the benefits of wet gas boosting. An open-loop test facility was designed for single-stage wet gas compressor testing. Experimental investigators have been performed to reveal the impact of liquid on the aerodynamics of centrifugal compressor. The investigation consisted of two test campaigns with different impeller/diffuser configurations. Atmospheric air and water were used as experimental fluids. The two configurations showed a different pressure ratio characteristics when liquid as present. The results from test campaign A demonstrated a pronounced pressure ratio decrease at high flow and a minor pressure ration increase pressure ratio with reducing gas mass fraction (GMF). The deviation in pressure ratio characteristic for the two test campaigns was attributed to the volute operating characteristic. Both impeller/diffuser configurations demonstrated a reduction in maximum volume flow with decreasing GMF. The impeller pressure ratio was related to the diffuser and/or the volute performance). Air and water are preferable experimental fluids for safety reasons and because a less extensive facility design is required. An evaluation of the air/water tests versus hydrocarbon tests was performed in order to reveal whether the results were representative. Air/water tests at atmospheric conditions reproduced the general performance trend of hydrocarbon wet gas compressor tests with an analogous impeller at high pressures. Aerodynamic instability limits the operating range because of feasible severe damage of the compressor and adverse influence on the performance. It is essential to establish the surge margin at different operating conditions. A delayed instability inception was

  3. INLET STRATIFICATION DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...... formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous...

  4. Towards Large Eddy Simulation of gas turbine compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, W. A.; Page, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    With increasing computing power, Large Eddy Simulation could be a useful simulation tool for gas turbine axial compressor design. This paper outlines a series of simulations performed on compressor geometries, ranging from a Controlled Diffusion Cascade stator blade to the periodic sector of a stage in a 3.5 stage axial compressor. The simulation results show that LES may offer advantages over traditional RANS methods when off-design conditions are considered - flow regimes where RANS models often fail to converge. The time-dependent nature of LES permits the resolution of transient flow structures, and can elucidate new mechanisms of vorticity generation on blade surfaces. It is shown that accurate LES is heavily reliant on both the near-wall mesh fidelity and the ability of the imposed inflow condition to recreate the conditions found in the reference experiment. For components embedded in a compressor this requires the generation of turbulence fluctuations at the inlet plane. A recycling method is developed that improves the quality of the flow in a single stage calculation of an axial compressor, and indicates that future developments in both the recycling technique and computing power will bring simulations of axial compressors within reach of industry in the coming years.

  5. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  6. Analysis of performance for centrifugal steam compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Hwan; Ryu, Chang Kook; Ko, Han Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, mean streamline and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate the performance of a small centrifugal steam compressor using a latent heat recovery technology. The results from both analysis methods showed good agreement. The compression ratio and efficiency of steam were found to be related with those of air by comparing the compression performances of both gases. Thus, the compression performance of steam could be predicted by the compression performance of air using the developed dimensionless parameters.

  7. Analysis of performance for centrifugal steam compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seung Hwan; Ryu, Chang Kook; Ko, Han Seo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mean streamline and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate the performance of a small centrifugal steam compressor using a latent heat recovery technology. The results from both analysis methods showed good agreement. The compression ratio and efficiency of steam were found to be related with those of air by comparing the compression performances of both gases. Thus, the compression performance of steam could be predicted by the compression performance of air using the developed dimensionless parameters

  8. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  9. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  10. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, G. D.; Lee, D.; Snow, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single stage compressor was designed with the intent of demonstrating that, for a tip speed and hub-tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage, the use of low aspect ratio can permit high levels of blade loading to be achieved at an acceptable level of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 1.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 88.5 percent. Both rotor and stator have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections. Variable IGV and stator vanes permit low speed matching adjustments. The design incorporates an inlet duct representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressor.

  11. Compressor Research Facility F100 High Pressure Compressor Inlet Total Pressure and Swirl Profile Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    1627 VANE ANGLE- U SCREE 4 S,,, L53 S 6 4 NSW, 153 Figure 139. Total Pressure Profile Figure 140. Total Pressure Profile (Phase III), PSV = 250 (Phase...STATION 2.5 , PT. 1-1574- 1585 VANE ANGLE- 15 PT. 0-IMB 8- 150 VANE ANGLE= 21SCREENS- 4 I 54 SDIENS-4 X L53 Figure 137. Total Pressure Profile Figure 138...A 53: if 1-4;2.A 54: for L-10 to 16;wrt 709,"ASVN5SOIVFIVSIVT3VS"for J-l to 5 *55: r!-’ 709,E[A,L,J);nex~t ,I-r~eXt f! *56: if 1-1;wrt 709," TD )"red

  12. An experimental investigation into combustion and performance characteristics of an HCCI gasoline engine fueled with n-heptane, isopropanol and n-butanol fuel blends at different inlet air temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyumaz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion was retarded with the increase of the amount of isopropanol and n-butanol in the test fuels. • Combustion was advanced with the increase of air inlet temperature on HCCI combustion. • Isopropanol seems more suitable fuel due to controlling the HCCI combustion and preventing knocking. • Almost zero NO emissions were measured when alcohol used except for n-heptane and B20 test fuels. - Abstract: An experimental study was conducted in a single cylinder, four stroke port injection Ricardo Hydra test engine in order to determine the effects of pure n-heptane, the blends of n-heptane and n-butanol fuels B20, B30, B40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% n-butanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) and the blends of n-heptane and isopropanol fuels P20, P30, P40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% isopropanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) on HCCI combustion. Combustion and performance characteristics of n-heptane, n-butanol and isopropanol were investigated at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and λ = 2 in a HCCI engine. The effects of inlet air temperature were also examined on HCCI combustion. The test results showed that the start of combustion was advanced with the increasing of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Start of combustion delayed with increasing percentage of n-butanol and isopropanol in the test fuels. Knocking combustion was seen with B20 and n-heptane test fuels. Minimum combustion duration was observed in case of using B40. Almost zero NO emissions were measured with test fuels apart from n-heptane and B20. The test results also showed that CO and HC emissions decreased with the increase of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Isopropanol showed stronger resistance for knocking compared to n-butanol in HCCI combustion due to its higher octane number. It was determined that n-butanol was more advantageous according to isopropanol as thermal efficiency. As a result it was found that the HCCI

  13. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  14. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  15. Oil-Free Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.; Belver, T. L.; Moore, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Compressor pistons moved by eccentric shaft need no lubricants. Compressor has shaft, middle section is eccentric in relation to end sections. Driven by brushless dc motor, shaft turns inner races of set of four cam bearings. Outer cam-bearing races in turn actuate four pistons spaced equally apart, around and along shaft. Each outer bearing race held in position by pressure exerted on it by piston. Because no frictional motion between piston and outer bearing race, lubricant between them unnecessary. Cam bearings themselves contain potted internal lubricant. Originally proposed for use in space, new compressor for refrigerators or freezers does not depend on pool of oil for lubricating its pistons. Operated in any orientation.

  16. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  17. Experimental Study on Noise Characteristic of Centrifugal Compressor Surge

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qichao; Zhao, Yuanyang; SHU, Yue; LI, Xiaosa; LI, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    The centrifugal air compressor test rig is was designed and established. The experimental study was carried out on the surge characteristics of centrifugal compressor including the pressure in the pipe and the noise characteristics under different rotation speed. The tested results showed that both the suction pressure and discharge pressure fluctuation increase under surge condition and the amplitude of discharge pressure fluctuation is significantly higher than that of suction pressure. In ...

  18. Maintenance problems on reciprocating compressors [Paper No.: VA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayan, S.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Baroda has a number of reciprocting compressors for handling synthesis gas, refrigeration ammonia and air for instrumentation. As these compressors are running continuously, their parts are subjected to wear and tear. Problems generally come up in bearings, valves, stuffing box packings, piston rings and similar such components. These problems and methods of tackling them are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  19. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  20. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  1. Technology’s present situation and the development prospects of energy efficiency monitoring as well as performance testing & analysis for process flow compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, L.; Yang, Q.; Liu, G.; Tang, B.; Xiao, J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the background of performance testing of in-service process flow compressors set in user field are introduced, the main technique barriers faced in the field test are summarized, and the factors that result in real efficiencies of most process flow compressors being lower than the guaranteed by manufacturer are analysed. The authors investigated the present operational situation of process flow compressors in China and found that low efficiency operation of flow compressors is because the compressed gas is generally forced to flow back into the inlet pipe for adapting to the process parameters variety. For example, the anti-surge valve is always opened for centrifugal compressor. To improve the operation efficiency of process compressors the energy efficiency monitoring technology was overviewed and some suggestions are proposed in the paper, which is the basis of research on energy efficiency evaluation and/or labelling of process compressors.

  2. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  3. RF Energy Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1980-02-01

    The RF Energy Compressor, REC described here, transforms cw rf into periodic pulses using an energy storage cavity, ESC, whose charging is controlled by 180 0 bi-phase modulation, PSK, and external Q switching, βs. Compression efficiency, C/sub e/, of 100% can be approached at any compression factor C/sub f/

  4. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  5. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the 19B-2, 19B-8 and 19XB-1 Jet- Propulsion Engines. 4; Analysis of Compressor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Robert O.; Kuenzig, John K.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XS-1 turbojet engines. One objective was to determine the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and tail-pipe-nozzle area on the performance characteristics of the six-stage and ten-stage axial-flow compressors of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 engines, respectively, The data were obtained over a range of simulated altitudes and flight Mach numbers. At each simulated flight condition the engine was run over its full operable range of speeds. Performance characteristics of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 compressors for the range of operation obtainable in the turboJet-engine installation are presented. Compressor characteristics are presented as functions of air flow corrected to sea-level conditions, compressor Mach number, and compressor load coefficient. For the range of compressor operation investigated, changes in Reynolds number had no measurable effect on the relations among compressor Mach number, corrected air flow, compressor load coefficient, compressor pressure ratio, and compressor efficiency. The operating lines for the 19B-8 compressor lay on the low-air-flow side of the region of maximum compressor efficiency; the 19B-8 compressor operated at higher average pressure coefficients per stage and produced a lower over-all pressure ratio than did the 19XB-1 compressor.

  6. Flow Characterization and Dynamic Analysis of a Radial Compressor with Passive Method of Surge Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Erwann

    Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratio. Unfortunately, increasing the rotational speed tends to reduce the turbocharger radial compressor range of operation which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extent the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device also known as ported shroud. This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the bypass system remain not well understood. In order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is then crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. Experimental methods were used to assess the development of instabilities from stable, stall and eventually surge regimes of a ported shroud centrifugal compressor. Systematic comparison was conducted with the same compressor design without ported shroud. Hence, the full pressure dynamic survey of both compressors' performance characteristics converged toward two different and probably interrelated driving mechanisms to the development and/or propagation of unsteadiness within each compressor. One related the pressure disturbances at the compressor inlet, and notably the more apparent development of perturbations in the non-ported compressor impeller, whereas the other was attributed to the pressure distortions induced by the presence of the tongue in the asymmetric design of the compressor volute. Specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow measurements. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed

  7. Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor through Inducer Casing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. N. K. Satish Koyyalamudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of high stage pressure ratio with increased aerodynamic loading has led to reduction in stable operating range of centrifugal compressors with stall and surge initiating at relatively higher mass flow rates. The casing treatment technique of stall control is found to be effective in axial compressors, but very limited research work is published on the application of this technique in centrifugal compressors. Present research was aimed to investigate the effect of casing treatment on the performance and stall margin of a high speed, 4 : 1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor through numerical simulations using ANSYS CFX software. Three casing treatment configurations were developed and incorporated in the shroud over the inducer of the impeller. The predicted performance of baseline compressor (without casing treatment was in good agreement with published experimental data. The compressor with different inducer casing treatment geometries showed varying levels of stall margin improvement, up to a maximum of 18%. While the peak efficiency of the compressor with casing treatment dropped by 0.8%–1% compared to the baseline compressor, the choke mass flow rate was improved by 9.5%, thus enhancing the total stable operating range. The inlet configuration of the casing treatment was found to play an important role in stall margin improvement.

  8. Separation of compressor oil from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, R.; Perrotta, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Compression of helium by an oil-sealed rorary screw compressor entrains as much as 4000 parts per million by weight of liquid and vapor oil impurities in the gas. The reduction below about 0.1 ppm for cryogenic applications is discussed. Oil seperation equipment designed for compressed air must be modified significantly to produce the desired results with helium. The main differences between air and helium filtration are described. A description of the coalescers is given with the continuous coalescing of liquid mist from air or other gas illustrated. Oil vapor in helium is discussed in terms of typical compressor oils, experimental procedure for measuring oil vapor concentration, measured volatile hydrocarbons in the lubricants, and calculated concentration of oil vapor in Helium. Liquid oil contamination in helium gas can be reduced well below 0.1 ppm by a properly designed multiple state coalescing filter system containing graded efficiency filter elements. The oil vapor problem is best attached by efficiently treating the oil to remove most of the colatiles before charging the compressor

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Gas Turbine Compressor Washing to Combat Fouling

    OpenAIRE

    Abass, Kabir Oliade

    2015-01-01

    Among the major deterioration problems a gas turbine encountered while in operation is compressor blade fouling. This is the accumulation and adhesion of dirt and sediment on the compressor blade which contributes between 70 to 85% of gas turbine performance loss. Fouling reduces turbine air mass flow capacity, compressor pressure ratio and overall gas turbine efficiency. In most cases, its effect does not manifest immediately in gas turbine power output and efficiency since they are not meas...

  10. Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow and Power Sensors for Variable-Speed Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of variable-speed compressors in heat pumps and air conditioners has increased in recent years in order to improve comfort and energy efficiency. At the same time, there is a trend towards embedding more sensors in this type of equipment to facilitate real-time energy monitoring and diagnostics. Although compressor mass flow rate and power consumption are useful indices for performance monitoring and diagnostics, they are expensive to measure. The virtual variable-speed compressor sen...

  11. Performance Characteristics of a 4 × 6 Oil-Free Twin-Screw Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Seok Byeon; Jae-Young Lee; Youn-Jea Kim

    2017-01-01

    The screw compressor in the early stage of development is generally known as the oil-injection type. However, escalating environmental problems and advances in electronic components have spurred continuous R & D to minimize the oil content in compressed air. The oil-free twin-screw compressor is continuously compressed by inner volumetric change between rotors and casing. For this reason, in order to predict the overall performance of the screw compressor at the early stage of the design ...

  12. Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Behaviour of a Screw Compressor Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Chukanova, Ekatarina; Stosic, Nikola; Kovacevic, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Majority of air compressor plants installed worldwide operate permanently under unsteady conditions, however, there is still a lack of published papers which describe the plant dynamics and offer quantification parameters of the phenomenon. An experimental and analytical study of a screw compressor operation under unsteady conditions has been carried out. For this purpose a one dimensional model of the processes within a screw compressor based on the differential equations of conservation of ...

  13. Development of throughflow calculation code for axial flow compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min; No, Hee Cheon

    2005-01-01

    The power conversion systems of the current HTGRs are based on closed Brayton cycle and major concern is thermodynamic performance of the axial flow helium gas turbines. Particularly, the helium compressor has some unique design challenges compared to the air-breathing compressor such as high hub-to-tip ratios throughout the machine and a large number of stages due to the physical property of the helium and thermodynamic cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a design and analysis code for helium compressor that can estimate the design point and off-design performance accurately. KAIST nuclear system laboratory has developed a compressor design and analysis code by means of throughflow calculation and several loss models. This paper presents the outline of the development of a throughflow calculation code and its verification results

  14. Modeling and optimization of the air system in polymer exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Cheng; Ouyang, Minggao [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yi, Baolian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-06-01

    Stack and air system are the two most important components in the fuel cell system (FCS). It is meaningful to study their properties and the trade-off between them. In this paper, a modified one-dimensional steady-state analytical fuel cell model is used. The logarithmic mean of the inlet and the outlet oxygen partial pressure is adopted to avoid underestimating the effect of air stoichiometry. And the pressure drop model in the grid-distributed flow field is included in the stack analysis. Combined with the coordinate change preprocessing and analog technique, neural network is used to treat the MAP of compressor and turbine in the air system. Three kinds of air system topologies, the pure screw compressor, serial booster and exhaust expander are analyzed in this article. A real-code genetic algorithm is programmed to obtain the global optimum air stoichiometric ratio and the cathode outlet pressure. It is shown that the serial booster and expander with the help of exhaust recycling, can improve more than 3% in the FCS efficiency comparing to the pure screw compressor. As the net power increases, the optimum cathode outlet pressure keeps rising and the air stoichiometry takes on the concave trajectory. The working zone of the proportional valve is also discussed. This presented work is helpful to the design of the air system in fuel cell system. The steady-state optimum can also be used in the dynamic control. (author)

  15. Modeling and optimization of the air system in polymer exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Ouyang, Minggao; Yi, Baolian

    Stack and air system are the two most important components in the fuel cell system (FCS). It is meaningful to study their properties and the trade-off between them. In this paper, a modified one-dimensional steady-state analytical fuel cell model is used. The logarithmic mean of the inlet and the outlet oxygen partial pressure is adopted to avoid underestimating the effect of air stoichiometry. And the pressure drop model in the grid-distributed flow field is included in the stack analysis. Combined with the coordinate change preprocessing and analog technique, neural network is used to treat the MAP of compressor and turbine in the air system. Three kinds of air system topologies, the pure screw compressor, serial booster and exhaust expander are analyzed in this article. A real-code genetic algorithm is programmed to obtain the global optimum air stoichiometric ratio and the cathode outlet pressure. It is shown that the serial booster and expander with the help of exhaust recycling, can improve more than 3% in the FCS efficiency comparing to the pure screw compressor. As the net power increases, the optimum cathode outlet pressure keeps rising and the air stoichiometry takes on the concave trajectory. The working zone of the proportional valve is also discussed. This presented work is helpful to the design of the air system in fuel cell system. The steady-state optimum can also be used in the dynamic control.

  16. Centrifugal compressor case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, B.

    2010-10-15

    Three centrifugal compressors at a pipeline station were retrofitted with higher head impellers in 2008. The owners of the station experienced vibration problems over the following 2 years that caused transmitter and position failures that were assumed to be flow-induced pulsations. A vibration and pulsation analysis indicated that the shell mode piping vibration excited by the blade pass pulsation was responsible for the failures. This study outlined factors that contributed to the vibration problem. Interferences between the compressor and shell mode piping natural frequencies were predicted, and potential excitation sources were examined. The study demonstrated how centrifugal vibration analyses can be used during the design phase to avoid costly adjustments. Recommendations included the addition of stiffeners to alter the shell modes, and the addition of constrained layer damping material to reduce resonant responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  17. Optimization Design of IGV Profile in Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable inlet guide vane (IGV is used to control the mass flow and generate prewhirl in centrifugal compressors. The efficient operation of IGV is limited to the range of aerodynamic characteristics of their vane profiles. In order to find out the best vane profile for IGV regulation, the modern optimization method was adopted to optimize the inlet guide vane profile. The main methodology idea was to use artificial neural network for continuous fitness evaluation and use genetic algorithm for global optimization. After optimization, the regulating performance of IGV has improved significantly, the prewhirl ability has been enhanced greatly, and the pressure loss has been reduced. The mass flow and power of compressor reduced by using the optimized guide vane at large setting angles, and the efficiency increased significantly; the flow field distribution has been improved obviously, since the nonuniform distribution of flow and flow separation phenomenon greatly weakened or even completely disappeared. The achievement of this research can effectively improve the regulation ability of IGV and the performance of compressor.

  18. Jet Inlet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John

  19. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India)]. E-mail: seshuet@yahoo.com; Ghosh, Subrata Kr. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India); Sahoo, R.K. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India); Sarangi, Sunil Kr. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India)

    2007-01-15

    Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented.

  1. Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshaiah, N.; Ghosh, Subrata Kr.; Sahoo, R.K.; Sarangi, Sunil Kr.

    2007-01-01

    Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented

  2. Double throat pressure pulsation dampener for oil-free screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael J.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a recent invention at Ingersoll-Rand for reducing the pressure pulsations in an oil-free screw compressor. Pressure pulsation is a term used in the air compressor industry to describe the rapid change in pressure with time measured in the downstream piping of the air compressor. The pulsations are due to the rapid opening and closing of the screws as the compressed air is eject from the compressor into the piping system. The pulsations are known to produce excessive noise levels and high levels of vibration in the piping system. Reducing these pulsations is critical to achieving a quiet running compressor. This paper will describe the methodology used to analyze the data and show both computational and experimental results achieved using the pulsation dampener. A patent for this design has been filed with the US patent office.

  3. Rotating flux compressor for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.; Linton, T.W.; Phillips, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rotating flux compressor (RFC) converts rotational kinetic energy into an electrical output pulse which would have higher energy than the electrical energy initially stored in the compressor. An RFC has been designed in which wedge-shaped rotor blades pass through the air gaps between successive turns of a solenoid, the stator. Magnetic flux is generated by pulsing the stator solenoids when the inductance is a maximum, i.e., when the flux fills the stator-solenoid volume. Connecting the solenoid across a load conserves the flux which is compressed within the small volume surrounding the stator periphery when the rotor blades cut into the free space between the stator plates, creating a minimum-inductance condition. The unique features of this design are: (1) no electrical connections (brushes) to the rotor; (2) no conventional windings; and (3) no maintenance. The device has been tested up to 5000 rpm of rotor speed

  4. Experimental investigations on automobile air conditioners working with R134a and R290/R600a as an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhaswamy Karthikeyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of R134a based automobile air conditioning system has been evaluated by retrofitted with R290/R600a mixture (in the ratio of 50:50, by mass, as an alternative. The performance was evaluated at five different operating speeds (1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000, which covers the entire range of working conditions with four different cabin load (100, 200, 300, and 400 W. The condenser inlet air temperature was varied in the range between 30 and 50°C, which covers the entire climatic variations in Coimbatore city of India. The performance characteristics such as, refrigerating effect, coefficient of performance, compressor power consumption, and compressor discharge temperatures were considered for comparison. The results showed that, hydrocarbon mixture has faster cooling rate due to its high latent heat of vaporization, 5% higher coefficient of performance due to higher refrigeration effect, 8-10 K lower compressor discharge temperature due to its lower specific heat ratio with 5% lower compressor power consumption due to its lower viscosity and lower liquid density. The charge requirement of R290/R600a mixture is about 50% less compared to R134a. However, the mixture composition is considered as an interment replacement in automobile air conditioners due to composition shift under leak-age conditions. Hence, R290/R600a mixture is considered as an interim energy efficient and environment friendly option in R134a automobile air conditioners to extend its life.

  5. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  6. The 1/3-scale aerodynamics performance test of helium compressor for GTHTR300 turbo machine of JAERI (step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Xing, Yan

    2003-01-01

    A program for research and development on aerodynamics in a helium gas compressor was planned for the power conversion system of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The three-dimensional aerodynamic design of the compressor achieved a high polytropic efficiency of 90%, keeping a sufficient surge margin over 30%. To validate the design of the helium gas compressor of GTHTR300, aerodynamic performance tests were planned, and a 1/3-scale, 4-stage compressor model was designed. In the tests, the performance data of the helium gas compressor model will be acquired by using helium gas as a working fluid. The maximum design pressure at the model inlet is 0.88 MPa, which allows the Reynolds number to be sufficiently high. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  7. Characterization and Performance Testing of Natural Gas Compressors for Residential and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinye; Groll, Eckhard A.; Bethel, Dylan

    2017-08-01

    Relatively little information is available in the literature with respect to the performance of compressors used during the dynamic charging process of a tank. Therefore, work presented in this paper shows the measurement results of performance testing of a natural gas compressor and analyses the compressor characterization based on the experimental data. Initial tests were conducted using air and carbon dioxide given the thermodynamic similarities between these fluids and natural gas. Finally, a new test stand was specifically designed and built for compressor dynamic testing using pipeline natural gas (NG) and the compressor reliability has been evaluated inside an explosion-proof engine test cell. Reliability tests at standard operating conditions monitored the performance consistency of the compressors over the testing period and the testing consisted of a series of tank charges aimed at evaluating the maximum operating temperature as well as the mass flow rate in the system.

  8. Control and data acquisition system for rotary compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczaj Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotary compressor (crimping machine is a machine designed for making hollow forgings. The rotary compressor is a prototype device designed and built at the Technical University of Lublin. The compressor is dedicated to perform laboratory tests related to the hollow forgings of various shapes using different materials. Since the rotary compressor is an experimental device, there is no control and acquisition data system available. The article presents the concept and the capabilities of the computer control and data acquisition system supporting rotary compressing process. The main task of software system is acquisition of force and kinetic parameters related to the analysed process of the rotary forging compression. The software allows the user to declare the course of the forming forgings. This system allows current recording and analysis of four physical values: feed rate (speed of working head movement, hydraulic oil pressure at inlet and outlet of hydraulic cylinder and the torque of engine. Application functions can be divided into three groups: the configuration of the pressing process, the acquisition and analysis of data from the pressing process and the recording and presentation of stored results. The article contains a detailed description about hardware and software implementation of mentioned functions.

  9. Decision 99-27 application 1029022 - Petro-Canada Oil and Gas application to install compressors at the Wilson Creek gas plant and at LSD 3-19-43-4 W5M, Wilson Creek Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Petro-Canada Oil and Gas applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) for approval to add two new compressors at the existing Wilson Creek sour gas processing facility, and to construct and operate a new sour gas compressor station in Alberta. The application was made pursuant to Section 26 (1)(b) of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act and Sections 7.001, 9.020, and 15.050 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations. The applications and interventions were considered at a hearing at the Last West Hall, Rimbley, Alberta, commencing 7 April 1999. The issues concerning the applications were: the need for and location of the compressors, plant life, emissions, sulphur recovery, and noise. Petro-Canada will proceed with its commitment to local landowners to install and commission a sulphur recovery unit within 16 months of the date of this report. The sulphur recovery capability of the facility will meet guidelines defined in IL 88-13 for new sour gas plants based on either the current or an acceptable maximum daily inlet sulphur rate. Continuous-vent gas streams, including glycol regenerator, produced-water tank, and hydrocarbon condensate tank vents, at both the 3-29 compressor and at the Wilson Creek plant site will be burned in a flare or incinerator. Flare stacks at the 3-19 compressor site will be equipped with a suitable pilot and automatic igniter. The Wilson Creek plant flare system will be equipped with a suitable pilot, as well as automatic igniter and/or flame failure detection system. Petro-Canada will implement local ambient air quality monitoring and sound level monitoring consistent with its commitments to local landowners and regulatory requirements

  10. Engineering task plan for BX/BY compressor upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan outlines the remaining work to be completed for the BX/BY Instrument Air upgrade. Initial work efforts were guided by Engineering Work Plan, ''BX-BY Compressor Upgrade'' dated 1-25-93 (see Attachment A) which is provided for information. The overall engineering task is to provide a permanent replacement for the instrument air supply system for the 241-BX/BY Tank Farms. The existing system consists of a 25 horsepower Worthington non-lube compressor and an Oriad air dryer. The existing equipment is dated, requires high maintenance and is located in a contaminated zone making it unusable. The BX/BY instrument air replacement unit will be one of the 100 SCFM generic air stations. This station will be permanently sited with the addition of drawing changes to provide a concrete foundation, air piping to existing lines and electrical power supply tie-ins

  11. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  12. Low-Vibration Oscillating Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Oscillating compressor momentum compensated: produces little vibration in its supporting structure. Compressure requires no lubrication and virtually free of wear. Compresses working fluids such as helium, nitrogen or chlorfluorocarbons for Stirling-cycle refrigeration or other purposes. Compressor includes two mutually opposed ferromagnetic pistons of same shape and mass. Electromagnetic flux links both pistons, causing magnetic attraction between them.

  13. NASA low speed centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    The flow characteristics of a low speed centrifugal compressor were examined at NASA Lewis Research Center to improve understanding of the flow in centrifugal compressors, to provide models of various flow phenomena, and to acquire benchmark data for three dimensional viscous flow code validation. The paper describes the objectives, test facilities' instrumentation, and experiment preliminary comparisons.

  14. Parametric Analysis of a Hypersonic Inlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliden, Daniel

    For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare at Mach 7.2 are compared with experimental data from NASA Ames Research Center 3.5" hypersonic wind tunnel. A parametric study of turbulence models is presented and concludes that the k-kl-omega transition and SST transition turbulence model have the best correlation. Downstream of the flare's shockwave, good correlation is found for all boundary layer profiles, with some slight discrepancies of the static temperature near the surface. Simulated flow fields on a blunt cone with flare above Mach 10 are compared with experimental data from CUBRC LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel. Lack of vibrational non-equilibrium calculations causes discrepancies in heat flux near the leading edge. Temperature profiles, where non-equilibrium effects are dominant, are compared with the dissociation of molecules to show the effects of dissociation on static temperature. Following the validation studies is a parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet from Mach 6 to 20. Compressor performance is investigated for numerous cowl leading edge locations up to speeds of Mach 10. The variable cowl study showed positive trends in compressor performance parameters for a range of Mach numbers that arise from maximizing the intake of compressed flow. An interesting phenomenon due to the change in shock wave formation for different Mach numbers developed inside the cowl that had a negative influence on the total pressure recovery. Investigation of the hypersonic inlet at different altitudes is performed to study the effects of Reynolds number, and consequently, turbulent viscous effects on compressor performance. Turbulent boundary layer separation was noted as the cause for a change in compressor performance parameters due to a change in Reynolds number. This effect would not be

  15. Centrifugal-reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, W. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor is described which includes at least one pair of cylinders arranged in coaxial alignment and supported for angular displacement about a common axis of rotation normally disecting a common longitudinal axis of symmetry for the cylinders. The cylinders are characterized by ported closures located at the mutually remote ends thereof through which the cylinders are charged and discharged, and a pair of piston heads seated within the cylinders and supported for floating displacement in compressive strokes in response to unidirectional angular displacement imparted to the cylinders.

  16. Modeling of scroll compressors - Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Marie-Eve; Dumont, Eric; Frere, Marc [Thermodynamics Department, Universite de Mons - Faculte Polytechnique, 31 bd Dolez, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents an improvement of the scroll compressors model previously published by. This improved model allows the calculation of refrigerant mass flow rate, power consumption and heat flow rate that would be released at the condenser of a heat pump equipped with the compressor, from the knowledge of operating conditions and parameters. Both basic and improved models have been tested on scroll compressors using different refrigerants. This study has been limited to compressors with a maximum electrical power of 14 kW and for evaporation temperatures ranging from -40 to 15 C and condensation temperatures from 10 to 75 C. The average discrepancies on mass flow rate, power consumption and heat flow rate are respectively 0.50%, 0.93% and 3.49%. Using a global parameter determination (based on several refrigerants data), this model can predict the behavior of a compressor with another fluid for which no manufacturer data are available. (author)

  17. Experimental study of the application of two trickle media for inlet air pre-cooling of natural draft dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Suoying; Guan, Zhiqiang; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel; Lu, Yuanshen; Alkhedhair, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two trickle media were experimentally studied in a low-speed wind tunnel. • Correlations for cooling efficiency and pressure drop were developed. • Both trickle media were proven to have relatively low pressure drops. • Both trickle media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities. - Abstract: This paper is part two of a broader investigation into pre-cooling the air that enters natural draft dry cooling towers. Evaporative cooling of air is to some extent different from evaporative cooling of water. Two trickle media (Trickle125 and Trickle100) originally designed for evaporative cooling of water were studied in an open-circuit wind tunnel for evaporative cooling of air. Three medium thicknesses (200, 300 and 450 mm) and two water flow rates (10 and 5 l/min per m 2 horizontally exposed surface area) were used in the tests. The air velocities ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 m/s. The cooling efficiency and the pressure drop of the two media were curve fitted to yield a set of correlations. The pressure drop ranges for Trickle125 and Trickle100 were 0.7–50 Pa and 0.6–41.6 Pa, respectively. The cooling efficiencies of Trickle125 and Trickle100 fell within 15.7–55.1% and 11–44.4%, respectively. Generally, media with large effective surfaces provide high cooling efficiencies and high pressure drops; there is a trade-off between cooling efficiency and pressure drop when selecting a particular medium for a specific application. The water entrainment off the media was detected with water-sensitive papers, and both media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities

  18. An experimental description of the flow in a centrifugal compressor from alternate stall to surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moënne-Loccoz, V.; Trébinjac, I.; Benichou, E.; Goguey, S.; Paoletti, B.; Laucher, P.

    2017-08-01

    The present paper gives the experimental results obtained in a centrifugal compressor stage designed and built by SAFRAN Helicopter Engines. The compressor is composed of inlet guide vanes, a backswept splittered unshrouded impeller, a splittered vaned radial diffuser and axial outlet guide vanes. Previous numerical simulations revealed a particular S-shape pressure rise characteristic at partial rotation speed and predicted an alternate flow pattern in the vaned radial diffuser at low mass flow rate. This alternate flow pattern involves two adjacent vane passages. One passage exhibits very low momentum and a low pressure recovery, whereas the adjacent passage has very high momentum in the passage inlet and diffuses efficiently. Experimental measurements confirm the S-shape of the pressure rise characteristic even if the stability limit experimentally occurs at higher mass flow than numerically predicted. At low mass flow the alternate stall pattern is confirmed thanks to the data obtained by high-frequency pressure sensors. As the compressor is throttled the path to instability has been registered and a first scenario of the surge inception is given. The compressor first experiences a steady alternate stall in the diffuser. As the mass flow decreases, the alternate stall amplifies and triggers the mild surge in the vaned diffuser. An unsteady behavior results from the interaction of the alternate stall and the mild surge. Finally, when the pressure gradient becomes too strong, the alternate stall blows away and the compressor enters into deep surge.

  19. Performance test for the compressor of 100kW APU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byeung Jun; Cha, Bong Jun; Yang, Soo Seok; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Baik, Ki Young

    2001-01-01

    The performance test of a centrifugal compressor for APU(Auxiliary Power Unit) which is developed by the collaborative research of KARI and Samsung TechWin has been conducted. The investigated compressor consists of a curved inlet, a centrifugal impeller, a channel diffuser and a plenum chamber. The experiments were carried out in an open-loop centrifugal compressor test rig driven by a turbine. For three different diffusers, overall performance data were obtained at 80%, 90% and 97% of design speed. For the initially designed wedge-type diffuser, test results showed that the compressor was operated at a higher mass flow rate than the design requirement. By reducing the diffuser throat area, the compressor operating range was shifted to lower mass flow rate range. The test result of redesigned wedge-type diffuser showed high pressure loss. To reduce the diffuser loss, diffuser inlet radius was increased and airfoil-type of diffuser was adopted. This airfoil-type diffuser showed reasonal results in terms of design requirement

  20. The effect of impeller–diffuser interactions on diffuser performance in a centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady phenomenon abounds in centrifugal compressors and significantly affects the compressor performance. In this paper, unsteady simulations are carried out to investigate the aerodynamic performance of a process-unshrouded centrifugal compressor and the unsteady mechanism in the vaned diffuser. The predicted stage performance and pressure fluctuations at some locations are in good agreement with experimental data. The predicted main pressure fluctuation frequency spectrums at the diffuser inlet and outlet are consistent with the measured results. The results indicate that at the inlet of the diffuser there are two pressure peaks in a passage cycle. The higher pressure peak relates to the impeller wake and the lower peak is connected with the vortex generated at the diffuser’s leading edge. With a decrease in the mass flow coefficient, the vortex core region becomes larger and the lower pressure peak becomes more pronounced. The change in circumferential flow angle at the diffuser inlet is mainly responsible for the unsteadiness in the diffuser flow field, which in turn affects the inlet incidence of the diffuser vane and the vane loading distributions.

  1. Preliminary Design and Model Assessment of a Supercritical CO2 Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The compressor is a key component in the supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2 Brayton cycle. In this paper, the authors designed a series of supercritical CO2 compressors with different parameters. These compressors are designed for 100 MWe, 10 MWe and 1 MWe scale power systems, respectively. For the 100 MWe SCO2 Brayton cycle, an axial compressor has been designed by the Smith chart to test whether an axial compressor is suitable for the SCO2 Brayton cycle. Using a specific speed and a specific diameter, the remaining two compressors were designed as centrifugal compressors with different pressure ratios to examine whether models used for air in the past are applicable to SCO2. All compressors were generated and analyzed with internal MATLAB programs coupled with the NIST REFPROP database. Finally, the design results are all checked by numerical simulations due to the lack of reliable experimental data. Research has found that in order to meet the de Haller stall criterion, axial compressors require a considerable number of stages, which introduces many additional problems. Thus, a centrifugal compressor is more suitable for the SCO2 Brayton cycle, even for a 100 MWe scale system. For the performance prediction model of a centrifugal compressor, the stall predictions are compared with steady numerical calculation, which indicates that past stall criteria may also be suitable for SCO2 compressors, but more validations are needed. However, the accuracy of original loss models is found to be inadequate, particularly for lower flow and higher pressure ratio cases. Deviations may be attributed to the underestimation of clearance loss according to the result of steady simulation. A modified model is adopted which can improve the precision to a certain extent, but more general and reasonable loss models are needed to improve design accuracy in the future.

  2. Computational Method for Ice Crystal Trajectories in a Turbofan Compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, E.J.; Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this study the characteristics of ice crystals on their trajectory in a single stage of a turbofan engine compressor are determined. The particle trajectories are calculated with a Lagrangian method employing a classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. The air flow field is

  3. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  4. Surge control of the electrically driven centrifugal compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boinov, K.O.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.; Tyagounov, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of the energy efficiency and the operational performance improvement of the electrically driven air compression system. The key innovation of the proposed method-the active surge suppression of the centrifugal compressor by means of the speed control of the electrical

  5. Centrifugal Compressor Aeroelastic Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are very widely used in the turbomachine industry where low mass flow rates are required. Gas turbine engines for tanks, rotorcraft and small jets rely extensively on centrifugal compressors for rugged and compact design. These compressors experience problems related with unsteadiness of flowfields, such as stall flutter, separation at the trailing edge over diffuser guide vanes, tip vortex unsteadiness, etc., leading to rotating stall and surge. Considerable interest exists in small gas turbine engine manufacturers to understand and eventually eliminate the problems related to centrifugal compressors. The geometric complexity of centrifugal compressor blades and the twisting of the blade passages makes the linear methods inapplicable. Advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are needed for accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of centrifugal compressors. Most of the current day industrial turbomachines and small aircraft engines are designed with a centrifugal compressor. With such a large customer base and NASA Glenn Research Center being, the lead center for turbomachines, it is important that adequate emphasis be placed on this area as well. Currently, this activity is not supported under any project at NASA Glenn.

  6. A study on the oil flow characteristics in the inverter rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H J; Kim, Y J

    2013-01-01

    In order to secure the reliability of the oil in the inverter rotary compressor used in the system multi-air conditioners in heating and cooling modes, it is necessary to study the oil flow characteristics which affect to the compressor efficiency. In this study, sight glasses were installed at the compressor and accumulator for oil flow measurements, and various experiments were performed to measure the amount of discharged oil for different refrigerant pipe lengths. On the basis of the experimental measurements, we compared the OCR (Oil Circulation Rate) results of the system multi-air conditioner for various operating conditions. The results are graphically depicted

  7. Compressor performance aerodynamics for the user

    CERN Document Server

    Gresh, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Compressor Performance is a reference book and CD-ROM for compressor design engineers and compressor maintenance engineers, as well as engineering students. The book covers the full spectrum of information needed for an individual to select, operate, test and maintain axial or centrifugal compressors. It includes basic aerodynamic theory to provide the user with the ""how's"" and ""why's"" of compressor design. Maintenance engineers will especially appreciate the troubleshooting guidelines offered. Includes many example problems and reference data such as gas propert

  8. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  9. Simultaneous mass detection for direct inlet mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of analytical techniques for application in trace analysis has led to interest in practical methods for real-time monitoring. Direct inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS) has been the subject of considerable activity in recent years. A DIMS instrument is described which consists of an inlet system designed to permit particles entrained in the inlet air stream to strike a hot, oxidized rhenium filament which serves as a surface ionization source. A mass analyzer and detection system then permits identification of the elemental composition of particulates which strike the filament

  10. Permitting Considerations for Installation of Inlet Air Foggers on Simple Cycle Combustion Turbines at the Duke Power Lincoln Combustion Turbine Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Free piston inertia compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W.D.C.; Bilodeau, D.; Marusak, T.; Dutram, L. Jr.; Brady, J.

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to escape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  12. Magentically actuated compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A vibration free fluid compressor particularly adapted for Stirling cycle cryogenic refrigeration apparatus comprises a pair of identical opposing ferromagnetic pistons located in a housing and between a gas spring including a sealed volume of a working fluid such as gas under pressure. The gas compresses and expands in accordance with movement of the pistons to generate a compression wave which can be vented to other apparatus, for example, a displacer unit in a Stirling cycle engine. The pistons are urged outwardly due to the pressure of the gas; however, a fixed electromagnetic coil assembly located in the housing adjacent the pistons, is periodically energized to produce a magnetic field which interlinks the pistons in such a fashion that the pistons are mutually attracted to one another. The mass of the pistons, in conjunction with the compressed gas between them, form a naturally resonant system which, when the pistons are electromagnetically energized, produces an oscillating compression wave in the entrapped fluid medium.

  13. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  14. An Investigation of Surge in a High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Using Digital PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Bright, Michelle M.; Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Compressor stall is a catastrophic breakdown of the flow in a compressor, which can lead to a loss of engine power, large pressure transients in the inlet/nacelle and engine flameout. The implementation of active or passive strategies for controlling rotating stall and surge can significantly extend the stable operating range of a compressor without substantially sacrificing performance. It is crucial to identify the dynamic changes occurring in the flow field prior to rotating stall and surge in order to successfully control these events. Generally, pressure transducer measurements are made to capture the transient response of a compressor prior to rotating stall. In this investigation, Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) is used in conjunction with dynamic pressure transducers to simultaneously capture transient velocity and pressure measurements in the non-stationary flow field during compressor surge. DPIV is an instantaneous, planar measurement technique which is ideally suited for studying transient flow phenomena in high speed turbomachinery and has been used previously to successfully map the stable operating point flow field in the diffuser of a high speed centrifugal compressor. Through the acquisition of both DPIV images and transient pressure data, the time evolution of the unsteady flow during surge is revealed.

  15. Harmattan gas plant compressor conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, K. [Altagas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Harmattan Gas Plant located near the town of Didsbury, Alberta has typical processing units such as amine treating, sulfur recovery, refrigeration, and dehydration. In 1999, a deep cut turbo expander train was added for the extraction of ethane and in 2003 a spec carbon dioxide unit was added. Since its construction in 1961, the plant has undergone many modifications. As such, the plant is a mix of new and old equipment. A 3500 kW Solar Centaur 50LS gas turbine compressor with waste heat recovery was installed at the plant in 2008. This paper reviewed the project from concept to execution and demonstrated how reciprocating compressors were economically replaced with a gas turbine. Altagas had an incentive to invest in the project to lower operating and maintenance costs. Altagas was able to economically replace aging reciprocating compressors with a single turbine driving a centrifugal compressor without any producer subsidies or contract revisions. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Evaluation and analysis on the coupling performance of a high-speed turboexpander compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Fan, Yufeng; Yang, Shanju; Chen, Xingya; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    A high-speed turboexpander compressor (TEC) for small reverse Brayton air refrigerator is tested and analyzed in the present work. A TEC consists of an expander and a compressor, which are coupled together and interact with each other directly. Meanwhile, the expander and compressor have different effects on the refrigerator. The TEC overall efficiency, which contains effects of the expander's expansion, the compressor's pre-compression, and the pressure drop between them, was proved. It unifies influences of both compression and expansion processes on the COP of refrigerator and could be used to evaluate the TEC overall performance. Then, the coupling parameters were analyzed, which shows that for a TEC, the expander efficiency should be fully utilized first, followed by the compressor pressure ratio. Experiments were carried out to test the TEC coupling performances. The results indicated that, the TEC overall efficiency could reach 67.2%, and meanwhile 22.3% of the energy output was recycled.

  17. Optimization of the working process of the axial compressor according to the criterion of efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, O. V.; Popov, G. M.; Goryachkin, E. S.; Novikova, Yu D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper shows search results of the optimal shape of low pressure compressor blades of the industrial gas turbine plant using methods of computational fluid dynamics and multicriteria methods of mathematical optimization. The essence of the methods is that an increase in compressor efficiency should be achieved by increasing the degree of compression up to 2%, and reducing the air flow to 8% relative to basic engine parameters. However, the compressor design elements should be retained as maximally unchanged as possible. During the work, the calculation model of the workflow in the test compressor has been developed and verified in the NUMECA software package, the automated algorithm of the blades shape change has been also developed using a small number of variables, while maintaining its stress-strain state. It allows reducing the number of changeable variables more than twofold. As the result of this study, the option of compressor performance was found, which can increase its efficiency by 1.3% (abs.).

  18. Modeling and analysis of an open-drive Z-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Davide; Groll, Eckhard A.

    2017-08-01

    A rotary Z-compressor prototype for compressed air applications has been developed and tested. The Z-compressor working process resembles the one of a two-stage rolling piston compressor where the stages are phased by half rotation. In contrary to the traditional rolling piston design, the vane in a Z-compressor is positioned parallel to the main shaft and not perpendicular. In order to understand the impact of leakage and frictional losses and improve the design of such machine, a mechanistic model has been developed to include governing equations within the working chambers (i.e., two suction chambers and two compression chambers), leakage flow models, detailed mechanical analysis, one-degree of freedom valve model, in-chamber heat transfer and an overall energy balance of the compressor shell. The model has been validated with preliminary experimental data and then exercised to identify the potential performance improvements over a range of clearances and working conditions.

  19. Experimental investigation on a high subsonic compressor cascade flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haideng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of deepening the understanding of high-speed compressor cascade flow, this paper reports an experimental study on NACA-65 K48 compressor cascade with high subsonic inlet flow. With the increase of passage pressurizing ability, endwall boundary layer behavior is deteriorated, and the transition zone is extended from suction surface to the endwall as the adverse pressure gradient increases. Cross flow from endwall to midspan, mixing of corner boundary layer and the main stream, and reversal flow on the suction surface are caused by corner separation vortex structures. Passage vortex is the main corner separation vortex. During its movement downstream, the size grows bigger while the rotating direction changes, forming a limiting circle. With higher incidence, corner separation is further deteriorated, leading to higher flow loss. Meanwhile, corner separation structure, flow mixing characteristics and flow loss distribution vary a lot with the change of incidence. Compared with low aspect-ratio model, corner separation of high aspect-ratio model moves away from the endwall and is more sufficiently developed downstream the cascade. Results obtained present details of high-speed compressor cascade flow, which is rare in the relating research fields and is beneficial to mechanism analysis, aerodynamic optimization and flow control design.

  20. A New Approach to Designing the S-Shaped Annular Duct for Industrial Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Yurko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an analytical method for designing the inlet annular duct for an industrial centrifugal compressor using high-order Bezier curves. Using the design of experiments (DOE theory, the three-level full factorial design was developed for determination of influence of the dimensionless geometric parameters on the output criteria. Numerical research was carried out for determination of pressure loss coefficients and velocity swirl angles using the software system ANSYS CFX. Optimal values of the slope for a wide range of geometric parameters, allowing minimizing losses in the duct, have been found. The study has used modern computational fluid dynamics techniques to develop a generalized technique for future development of efficient variable inlet guide vane systems. Recommendations for design of the s-shaped annular duct for industrial centrifugal compressor have been given.

  1. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  2. Experimental investigation on the off-design performance of a small-sized humid air turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Zang, Shusheng

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to study the improvement of the gas turbine performance of a humid air turbine (HAT) cycle at low pressure ratio and at low turbine inlet temperature (TIT). To achieve this goal, an off-design performance test investigation was conducted on a small-sized, two-shaft gas turbine test rig. The test rig consisted of a centrifugal compressor, a centripetal turbine, an individual direct flow flame tube, a free power turbine, a dynamometer, and a saturator with structured packing. Two different conditions were considered for the test investigation: in Case I, the control system kept the fuel flow constant at 57 kg/h, and in Case II, the turbine inlet temperature was kept constant at 665 °C. In Case I, when the air humidity ratio increased from 30 g/kg dry air (DA) to 43 g/kg DA, the power output increased by 3 kW. At the same time, the turbine inlet temperature decreased by 19 °C, and the NO x emissions were reduced from 25 ppm to 16 ppm. In Case II, when the air humidity ratio increased from 48 g/kg DA to 57 g/kg DA, the power output increased by 9.5 kW. Based on the actual gas turbine parts, characteristics, and test conditions, the off-design performance of the HAT cycle was calculated. Upon comparing the measured and calculated results, the HAT cycle was found to perform better than the two-shaft cycle in terms of specific work, efficiency, and specific fuel consumption. The effect of performance improvement became more obvious as the air humidity ratio increased. Under the same inlet air flow, turbine inlet temperature, and power output, the surge margin on compressor curves became enlarged as the humidity ratio increased. The off-design performance of a HAT cycle with regenerator was also investigated. The results show that the highest efficiency can be increased by 3.1%, which will greatly improve the gas turbine performance. -- Highlights: ► We built a flexible small-size test rig of HAT cycle gas turbine and the real test data were

  3. Performance evaluation of an integrated automotive air conditioning and heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoz, M.; Direk, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the performance characteristics of an R134a automotive air conditioning system capable of operating as an air-to-air heat pump using ambient air as a heat source. For this aim, an experimental analysis has been performed on a plant made up of original components from an automobile air conditioning system and some extra equipment employed to operate the system in the reverse direction. The system has been tested in the air conditioning and heat pump modes by varying the compressor speed and air temperatures at the inlets of the indoor and outdoor coils. Evaluation of the data gathered in steady state test runs has shown the effects of the operating conditions on the capacity, coefficient of performance, compressor discharge temperature and the rate of exergy destroyed by each component of the system for both operation modes. It has been observed that the heat pump operation provides adequate heating only in mild weather conditions, and the heating capacity drops sharply with decreasing outdoor temperature. However, compared with the air conditioning operation, the heat pump operation usually yields a higher coefficient of performance and a lower rate of exergy destruction per unit capacity. It is also possible to improve the heating mode performance of the system by redesigning the indoor coil, using another refrigerant with a higher heat rejection rate in the condenser and employing a better heat source such as the engine coolant or exhaust gases

  4. Study of High Efficiency Flow Regulation of VIGV in Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjun Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable inlet guide vane (VIGV is used to control the mass flow and generate prewhirl in centrifugal compressors. Due to the tip clearance of the guide vanes and the defect of the traditional guide vane profiles, the mass flow regulation of VIGV is limited, resulting in a large waste of compressed gas. Two kinds of inlet flow channels were proposed to eliminate the influence of tip clearance. These structures were numerically investigated at different setting angles. The results show that the improved channels not only expand the range of mass flow regulation, but also reduce the power and increase the efficiency of the compressor. Ten kinds of guide vane profiles, including different thickness distribution, camber line profile, were selected to compare with the original one and with each other. In the premise of ensuring the performance of compressor, the best guide vane profile was selected. The results show that reducing the guide vane thickness, increasing the guide vane camber angle, and increasing the distance between the maximum camber position and the leading edge of guide vane can help expand the range of mass flow regulation. The achievement of this research can effectively improve the flow regulation ability of VIGV and the performance of compressor.

  5. Numerical analysis of the transient flow in a scroll refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuaihui; Wu, Kai; Guo, Pengcheng; Luo, Xingqi

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the CFD technology is adopted to simulate the working process of a scroll refrigeration compressor with R22 as working fluid. The structural grids in the scroll compressor were updated continually during the solving process to cope with the movement boundaries of the fluid domain. The radial meshing clearance was 0.008 mm which was the same with that in the real prototype. The pressure, velocity and temperature distribution in chambers of compressor were computed. Also, the transient mass flux diagrams were calculated out. The results indicated that the pressure was asymmetrical in the two symmetrical suction chambers, because the suction port and passage were not absolutely symmetrical. The gradient of temperature was great in each working chamber due to leakage flow. Velocity vector distribution was asymmetrical in each pair of working chamber owing to the movement of orbiting scroll; the flow was complicated in the central working chamber. The movement of the orbiting scroll had different influence on the vortexes formation in each pair of compression chamber. The inlet and outlet mass flux fluctuated with the crank angle obviously. Because of the ‘cut-off’ of the refrigeration fluid in the suction chamber when the crank angle was larger than 220°, the inlet mass flux decreased remarkably. Finally, some useful advices were given to improve the performance of the scroll refrigeration compressor.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Inlet-Fan Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, James; Chen, Jen-Ping; Beach, Timothy; Bakhle, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engine inlets integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlet ingests the lower momentum boundary layer flow. Previous studies have shown, however, that efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) ingestion are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This paper presents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations, such as the development of rotating stall and inlet distortion through compressor stages. This paper describes the first phase of an effort to extend the TURBO model to calculate the external and inlet flowfield upstream of fan so that accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI configurations can be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the TURBO program modifications for the BLI flowfield, experimental test data obtained by NASA for a flushmounted S-duct with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Quantitative data is presented that indicates good predictive capability of the model in the upstream flow. A representative fan is attached to the inlet and results are presented for the coupled inlet/fan model. The impact on the total pressure distortion at the AIP after the fan is attached is examined.

  7. AG TURBO, TURBOTECH II - the influence of periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions on the transition behavior of compressor cascades. Final report; AG TURBO, TURBOTECH II: Vorhaben 1.134 - Optimierung des Stroemungsverhaltens von Verdichtergittern mit CDA-Profilierung. Der Einfluss periodisch instationaerer Zustroemung auf das Transitionsverhalten von Verdichtergittern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fottner, L.; Teusch, R.; Kampitsch, M.

    2000-09-01

    For the aerodynamic design of turbomachine blades current methods generally apply steady flow theory and consider unsteady effects like blade row interaction, shock-boundary layer interaction, potential effects and secondary flow effects only by means of empirical or semi-empirical correlations. In the context of a modern, cost-oriented blade design efforts are made to increase the aerodynamic blade loading by considering these unsteady effects whereby efficiency and performance are kept constant. This results in a blade count reduction and consequently a weight reduction, but entails a highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow field, which makes great demands on numerical design codes. The primary goals of this work was to investigate the unsteady flow behavior in compressor cascades with controlled diffusion blading under the influence of upstream wakes and to obtain a detailed insight into the physics of unsteady boundary layer behavior. With the obtained data base a validation of unsteady codes should be conducted. The investigated cascades V110 and V111 are representative for the mid section of stator blades in a high pressure compressors. At the investigated low Reynolds number a loss reduction up to 20% was observed, while at the high Reynolds number a loss increase up to 30% compared to the steady flow case was noted. The numerical results obtained by the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code TRACE{sub U} which includes a transition correlation showed a very good agreement with the experimental results. Further on indications for new design criteria considering unsteady flow effects were provided. (orig.) [German] Bei der aerodynamischen Auslegung von Turbomaschinenbeschaufelungen beruecksichtigten bisherige Verfahren instationaere Stroemungseffekte wie Schaufelreihen-Interaktion, Stoss-Grenzschicht-Wechselwirkung, Einfluss des Potentialfeldes und Sekundaerstroemungseffekte nur partiell ueber empirische und halbempirische Korrelationen. Im Rahmen

  8. Program for aerodynamic performance tests of helium gas compressor model of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunimoto, Kazuhiko; Yan, Xing; Itaka, Hidehiko; Mori, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Research and development program for helium gas compressor aerodynamics was planned for the power conversion system of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The axial compressor with polytropic efficiency of 90% and surge margin more than 30% was designed with 3-dimensional aerodynamic design. Performance and surge margin of the helium gas compressor tends to be lower due to the higher boss ratio which makes the tip clearance wide relative to the blade height, as well as due to a larger number of stages. The compressor was designed on the basis of methods and data for the aerodynamic design of industrial open-cycle gas-turbine. To validate the design of the helium gas compressor of the GTHTR300, aerodynamic performance tests were planned, and a 1/3-scale, 4-stage compressor model was designed. In the tests, the performance data of the helium gas compressor model will be acquired by using helium gas as a working fluid. The maximum design pressure at the model inlet is 0.88 MPa, which allows the Reynolds number to be sufficiently high. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  9. Technical analysis of utilization suitability of various wind rotor’s types for compressor’s power driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Rybár

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Conception is from the converting of wind energy, which flows across the wind turbine in mechanic work needed for compressor working. The wind motor one part of energy transform into mechanical work, part of energy is unused and part of energy of stead flow is transformed into eddy after wind rotor.The aim was rendering of technical analysis for equipment, which would use the wind with parameters for chosen area and whole unit would supply power in peak demand. Unit consists of wind turbine, which pushes compressor. Compressor pumps air into the compressed air storage. The air is used for power producing in time of peak demand.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Diffuser Hub Injection to Improve Centrifugal Compressor Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to investigate whether centrifugal compressor stability could be improved by injecting air through the diffuser hub surface are reported. The research was conducted in a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor configured with a vane-island diffuser. Injector nozzles were located just upstream of the leading edge of the diffuser vanes. Nozzle orientations were set to produce injected streams angled at 8, 0 and +8 degrees relative to the vane mean camber line. Several injection flow rates were tested using both an external air supply and recirculation from the diffuser exit. Compressor flow range did not improve at any injection flow rate that was tested. Compressor flow range did improve slightly at zero injection due to the flow resistance created by injector openings on the hub surface. Leading edge loading and semi-vaneless space diffusion showed trends similar to those reported earlier from shroud surface experiments that did improve compressor flow range. Opposite trends are seen for hub injection cases where compressor flow range decreased. The hub injection data further explain the range improvement provided by shroud-side injection and suggest that different hub-side techniques may produce range improvement in centrifugal compressors.

  11. Empirical Design Considerations for Industrial Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has been extensively used in centrifugal compressor design. CFD provides further optimisation opportunities for the compressor design rather than designing the centrifugal compressor. The experience-based design process still plays an important role for new compressor developments. The wide variety of design subjects represents a very complex design world for centrifugal compressor designers. Therefore, some basic information for centrifugal design is still very important. The impeller is the key part of the centrifugal stage. Designing a highly efficiency impeller with a wide operation range can ensure overall stage design success. This paper provides some empirical information for designing industrial centrifugal compressors with a focus on the impeller. A ported shroud compressor basic design guideline is also discussed for improving the compressor range.

  12. Modernizing the 5G 100/8 piston compressor by means of directly streaming valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetanov, Ts.; Stoyanov, I.

    1988-02-01

    Deals with 5G 100/8 air compressors which, despite long service and lack of spare parts, are still widely used in Bulgarian underground coal mines. K-4-10 ring-type valves are in particularly short supply; maintenance engineers have been forced to modify the compresors. Initially, Bulgarian KP-3.1 valves with direct air streaming replaced the K-4-10; these were later replaced by PIK-220 and PIK-220A valves. Tests on overhauled compressors have shown that replacing the KP-3.1 with the PIK-220 or PIK-220A can result in a saving of up to 100,000 kWh of electricity per compressor. Details of reconstruction and testing of piston compressors are included. 10 refs.

  13. Research on the performance of water-injection twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Wu Huagen; Wang Bingming; Xing Ziwen; Shu Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Due to the development of the automotive fuel cell systems, the study on water-injection twin screw compressor has been aroused again. Twin screw compressors with water injection can be used to supply the clean compressed air for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. In this research, a thermodynamic model of the working process of water-injection twin screw compressor was established based on the equations of conservation of mass and energy. The effects of internal leakage and air-water heat transfer were taken into account simultaneously in the present mathematical model. The experiments of the performance of a prototype compressor operating under various conditions were conducted to verify the model. The results show that the predictions of the model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1012 - Compressor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is equipped with a system to capture and transport leakage from the compressor drive shaft seal to a... in the referencing subpart. (b) Seal system standard. Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal..., except as provided in § 63.1002(b) and paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section. Each compressor seal...

  15. 40 CFR 63.164 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the compressor drive shaft seal back to a process or a fuel gas system or to a control device that... compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that prevents... paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section. (b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph (a) of this...

  16. Refrigeration compressor for the mobile application; Kaeltemittelverdichter fuer den mobilen Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenlocher, T. [Bock GmbH und Co. Kaeltemaschinenfabrik, Frickenhausen (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    The mobile use of cooling air conditioning systems is increasingly important. Main component of this system is the refrigeration compressor. The special requirement for the compressor as well for the resulting boundary conditions are discussed. (orig.) [German] Der mobile Einsatz von Kaelte- und Klimaanlagen gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung. Wichtigste Komponente dieser Anlage ist der Kaeltemittelverdichter. Die speziellen Anforderungen an den Verdichter sowie an die daraus resultierenden Randbedingungen werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  18. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  19. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  20. Jet Engine Fan Response to Inlet Distortions Generated by Ingesting Boundary Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, James Edward

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engines integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlets ingest the lower momentum boundary layer flow that develops along the surface of the aircraft. Previous studies have shown, however, that the efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) inlets are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This project represents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of TURBO, an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code, to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations. Extending TURBO to simulate the external and inlet flow field upstream of the fan will allow accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI inlet configurations to be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the modifications for the BLI inlet flow field, an experimental NASA project to study flush-mounted S-duct inlets with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Once the inlet modifications were validated, a hypothetical compressor fan was connected to the inlet, matching the inlet operating conditions so that the effect on the distortion could be evaluated. Although the total pressure distortion upstream of the fan was symmetrical for this geometry, the pressure rise generated by the fan blades was not, because of the velocity non-uniformity of the distortion

  1. The influence of the vane on the lubrication characteristics between the vane and the rolling piston of a rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ihn Sung; Jung, Jae Youn

    2006-01-01

    The rolling piston type rotary compressor has been widely used for refrigeration and air -conditioning systems due to its compactness and high-speed operation. The present analysis is part of a research program directed toward maximizing the advantages of refrigerant compressors. The study of lubrication characteristics in the critical sliding component is essential for the design of refrigerant compressors. Therefore, theoretical investigation of the lubrication characteristics of a rotary compressor being used for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems was investigated. The Newton-Raphson method was used for a partial elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis between the vane and the rolling piston of a rotary compressor. The results demonstrated that the vane thickness and the center line position of the vane significantly influenced the friction force and the energy loss between the vane and the rolling piston

  2. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  3. Experimental study of a thermochemical compressor for an absorption/compression hybrid cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventas, R.; Vereda, C.; Lecuona, A.; Venegas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental study of a thermochemical compressor for absorption/compression cycle. ► Spray adiabatic absorber using NH 3 –LiNO 3 solution working fluid. ► It is able to operate between 57 and 110 °C varying concentration between 0.46 and 0.59. ► The increase of absorber pressure decreases the circulation ratio. ► The numerical model performed agrees with the experimental results. -- Abstract: An experimental study of a thermochemical compressor with ammonia–lithium nitrate solution as working fluid has been carried out. This compressor incorporates a single-pass adiabatic absorber and all the heat exchangers are of the plate type: absorber subcooler, generator and solution heat exchanger. The thermochemical compressor has been studied as part of a single-effect absorption chiller hybridized with an in-series low-pressure compression booster. The adiabatic absorber uses fog jet injectors. The generator hot water temperatures for the external driving flow are in the range of 57–110 °C and the absorber pressures range between 429 and 945 kPa. Experimental results are compared with a numerical model showing a high agreement. The performance of the thermochemical compressor, evaluated through the circulation ratio, improves for higher absorber pressures, indicating the potential of pressure boosting. For the same circulation ratio, the driving hot water inlet temperature decreases with the rise of the absorber pressure. The thermochemical compressor, based on an adiabatic absorber, can produce refrigerant with very low driving temperatures, between 57 and 70 °C, what is interesting for solar cooling applications and very low temperature residual heat recovery. Efficiencies and cooling power are offered when this hybrid thermochemical compressor is implemented in a chiller, showing the effect of different operating parameters.

  4. New technology of subsea and offshore compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Subsea compressor is a hot topic. Subsea compressor offers tremendous potentials, but also some obstacles. Active magnetic bearings installed inside the process gas allow the elimination of lubrication and seal systems. High-speed permanent- magnet motor directly drives centrifugal compressor to meet optimum speed, eliminating gear box. This design offers inherent machinery health monitoring features and very compact and reliable train. New technology of hermitically sealed direct drive centrifugal compressor for offshore and subsea applications are discussed and case studies for horizontal and vertical compressor train arrangements are presented. (orig.)

  5. An approach for establishing the performance maps of the sc-CO_2 compressor: Development and qualification by means of CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, H.S.; Alpy, N.; Ferrasse, J.H.; Boutin, O.; Tothill, M.; Quenaut, J.; Gastaldi, O.; Cadiou, T.; Saez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ability of CFD to predict the performance of a sc-CO_2 test compressor is shown. • Risk of vapor pockets occurrence inside a scale 1:1 compressor is highlighted. • Limitation of previous performance maps approaches to model the real gas behavior is shown. • A performance maps approach for the sc-CO_2 compressor is proposed and validated. - Abstract: One of the challenges in the performance prediction of the supercritical CO_2 (sc-CO_2) compressor is the real gas behavior of the working fluid near the critical point. This study deals with the establishment of an approach that allows coping with this particularity by dressing compressor performance maps in adequate reduced coordinates (i.e., suitable dimensionless speed and flow parameters inputs and pressure ratio and enthalpy rise outputs), while using CFD for its validation. Two centrifugal compressor designs have been considered in this work. The first one corresponds to a 6 kW small scale component implemented in a test loop at Tokyo Institute of Technology. The second one corresponds to a 38 MW scale 1:1 design considered at an early stage of a project that investigates sc-CO_2 cycle for a Small Modular Reactor application. Numerical results on the former have been successfully confronted with the experimental data to qualify the ability of CFD to provide a performance database. Results on the latter have revealed a significant decrease in the static temperature and pressure during flow acceleration along the leading edge of the impeller blades. In this line, the increased risk of vapor pockets appearance inside a sc-CO_2 compressor has been highlighted and recommendations regarding the choice of the on-design inlet conditions and the compressor design have been given to overcome this concern. CFD results on the scale 1:1 compressor have then been used to evaluate the relevancy of some previous performance maps approaches for a sc-CO_2 compressor application. These include the conventional

  6. Modulation method of scroll compressor based on suction gas bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolong; Han Linjun; Shi Wenxing; Li Xianting

    2012-01-01

    The air conditioners and heat pumps tend to work in much mild environments and part load situations rather than provide the rated full capacity under severe rated testing conditions. Both the capacity and inner compression ratio of the compressor should be regulated according to the working condition for higher energy efficiency and occupants’ comfort. A potential modulating technology of the scroll compressor, suction gas bypass, is investigated in this paper. The principle and operation method are illuminated and the adaptability is validated by experiments and simulations. As a conclusion, an appropriate suction gas bypass can reduce the inner compression loss of the scroll compressor under over compression conditions, enhance the system COP and also largely decrease the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration/heat pump system. - Highlights: ► Suction gas bypass (SGB) is an effective regulating method of scroll compressor. ► SGB reduces the inner compression loss under over compression conditions. ► SGB largely decreases the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration system.

  7. Heat flows in piston compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekic, U.; Kok, J.B.W.; van der Meer, T.H.; van Steenhoven, A.A.; Stoffels, G.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Piston compressors are widely used in today's engineering applications. Among the most important applications is however the compression of thermal carrier gas in Rankine and Stirling refrigeration cycles. Fluids used in these cycles are commonly Ammonia and Helium. In order to improve the design

  8. Uncertainty analysis of thermal quantities measurement in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurda, Lukáš; Matas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Compressor performance characteristics evaluation process based on the measurement of pressure, temperature and other quantities is examined to find uncertainties for directly measured and derived quantities. CFD is used as a tool to quantify the influences of different sources of uncertainty of measurements for single- and multi-thermocouple total temperature probes. The heat conduction through the body of the thermocouple probe and the heat-up of the air in the intake piping are the main phenomena of interest.

  9. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J; Ko, D. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H. K. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  10. Comprehensive model of a hermetic reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Ziviani, D.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive simulation model is presented to predict the performance of a hermetic reciprocating compressor and to reveal the underlying mechanisms when the compressor is running. The presented model is composed of sub-models simulating the in-cylinder compression process, piston ring/journal bearing frictional power loss, single phase induction motor and the overall compressor energy balance among different compressor components. The valve model, leakage through piston ring model and in-cylinder heat transfer model are also incorporated into the in-cylinder compression process model. A numerical algorithm solving the model is introduced. The predicted results of the compressor mass flow rate and input power consumption are compared to the published compressor map values. Future work will focus on detailed experimental validation of the model and parametric studies investigating the effects of structural parameters, including the stroke-to-bore ratio, on the compressor performance.

  11. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  12. An exergy method for compressor performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, J A; Harte, S [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-07-01

    An exergy method for compressor performance analysis is presented. The purpose of this is to identify and quantify defects in the use of a compressor`s shaft power. This information can be used as the basis for compressor design improvements. The defects are attributed to friction, irreversible heat transfer, fluid throttling, and irreversible fluid mixing. They are described, on a common basis, as exergy destruction rates and their locations are identified. The method can be used with any type of positive displacement compressor. It is most readily applied where a detailed computer simulation program is available for the compressor. An analysis of an open reciprocating refrigeration compressor that used R12 refrigerant is given as an example. The results that are presented consist of graphs of the instantaneous rates of exergy destruction according to the mechanisms involved, a pie chart of the breakdown of the average shaft power wastage by mechanism, and a pie chart with a breakdown by location. (author)

  13. Meridional Considerations of the Centrifugal Compressor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressor developments are interested in using optimization procedures that enable compressor high efficiency and wide operating ranges. Recently, high pressure ratio and efficiency of the centrifugal compressors require impeller design to pay attention to both the blade angle distribution and the meridional profile. The geometry of the blades and the meridional profile are very important contributions of compressor performance and structure reliability. This paper presents some recent studies of meridional impacts of the compressor. Studies indicated that the meridional profiles of the impeller impact the overall compressor efficiency and pressure ratio at the same rotational speed. Proper meridional profiles can improve the compressor efficiency and increase the overall pressure ratio at the same blade back curvature.

  14. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  15. Air compressor multi-pattern smart monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Qin, Yejun; Dai, Juchuan; Huang, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The device is controlled by TMS320F2812 microprocessor. It mainly includes signal acquisition circuit, keyboard circuit, Chinese / English LCD display circuit, the calendar clock circuits, alarm circuits, relay output circuit, communications interface circuits, DI / DO circuit, power circuit and CPU circuit and so on. In addition, the device integrates a sensor transmission circuit, so it can directly connect with temperature pressure sensors to achieve high-precision measurement and monitoring. According to needs of users, it can work in different modes without the additional controller respectively. The equipment can communicate with each other by CAN bus or RS485. It mainly can realize the control and analysis of equipment status, failure predication and diagnosis, information management, etc.

  16. Frequency regulated compact screw compressors. The new solution; Drehzahlgeregelte Kompakt-Schraubenverdichter. Die neue Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, Heinz [BITZER Kuehlmaschinenbau GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compact screw compressors have been used for many years in liquid chilling packages for comfort air conditioners, process cooling or heat pumps with mechanical power control. Standard frequency inverters offer the possibility to adjust the performance of a conventional screw compressor, piston compressor or scroll compressor in a small range of frequency. Furthermore, frequency inverters contain a number of additional functions. This combination of existing frequency inverters and compressors - as actually offered in many cases - allows only a limited improvement of the part-load performance in the system. Due to the high cost for the frequency inverters, this combination becomes economically questionable. An integrated package of newly developed compact screw compressors and a specially developed liquid-cooled frequency inverter is required in order to come to a new level of system efficiency at part load. In addition to the increased control range of the compressor, new possibilities can be opened up in terms of application and communication. The monitoring of various values such as the compliance with the application limits for pressure and temperature and especially the early warning against exceedance facilitates a more simply implementation of a secure machine because the setting of the relevant protection functions of the integrated type-specific components already is made in the factory.

  17. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of lower-GWP alternative refrigerant R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-410A and having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that the discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant was higher than that of R-410A at all test conditions. Also, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of compressor using the alternative refrigerant were slightly lower in comparison to that of R-410A.

  18. Analysis of Vaneless Diffuser Stall Instability in a Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sundström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations based on the large eddy simulation approach were conducted with the aim to explore vaneless diffuser rotating stall instability in a centrifugal compressor. The effect of the impeller blade passage was included as an inlet boundary condition with sufficiently low flow angle relative to the tangent to provoke the instability and cause circulation in the diffuser core flow. Flow quantities, velocity and pressure, were extracted to accumulate statistics for calculating mean velocity and mean Reynolds stresses in the wall-to-wall direction. The paper focuses on the assessment of the complex response of the system to the velocity perturbations imposed, the resulting pressure gradient and flow curvature effects.

  19. Approach to novel design of CO2 based centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kura Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though turbomachinery design issues have been investigated almost since the beginning of engineering, its optimization process is still important. With the development of refrigeration devices and ORC based distributed generation facilities, a need for efficient and low-energy compressors and turbines became even more demanding. Such machines working with typical fluid, like air, are well described, but there is a room regarding the fluids like CO2, vapour of organic fluids, etc. The main objective of present studies is to propose a numerical model of the centrifugal compressor, with CO2 as the working fluid. Such unit may be a part of refrigeration cycle. Commonly, the scroll or piston compressors are used in such cases, however some discussed disadvantages show that the novel designs should be looked for. Properly designed centrifugal compressors can have higher efficiency than the presently used. Three dimensional analyses of proposed geometries were conducted – using a model including heat, mass and momentum conservation laws as well as ideal gas law. Verification of the proposed mesh and results was performed in the basis of values obtained using theoretical and empirical equations. With about 700 000 control volumes in the validated model, error of the results was no higher than 5%, with only about 1% in regards to the thermal parameters. Two design proposals were analysed, with performance maps as the main comparison factor. Apart from performance characteristics, the pressure and velocity fields were presented, showing the process of flow structure optimization. The main goal was to reduce negative effects of pressure and velocity gradients on the performance. Proposed precursory design might be a good starting point for further development of compressors. The results of numerical analysis were promising and shows the possibility of proposed design usage in practical applications, however to obtain deep understanding of the

  20. Experimental study of flow through compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the behaviour of flow at the inlet, within the blade passage and at the exit of a compressor cascade. For this purpose, a cascade with six numbers of aerofoil blades was designed and constructed. The cascade was fitted on the cascade test tunnel. Out of six blades two were instrumented for measuring the pressure distribution on the pressure and suction surface. The blades had a parabolic camber line, with a maximum camber position at 40% of the chord from the leading edge of the blade. The profile of the blade was C4, height of the blade was 160 mm, chord length was 80 mm, camber angle was 45° and stagger angle was 30°. Similarly, the length of the cascade was 300 mm, span was 160 mm, pitch was 60 mm, the actual chord of the cascade was 80 mm, the axial chord of the cascade was 70 mm, the stagger angle of the cascade was 30° and the pitch-chord ratio was 0.75. The data was taken and analyzed at −500% of the axial chord before the cascade, −25% of the axial chord before the leading edge, 25%, 50%, 75% and 150% of the axial chord from the leading edge of the blade. The readings were taken from the cascade wall to the mid span position along the pitch wise direction. The angle of incidence was also changed during the experiment and varied from i=−50°, −30°, −10° to 5°.

  1. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  2. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  3. Centrifugal and axial compressor control

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Control engineers, mechanical engineers and mechanical technicians will learn how to select the proper control systems for axial and centrifugal compressors for proper throughput and surge control, with a particular emphasis on surge control. Readers will learn to understand the importance of transmitter speed, digital controller sample time, and control valve stroking time in helping to prevent surge. Engineers and technicians will find this book to be a highly valuable guide on compressor control schemes and the importance of mitigating costly and sometimes catastrophic surge problems. It can be used as a self-tutorial guide or in the classroom with the book's helpful end-of-chapter questions and exercises and sections for keeping notes.

  4. All-optical fiber compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Luben M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple all-optical fiber compressor, based on an idea of dispersion management using a fiber of positive dispersion in the first part and of negative dispersion in the second one at the working wavelength, is investigated. The method allows a combination of the advantages of the classic fiber-grating and of the multisoliton compression. It is possible to improve substantially the quality of the compressed pulse compared to the multisoliton compression. The compression factor could be increased up to 2-2.5 times when the fraction of the input pulse energy appearing within the compressed pulse enhances more than 2 times. Thus, the peak power of the compressed pulse is able to increase about 5 times and the quality of the obtained pulses should be comparable with those obtained by the fiber-grating compressor

  5. Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Assembly . .. . .... ..... 33 5 Tie Bolt...... .. .. .. .. . *.. .. .. .. .. .. ... 34 6 Axial Compressor Rotor Assembly Runouts . . .. . 34 7 CCV Blow...1.796 Impeller Slip Factor ’Ce2/U 2 ) .91 Impeller Wheel Speed ft/sec 1992.2 Impellet ’.ip Radius in. 3.780 Blade Tip Metal Angle- deg 0 Numbec of Blades...test item to the next Phase V component test. The test vehicle final balance levels and rotor runouts were normal at teardown, and no rubsI were

  6. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be...

  7. Geomorphic Analysis of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Michael J; Kraus, Nicholas C; McDonald, Jodi M

    2005-01-01

    This study of Mattituck Inlet and Goldsmith Inlet, Long Island, NY, covers the historic and geomorphic background, literature, field measurements, numerical modeling of tidal circulation, and analysis...

  8. Reconstruction of paleo-inlet dynamics using sedimentologic analyses, geomorphic features, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages: former ephemeral inlets of Cedar Island, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R.; Wood, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Cedar Island, VA is a low-profile, washover-dominated barrier island that has breached at least three times in the past sixty years. Cedar Island Inlet, a former wave-dominated tidal inlet, was open for the following time periods: 1) 1956-1962, 2) 1992-1997, and 3) 1998-2007. Air photos, satellite imagery, and geomorphic features (i.e., relict flood tidal deltas, recurved-spit ridges) record the spatial and temporal extent of the three ephemeral inlets. Based on three sediment vibracores, benthic foraminiferal and sedimentologic analyses offer high resolution insights of inlet dynamics and lifecycle evolution. Four foraminiferal biofacies are completely dominated by Elphidium excavatum (54-100%) and contain unique assemblages of accessory species based on cluster analyses: tidal inlet floor (low abundance estuarine and shelf species; 23% Haynesina germanica); flood tidal delta/inlet fill (high abundance estuarine and shelf species; 2% Buccella frigida, 2% Ammonia parkinsoniana, and 2% Haynesina germanica); high-energy inlet fill (low abundance, low diversity shelf species; 9% Elphidium gunteri); and washover/beach/aeolian (low abundance, predominantly shelf species; 3% Buccella frigida and 3% Ammonia parkinsoniana). The estuarine biofacies is barren of all foraminifera. Grain size trends indicate a first order coarsening-upward succession with second order coarsening- and fining-upwards packages in inlet throat deposits, while a first order fining-upward succession is observed in flood tidal delta deposits with two second order coarsening-upward packages in the proximal flood tidal delta. Contrary to typical wave-dominated tidal inlets that open, migrate laterally in the direction of net longshore transport, and close, the 1998-2007 tidal inlet, and possibly the 1956-1962 inlet, migrated laterally and rotated, whereas the 1992-1997 inlet remained stationary and did not rotate. In the vicinity of the vibracores, preserved deposits are attributed to the 1956-1962 and

  9. PIV investigation of the flow induced by a passive surge control method in a radial compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, Erwann; Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim [University of Cincinnati, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Honeywell Turbo Technologies, Greater Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratios. Unfortunately, increasing the impeller rotational speed of turbocharger radial compressors tends to reduce their range of operation, which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extend the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device such as a ''ported shroud.'' This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance the surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the system remain not well understood. Hence, in order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. From the full dynamic survey of the compressor performance characteristics obtained with and without ported shroud, specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow visualization. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to evaluate instantaneous and mean velocity flow fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. As a result, satisfying characterization of the compressor instabilities was provided at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanism was achieved. (orig.)

  10. PIV investigation of the flow induced by a passive surge control method in a radial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Erwann; Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Mohamed, Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratios. Unfortunately, increasing the impeller rotational speed of turbocharger radial compressors tends to reduce their range of operation, which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extend the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device such as a "ported shroud." This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance the surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the system remain not well understood. Hence, in order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. From the full dynamic survey of the compressor performance characteristics obtained with and without ported shroud, specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow visualization. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to evaluate instantaneous and mean velocity flow fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. As a result, satisfying characterization of the compressor instabilities was provided at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanism was achieved.

  11. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  12. LP compressor blade vibration characteristics at starting conditions of a 100 MW heavy-duty gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, An Sung; Vedichtchev, Alexandre F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper are presented the blade vibration characteristics at the starting conditions of the low pressure multistage axial compressor of heavy-duty 100 MW gas turbine. Vibration data have been collected through strain gauges during aerodynamic tests of the model compressor. The influences of operating modes at the starting conditions are investigated upon the compressor blade vibrations. The exciting mechanisms and features of blade vibrations are investigated at the surge, rotating stall, and buffeting flutter. The influences of operating modes upon blade dynamic stresses are investigated for the first and second stages. It is shown that a high dynamic stress peak of 120 MPa can occur in the first stage blades due to resonances with stall cell excitations or with inlet strut wake excitations at the stalled conditions

  13. Basic Study on Engine with Scroll Compressor and Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    Scroll compressors are becoming popular in air conditioning and refrigeration. This is primarily due to their higher efficiency and low noise/vibration characteristics. The scroll principle can be applied also to the steam expander and the Brayton cycle engine,as shown in the past literature. The Otto cycle spark-ignition engine with a scroll compressor and expander is studied in this report. The principle and basic structure of the scroll engine are explained,and the engine characteristic are calculated based on the idealized cycles and processes. A prototype model has been proposed and constructed. The rotary type engine has always had a problem with sealing. The scroll engine might overcome this shortcoming with its much lower rubbing speed compared to its previous counterparts,and is therefore worth investigating.

  14. Exchange inlet optimization by genetic algorithm for improved RBCC performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorkawy, G.; Etele, J.

    2017-09-01

    A genetic algorithm based on real parameter representation using a variable selection pressure and variable probability of mutation is used to optimize an annular air breathing rocket inlet called the Exchange Inlet. A rapid and accurate design method which provides estimates for air breathing, mixing, and isentropic flow performance is used as the engine of the optimization routine. Comparison to detailed numerical simulations show that the design method yields desired exit Mach numbers to within approximately 1% over 75% of the annular exit area and predicts entrained air massflows to between 1% and 9% of numerically simulated values depending on the flight condition. Optimum designs are shown to be obtained within approximately 8000 fitness function evaluations in a search space on the order of 106. The method is also shown to be able to identify beneficial values for particular alleles when they exist while showing the ability to handle cases where physical and aphysical designs co-exist at particular values of a subset of alleles within a gene. For an air breathing engine based on a hydrogen fuelled rocket an exchange inlet is designed which yields a predicted air entrainment ratio within 95% of the theoretical maximum.

  15. Effects of Radial Gap Ratio between Impeller and Vaned Diffuser on Performance of Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadjavad Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance centrifugal compressor is needed for numerous industry applications nowadays. The radial gap ratio between the impeller and the diffuser vanes plays an important role in the improvement of the compressor performance. In this paper, the effects of the radial gap ratio on a high-pressure ratio centrifugal compressor are investigated using numerical simulations. The performance and the flow field are compared for six different radial gap ratios and five rotational speeds. The minimal radial gap ratio was 1.04 and the maximal was 1.14. Results showed that reducing the radial gap ratio decreases the choke mass flow rate. For the tip-speed Mach number (impeller inlet with Mu < 1, the pressure recovery and the loss coefficients are not sensitive to the radial gap ratio. However, for Mu ≥ 1, the best radial gap ratio is 1.08 for the pressure recovery and the loss coefficients. Furthermore, the impeller pressure ratio and efficiency are reduced by increasing the radial gap ratio. Finally, the compressor efficiency was compared for different radial gap ratios. For Mu < 1, the radial gap ratio does not have noticeable effects. In comparison, the radial gap ratio of 1.08 has the best performance for Mu ≥ 1.

  16. AERODYNAMIC STUDIES IN THE STATIC COMPONENTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasa Reddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic studies in the static components of a centrifugal compressor stage were conducted using the computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. For the simulation study, a typical centrifugal compressor stage geometry with a flow coefficient of 0.053 was chosen, The study is confined to the static components of the centrifugal compressor stage, i.e., the crossover bend (180° U-bend, a radial cascade of return channel vanes, and the exit ducting (90° L-turn. The aerodynamic performance is reported in terms of total pressure loss coefficient, static pressure recovery coefficient, return channel vane surface static pressure distribution, and stage exit swirl angle distribution. The simulated flow through the static components covered five different operating conditions of the actual centrifugal compressor stage: the design point with 100% flow rate, and the off-design operating conditions with 70%, 80%, 110%, and 120% flow rates. The standard k-ε model was used with standard wall functions to predict the turbulence. A minimum total pressure loss coefficient was observed near 80% flow rate when the average flow angle at the U-bend inlet was 24°. Better static pressure recovery was observed with 70%, 80%, and 100% flow rates. The swirl angle distribution at the stage exit was recognized as satisfactory.

  17. Modeling the Isentropic Head Value of Centrifugal Gas Compressor using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyullah Ferozkhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas compressor performance is vital in oil and gas industry because of the equipment criticality which requires continuous operations. Plant operators often face difficulties in predicting appropriate time for maintenance and would usually rely on time based predictive maintenance intervals as recommended by original equipment manufacturer (OEM. The objective of this work is to develop the computational model to find the isentropic head value using genetic programming. The isentropic head value is calculated from the OEM performance chart. Inlet mass flow rate and speed of the compressor are taken as the input value. The obtained results from the GP computational models show good agreement with experimental and target data with the average prediction error of 1.318%. The genetic programming computational model will assist machinery engineers to quantify performance deterioration of gas compressor and the results from this study will be then utilized to estimate future maintenance requirements based on the historical data. In general, this genetic programming modelling provides a powerful solution for gas compressor operators to realize predictive maintenance approach in their operations.

  18. Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.

  19. Orifice Mass Flow Calculation in NASA's W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Updates to the orifice mass flow calculation for the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center are provided to include the effect of humidity and incorporate ISO 5167. A methodology for including the effect of humidity into the inlet orifice mass flow calculation is provided. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19.5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about +/- 75% mass flow except for a few cases. A comparison of the calculations with an inlet static pressure mass flow correlation and a fan exit mass flow integration using test data from a 2017 turbofan rotor test in W-8 show good agreement between the inlet static pressure mass flow correlation, ISO 5167, and ASME Fluid Meters. While W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate violates the pipe diameter limit defined by each of the standards, the ISO 5167 is chosen to be the primary orifice mass flow calculation to use in the W-8 facility.

  20. Optimization analysis of the motor cooling method in semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Shen, Y. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Wang, J.

    2017-08-01

    Semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressors (SSRC) are widely used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems owing to the advantages of simple structure, balanced forces on the rotor, high volumetric efficiency and so on. In semi-closed SSRCs, motor is often cooled by suction gas or injected refrigerant liquid. Motor cooling method will changes the suction gas temperature, this to a certain extent, is an important factor influencing the thermal dynamic performance of a compressor. Thus the effects of motor cooling method on the performance of the compressor must be studied. In this paper mathematical models of motor cooling process by using these two methods were established. Influences of motor cooling parameters such as suction gas temperature, suction gas quantity, temperature of the injected refrigerant liquid and quantity of the injected refrigerant liquid on the thermal dynamic performance of the compressor were analyzed. The performances of the compressor using these two kinds of motor cooling methods were compared. The motor cooling capacity of the injected refrigerant liquid is proved to be better than the suction gas. All analysis results obtained can be useful for optimum design of the motor cooling process to improve the efficiency and the energy efficiency of the compressor.

  1. Performance Characteristics of a 4 × 6 Oil-Free Twin-Screw Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Seok Byeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The screw compressor in the early stage of development is generally known as the oil-injection type. However, escalating environmental problems and advances in electronic components have spurred continuous R & D to minimize the oil content in compressed air. The oil-free twin-screw compressor is continuously compressed by inner volumetric change between rotors and casing. For this reason, in order to predict the overall performance of the screw compressor at the early stage of the design process, industry still relies on the empirical method. However, it is difficult using the existing empirical method to gain more information of the inner fluid flow of the twin-screw compressor. Flow simulation techniques using CFD are required. This study presents applications of a recently proposed overset grid method to the solution of the flow around a moving boundary. In order to analyze the performance of a 4 × 6 oil-free screw compressor, the 3-D, unsteady and compressible flow fields were numerically calculated with a shear stress transport (SST turbulence model, and implemented by the commercial software, Star-CCM+. The pressure distributions were calculated and graphically depicted. Results also showed that the volumetric and adiabatic efficiencies of the screw compressor measured by the experiments were 78% and 71%, respectively.

  2. Study on the Influence of Blade Roughnesson Axial Flow Compressor Stage Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A typically actual inlet stage NASA Stage 36 is chosen to study the influence of surface roughness on axial compressor performance. Firstly, a geometry model is created by blade design software BladeGen using transferred coordinates data of blade profile and flow path. Secondly, validation of simulation model is conducted by comparing computational data and field experiment data. Lastly, SST k-ω turbulence model is chosen to study the influence of blade surface roughness on performance parameters under different work points. It shows that adding roughness will significantly reduce axial compressor stage’s adiabatic efficiency and total pressure ratio and cause stage characteristic map shift toward left. It should not neglect the influence of surface roughness of stator near stall region under 100% design speed; Mach number shows a big difference after adding surface roughness, and it can be considered as a sensibility parameter of roughness.

  3. Numerical Calculation of the Swirling Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor Volute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seon Mo; Kang, Shin Hyoung; Cho, Kyung Seok; Kim, Woo June

    2007-01-01

    Flows in the centrifugal compressor volute with circular cross section are numerically investigated. The computational grid for the calculation utilized a multi-block arrangement to form a butterfly grid and flow calculations are performed using commercial CFD software, CFX-TASCflow. The centrifugal compressor of this study has axial diffuser after radial diffuser because of the shape of inlet duct and installation constraints. Due to this feature the swirling flow pattern is different from the other investigations. The flow inside volute is very complex and three dimensional with strong vortex and recirculation through volute tongue. The calculation results show circumferential variations of the swirl and through flow velocity and pressure distribution. The mechanism deciding flow structure is explained by considering the force balance in volute cross section. And static pressure recovery and total pressure loss are estimated from the calculated results and compared with Japikse model

  4. Experimental investigation of hinged and spring loaded rolling piston compressors pertaining to a turbo rotary engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, Melih; Akmandor, Ibrahim Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Progress of High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor Simulations Using TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Beach, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional, time-accurate, and phase-lagged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor (HECC) stage were generated using the TURBO solver. Changes to the TURBO Parallel Version 4 source code were made in order to properly model the no-slip boundary condition along the spinning hub region for centrifugal impellers. A startup procedure was developed to generate a converged flow field in TURBO. This procedure initialized computations on a coarsened mesh generated by the Turbomachinery Gridding System (TGS) and relied on a method of systematically increasing wheel speed and backpressure. Baseline design-speed TURBO results generally overpredicted total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency, and the choking flow rate of the HECC stage as compared with the design-intent CFD results of Code Leo. Including diffuser fillet geometry in the TURBO computation resulted in a 0.6 percent reduction in the choking flow rate and led to a better match with design-intent CFD. Diffuser fillets reduced annulus cross-sectional area but also reduced corner separation, and thus blockage, in the diffuser passage. It was found that the TURBO computations are somewhat insensitive to inlet total pressure changing from the TURBO default inlet pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (101.35 kilopascals) down to 11.0 pounds per square inch (75.83 kilopascals), the inlet pressure of the component test. Off-design tip clearance was modeled in TURBO in two computations: one in which the blade tip geometry was trimmed by 12 mils (0.3048 millimeters), and another in which the hub flow path was moved to reflect a 12-mil axial shift in the impeller hub, creating a step at the hub. The one-dimensional results of these two computations indicate non-negligible differences between the two modeling approaches.

  7. Compressor Performance Scaling in the Presence of Non-Uniform Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David Jarrod

    Fuselage-embedded engines in future aircraft will see increased flow distortions due to the ingestion of airframe boundary layers. This reduces the required propulsive power compared to podded engines. Inlet flow distortions mean that localized regions of flow within the fan and first stage compressor are operating at off-design conditions. It is important to weigh the benefit of increased vehicle propulsive efficiency against the resultant reduction in engine efficiency. High computational cost has limited most past research to single distortion studies. The objective of this thesis is to extract scaling laws for transonic compressor performance in the presence of various distortion patterns and intensities. The machine studied is the NASA R67 transonic compressor. Volumetric source terms are used to model rotor and stator blade rows. The modelling approach is an innovative combination of existing flow turning and loss models, combined with a compressible flow correction. This approach allows for a steady calculation to capture distortion transfer; as a result, the computational cost is reduced by two orders of magnitude. At peak efficiency, the rotor work coefficient and isentropic efficiency are matched within 1.4% of previously published experimental results. A key finding of this thesis is that, in non-uniform flow, the state-of-the-art loss model employed is unable to capture the impact of variations in local flow coefficient, limiting the analysis of local entropy generation. New insight explains the mechanism governing the interaction between a total temperature distortion and a compressor rotor. A parametric study comprising 16 inlet distortions reveals that for total temperature distortions, upstream flow redistribution and rotor diffusion factor changes are shown to scale linearly with distortion severity. Linear diffusion factor scaling does not hold true for total pressure distortions. For combined total temperature and total pressure distortions, the

  8. 30 CFR 75.344 - Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.344 Compressors. (a) Except compressors that are...), shall be equipped with a heat activated fire suppression system meeting the requirements of 75.1107-3...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1031 - Compressors standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the compressor drive shaft seal to a process or a fuel gas system or to a closed vent system that... specified in the referencing subpart. (b) Seal system standard. Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that prevents leakage of process fluid to the...

  10. A high pressure centrifugal oxygen compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    The application of a centrifugal compressor train to 5860 kPa(g) (850 psig) for a coal gasification plant is discussed. Special considerations in the application, installation, and operation of the equipment are presented. Discussion includes such topics as compressor controls, machinery protection, noise, personnel safety, and operation of the equipment

  11. High frequency dynamics in centrifugal compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; Meulendijks, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Handel, R. van den; Lier, L.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Problems with centrifugal compressors relating to high frequency, i.e. Blade passing frequency (BPF) are increasing. Pulsations and vibrations generated in centrifugal compressors can lead to nuisance, due to strong tonal noise, and even breakdown. In several cases the root cause of a failure or a

  12. Fast reversible wavelet image compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyungJun; Li, Ching-Chung

    1996-10-01

    We present a unified image compressor with spline biorthogonal wavelets and dyadic rational filter coefficients which gives high computational speed and excellent compression performance. Convolutions with these filters can be preformed by using only arithmetic shifting and addition operations. Wavelet coefficients can be encoded with an arithmetic coder which also uses arithmetic shifting and addition operations. Therefore, from the beginning to the end, the while encoding/decoding process can be done within a short period of time. The proposed method naturally extends form the lossless compression to the lossy but high compression range and can be easily adapted to the progressive reconstruction.

  13. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  14. Centrifugal compressor design for electrically assisted boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M Y; Martinez-Botas, R F; Zhuge, W L; Qureshi, U; Richards, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrically assisted boost is a prominent method to solve the issues of transient lag in turbocharger and remains an optimized operation condition for a compressor due to decoupling from turbine. Usually a centrifugal compressor for gasoline engine boosting is operated at high rotational speed which is beyond the ability of an electric motor in market. In this paper a centrifugal compressor with rotational speed as 120k RPM and pressure ratio as 2.0 is specially developed for electrically assisted boost. A centrifugal compressor including the impeller, vaneless diffuser and the volute is designed by meanline method followed by 3D detailed design. Then CFD method is employed to predict as well as analyse the performance of the design compressor. The results show that the pressure ratio and efficiency at design point is 2.07 and 78% specifically

  15. Inlet design for high-speed propfans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study was performed to design inlets for high-speed propfan installation. The first part was a parametric study to select promising inlet concepts. A wide range of inlet geometries was examined and evaluated - primarily on the basis of cruise thrust and fuel burn performance. Two inlet concepts were than chosen for more detailed design studies - one apropriate to offset engine/gearbox arrangements and the other to in-line arrangements. In the second part of this study, inlet design points were chosen to optimize the net installed thrust, and detailed design of the two inlet configurations was performed. An analytical methodology was developed to account for propfan slipstream effects, transonic flow efects, and three-dimensional geometry effects. Using this methodology, low drag cowls were designed for the two inlets.

  16. Wall boundary layer development near the tip region of an IGV of an axial flow compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Sitaram, N.

    1983-01-01

    The annulus wall boundary layer inside the blade passage of the inlet guide vane (IGV) passage of a low-speed axial compressor stage was measured with a miniature five-hole probe. The three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields were measured at various axial and tangential locations. Limiting streamline angles and static pressures were also measured on the casing of the IGV passage. Strong secondary vorticity was developed. The data were analyzed and correlated with the existing velocity profile correlations. The end wall losses were also derived from these data.

  17. Internally-cooled centrifugal compressor with cooling jacket formed in the diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James J.; Lerche, Andrew H.; Moreland, Brian S.

    2014-08-26

    An internally-cooled centrifugal compressor having a shaped casing and a diaphragm disposed within the shaped casing having a gas side and a coolant side so that heat from a gas flowing though the gas side is extracted via the coolant side. An impeller disposed within the diaphragm has a stage inlet on one side and a stage outlet for delivering a pressurized gas to a downstream connection. The coolant side of the diaphragm includes at least one passageway for directing a coolant in a substantially counter-flow direction from the flow of gas through the gas side.

  18. Flow and pressure characteristics within a screw compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrato, D.; Nouri, J. M.; Stosic, N.; Arcoumanis, C.

    2007-10-01

    The angle-resolved mean and turbulence characteristics of the axial air flow inside a screw compressor with both male and female rotors have been measured, using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with high spatial and temporal resolution at different radial and axial locations for speeds of 800-1600 rpm, discharge pressures of 1-1.6 bar and discharge temperatures of 33-90°C. The velocity measurements were performed through a special transparent window fixed near the discharge port. The results confirmed the ability of the LDV technique to characterise the flow inside the compressor working chamber; an angular resolution of 1.5° was able to fully describe the velocity field within the machine. The flow variation between the different working chambers was established as well as the spatial variation of the axial mean velocity and turbulence velocity fluctuation within the working chamber. The effect of discharge port opening on the axial mean and RMS velocities was found to be significant near the leading edge of the rotors causing an increase in the mean and RMS velocities of the order of 4.2Vp in mean (where Vp is the axial pitched velocity) for male rotor and 5.4Vp for, female rotor and this effect is less pronounced on the flow near the root of the rotor. Moreover, to obtain a better understanding of the flow motion, a high sampling rate pressure transducer was used to provide the internal angular static pressure variation. These measurements are used to validate the in-house CFD model of the fluid flow within twin screw compressors which, in turn, allows reliable optimisation of various compressor designs.

  19. Flow and pressure characteristics within a screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrato, D; Nouri, J M; Stosic, N; Arcoumanis, C [Centre for Energy and the Environment, School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    The angle-resolved mean and turbulence characteristics of the axial air flow inside a screw compressor with both male and female rotors have been measured, using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with high spatial and temporal resolution at different radial and axial locations for speeds of 800-1600 rpm, discharge pressures of 1-1.6 bar and discharge temperatures of 33-90{sup 0}C. The velocity measurements were performed through a special transparent window fixed near the discharge port. The results confirmed the ability of the LDV technique to characterise the flow inside the compressor working chamber; an angular resolution of 1.5{sup 0} was able to fully describe the velocity field within the machine. The flow variation between the different working chambers was established as well as the spatial variation of the axial mean velocity and turbulence velocity fluctuation within the working chamber. The effect of discharge port opening on the axial mean and RMS velocities was found to be significant near the leading edge of the rotors causing an increase in the mean and RMS velocities of the order of 4.2V{sub p} in mean (where V{sub p} is the axial pitched velocity) for male rotor and 5.4V{sub p} for, female rotor and this effect is less pronounced on the flow near the root of the rotor. Moreover, to obtain a better understanding of the flow motion, a high sampling rate pressure transducer was used to provide the internal angular static pressure variation. These measurements are used to validate the in-house CFD model of the fluid flow within twin screw compressors which, in turn, allows reliable optimisation of various compressor designs.

  20. Flow and pressure characteristics within a screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrato, D; Nouri, J M; Stosic, N; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The angle-resolved mean and turbulence characteristics of the axial air flow inside a screw compressor with both male and female rotors have been measured, using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with high spatial and temporal resolution at different radial and axial locations for speeds of 800-1600 rpm, discharge pressures of 1-1.6 bar and discharge temperatures of 33-90 0 C. The velocity measurements were performed through a special transparent window fixed near the discharge port. The results confirmed the ability of the LDV technique to characterise the flow inside the compressor working chamber; an angular resolution of 1.5 0 was able to fully describe the velocity field within the machine. The flow variation between the different working chambers was established as well as the spatial variation of the axial mean velocity and turbulence velocity fluctuation within the working chamber. The effect of discharge port opening on the axial mean and RMS velocities was found to be significant near the leading edge of the rotors causing an increase in the mean and RMS velocities of the order of 4.2V p in mean (where V p is the axial pitched velocity) for male rotor and 5.4V p for, female rotor and this effect is less pronounced on the flow near the root of the rotor. Moreover, to obtain a better understanding of the flow motion, a high sampling rate pressure transducer was used to provide the internal angular static pressure variation. These measurements are used to validate the in-house CFD model of the fluid flow within twin screw compressors which, in turn, allows reliable optimisation of various compressor designs

  1. Euler Calculations at Off-Design Conditions for an Inlet of Inward Turning RBCC-SSTO Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, N.; Kothari, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    The inviscid performance of an inward turning inlet design is calculated computationally for the first time. Hypersonic vehicle designs based on the inward turning inlets have been shown analytically to have increased effective specific impulse and lower heat load than comparably designed vehicles with two-dimensional inlets. The inward turning inlets are designed inversely from inviscid stream surfaces of known flow fields. The computational study is performed on a Mach 12 inlet design to validate the performance predicted by the design code (HAVDAC) and calculate its off-design Mach number performance. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved for Mach 4, 8, and 12 using a software package called SAM, which consists of an unstructured mesh generator (SAMmesh), a three-dimensional unstructured mesh flow solver (SAMcfd), and a CAD-based software (SAMcad). The computed momentum averaged inlet throat pressure is within 6% of the design inlet throat pressure. The mass-flux at the inlet throat is also within 7 % of the value predicted by the design code thereby validating the accuracy of the design code. The off-design Mach number results show that flow spillage is minimal, and the variation in the mass capture ratio with Mach number is comparable to an ideal 2-D inlet. The results from the inviscid flow calculations of a Mach 12 inward turning inlet indicate that the inlet design has very good on and off-design performance which makes it a promising design candidate for future air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.

  2. Experimental Investigation on The Electromagnetic Clutch Water pump and Pneumatic Compressor for Improving the Efficiency of an Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasubramanian, R.; Xavier, Goldwin; Nishanthi, W. Mary; Rajasekar, R.

    2017-05-01

    Considering the fuel crises today many work and research were conducted to reduce the fuel consumption of the internal combustion engine. The fuel consumption of an internal combustion engine can be relatively reduced by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and pneumatic compressor. Normally in an engine, the water pump is driven by the crankshaft, with an aid of belt, for the circulation of the water for the cooling process. The circulation of coolant is resisted by the thermostat valve, while the temperature inside the coolant jacket of the engine is below 375K the thermostat is closed only above 375K it tends to open. But water pump run continuously even when thermostat is closed. In pneumatic braking system, pneumatic or air compressor purpose is to compress the air and stored into the storage tank for the brake operation. When the air pressure of the storage tanks gets increases above its storage capacity pressure is regulated by governor, by passing them to atmosphere. Such unnecessary work of this water pump and air compressor can be minimized by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and air compressor. The European Driving Cycle is used to evaluate the performance of this water pump and air compressor when used in an engine. The result shows that the fuel economy of the engine while using electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor were improved by 8.0% compared with conventional types which already exist. The application of these electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor are expected to contribute for the improvement of engine performance because of their effect in reduction of the rate of fuel consumption.

  3. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines. Apprupriate technical personnel...into the comprensor at some future date. 5. A typical scavenge vane design Js; shown in Figures 85 and 86. The important features of the scavenge...service passageweys, for cooling of oil, and for directing sand and air into the scroll. Orientetion of the vanes is set by collection efficiency

  4. Audit helps power saving during generation of compressed air; Audit hilft Strom sparen bei der Erzeugung von Druckluft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherff, R. [Atlas Copco Kompressoren und Drucklufttechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-02-25

    Speed regulated compressors lower energy cost even in case of increasing air demand. When changing on oil-free working compressors further cost advantages are achievable e.g. no oil-contaminated products. (GL)

  5. The intrinsic equation of planar curves and the geometry of the scroll compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The scroll compressor is an ingenious machine used for compressing air or refrigerant, which was originally invented in 1905 by Léon Creux. The classical design consist of two nested identical scrolls given by circle involutes, one of which is rotated through 180° with respect to the other...

  6. An investigation of rotor tip leakage flows in the rear-block of a multistage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossman, John Richard

    measurements during this investigation. A detailed investigation and sensitivity analysis of the inlet flow field found the influence by the inlet total temperature profile was important to performance calculations. This finding was significant and original as previous investigations have been conducted on low-speed machines where there is minimal temperature rise. The steady state performance of the baseline 1.5% tip clearance case was outlined at design speed and three off-design speeds. The leakage flow from the rear seal, the inlet flow field and a thermal boundary condition over the casing was recorded at each operating point. Stage 1 was found to be the limiting stage independent of speed. Few datasets exist on multistage compressor performance with full boundary condition definitions, especially with off-design operating points presenting this as a unique dataset for CFD comparison. The detailed unsteady pressure measurements were conducted over Rotor 1 at design and a near-stall operating condition to characterize the leakage trajectory and position. The leakage flow initial point closer to the leading edge and trajectory angle increased at the higher loading condition. The over-the-rotor static pressure field on Rotor 1 indicated similar trends between the computational model and the leakage trajectory.

  7. Field-Based Procedures for Screening Diver's Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillo, R

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Navy Diver's Air Sampling Program coordinates use mandatory semi-annual air purity testing of compressors used to supply diver's air in the Fleet The current approach of sending gas-sampling kits...

  8. Investigation of axial positioning for flexural compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The testing of the research compressor is presented. The research compressor was assembled and disassembled in order to show the consistency in which the piston and rod could be aligned with a .0004 inch radial gap around the piston. A full set of tests was completed for the first assembly, which is referred to as assembly no. 1. The compressor was disassembled and assembled a second time (assembly no. 2). Assembly no. 2 was only tested statically due to the time constraint. Results are discussed.

  9. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  10. Compressor Part I: Measurement and Design Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Bein

    1999-01-01

    method used to design the 125-ton compressor is first reviewed and some related performance curves are predicted based on a quasi-3D method. In addition to an overall performance measurement, a series of instruments were installed on the compressor to identify where the measured performance differs from the predicted performance. The measurement techniques for providing the diagnostic flow parameters are also described briefly. Part II of this paper provides predictions of flow details in the areas of the compressor where there were differences between the measured and predicted performance.

  11. Stability management of high speed axial flow compressor stage through axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DilipkumarBhanudasji Alone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results to understand the performance of moderately loaded high speed single stage transonic axial flow compressor subjected to various configurations of axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment with moderate porosity. The bend skewed casing treatment of 33% porosity was coupled with rectangular plenum chamber of depth equal to the slots depth. The five axial extensions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% were used for the experimental evaluations of compressor performance. The main objective was to identify the optimum extension of the casing treatment with reference to rotor leading edge which results in maximum stall margin improvements with minimum loss in the stage efficiency. At each axial extension the compressor performance is distinctive. The improvement in the stall margin was very significant at some axial extensions with 4%–5% penalty in the stage efficiency. The compressors stage shows recovery in terms of efficiency at lower axial extensions of 20% and 40% with increase in the peak stage efficiency. Measurements of flow parameters showed the typical behaviors at near stall flow conditions. Hot wire sensor was placed at the rotor upstream in the tip region to capture the oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocities at stall conditions. In the absence of casing treatment the compressor exhibit abrupt stall with very high oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocity of the flow. The extents of oscillations reduce with bend skewed casing treatment. Few measurements were also performed in the plenum chamber and salient results are presented in this paper.

  12. Analyses on the Performance and Interaction Between the Impeller and Casing in a Small-Size Turbo-Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jea; Kim, Dong-Won

    The effects of casing shapes on the performance and the interaction between an impeller and a casing in a small-size turbo-compressor are investigated. Numerical analysis is conducted for the turbo-compressor with circular and single volute casings from the inlet to a discharge nozzle. The optimum design for each element is important to develop the small-size turbo-compressor using alternative refrigerant as a working fluid. Typically, the rotating speed of the compressor is in the range of 40000-45000rpm because of the small size of an impeller diameter. A blade of an impeller has backswept two-dimensional shape due to tip clearance and a vane diffuser has wedge type. In order to predict the flow pattern inside the entire impeller, the vaneless diffuser and the casing, calculations with multiple frames of reference method between the rotating and stationery parts of the domain are carried out. For compressible turbulent flow fields, the continuity and time-averaged three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are employed. To evaluate the performance of two types of casings, the static pressure recovery and loss coefficients are obtained with various flow rates. Also, static pressure distributions around casings are studied for different casing shapes, which are very important to predict the distribution of radial load. To prove the accuracy of numerical results, measurements of static pressure around the casing and pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of the compressor are performed for the circular casing. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is conducted, and reasonable agreement is obtained.

  13. Evaluation of turbine microjet engine operating parameters in conditions conducive to inlet freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of turbine microjet engine operation is related to flight conditions of unmanned aircraft. These flights are often performed at low altitudes, where, in autumn and winter conditions, the air can be characterized by high humidity and low temperature. Such operating conditions may cause freezing the turbine engine inlet. In particular, this problem may be related to microengines, which most often are not equipped with a de-icing installation. Frosting of the inlet violates the air flow conditions at the engine inlet and may cause unstable operation and even outages, which eventually may lead to a loss of aircraft’s stability and breakdown. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the changes in operational parameters of the turbine microjet engine under conditions leading to the freezing of the inlet. The engine test was performed in stationary conditions and the analysis of the obtained results are presented in this article.

  14. The UCOR pilot plant and the development of axial flow compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses some of the mechanical aspects of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd. (UCOR) pilot plant. The most important mechanical components in a typical stage in the pilot plant, consists of a compressor which is used to compress the process gas mixture. After air cooling to almost room temperature, the mixture is fed through the separation elements. Other components are two pressure vessels connected to the compressor. The development and characteristics of the pilot plant is described in the article

  15. Compounding Of Ac Compressor Using Waste Heat Recovery From Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheshma Yogendra Kiran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This project works on the theme of turbocharger in which a low pressure high speed turbine is placed in the exhaust gas manifold. The exhaust gas from the engine is made to rotate the turbine where the thermal power of exhaust gas is converted into rotary motion through turbine. This rotary motion from turbine is given to the turbocharger compressor which compresses the refrigerant vapor. So through this air conditioning effect is obtained without loss of any crankshaft. The kinetic energy extracted from the turbine is used to run the AC compressor by planetary gear train.

  16. Failure of the CAPS compressor(s). Final unusual occurrence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechle, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Acceptance testing of the CAPS compressors (4) was in progress which required periodic running of these units. Some vibration problems had occurred which required compressor shutdown for visual inspection and repair. During the performance of this visual inspection, it was decided to remove the crank case covers and to inspect the lower section of the cylinder liners for wear. The inspection revealed excessive scoring of the vertical cylinder liners on two of the four compressors that were opened. Acceptance testing of the CAPS compressors was suspended, pending further evaluation and repair

  17. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  18. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  19. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  20. 40 CFR 65.112 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the compressor stuffing box pressure at all times (except during periods of start-up, shutdown, or... process stream. (c) Barrier fluid system. The barrier fluid shall not be in light liquid service. Each...

  1. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Operated with the barrier fluid at a pressure that is at all times greater than the compressor stuffing box... purges the barrier fluid into a hazardous waste stream with no detectable emissions to atmosphere. (c...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the barrier fluid at a pressure that is at all times greater than the compressor stuffing box... purges the barrier fluid into a hazardous waste stream with no detectable emissions to atmosphere. (c...

  3. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor research effort conducted by United Technologies Research Center under NASA Research Announcement NNC08CB03C is documented. The objectives were to identify key technical barriers to advancing the aerodynamic performance of high-efficiency, high work factor, compact centrifugal compressor aft-stages for turboshaft engines; to acquire measurements needed to overcome the technical barriers and inform future designs; to design, fabricate, and test a new research compressor in which to acquire the requisite flow field data. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage -- splittered impeller, splittered diffuser, 90 degree bend, and exit guide vanes -- with aerodynamically aggressive performance and configuration (compactness) goals were designed, fabricated, and subquently tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. Vane clocking effects in an embedded compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Nicole Leanne

    The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate the effects of vane clocking, the circumferential indexing of adjacent vane rows with similar vane counts, in an embedded compressor stage. Experiments were performed in the Purdue 3-Stage Compressor, which consists of an IGV followed by three stages. The IGV, Stator 1, and Stator 2 have identical vane counts of 44, and the effects of clocking were studied on Stage 2. The clocking configuration that located the upstream vane wake on the Stator 2 leading edge was identified with total pressure measurements at the inlet to Stator 2 and confirmed with measurements at the exit of Stator 2. For both loading conditions, the total temperature results showed that there was no measurable change associated with vane clocking in the amount of work done on the flow. At design loading, the change in stage efficiency with vane clocking was 0.27 points between the maximum and minimum efficiency clocking configurations. The maximum efficiency configuration was the case where the Stator 1 wake impinged on the Stator 2 leading edge. This condition produced a shallower and thinner Stator 2 wake compared to the clocking configuration that located the wake in the middle of the Stator 2 passage. By locating the Stator 1 wake at the leading edge, it dampened the Stator 2 boundary layer response to inlet fluctuations associated with the Rotor 2 wakes. At high loading, the change in Stage 2 efficiency increased to 1.07 points; however, the maximum efficiency clocking configuration was the case where the Stator 1 wake passed through the middle of the downstream vane passage. At high loading, the flow physics associated with vane clocking were different than at design loading because the location of the Stator 1 wake fluid on the Stator 2 leading edge triggered a boundary layer separation on the suction side of Stator 2 producing a wider and deeper wake. Vane clocking essentially affects the amount of interaction between the

  5. Simulated dynamic response of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium is derived. The modeled system consists of a five stage, six cylinder, double acting, piston type compressor. Each stage is followed by a water cooled heat exchanger which serves to transfer the heat of compression from the gas. A high molecular weight gas (CFC-12) mixed with air in varying proportions is introduced to the suction of the compressor. Condensation of the heavy gas may occur in the upper stage heat exchangers. The state equations for the system are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic and steady state characteristics under varying operating conditions.

  6. Experience with compressed air system of Dhruva and Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelar, V.G.; Patil, U.D.; Singh, V.K.; Zope, A.K.; Kharpate, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva and Cirus reactors have independent compressed air plants with provision for sharing. Dhruva has the reciprocating oil free air compressors where as Cirus has oil lubricated compressors. Over the years, several improvements have been done in the equipments to combat various problems, among these noise mitigation in Dhruva and measures to extend life of compressors in Cirus and also incidence of discharge header catching fire are interesting. This paper details these experiences. (author)

  7. Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2009-01-01

    Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System. From the viewpoint of energy system and environment, the concept for nuclear reactors of the generation IV have good potential for electricity and heat generation devices in producing hydrogen. These gas cooled nuclear reactors employ turbine cycle in transferring the heat. To analyses that coolant system, it is proposed a model of compressor and turbine system with power 3 kW. The used working fluid was hydrogen that be burnt with air within combustion chamber, then be expanded through a turbine for getting shaft work that will be used in driving compressor and generator. This study is aimed to determine the optimum testing conditions of gas turbine system. The used method is by applying the balance equations of energy, mass, and momentum. Gas turbine and compressor were placed at the single shaft, in which it was about 55 percent of power output for running the compressor. Under the testing condition for the speed of 20305 rpm, it was obtained thermal efficiency of the turbine cycle approximate 18 % (equal to the Carnot efficiency ratio 65 %), so that it is properly developed for the development of nuclear power installation in supporting the electricity energy demand and it will be very promising for the future facility. (author)

  8. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  9. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  10. Analysis of Three-dimension Viscous Flow in the Model Axial Compressor Stage K1002L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribunskaia, K.; Kozhukhov, Y. V.

    2017-08-01

    The main investigation subject considered in this paper is axial compressor model stage K1002L. Three simulation models were designed: Scheme 1 - inlet stage model consisting of IGV (Inlet Guide Vane), rotor and diffuser; Scheme 2 - two-stage model: IGV, first-stage rotor, first-stage diffuser, second-stage rotor, EGV (Exit Guide Vane); Scheme 3 - full-round model: IGV, rotor, diffuser. Numerical investigation of the model stage was held for four circumferential velocities at the outer diameter (Uout=125,160,180,210 m/s) within the range of flow coefficient: ϕ = 0.4 - 0.6. The computational domain was created with ANSYS CFX Workbench. According to simulation results, there were constructed aerodynamic characteristic curves of adiabatic efficiency and the adiabatic head coefficient calculated for total parameters were compared with data from the full-scale test received at the Central Boiler and Turbine Institution (CBTI), thus, verification of the calculated data was carried out. Moreover, there were conducted the following studies: comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of the schemes 1, 2; comparison of the sector and full-round models. The analysis and conclusions are supplemented by gas-dynamic method calculation for axial compressor stages.

  11. The Piston Compressor: The Methodology of the Real-Time Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, A P; Kostyukov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The methodology of a diagnostic signal processing, a function chart of the monitoring system are considered in the article. The methodology of monitoring and diagnosing is based on measurement of indirect processes' parameters (vibroacoustic oscillations) therefore no more than five sensors is established on the cylinder, measurement of direct structural and thermodynamic parameters is envisioned as well. The structure and principle of expert system's functioning of decision-making is given. Algorithm of automatic expert system includes the calculation diagnostic attributes values based on their normative values, formation sets of diagnostic attributes that correspond to individual classes to malfunction, formation of expert system messages. The scheme of a real-time condition monitoring system for piston compressors is considered. The system have consistently-parallel structure of information-measuring equipment, which allows to measure the vibroacoustic signal for condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors and modes of its work. Besides, the system allows to measure parameters of other physical processes, for example, system can measure and use for monitoring and statements of the diagnosis the pressure in decreasing spaces (the indicator diagram), the inlet pressure and flowing pressure of each cylinder, inlet and delivery temperature of gas, valves temperature, position of a rod, leakage through compression packing and others.

  12. Unsteady influence of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment (SRCT) on high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingyang, Yang; Ricardo, Martines-botas; Kangyao, Deng; Yangjun, Zhang; Xinqian, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced order model proves flow flucturations in impeller to be downstream disturbance propagation. • Fluctuations depression is attributed by the effect of energy bypass via rear slot of SRCT. • Flow distortion in diffuser results in disturbance with swing flow direction due to unbalanced forces. - Abstract: Self-Recirculation-Casing-Treatment (SRCT) is a widely employed method to enhance aerodynamic stability of a centrifugal compressor. This paper investigated unsteady effects of SRCT on the flow in a transonic centrifugal compressor via numerical method validated by experimental test. Firstly the static pressure distribution in the compressor without SRCT is measured for information of boundary conditions as well as validation. Then a 1-D unsteady model of a single passage is built and validated based on the experimental results. Next, the 1-D model of a passage with SRCT is built to investigate the unsteady influence of the SRCT on the flow in the passage. Finally 3-D unsteady CFD is employed to investigate the detailed influence of SRCT on the flow field in impeller passages. Results show that the topology of the passage with SRCT can remarkably damp the distortion propagating from downstream, hence depress the magnitude of the inlet flow distortion. Furthermore, the width of the rear slot in SRCT is the key factor for the damping effect. The 3-D simulation results further show that the fluctuations of the re-circulated flow rate via the front slot is depressed by the SRCT which is attributed to the damping effect of its configuration.

  13. Performance of the University of Denver Low Turbulence, Airborne Aerosol Inlet in ACE-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, B.; Wilson, J. C.; Seebaugh, W. R.; Gesler, D.; Hilbert, H.; Mullen, J.; Reeves, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The University of Denver Low Turbulence Inlet (DULTI) was flown on the NCAR C-130 in ACE-Asia. This inlet delivered large sample flows at velocities of a few meters per second at the exit of the inlet. This flow was slowed from the true air speed of the aircraft (100 to 150 m/s) to a few meters per second in a short diffuser with porous walls. The flow in the diffusing section was laminar. The automatic control system kept the inlet operating at near isokinetic intake velocities and in laminar flow for nearly all the flight time. The DULTI permits super micron particles to be sampled and delivered with high efficiency to the interior of the aircraft where they can be measured or collected. Because most of the air entering the inlet is removed through the porous medium, the sample flow experiences inertial enhancements. Because these enhancements occur in laminar flow, they are calculable using FLUENT. Enhancement factors are defined as the ratio of the number of particles of a given size per unit mass of air in the sample to the number of particles of that size per unit mass of air in the ambient. Experimenters divide measured mixing ratios of the aerosol by the enhancement factor to get the ambient mixing ratio of the particles. The diffuser used in ACE-Asia differed from that used in PELTI (2000), TexAQS2000 (2000) and ITCT (2002). In this poster, the flow parameters measured in the inlet in flight are compared with those calculated from FLUENT. And enhancement factors are presented for flight conditions. The enhancement factors are found to depend upon the Stokes number of particles in the entrance to the inlet and the ratio of the mass flow rate of air removed by suction to the mass flow rate delivered as sample.

  14. Brazos Santiago Inlet, Texas, Shoaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared...focus of this study was to understand the shoaling process in the BSI and to suggest sand management alternatives to reduce inlet maintenance ...Santiago Inlet Entrance Channel maintenance dredging quantities (normal distribution). ........................................................ 20

  15. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  16. Study on Off-Design Steady State Performances of Helium Gas Turbo-compressor for HTGR-GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qisen Ren; Xiaoyong Yang; Zhiyong Huang; Jie Wang

    2006-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with direct gas turbine cycle is a promising concept in the future of nuclear power development. Both helium gas turbine and compressor are key components in the cycle. Under normal conditions, the mode of power adjustment is to control total helium mass in the primary loop using gas storage vessels. Meanwhile, thermal power of reactor core is regulated. This article analyzes off-design performances of helium gas turbine and compressors for high temperature gas-cooled reactor with gas turbine cycle (HTGR-GT) at steady state level of electric power adjustment. Moreover, performances of the cycle were simply discussed. Results show that the expansion ratio of turbine decreases as electric power reduces but the compression ratios of compressors increase, efficiencies of both turbine and compressors decrease to some extent. Thermal power does not vary consistently with electric power, the difference between these two powers increases as electric power reduces. As a result of much thermal energy dissipated in the temperature modulator set at core inlet, thermal efficiency of the cycle has a widely reduction under partial load conditions. (authors)

  17. NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor for 3-D viscous code assessment and fundamental flow physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Wood, J. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A low speed centrifugal compressor facility recently built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this facility is to obtain detailed flow field measurements for computational fluid dynamic code assessment and flow physics modeling in support of Army and NASA efforts to advance small gas turbine engine technology. The facility is heavily instrumented with pressure and temperature probes, both in the stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The facility will accommodate rotational speeds to 2400 rpm and is rated at pressures to 1.25 atm. The initial compressor stage being tested is geometrically and dynamically representative of modern high-performance centrifugal compressor stages with the exception of Mach number levels. Preliminary experimental investigations of inlet and exit flow uniformly and measurement repeatability are presented. These results demonstrate the high quality of the data which may be expected from this facility. The significance of synergism between computational fluid dynamic analysis and experimentation throughout the development of the low speed centrifugal compressor facility is demonstrated.

  18. Effect of CuO nanolubricant on compressor characteristics and performance of LPG based refrigeration cycle: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev; Kundal, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system is the largest reason behind the increasing demand of energy consumption in the world and saving that energy through some innovative methods becomes a large issue for the researchers. Compressor is a primary component of the refrigeration cycle. The application of nanoparticles in refrigeration cycle overcomes the energy consumption issue by improving the compressor suction and discharge characteristics. In this paper, an experimental study is carried out to investigate the effect of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on different parameters of the refrigeration cycle. CuO particles are appended with the system refrigerant through lubricating oil of the compressor. Further, the viscosity measurements and friction coefficient analysis of compressor lubricant for different fractions of nanoparticles has been investigated. The results showed that both the suction and discharge characteristics of the compressor were enhanced with the utilization of nanolubricant in LPG based refrigeration cycle. Nanoparticles additive in lubricant increases the viscosity which lead to a significant decrease in friction coefficient. The COP of the cycle was improved by 46%, as the energy consumption of the compressor was decreased by 7%.

  19. Effect of CuO nanolubricant on compressor characteristics and performance of LPG based refrigeration cycle: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev; Kundal, Pankaj

    2018-05-01

    Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system is the largest reason behind the increasing demand of energy consumption in the world and saving that energy through some innovative methods becomes a large issue for the researchers. Compressor is a primary component of the refrigeration cycle. The application of nanoparticles in refrigeration cycle overcomes the energy consumption issue by improving the compressor suction and discharge characteristics. In this paper, an experimental study is carried out to investigate the effect of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on different parameters of the refrigeration cycle. CuO particles are appended with the system refrigerant through lubricating oil of the compressor. Further, the viscosity measurements and friction coefficient analysis of compressor lubricant for different fractions of nanoparticles has been investigated. The results showed that both the suction and discharge characteristics of the compressor were enhanced with the utilization of nanolubricant in LPG based refrigeration cycle. Nanoparticles additive in lubricant increases the viscosity which lead to a significant decrease in friction coefficient. The COP of the cycle was improved by 46%, as the energy consumption of the compressor was decreased by 7%.

  20. L2F and LDV velocimetry measurement and analysis of the 3-D flow field in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, John R., Jr.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1989-01-01

    The flow field in the Purdue Research Centrifugal Compressor is studied using a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter. L2F data are obtained which quantify: (1) the compressor inlet flow field; (2) the steady-state velocity field in the impeller blade passages; and (3) the flow field in the radial diffuser. The L2F data are compared with both laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and predictions from three-dimensional inviscid and viscous flow models. In addition, a model is developed to calculate the effect on the measurement volume geometry of refraction by curved windows. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using the L2F for turbomachinery measurements is discussed in terms of measurement accuracy, ease of use, including sample time per correlated event and the ability to make measurements in regions of high noise due to stray radiation from wall reflections.

  1. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  2. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  3. Compressor Surge Control Design Using Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2017-01-01

    A novel design for active compressor surge control system (ASCS) using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is presented and including a case study on piston-actuated active compressor surge control system (PAASCS). The non-linear system dynamics of the PAASCS is transformed into linear parameter varying (LPV) system dynamics. The system parameters are varying as a function of the compressor performance curve slope. A compressor surge stabilization problem is then formulated as a LMI probl...

  4. Kinetics of a gas adsorption compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Elleman, D.D.; Tward, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter uses a two-phase model to analyze the transients of a gas adsorption compressor. The modeling of the adsorption process is based on complete thermal and mechanical equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorbed gas phase. The theories and techniques that have been developed for a two-phase system are used to predict the pressure, the temperature and the mass flow transients in a gas sorption compressor. The analytical solutions are then compared with the performance of a laboratory gas adsorption compressor. A computer code was written to solve the governing equations, using a standard forward marching predictor-corrector method. It is found that while the analytical model overpredicts the pressure and the temperature transient, it predicts the general trend of the transient profile and the existence of the turning point

  5. Sorption compressor/mechanical expander hybrid refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with Deep Space Network (DSN) ground-based cryogenic refrigerators has proved the reliability of the basic two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium refrigerator. A very long life cryogenic refrigeration system appears possible by combining this expansion system or a turbo expansion system with a hydride sorption compressor in place of the usual motor driven piston compressor. To test the feasibility of this system, a commercial Gifford-McMahon refrigerator was tested using hydrogen gas as the working fluid. Although no attempt was made to optimize the system for hydrogen operation, the refrigerator developed 1.3 W at 30 K and 6.6 W at 60 K. The results of the test and of theoretical performances of the hybrid compressor coupled to these expansion systems are presented.

  6. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  7. Temperature-programmed desorption for membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, R.A.; Grøn, C.; Lauritsen, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel technique for analyzing volatile organic compounds in air samples using a solid adsorbent together with temperature-programmed desorption and subsequent detection by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (TPD-MIMS). The new system has the advantage of a fast separation of compounds...... to diffuse through the membrane into the mass spectrometer in a few seconds. In this fashion we could completely separate many similar volatile compounds, for example toluene from xylene and trichloroethene from tetrachloroethene. Typical detection limits were at low or sub-nanogram levels, the dynamic range...

  8. 49 CFR 178.337-15 - Pumps and compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and compressors. 178.337-15 Section 178.337... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-15 Pumps and compressors. (a) Liquid pumps or gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately protected...

  9. 49 CFR 178.338-17 - Pumps and compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and compressors. 178.338-17 Section 178.338... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-17 Pumps and compressors. (a) Liquid pumps and gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately protected...

  10. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, J.N.; Miller, S.K.; Jay, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  11. Centrifugal compressor design options for small turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Evolutionary development of the small turbocharger centrifugal compressor over the past four decades has resulted in a finely honed turbomachinery component satisfying both thermodynamic and economic constraints. At this penultimate stage of development an appraisal was considered timely of the remaining design options that exist to enhance the performance characteristics and cost reduction features. This paper presents the results of an analytical study of various small centrifugal compressor design options, assessed in merit of both aerodynamic and manufacturing cost attributes, together with recommendations for future research avenues. (author)

  12. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Fuerst, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fermilab has tested two compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Both Creare Inc. and Cryogenic Consultants Inc. have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine, a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor, yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency but had difficulty withstanding two-phase flow. Cryogenic Consultants provided a reciprocating unit which achieved 59% efficiency and, although lacking the operating characteristics of the turbomachine, endured throughout testing and was insensitive to two-phase flow. Test results are discussed

  13. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...

  14. Research on flow characteristics of supercritical CO2 axial compressor blades by CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuhisa; Muto, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Takao; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    A supercritical CO 2 gas turbine of 20MPa is suitable to couple with the Na-cooled fast reactor since Na - CO 2 reaction is mild at the outlet temperature of 800K, the cycle thermal efficiency is relatively high and the size of CO 2 gas turbine is very compact. In this gas turbine cycle, a compressor operates near the critical point. The property of CO 2 and then the behavior of compressible flow near the critical point changes very sharply. So far, such a behavior is not examined sufficiently. Then, it is important to clarify compressible flow near the critical point. In this paper, an aerodynamic design of the axial supercritical CO 2 compressor for this system has been carried out based on the existing aerodynamic design method of Cohen. The cycle design point was selected to achieve the maximum cycle thermal efficiency of 43.8%. For this point, the compressor design conditions were determined. They are a mass flow rate of 2035kg/s, an inlet temperature of 308K, an inlet static pressure of 8.26MPa, an outlet static pressure of 20.6MPa and a rotational speed of 3600rpm. The mean radius was constant through axial direction. The design point was determined so as to keep the diffusion factor and blade stress within the allowable limits. Number of stages and an expected adiabatic efficiency was 14 and 87%, respectively. CFD analyses by FLUENT have been done for this compressor blade. The blade model consists of one set of a guide vane, a rotor blade and a stator blade. The analyses were conducted under the assumption both of the real gas properties and also of the modified ideal gas properties. Using the real gas properties, analysis was conducted for the 14th blade, whose condition is remote from the critical point and the possibility of divergence is very small. Then, the analyses were conducted for the blade whose conditions are nearer to the critical point. Gradually, divergence of calculation was encountered. Convergence was relatively easy for the modified

  15. Performance Improvement of a Return Channel in a Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Using Multiobjective Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nishida, Hideo; Sugimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-01

    The effect of the design parameters of a return channel on the performance of a multistage centrifugal compressor was numerically investigated, and the shape of the return channel was optimized using a multiobjective optimization method based on a genetic algorithm to improve the performance of the centrifugal compressor. The results of sensitivity analysis using Latin hypercube sampling suggested that the inlet-to-outlet area ratio of the return vane affected the total pressure loss in the return channel, and that the inlet-to-outlet radius ratio of the return vane affected the outlet flow angle from the return vane. Moreover, this analysis suggested that the number of return vanes affected both the loss and the flow angle at the outlet. As a result of optimization, the number of return vane was increased from 14 to 22 and the area ratio was decreased from 0.71 to 0.66. The radius ratio was also decreased from 2.1 to 2.0. Performance tests on a centrifugal compressor with two return channels (the original design and optimized design) were carried out using two-stage test apparatus. The measured flow distribution exhibited a swirl flow in the center region and a reversed swirl flow near the hub and shroud sides. The exit flow of the optimized design was more uniform than that of the original design. For the optimized design, the overall two-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were increased by 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, the second-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were respectively increased by 1.0% and 3.2%. It is considered that the increase in the second-stage efficiency was caused by the increased uniformity of the flow, and the rise in the pressure coefficient was caused by a decrease in the residual swirl flow. It was thus concluded from the numerical and experimental results that the optimized return channel improved the performance of the multistage centrifugal compressor.

  16. An Economic Analysis of Air-Conditioning Systems with Off-Peak Chilled-Water Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    request and basic ideas for our thesis, John Frounfelker for the BLAST orientation, and John Harriot and Ed Fink for their help in developing the...regulatory authority to consider at least once, for each utility for which it has ratemaking authority, the following by November 1981: 1. Cost of...passing external to the compressor (3:12.10). Centrifugal chillers adjust compressor capacity through variable inlet guide vanes placed in front of the

  17. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Interaction Between an Ultra-Compact Inlet and a Transonic Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Rabe, Douglas; Scribben, Angie

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, unsteady flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan stage is investigated. Future combat aircraft require ultra-compact inlet ducts as part of an integrated, advanced propulsion system to improve air vehicle capability and effectiveness to meet future mission needs. The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow interaction between two different ultra-compact inlets and a transonic fan for future design applications. Both URANS and LES approaches are used to calculate the unsteady flow field and are compared with the available measured data. The present study indicates that stall inception is mildly affected by the distortion pattern generated by the inlet with the current test set-up. The numerical study indicates that the inlet distortion pattern decays significantly before it reaches the fan face for the current configuration. Numerical results with a shorter distance between the inlet and fan show that counter-rotating vortices near the rotor tip due to the serpentine diffuser affects fan characteristics significantly.

  18. Nitric oxide-to-nitrogen dioxide conversion rates at a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, T.H.; Gebhart, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    An ambient air quality measurements program collected NO x data for a year at a natural gas compressor station located in the southwestern United States. This monitoring program had the unique characteristic of measuring ambient NO x concentrations at a remote location that was virtually free of NO sources other than the compressor station. These measurements indicate that the only source of NO x emissions in the area comes from the combustion of natural gas by the compressor station turbines. Thus, increases in NO 2 calculation of NO-to-NO 2 conversion rates. These results indicate 22 percent of the compressor station NO x emissions were converted to NO 2 in the near field. Regulatory modeling methods often assume that all NO x emissions exist as NO 2 . In an environment where ozone concentrations are relatively low, however, NO 2 concentrations are commonly calculated using the ozone limiting method (OLM), wherein NO conversion to NO 2 is limited by the amount of ozone present. Results from the measurement program show that the OLM generally overpredicts NO 2 concentrations in the near field. A partial conversion method is more suitable for predicting NO 2 concentrations for low-level natural gas combustion sources

  19. Performance of vapor compression systems with compressor oil flooding and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Ian H.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E. [Purdue University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 140 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Vapor compression refrigeration technology has seen great improvement over the last several decades in terms of cycle efficiency through a concerted effort of manufacturers, regulators, and research engineers. As the standard vapor compression systems approach practical limits, cycle modifications should be investigated to increase system efficiency and capacity. One possible means of increasing cycle efficiency is to flood the compressor with a large quantity of oil to achieve a quasi-isothermal compression process, in addition to using a regenerator to increase refrigerant subcooling. In theory, compressor flooding and regeneration can provide a significant increase in system efficiency over the standard vapor compression system. The effectiveness of compressor flooding and regeneration increases as the temperature lift of the system increases. Therefore, this technology is particularly well suited towards lower evaporating temperatures and high ambient temperatures as seen in supermarket refrigeration applications. While predicted increases in cycle efficiency are over 40% for supermarket refrigeration applications, this technology is still very beneficial for typical air-conditioning applications, for which improvements in cycle efficiency greater than 5% are predicted. It has to be noted though that the beneficial effects of compressor flooding can only be realized if a regenerator is used to exchange heat between the refrigerant vapor exiting the evaporator and the liquid exiting the condenser. (author)

  20. Compressor Foundation Analysis Tool(COFANTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lentzen, S.S.K; Zuada Coelho, B.E.; Galanti, F.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors are generally supported on a heavy concrete foundation. In spite of the large inertia and stiffness of the foundation, problems can occur due to interaction between the mechanical installation and the foundation. Two types of problems may occur. In the first type, the

  1. Computational analysis of a multistage axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidoju, Chaithanya

    Turbomachines are used extensively in Aerospace, Power Generation, and Oil & Gas Industries. Efficiency of these machines is often an important factor and has led to the continuous effort to improve the design to achieve better efficiency. The axial flow compressor is a major component in a gas turbine with the turbine's overall performance depending strongly on compressor performance. Traditional analysis of axial compressors involves throughflow calculations, isolated blade passage analysis, Quasi-3D blade-to-blade analysis, single-stage (rotor-stator) analysis, and multi-stage analysis involving larger design cycles. In the current study, the detailed flow through a 15 stage axial compressor is analyzed using a 3-D Navier Stokes CFD solver in a parallel computing environment. Methodology is described for steady state (frozen rotor stator) analysis of one blade passage per component. Various effects such as mesh type and density, boundary conditions, tip clearance and numerical issues such as turbulence model choice, advection model choice, and parallel processing performance are analyzed. A high sensitivity of the predictions to the above was found. Physical explanation to the flow features observed in the computational study are given. The total pressure rise verses mass flow rate was computed.

  2. Composite hub/metal blade compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.

    1978-01-01

    A low cost compressor rotor was designed and fabricated for a small jet engine. The rotor hub and blade keepers were compression molded with graphite epoxy. Each pair of metallic blades was held in the hub by a keeper. All keepers were locked in the hub with circumferential windings. Feasibility of fabrication was demonstrated in this program.

  3. Positive feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frank; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; de Jager, Bram; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    Stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited towards low mass flows due to the occurrence of surge. The stable operating region can be enlarged by active control. In this study, we use a control valve which is fully closed in the desired operating point and only opens to

  4. Positive feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Jager, de A.G.; Stoorvogel, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited towards low mass flows due to the occurrence of surge. The stable operating region can be enlarged by active control. In this study, we use a control valve which is fully closed in the desired operating point and only opens to

  5. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  6. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  7. APPLICATION OF A PLC TO A LABORATORY COMPRESSOR WORKSHOP CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech GÓRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a control system of air compressors in a university laboratory is presented. The control system, which is built using the Astraada RCC972 and the GE 90-20 drivers, is an extension of the two states’ inputs and outputs of Astraada. To visualize the work stand, the PC computer class and the Proficy Machine Edition (ME View software were applied. Selected results from the tests of the built control system are presented.

  8. 300 W - 1.75 K TORE SUPRA refrigerator cold centrifugal compressors report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gistau, G.M.; Pecoud, Y.; Ravex, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The centrifugal helium compressors for the TORE SUPRA tokamak refrigerator were designed and manufactured by L'Air Liquide and tested at nominal conditions on a custom test rig. The refrigerator is now installed and all acceptance tests have been completed. Other tests were carried out off design conditions with the machines installed in the TORE SUPRA refrigerator. The results of these tests, including compression ratio, efficiency, and heat losses, are discussed

  9. Configuration and testing of a saturated vapor helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.L.; Iwasa, Y.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A saturated vapor helium compressor was designed and tested as a component of a helium-temperature refrigeration cycle. The use of the cold compressor allows reduction of both the precooling heat exchanger area and main compressor size compared to a conventional cycle due to increased pressure of the return gas. The compressor tested was a single-piston reciprocating device which was controlled with programmable hydraulic/pneumatic logic. The compressor was mounted at the cold end of a CTI Model 1400 helium liquefier. An average compression ratio of 2.4 was obtained and an average efficiency of 82% was achieved. In computing compressor efficiency, external heat leaks to the compressor were neglected

  10. Fault detection and diagnosis for refrigerator from compressor sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keres, Stephen L.; Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.

    2016-12-06

    A refrigerator, a sealed refrigerant system, and method are provided where the refrigerator includes at least a refrigerated compartment and a sealed refrigerant system including an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, a controller, an evaporator fan, and a condenser fan. The method includes monitoring a frequency of the compressor, and identifying a fault condition in the at least one component of the refrigerant sealed system in response to the compressor frequency. The method may further comprise calculating a compressor frequency rate based upon the rate of change of the compressor frequency, wherein a fault in the condenser fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is positive and exceeds a condenser fan fault threshold rate, and wherein a fault in the evaporator fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is negative and exceeds an evaporator fan fault threshold rate.

  11. Optimization of Compressor Mounting Bracket of a Passenger Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Sachin; Singh, Daljeet; Saini, J. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the CAE tools are used for the optimization of the compressor mounting bracket used in an automobile. Both static and dynamic analysis is done for the bracket. With the objective to minimize the mass and increase the stiffness of the bracket, the new design is optimized using shape and topology optimization techniques. The optimized design given by CAE tool is then validated experimentally. The new design results in lower level of vibrations, contribute to lower mass along with lesser cost which is effective in air conditioning system as well as the efficiency of a vehicle. The results given by CAE tool had a very good correlation with the experimental results.

  12. Comparison of CFD results for a supercritical CO{sub 2} compressor with compressible and incompressible working fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Baik, Seungjoon; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinsu [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The authors compared flow parameters of S-CO{sub 2} compressor with various fluids to investigate fluid characteristic of S-CO{sub 2}, and performance of pump-derived type (shrouded impeller) compressor. The CFD results showed that the isentropic efficiency of CO{sub 2} case has a comparable performance in comparison to the water since S-CO{sub 2} has a meta-incompressible characteristic near the critical point. Because of the low rotating speed and non-optimized geometry of impeller, the pressure ratio of the compressor is low. However, the authors confirmed that this shrouded type impeller for S-CO{sub 2} compressor showed good performance as much as water case. This results will be reflected in the future S-CO{sub 2} compressor design. As the generation IV reactors are being researched, the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is identified as one of the promising power conversion cycles. The S-CO{sub 2} cycle has several advantages: high efficiency it has compact cycle components and simple layout. It can be also used for a power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) since it can eliminate potential safety issue of the sodium-water reactions. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used for small modular reactors (SMR) application since it occupies small footprint and it can designed as an economical dry-cooling system for SMRs. Design of a compressor is the major technical issue in development of S-CO{sub 2} cycle. Main purposes of this experiment are to accumulate operating experience of the S-CO{sub 2} loop, and to obtain fundamental data for the compressor design optimization near the critical point. However, inside the compressor, it is hard to know flow parameters by measurements. Therefore, the authors performed a CFD analysis to obtain useful flow parameters inside the compressor. The main goal of this paper is studying the flow parameters of pump-derived type compressor with S-CO{sub 2}, water, and air fluids to

  13. Comparison of Turbulence Models in Simulation of Flow in Small-Size Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Novickii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the choice of turbulence model for the closure of the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for calculation of the characteristics of small-size centrifugal compressor. To this were built three-dimensional sectors (as the compressor axisymmetric blade impeller and the diffuser of the centrifugal compressor on the basis of which they were created two grid models. The dimension of the grid model for the calculation models of turbulence komega and SST was 1.4 million. Elements and the dimensionless parameter y + does not exceed 2. turbulence model family k-epsilon model grid was also 1.4 million. Elements, and the dimensionless parameter y + was greater than 20, which corresponds to recommended values. The next part of the work was the task of boundary conditions required for the correct ca lculation. When the impeller inlet pawned pressure working fluid and the total temperature at the outlet and the gas flow rate through the stage. On the side faces sectors pawned boundary cond ition «Periodic», allowing everything except the wheel, but only axisymmetric part, which significantly reduces the required computational time and resources. Accounting clearance in addition to the meridional geometry construction additionally taken into account boundary condition «Counter Rotating Wall», which allows you to leave the domain in the rotating disc fixed coa ting.The next step was to analyze the results of these calculations, which showed that the turbulence model k-epsilon and RNG does not show the velocity vectors in the boundary layer, and "pushes" the flow from the blade using wall functions. At the core of the flow turbulence model k-omega shown for the undisturbed flow, which is not typical for the compressor working on predpompazhnom mode. For viscous gas diffuser vane for turbulence models SST, k-omega, RNG k-epsilon and has a similar character.The paper compares the characteristics of pressure centrifugal compressor

  14. Screw compressors for applications in liquid chillers and heat pumps; Schraubenverdichter fuer Anwendungen in Fluessigkeitskuehlsaetzen und Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Kracht, Rainer [Bitzer Kuehlmaschinenbau GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The demands on compressors for liquid chillers and heat pumps are changing continuously, with energy efficiency becoming ever more of a key focus. Especially certification programs are rating part load conditions higher than full load conditions. Another aspect is the lowering of the condensing temperature in order to achieve an increase in efficiency. Bitzer offers three compressor series optimized for these requirements: The CSH series for air-cooled liquid chillers and heat pumps; the CSW series, developed on the basis of the CSH, for low condensing temperatures occurring in water-cooled systems; and the HS.VS with frequency inverter for high part load efficiencies. (orig.)

  15. Multi-objective optimization and exergoeconomic analysis of a combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Erren; Wang, Huanran; Wang, Ligang; Xi, Guang; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tri-generation based compressed air energy storage system. • Trade-off between efficiency and cost to highlight the best compromise solution. • Components with largest irreversibility and potential improvements highlighted. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage technologies can improve the supply capacity and stability of the electricity grid, particularly when fluctuating renewable energies are massively connected. While incorporating the combined cooling, heating and power systems into compressed air energy storage could achieve stable operation as well as efficient energy utilization. In this paper, a novel combined cooling, heating and power based compressed air energy storage system is proposed. The system combines a gas engine, supplemental heat exchangers and an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. The design trade-off between the thermodynamic and economic objectives, i.e., the overall exergy efficiency and the total specific cost of product, is investigated by an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm for the proposed combined system. It is found that, with an increase in the exergy efficiency, the total product unit cost is less affected in the beginning, while rises substantially afterwards. The best trade-off solution is selected with an overall exergy efficiency of 53.04% and a total product unit cost of 20.54 cent/kWh, respectively. The variation of decision variables with the exergy efficiency indicates that the compressor, turbine and heat exchanger preheating the inlet air of turbine are the key equipment to cost-effectively pursuit a higher exergy efficiency. It is also revealed by an exergoeconomic analysis that, for the best trade-off solution, the investment costs of the compressor and the two heat exchangers recovering compression heat and heating up compressed air for expansion should be reduced (particularly the latter), while the thermodynamic performance of the gas engine need to be improved

  16. The mechanical design of a vapor compressor for a heat pump to be used in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, F.; Oesch, H.; Goetz, K.; Savage, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pump developed for use in Spacelab as a stand-alone refrigeration unit as well as within a fluid loop system is discussed. It will provide an active thermal control for payloads. Specifications for the heat pump were established: (1) heat removal rates at the source; (2) heat source temperatures from room temperature; (3) heat-sink fluid temperatures at condenser inlet; and (4) minimum power consumption. A reversed Carnot cycle heat pump using Freon 12 as working fluid incorporating a one-cylinder reciprocating compressor was selected. The maximum crankshaft speed was fixed relatively high at 100 rpm. The specified cooling rates then made it necessary to select a cylinder volume of 10 cu cm, which was obtained with a bore of 40 mm and a stroke of 8 mm.

  17. Coolant inlet device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroshi; Abe, Yasuhiro; Iwabuchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji.

    1969-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a coolant inlet device for liquid-metal cooled reactors which employs a coolant distributor serving also as a supporting means for the reactor core. The distributor is mounted within the reactor vessel so as to slide horizontally on supporting lugs, and is further slidably connected via a junction pipe to a coolant inlet conduit protruding through the floor of the vessel. The distributor is adapted to uniformly disperse the highly pressured coolant over the reactor core so as to reduce the stresses sustained by the reactor vessel as well as the supporting lugs. Moreover, the slidable nature of the distributor allows thermal shock and excessive coolant pressures to be prevented or alleviated, factors which posed major difficulties in conventional coolant inlet devices. (Owens, K. J.)

  18. Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kun; Stone, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Dadd, Mike; Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified

  19. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  20. Experimental Investigation of a Hypersonic Inlet with Variable Sidewall for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, T. C.; Lu, F. K.

    The main function of a scramjet inlet is to decelerate and compress the air for subsequent reaction with the fuel inside the combustor and, of course, contribute toward meeting the thrust requirement for the entire mission by providing adequate mass flow. It is desirable that the inlet be lightweight and that its geometry be capable of producing a uniform flow in an appropriate state to permit efficient mixing and subsequent combustion. Engine cycle analysis indicates that high contraction ratios CR are desirable for achieving high overall engine efficiency.

  1. Modification of a compressor performance test bench for liquid slugging observation in refrigeration compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Max; Thomas, Christiane; Hesse, Ullrich

    2017-08-01

    Compressor performance test procedures are defined by the standard DIN EN 13771, wherein a variety of possible calorimeter and flow rate measurement methods are suggested. One option is the selection of two independent measurement methods. The accuracies of both selected measurement methods are essential. The second option requires only one method. However the measurement accuracy of the used device has to be verified and recalibrated on a regular basis. The compressor performance test facility at the Technische Universitaet Dresden uses a calibrated flow measurement sensor, a hot gas bypass and a mixed flow heat exchanger. The test bench can easily be modified for tests of various compressor types at different operating ranges and with various refrigerants. In addition, the modified test setup enables the investigation of long term liquid slug and its effects on the compressor. The modification comprises observational components, adjustments of the control system, safety measures and a customized oil recirculation system for compressors which do not contain an integrated oil sump or oil level regulation system. This paper describes the setup of the test bench, its functional principle, the key modifications, first test results and an evaluation of the energy balance.

  2. Model development for air conditioning system in heavy duty trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Zhang, Quansheng; Li, Shengbo Eben; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a modelling approach for the air conditioning (AC) system in heavy duty trucks. The presented model entails two major elements: a mechanical compressor model and a thermal AC model. The compressor model describes the massflow of the refrigerant as well as the mechanical power

  3. Kinetics of a gas adsorption compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.; Tward, E.; Elleman, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Chan (1981) has suggested that a process based on gas adsorption could be used as a means to drive a Joule-Thomson (J-T) device. The resulting system has several advantages. It is heat powered, it has no sealing, there are no mechanical moving parts, and no active control is required. In the present investigation, a two-phase model is used to analyze the transients of a gas adsorption compressor. The modeling of the adsorption process is based on a consideration of complete thermal and mechanical equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorbed gas phase. The experimental arrangement for two sets of kinetic tests is discussed, and data regarding the experimental results are presented in graphs. For a theoretical study, a two-phase model was developed to predict the transient behavior of the compressor. A computer code was written to solve the governing equations with the aid of a standard forward marching predictor-corrector method.

  4. High stability design for new centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, H.; Katayama, K.; Morii, S.; Mouri, Y.; Umemura, S.; Ozawa, U.; Oda, T.

    1989-01-01

    It is essential that high-performance centrifugal compressors be free of subsynchronous vibrations. A new high-performance centrifugal compressor has been developed by applying the latest rotordynamics knowledge and design techniques: (1) To improve the system damping, a specially designed oil film seal was developed. This seal attained a damping ratio three times that of the conventional design. The oil film seal contains a special damper ring in the seal cartridge. (2) To reduce the destabilizing effect of the labyrinth seal, a special swirl canceler (anti-swirl nozzle) was applied to the balance piston seal. (3) To confirm the system damping margin, the dynamic simulation rotor model test and the full load test applied the vibration exciting test in actual load conditions.

  5. Advanced Compressor for Long Life Space Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    625 and 718, or beryllium copper. When both high-yield and high- fatigue strength are required, Inconel 718 is usually the material of choice. As shown...with wear debris and life in the case of rubbing seals, and long-term stability and alignment in the case of precision noncontacting clearance seals, are...the bearings’ wear pv, and hence increased life, with decreasing stroke. In summary, the results of the compressor optimization studies showed that a

  6. Axial forces in centrifugal compressor couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanov, N. M.; Yun, V. K.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of the theoretical and experimental investigation of axial forces arising in the toothed and plate couplings of centrifugal compressor shaft lines. Additional loads on the thrust bearing are considered that can develop in the toothed couplings as a result of coupled rotors misalignment. Design relationships to evaluate the level of axial forces and recommendations for their reduction in the operating conditions are given.

  7. New concept single screw compressors and their manufacture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q.; Liu, F.; Chang, L.; Feng, C.; Peng, C.; Xie, J.; van den Broek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors were generally acknowledged as one of the nearly perfect machines by compressor researchers and manufacturers. However the rapid wear of the star-wheel in a single screw compressor during operation is a key reason why it hasn’t previously joined the main current compressors’ market. After more than ten years of effective work, the authors of this paper have proposed a new concept single screw compressor whose mesh-couple profile is enveloped with multi-column. Also a new design method and manufacture equipment for this kind of compressor have been developed and are described in this paper. A lot of prototype tests and a long period of industrial operations under full loading conditions have shown that the mesh-couple profiles of the new concept single compressors have excellent anti-wearness.

  8. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  9. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DAMAGEABILITY OF THE BYPASS ENGINES COMPRESSOR BLADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Chichkov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft gas turbine engines during the operation are exposed to damage of flowing parts. The elements of the engine design, appreciably determining operational characteristics are rotor blades. Character of typical damages for various types of engines depends on appointment and a geographical place of the aircraft operation on which one or another engine is installed. For example, the greatest problem for turboshaft engines operated in the dusty air conditions is erosive wear of a rotor blade airfoil. Among principal causes of flowing parts damages of bypass engine compressors are foreign object damages. Independently there are the damages caused by fatigue of a rotor blade material at dangerous blade mode. Pieces of the ice formed in the input unit, birds and the like can also be a source of danger. The foreign objects getting into the engine from runway are nuts, bolts, pieces of tire protectors, lock-wire, elements from earlier flying off aircraft, etc. The entry of foreign objects into the engine depends on both an operation mode (during the operation on the ground, on takeoff, on landing roll using the reverse and so on, and the aircraft engine position.Thus the foreign objects entered into the flowing path of bypass engine damage blade cascade of low and high pressure. Foreign objects entered into the flowing part of the engine with rotor blades result in dents on edges and blade shroud, deformations of edges, breakage, camber of peripheral parts and are distributed "nonlinear" on path length (steps. The article presents the results of the statistical analysis of three types engine compressors damageability over the period of more than three years. Damages are divided according to types of engines in whole and to their separate steps, depths and lengths, blades damage location. The results of the analysis make it possible to develop recommendations to carry out the optical-visual control procedures.

  11. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air starting...

  12. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  13. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  14. Experimental Pressure-Volume diagrams of scroll compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Picavet, Alain; Ginies, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tests led with scroll compressors to establish pressure-volume diagrams. Two compressors were thinly instrumented with pressure and displacement sensors so as to follow the whole compression process, from suction to exhaust. A gear coder was set to mark off the closing and opening of gas pockets, and to study the speed variations occurring during a single rotation. These tests help to understand the various phenomena met in a compressor, such as back-flow, o...

  15. An alternative compressor. A study; Alternativ kompressor. En udredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Jensen, F.; Danig, P.O.; Ritchie, E.; Kierkegaard, P.

    1997-10-01

    A linear compressor would be suitable for refrigerating systems with small effect. A computerized control system can be used to control the speed of a linear engine. A new compressor/engine with much improved energy efficiency can be designed to operate oil-free. The novel design of a compressor with smaller piston displacement is smaller than the existing models and thus more suitable for the future refrigerators. (EG) EFP-97. 71 refs.

  16. Aerodynamic reconfiguration and multicriterial optimization of centrifugal compressors – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the recent research of the author, with application to 3D computational fluid dynamics multicriterial optimization of turbomachinery parts. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been an ubicuous tool for compressor design for decades, helping the designers to test the aerodynamic parameters of their machines with great accuracy. Due to advances of multigrid methods and the improved robustness of structured solvers, CFD can nowadays be part of an optimization loop with artificial neural networks or evolutive algorithms. This paper presents a case study of an air centrifugal compressor rotor optimized using Numeca's Design 3D CFD suite. The turbulence model used for the database generation and the optimization stage is Spalart Allmaras. Results indicate a fairly quick convergence time per individual as well as a good convergence of the artificial neural network optimizer.

  17. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  18. Possibility of Thermomechanical Compressor Application in Desalination Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagin, E. V.; Shimanov, A. A.; Uglanov, D. A.; Korneev, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with estimation of thermocompressor operating possibility in desalination plant with mechanical vapour compressor. In this plant thermocompressor is used instead of commonly used centrifugal compressor. Preliminary analysis shows that such plant is able to operate, however, power consumption is 3.5-6.5 higher in comparison with traditional MVC plant. In turn, utilization of thermocompressor allows avoiding usual high-frequency drive of centrifugal compressor. Drives with frequency of 50 Hz are enough for thermocompressor when centrifugal compressor requires drives with frequency up to 500 Hz and higher. Approximate thermocompressor dimensions are estimated.

  19. Rotating stall simulation for axial and centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Taher; Gadala, Mohamed S.

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a numerical simulation of the rotating stall phenomenon in axial and centrifugal compressors with detailed descriptions of stall precursors and its development with time. Results showed that the vaneless region of the centrifugal compressor is the most critical location affected by stall. It was found that the tip leakage flow and the back flow impingement are the main cause of the stall development at the impeller exit area for centrifugal compressors. The results of the axial compressor simulations indicated that the early separated flow combined with the tip leakage flow can block the impeller passages during stall.

  20. Numerical study of effect of compressor swirling flow on combustor design in a MTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yong; Wang, Chengdong; Liu, Cunxi; Liu, Fuqiang; Hu, Chunyan; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Junqiang

    2017-08-01

    An effect of the swirling flow on the combustion performance is studied by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a micro-gas turbine with a centrifugal compressor, dump diffuser and forward-flow combustor. The distributions of air mass and the Temperature Pattern Factor (as: Overall Temperature Distribution Factor -OTDF) in outlet are investigated with two different swirling angles of compressed air as 0° and 15° in three combustors. The results show that the influences of swirling flow on the air distribution and OTDF cannot be neglected. Compared with no-swirling flow, the air through outer liner is more, and the air through the inner liner is less, and the pressure loss is bigger under the swirling condition in the same combustor. The Temperature Pattern Factor changes under the different swirling conditions.