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Sample records for comprehensive smoke-free legislation

  1. Impact of Scotland's comprehensive, smoke-free legislation on stroke.

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    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006.A negative binomial regression model was used to determine whether the introduction of smoke-free legislation resulted in a step and/or slope change in stroke incidence. The model was adjusted for age-group, sex, socioeconomic deprivation quintile, urban/rural residence and month. Interaction tests were also performed. Routine hospital administrative data and death certificates were used to identify all hospital admissions and pre-hospital deaths due to stroke (ICD10 codes I61, I63 and I64 in Scotland between 2000 and 2010 inclusive. Prior to the legislation, rates of all stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and unspecified stroke were decreasing, whilst cerebral infarction was increasing at 0.97% per annum. Following the legislation, there was a dramatic fall in cerebral infarctions that persisted for around 20 months. No visible effect was observed for other types of stroke. The model confirmed an 8.90% (95% CI 4.85, 12.77, p<0.001 stepwise reduction in cerebral infarction at the time the legislation was implemented, after adjustment for potential confounders.Following introduction of national, comprehensive smoke-free legislation there was a selective reduction in cerebral infarction that was not apparent in other types of stroke.

  2. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

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    Nagelhout, G.E.; de Vries, H.; Boudreau, C.; Allwright, S.; McNeill, A.; van den Putte, B.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the

  3. Effects of comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Europe Efectos de la legislación antitabaco en Europa

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    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews data regarding the effects of the legislation banning smoking in enclosed public places, including workplaces, restaurants and bars which entered into force in several countries of Europe starting with the year 2004. The source of data is represented by articles and short information published in peer reviewed journals or in electronic format between the years 2005 and 2008. Highlights include a consideration of the effects of these laws on the attitudes of the population regarding their implementation, exposure to passive smoking in public places as well as the scientific evidence on the public health and economic impact of these laws. The results of smoking ban in public places observed in several parts of Europe support initiatives in many countries toward implementing smoke-free legislation, particularly those who have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which calls for legislation to reduce tobacco smoke pollution.Se revisaron datos sobre el impacto de las leyes que prohíben fumar en espacios públicos cerrados, incluyendo centros de trabajo, restaurantes y bares, las cuales entraron en vigor en varios países de Europa en 2004. La fuente de datos incluye artículos indexados y notas breves publicadas en revistas científicas o en formato electrónico entre 2005 y 2008. Los hallazgos incluyen una descripción del impacto de estas leyes sobre las actitudes de la población con respecto a su implementación, la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en espacios públicos cerrados, así como la evidencia científica sobre el impacto de estas leyes en la salud pública y en la economía. Los resultados de la prohibición de fumar en lugares públicos que se observaron en varios países de Europa confirman la importancia de promulgar iniciativas legislativas para crear ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en varios países del mundo, en particular en aquellos que han ratificado en Convenio Marco para el

  4. Smoke-free legislation and charitable gaming in Kentucky.

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    Pyles, M K; Hahn, E J

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effect of municipal smoke-free laws in Kentucky on gross and/or net revenues from charitable gaming activities. Between January 2000 and June 2007, 13 Kentucky communities implemented smoke-free legislation; only three specifically exempted charitable gaming facilities and compliance in several communities was not consistent. Kentucky is a tobacco-growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the United States. A fixed-effects time series design to estimate the impact of municipal smoke-free laws on charitable gaming. 13 Kentucky counties that implemented smoke-free laws during the study period of January 2000 through June 2007. All charitable gaming facilities in 13 counties in which a smoke-free ordinance was enacted during the study period. Gross and net revenues from charitable gaming activities in each county for each quarter of the study period, obtained from the Kentucky Department of Charitable Gaming. When controlling for economic variables, county-specific effects and time trends using a robust statistical framework, there was no significant relation between smoke-free laws and charitable gaming revenues. Municipal smoke-free legislation had no effect on charitable gaming revenues. No significant harm to charitable gaming revenues was associated with the smoke-free legislation during the 7.5-year study period, despite the fact that Kentucky is a tobacco-producing state with higher-than-average smoking rates.

  5. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

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    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  6. The road to smoke-free legislation in Ireland.

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    Currie, Laura M; Clancy, Luke

    2011-01-01

    To describe the process through which Ireland changed its policies towards smoking in work-places and distil lessons for others implementing or extending smoke-free laws. This analysis is informed by a review of secondary sources including a commissioned media analysis, documentary analysis and key informant interviews with policy actors who provide insight into the process of smoke-free policy development. The policy analysis techniques used include the development of a time-line for policy reform, stakeholder analysis, policy mapping techniques, impact analysis through use of secondary data and a review process. The policy analysis triangle, which highlights the importance of examining policy content, context, actors and processes, will be used as an analytical framework. The importance of the political, economic, social and cultural context emerged clearly. The interaction of the context with the policy process both in identification of need for policy and its formulation demonstrated the opportunity for advocates to exert influence at all points of the process. The campaign to support the legislation had the following characteristics: a sustained consistent simple health message, sustained political leadership/commitment, a strong coalition between the Health Alliance, the Office of Tobacco Control and the Department of Health and Children, with cross-party political support and trade union support. The public and the media support clearly defined the benefit of deliberate and consistent planning and organization of a communication strategy. The Irish smoke-free legislation was a success as a policy initiative because of timing, dedication, planning, implementation and the existence of strong leadership and a powerful convinced credible political champion. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Reduction of secondhand tobacco smoke in public places following national smoke-free legislation in Uruguay.

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    Blanco-Marquizo, Adriana; Goja, Beatriz; Peruga, Armando; Jones, Miranda R; Yuan, Jie; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Smoke-free legislation eliminating tobacco smoke in all indoor public places and workplaces is the international standard to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. Uruguay was the first country in the Americas and the first middle-income country in the world to enact a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in March 2006. To compare air nicotine concentrations measured in indoor public places and workplaces in Montevideo, Uruguay before (November 2002) and after (July 2007) the implementation of the national legislation. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7-14 days using the same protocol in schools, a hospital, a local government building, an airport and restaurants and bars. A total of 100 and 103 nicotine samples were available in 2002 and 2007, respectively. Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations in the study samples were 0.75 (0.2-1.54) microg/m(3) in 2002 compared to 0.07 (0.0-0.20) microg/m(3) in 2007. The overall nicotine reduction comparing locations sampled in 2007 to those sampled in 2002 was 91% (95% CI 85% to 94%) after adjustment for differences in room volume and ventilation. The greatest nicotine reduction was observed in schools (97% reduction), followed by the airport (94% reduction), the hospital (89% reduction), the local government building (86% reduction) and restaurants/bars (81% reduction). Exposure to secondhand smoke has decreased greatly in indoor public places and workplaces in Montevideo, Uruguay, after the implementation of a comprehensive national smoke-free legislation. These findings suggest that it is possible to successfully implement smoke-free legislations in low and middle-income countries.

  8. Smoke-Free Legislation in Spain and Prematurity.

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    Simón, Lorena; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Ortiz, Cristina; Linares, Cristina; Medrano, María José; Galán, Iñaki

    2017-06-01

    Spain implemented a partial smoking ban in 2006 followed by a comprehensive ban in 2011. The objective was to examine the association between these smoke-free policies and different perinatal complications. Cross-sectional study including all live births between 2000 and 2013. Selected adverse birth outcomes were: preterm births (birth weight (2000 to 2005 (preban), 2006 to 2010 (partial ban), and 2011 to 2013 (comprehensive ban). Models were adjusted for maternal sociodemographics, health care during the delivery, and smoking prevalence during pregnancy. The comprehensive ban was associated with preterm birth rate reductions of 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.9%-6.1%) and 4.1% (95% CI: 2.5%-5.6%) immediately and 1 year after implementation, respectively. The low birth weight rate also dropped immediately (2.3%; 95% CI: 0.7%-3.8%) and 1 year after the comprehensive ban implementation (3.5%; 95% CI: 2.1%-5.0%). There was an immediate reduction in the SGA rate at the onset of the partial ban (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.5%-6.2%), which was sustained 1 year postimplementation. Although not associated with the comprehensive ban at the onset, the SGA rate declined by 1.7% (95% CI: 0.3%-3.1%) 1 year postimplementation. The implementation of the Spanish smoke-free policies was associated with a risk reduction for preterm births and low birth weight infants, especially with the introduction of the more restrictive ban. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Association between smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta-analysis.

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    Tan, Crystal E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-10-30

    Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smoke-free legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smoke-free legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified by using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 with the use of the Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified articles. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smoke-free law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smoke-free laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range, 2-57 months) were included. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (relative risk, 0.848; 95% confidence interval 0.816-0.881), other heart disease (relative risk, 0.610; 95% confidence interval, 0.440-0.847), cerebrovascular accidents (relative risk, 0.840; 95% confidence interval, 0.753-0.936), and respiratory disease (relative risk, 0.760; 95% confidence interval, 0.682-0.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smoke-free laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Smoke-free legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk.

  10. Ashtrays and signage as determinants of a smoke-free legislation's success.

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    Vardavas, Constantine I; Agaku, Israel; Patelarou, Evridiki; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Ourda, Despoina; Lazuras, Lambros; Bertic, Monique; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Successful smoke-free legislation is dependent on political will, enforcement and societal support. We report the success and pitfalls of a non-enforced nationwide smoke-free legislation in Greece, as well as ways in which compliance and enforcement-related factors, including ashtrays and signage, may impact indoor secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations. A follow-up study of venues (n=150, at baseline, n=75 at 2-year follow-up) in Greece assessed indoor particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM 2.5 ) concentrations attributable to SHS smoke every six months for two years (n=455 venue/measurements). Following the implementation of the 2010 smoke-free legislation, mean PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS fell from 175.3 µg/m(3) pre-ban to 84.52 µg/m(3) immediately post-ban, increasing over subsequent waves (103.8 µg/m(3) and 158.2 µg/m(3) respectively). Controlling for potential influential factors such as ventilation, time of day, day of week, city and venue type, all post-ban measurements were still lower than during the pre-ban period (Wave 2 beta: -118.7, Wave 3 beta: -87.6, and Wave 4 beta: -69.9). Outdoor or indoor signage banning smoking was not found to affect SHS concentrations (beta: -10.9, p=0.667 and beta: -18.1, p=0.464 respectively). However, ashtray or ashtray equivalents were strong determinants of the existence of indoor SHS (beta: +67 µg/m(3), p=0.017). While the public may be supportive of smoke-free legislation, adherence may decline rapidly if enforcement is limited or nonexistent. Moreover, enforcement agencies should also focus on the comprehensive removal of ashtray equivalents that could act as cues for smoking within a venue.

  11. Ashtrays and signage as determinants of a smoke-free legislation's success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine I Vardavas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Successful smoke-free legislation is dependent on political will, enforcement and societal support. We report the success and pitfalls of a non-enforced nationwide smoke-free legislation in Greece, as well as ways in which compliance and enforcement-related factors, including ashtrays and signage, may impact indoor secondhand smoke (SHS concentrations. METHODS: A follow-up study of venues (n=150, at baseline, n=75 at 2-year follow-up in Greece assessed indoor particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM 2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS smoke every six months for two years (n=455 venue/measurements. RESULTS: Following the implementation of the 2010 smoke-free legislation, mean PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS fell from 175.3 µg/m(3 pre-ban to 84.52 µg/m(3 immediately post-ban, increasing over subsequent waves (103.8 µg/m(3 and 158.2 µg/m(3 respectively. Controlling for potential influential factors such as ventilation, time of day, day of week, city and venue type, all post-ban measurements were still lower than during the pre-ban period (Wave 2 beta: -118.7, Wave 3 beta: -87.6, and Wave 4 beta: -69.9. Outdoor or indoor signage banning smoking was not found to affect SHS concentrations (beta: -10.9, p=0.667 and beta: -18.1, p=0.464 respectively. However, ashtray or ashtray equivalents were strong determinants of the existence of indoor SHS (beta: +67 µg/m(3, p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: While the public may be supportive of smoke-free legislation, adherence may decline rapidly if enforcement is limited or nonexistent. Moreover, enforcement agencies should also focus on the comprehensive removal of ashtray equivalents that could act as cues for smoking within a venue.

  12. Are there health benefits associated with comprehensive smoke-free laws.

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    Goodman, Patrick G; Haw, Sally; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2009-01-01

    In the past few years, comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all workplaces have been introduced in many jurisdictions in the US, Canada, and Europe. In this paper, we review published studies to ascertain if there is any evidence of health benefits resulting from the implementation of these laws. All papers relating to smoke-free legislation published in or after 2004 were considered for inclusion in this review. We used Pubmed, Google scholar, and Web of Science as the main search tools. The primary focus of the paper is on health outcomes, and thus many papers that only report exposure data are not included. Studies using subjective measures of respiratory health based on questionnaire data alone consistently reported that workers experience fewer respiratory and irritant symptoms following the introduction of smoke-free laws. Some studies also found measured improvements in the lung function of workers. However, the most dramatic health outcome associated with smoke-free laws has been the reduction in myocardial infarction in the general population. This outcome has been observed in the US, Canada, and Europe, with studies reporting reductions of between 6 and 40%, post-legislation, the larger reductions being mostly from studies with smaller population groups. The evidence as to whether these smoke-free laws have helped smokers to stop smoking or to reduce tobacco consumption is less clear. There is now significant body of published literature that demonstrates that smoke-free laws can lead to improvements in the health of both workers who are occupationally exposed and of the general population. There is no longer any reason why non-smokers should be exposed to SHS in any workplace. We recommend that all countries adopt national smoke-free laws that are in line with article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control that sets out recommendations for the development, implementation, and enforcement of national, comprehensive smoke-free

  13. Effect of Smoke-Free Legislation on Adult Smoking Behaviour in England in the 18 Months following Implementation

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    Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton A.; Millett, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008. Method and Findings Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE). In total there are 54,333 respondents from ...

  14. Correlates of compliance with national comprehensive smoke-free laws.

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    Peruga, Armando; Hayes, Luminita S; Aguilera, Ximena; Prasad, Vinayak; Bettcher, Douglas W

    2017-12-05

    To explore correlates of high compliance with smoking bans in a cross-sectional data set from the 41 countries with national comprehensive smoke-free laws in 2014 and complete data on compliance and enforcement. Outcome variable: compliance with a national comprehensive smoke-free law in each country was obtained for 2014 from the WHO global report on the global tobacco epidemic. Explanatory variables: legal enforcement requirements, penalties, infrastructure and strategy were obtained through a separate survey of governments. Also, country socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including the level of corruption control were included. an initial bivariate analysis determined the significance of each potentially relevant explanatory variable of high compliance. Differences in compliance were tested using the exact logistic regression. High compliance with the national comprehensive smoke-free law was associated with the involvement of the local jurisdictions in providing training and/or guidance for inspections (OR=10.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 117.7) and a perception of high corruption control efforts in the country (OR=7.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 85.8). The results show the importance of the depth of the enforcement infrastructure and effort represented by the degree to which the local government is involved in enforcement. They also show the significance of fighting corruption in the enforcement process, including the attempts of the tobacco industry to undermine the process, to achieve high levels of compliance with the law. The results point out to the need to invest minimal but essential enforcement resources given that national comprehensive smoke-free laws are self-enforcing in many but not all countries and sectors.

  15. Changes in Secondhand Smoke Exposure After Smoke-Free Legislation (Spain, 2006-2011).

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    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Sureda, Xisca; López, María J

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, the Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was extended to affect all enclosed settings, including hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas. This study evaluated the change in self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult, nonsmoking population. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on nationally representative samples of the adult (≥18 years) nonsmoking Spanish population. One was conducted in 2006 (6 months after the first ban) and the other in 2011, 6 months after the new ban was implemented. We assessed the prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke in various settings, and the corresponding adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 71.9% (95% CI: 70.1%-73.7%) in 2006 to 45.2% (95% CI: 43.1%-47.3%) in 2011 (PR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.39-0.47). Specifically, self-reported exposure significantly decreased from 29.2% to 12.7% (PR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.31-0.42) in the home, from 35.0% to 13.0% (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.33-0.49) at work/education venues, from 56.2% to 32.2% (PR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.39-0.48) during leisure time (mainly hospitality venues, but also venues other than work/education venues and home), and from 40.6% to 12.7% (PR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.21-0.29) in transportation vehicles/stations. The prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers decreased after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Spain. In addition to the expected reduction in exposure during leisure time, we observed reductions in settings that were not subject to the new legislation, such as homes, outdoor bus stops, and train stations. Exposure to secondhand smoke in selected outdoor settings may be further reduced by extending smoke-free legislation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Comprehensive smoke-free policies attract more support from smokers in Europe than partial policies.

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    Mons, Ute; Nagelhout, Gera E; Guignard, Romain; McNeill, Ann; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C; Brenner, Hermann; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Breitling, Lutz P

    2012-02-01

    Support for smoke-free policies increases over time and particularly after implementation of the policy. In this study we examined whether the comprehensiveness of such policies moderates the effect on support among smokers. We analysed two waves (pre- and post-smoke-free legislation) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys in France, Germany, and the Netherlands, and two pre-legislation waves of the ITC surveys in UK as control. Of 6,903 baseline smokers, 4,945 (71.6%) could be followed up and were included in the analyses. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to compare changes in support from pre- to post-legislation to the secular trend in the control country. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of individual change in support. In France, the comprehensive smoking ban was associated with sharp increases in support for a total smoking ban in drinking establishments and restaurants that were above secular trends. In Germany and the Netherlands, where smoke-free policies and compliance are especially deficient in drinking establishments, only support for a total smoking ban in restaurants increased above the secular trend. Notable prospective predictors of becoming supportive of smoking bans in these countries were higher awareness of cigarette smoke being dangerous to others and weekly visiting of restaurants. Our findings suggest that smoke-free policies have the potential to improve support once the policy is in place. This effect seems to be most pronounced with comprehensive smoking bans, which thus might be the most valid option for policy-makers despite their potential for creating controversy and resistance in the beginning.

  17. Second-hand smoke in public spaces: how effective has partial smoke-free legislation been in Malaysia?

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    Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Semple, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004. PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3]. This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

  18. Compliance with smoke-free legislation and smoking behaviour: observational field study from Punjab, India.

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    Goel, Sonu; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Rakesh; Mahajan, Vini

    2017-08-10

    Indian smoke-free legislation requires prohibition of smoking at public places and owners of public places to display 'no smoking' signages. The study aims to assess the compliance of public places with smoke-free legislation and determine the factors associated with active smoking in public places. This was a cross-sectional analytic observational quantitative survey conducted by a team of trained field investigators using a structured observational checklist across 6875 public places in Punjab state of India. The study was carried out over a period of 3 years. A total of 6875 public places across 22 districts of Punjab were observed. The overall compliance to smoke-free law in Punjab was 83.8%. The highest overall compliance was observed in healthcare facilities (89.6%) and least in transit stations (78.8%). Less active smoking was observed in public places where display of 'no smoking' signage compliant with smoke-free law of India was present (adjusted OR 0.6). Further, there was a positive association between active smoking and places where the owner of public places smoked (OR 5.2, CI 2.5 to 11.1). More than 80% of the public places in a jurisdiction in north India were compliant with the smoke-free legislation of India. 'No smoking' signages displayed as per legislation have an effect on curbing smoking behaviours at public places. It is recommended that policymakers should focus more on implementing the smoke-free law at transit sites and structured training sessions should be organised for owners of workplaces. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. How good is compliance with smoke-free legislation in India? Results of 38 subnational surveys.

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    Kumar, Ravinder; Goel, Sonu; Harries, Anthony D; Lal, Pranay; Singh, Rana J; Kumar, Ajay M V; Wilson, Nevin C

    2014-09-01

    India has been implementing smoke-free legislation since 2008 prohibiting smoking in public places. This study aimed to assess the level of compliance with smoke-free legislation (defined as the presence of no-smoking signage and the absence of active smoking, smoking aids, cigarette butts/bidi ends and smoking smell) and the role of enforcement systems in Indian jurisdictions. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective review of reports and primary data sheets of surveys conducted in 38 selected jurisdictions across India in 2012-2013. Of 20 455 public places (in 38 jurisdictions), 10 377 (51%) demonstrated full compliance with smoke-free law. Educational institutions and healthcare facilities performed well at 65% and 62%, respectively, while eateries and frequently visited other public places (such as bus stands, railway stations, shopping malls, stadia, cinema halls etc.) performed poorly at 37% and 27%, respectively. Absence of no-smoking signage was the largest contributor to non-compliance across all types of public places. Enforcement systems were present in all jurisdictions, but no associations could be demonstrated between these and smoke-free compliance. Smoke-free compliance in public places in India was suboptimal and was mainly related to the absence of no-smoking signage. This warrants further pragmatic and innovative ways to improve the situation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

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    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  1. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

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    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    shows smoke-free legislation may be associated with a reduction in regular smoking among school-aged children. If this association is causal, comprehensive smoke-free legislation could help prevent future generations from taking up smoking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  2. Greater gains from smoke-free legislation for non-smoking bar staff in Belfast.

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    Bannon, Finian; Devlin, Anne; McElwee, Gerry; Gavin, Anna

    2009-12-01

    In April 2007, smoke-free legislation was enacted in workplaces throughout N. Ireland. The effects of this legislation on bar workers' health and their exposure to second-hand smoke at home, work and social environment, and their attitudes to the legislation before and after its implementation remain to be documented. A self-completed questionnaire of bar staff in 35 Belfast bars, before (March 2007, n = 110) and after the legislation (July 2007, n = 110). Smokers (excluding 'social smokers') made up 41.6% of respondents. After the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, the reductions in the proportion of bar workers reporting various respiratory symptoms ranged from 1.3% to 18.6% for smokers and from 21.9% to 33.2% for non-smokers. Likewise, the reductions for various sensory symptoms ranged from 7.3% to 17.7% for smokers and from 29.6% to 46.8% for non-smokers. Reduction in wheeze, cough and throat symptoms after the legislation were much greater for non-smokers than smokers. The proportion of bar staff who reported satisfaction with the legislation remained unchanged across the surveys. Decreases in perceived exposure to second-hand smoke occurred at work, home and in social settings. After the legislation's enactment, a majority of bar workers felt the workplace was healthier (98%). These first findings show reduced reported symptoms among bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers, after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in N. Ireland, though greater among non-smokers. There was also a reported fall in the hours of second-hand smoke exposure in the home for this group of workers which has a high prevalence of smokers.

  3. Relationship of secondhand smoke exposure with sociodemographic factors and smoke-free legislation in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Girvalaki, Charis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Ward, Brian; Gratziou, Christina; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-04-01

    To explore whether exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the European Union (EU) showed any association with sociodemographic factors and/or the extent of national tobacco control policies. A secondary analysis was performed on data from 26 751 individuals ≥15 years old from 27 EU member states (EU MS), collected during the 2012 Special Eurobarometer survey (wave 77.1). Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS in eating or drinking establishments during the past 6 months, and/or in their workplace. Data on smoke-free policies were extracted from the European Tobacco Control Status Report and the European Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) in 2013. In total, 29.0% of non-smoking participants reported being exposed to SHS in indoor areas. Males (vs. females) as well as individuals with difficulties to pay bills (vs. those with no difficulties), had significantly greater odds of being exposed to SHS in bars, restaurants and workplaces. For every unit increase of a country's score on the Smoke-free Component of the TCS (indicating greater adherence to smoke-free legislations) the odds ratio of reporting exposure to SHS was 0.82 in bars, 0.85 in restaurants and 0.94 in workplaces. Differences in exposure to SHS clearly exist between and within EU MS, despite the fact that they all have signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, with the burden found to disproportionally affect younger people and individuals with financial difficulties. Moreover, enforcement of smoke-free legislation was inversely associated with SHS exposure, highlighting the importance of enforcing comprehensive smoking bans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home before and after smoke-free legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Chang, Po-Yin

    2017-11-01

    In January 2009, Taiwan broadened smoke-free legislation, requiring mass transportation systems, indoor public areas and indoor workplaces with 3 or more people, to become smoke-free. We investigated the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home for children aged 3-11 years in Taiwan before and after the implantation of the legislation. We studied 7911 children from the 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (cross-sectional, nationally representative household surveys). Logistic regression modelling estimated adjusted ORs (AOR) and 95% CIs for children's SHS exposure at home in 2009 and 2013 (2005 as reference) for the overall sample and for each category of household socioeconomic status (SES) and household composition. Prevalence of children SHS exposure at home decreased from 51% (2005) to 32% (2009) and 28% (2013). Compared to 2005, children in 2009 and 2013 had lower likelihoods of SHS exposure at home with AOR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.51) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.46), respectively. All children had reduced SHS exposure at home after the legislation, irrespective of household SES and compositions. Low household income, low parental education level, living with grandparents or living with other adults was individually associated with increased SHS exposure. The proportion of children exposed to SHS at home in Taiwan declined substantially from 2005 to 2009 after smoke-free legislation, and fell further by 2013, irrespective of SES and household compositions. Still, inequality in SHS exposure at home by SES and household composition warrants future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (a valid atmospheric marker of tobacco smoke pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008.Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01.There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they did not accelerate during the 18 months

  7. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  8. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-05-01

    Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40-65 years and older than 65 years. The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI.

  9. Stuck in Neutral: Stalled Progress in Statewide Comprehensive Smoke-Free Laws and Cigarette Excise Taxes, United States, 2000–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A.; Babb, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing tobacco excise taxes and implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws are two of the most effective population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use, prevent tobacco use initiation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. We examined state laws related to smoke-free buildings and to cigarette excise taxes from 2000 through 2014 to see how implementation of these laws from 2000 through 2009 differs from implementation in more recent years (2010–2014). Methods We used legislative data from LexisNexis, an online legal research database, to examine changes in statewide smoke-free laws and cigarette excise taxes in effect from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2014. A comprehensive smoke-free law was defined as a statewide law prohibiting smoking in all indoor areas of private work sites, restaurants, and bars. Results From 2000 through 2009, 21 states and the District of Columbia implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in work sites, restaurants, and bars. In 2010, 4 states implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws. The last state to implement a comprehensive smoke-free law was North Dakota in 2012, bringing the total number to 26 states and the District of Columbia. From 2000 through 2009, 46 states and the District of Columbia implemented laws increasing their cigarette excise tax, which increased the national average state excise tax rate by $0.92. However, from 2010 through 2014, only 14 states and the District of Columbia increased their excise tax, which increased the national average state excise tax rate by $0.20. Conclusion The recent stall in progress in enacting and implementing statewide comprehensive smoke-free laws and increasing cigarette excise taxes may undermine tobacco prevention and control efforts in the United States, undercutting efforts to reduce tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, health disparities, and tobacco-related illness and death. PMID:27309417

  10. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  11. Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Haw, Sally; Pell, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. Methods We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed in Scotland in 2003–2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. Results NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001) higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001). Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July–September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001) more than expected from the underlying trend. Conclusions Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support. PMID:22110585

  12. Evaluation of a social marketing campaign to support Mexico City's comprehensive smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Huang, Liling; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Alday, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to assess the level of awareness and impact of a social marketing campaign to promote Mexico City's 2008 comprehensive smoke-free law. Four months after the smoke-free law was implemented but before the campaign launch, we collected data from a population-based, random sample of 961 inhabitants of Mexico City. We analyzed data from 786 respondents who completed follow-up at the end of the campaign to determine campaign exposure and the association between campaign exposure and changes in campaign-targeted knowledge and attitudes. Recall of any of the 5 campaign materials was 69%, with a uniform distribution of exposure to 1, 2, and 3 or more campaign materials (25%, 25%, and 19%, respectively). Exposure to a greater number of campaign materials was associated in a monotonic relation with campaign-targeted knowledge of ammonia and arsenic in cigarette smoke. In models assessing support for, perceived benefits of, and perceived right to smoke-free places, campaign exposure accounted for a positive change in half of the indicators within each of these domains. Social marketing campaigns can reinforce knowledge and attitudes that favor smoke-free laws, thereby helping to establish smoke-free norms.

  13. The impact of the 2010 Polish smoke-free legislation on the popularity and sales of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Knysak, Jakub; Ochota, Patryk; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes, also called e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), have become widely available globally, particularly via the Internet. They are considered by many users as a safe alternative to regular cigarettes, and some use them for smoking cessation. We investigated whether the implementation of new tobacco control legislation in Poland affected the popularity and sales of ENDS. This study monitored Google searches and online sales before and after the implementation of new tobacco control legislation in November 2010. The study demonstrated that the implementation of the smoke-free legislation was associated with only a temporary increase in ENDS online popularity in Poland. In longer time frames, there was decrease in ENDS online popularity and sales in Poland after implementation of the smoke-free policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive smoke-free policies: a tool for improving preconception health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Liu, Sherry T; Conrey, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Lower income women are at higher risk for preconception and prenatal smoking, are less likely to spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, and have higher prenatal relapse rates than women in higher income groups. Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in public places are intended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke; additionally, since these policies promote a smoke-free norm, there have been associations between smoke-free policies and reduced smoking prevalence. Given the public health burden of smoking, particularly among women who become pregnant, our objective was to assess the impact of smoke-free policies on the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women. We estimated the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women in Ohio between 2002 and 2009 using data from repeated cross-sectional samples of women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). A logistic spline regression was applied fitting a knot at the point of enforcement of the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act to evaluate whether this policy was associated with changes in the odds of smoking. After adjusting for individual- and environmental-level factors, the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in the odds of preconception smoking in WIC participants. Comprehensive smoke-free policies prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces may also be associated with reductions in smoking among low-income women. This type of policy or environmental change strategy may promote a tobacco-free norm and improve preconception health among a population at risk for smoking.

  15. Policy support, norms, and secondhand smoke exposure before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Swayampakala, Kamala; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bottai, Matteo

    2010-09-01

    We assessed attitudes and beliefs about smoke-free laws, compliance, and secondhand smoke exposure before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City. Trends and odds of change in attitudes and beliefs were analyzed across 3 representative surveys of Mexico City inhabitants: before implementation of the policy (n=800), 4 months after implementation (n=961), and 8 months after implementation (n=761). Results indicated high and increasing support for 100% smoke-free policies, although support did not increase for smoke-free bars. Agreement that such policies improved health and reinforced rights was high before policy implementation and increased thereafter. Social unacceptability of smoking increased substantially, although 25% of nonsmokers and 50% of smokers agreed with smokers' rights to smoke in public places at the final survey wave. Secondhand smoke exposure declined generally as well as in venues covered by the law, although compliance was incomplete, especially in bars. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Mexico City has been relatively successful, with changes in perceptions and behavior consistent with those revealed by studies conducted in high-income countries. Normative changes may prime populations for additional tobacco control interventions.

  16. Public health or social impacts? A qualitative analysis of attitudes toward the smoke-free legislation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Derek; Ross, Alastair; Eadie, Douglas; MacAskill, Susan; Davies, John B; Hastings, Gerard; Haw, Sally

    2009-12-01

    Introduction of smoke-free legislation presents a unique opportunity to study how population-level interventions can challenge existing smoking norms. Our study examined support and opposition to the Scottish legislation and ascertained the relative importance of social and health factors in shaping attitudes among bar customers. Repeat (pre-/post-legislation) recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with customers (n = 67/62) of eight community bars in contrasting settings were conducted, and data were analyzed thematically. While the legislation was marketed primarily in terms of gains to public and individual health, supportive and opposing responses to the legislation tended to be framed around libertarian and practical factors. Attitudes tended to be stable across both waves of data collection. It is concluded that reasons for smoking were not challenged by promotion of the legislation. In addition to a focus on health gains, social marketing of smoke-free legislation and initiatives may therefore benefit from a stronger focus on social and contextual effects of such policies.

  17. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers’ consumption, non-smokers’ perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974

  18. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers' consumption, non-smokers' perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-04-08

    To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Barcelona, Spain. Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004 and after (2012 legislation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues. In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05 and after the second law (2011-12. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012 of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles and salivary cotinine concentration. RESULTS: Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8 in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0 in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05 in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11 at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001 during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001 in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  20. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  1. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; van den Putte, B.; Hitchman, S.C.; Crone, M.R.; Fong, G.T.; van der Heiden, S.; de Vries, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC)

  2. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  3. The impact of smoke-free legislation on reducing exposure to secondhand smoke: differences across gender and socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-Wei; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2015-01-01

    On 11 January 2009, Taiwan expanded its smoke-free legislation to all indoor public places and workplaces. This study examined the impact of this policy on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in adult non-smokers, across gender and socioeconomic status groups (SES). An annual sample of about 13,000-14,000 non-smokers was drawn from cross-sectional nationwide data of Taiwan Adult Tobacco Behavior Surveys during 2005-2011. Logistic regressions were used to analyse the aggregate data to estimate the association between the 2009 smoke-free legislation and SHS exposures in homes and workplaces. Interaction terms were used to examine the impact of the 2009 smoke-free policy on reducing differences in SHS exposure across gender, education and income groups. The 2009 policy reduced the odds of SHS exposure in homes in 2009 (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.84) and in workplaces (year 2009: OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.62; year 2010: OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). The model with interaction terms showed that men were more likely than women to be exposed to workplace SHS (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.27) but were less likely to be exposed to home SHS (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86). SHS exposure in homes was significantly related to lower socioeconomic status, but the 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the difference in SHS exposure across education levels. The 2009 smoke-free policy reduced the SHS exposure for non-smokers. However, this impact on home SHS did not persist after 2009, and the effect of protection was unequal across gender and SES groups. Thus, further enforcement of smoking restrictions would be needed to reduce the risk of SHS exposure and improve protection against SHS risk among parts of the population with lower socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-04-01

    One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  5. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  6. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullally Bernie J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. Methods Setting: Public houses (pubs in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%. Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. Results Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p Conclusion Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative perspectives on the legislation. Of particular importance is that negative economic perceptions did not diminish the widely held perception that the ban is needed to protect workers' health.

  7. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  8. Pathways of change explaining the effect of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in the Netherlands: an application of the international tobacco control conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; de Vries, H.; Fong, G.T.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Thrasher, J.F.; van den Putte, B.; Thompson, M.E.; Cummings, K.M.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to test the pathways of change from individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation, as hypothesized in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Conceptual Model. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Dutch smokers aged 15 years and older was

  9. Impact of National Smoke-Free Legislation on Educational Disparities in Smoke-Free Homes: Findings from the SIDRIAT Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Cortini, Barbara; Verdi, Simona; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Sestini, Piersante; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2015-07-24

    Families with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to adopt household smoking bans (HSB). The aim of this study was to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in HSB prevalence in Italy decreased 7-9 years after the introduction of the Italian ban on smoking in public places. A longitudinal, 12-year, two-wave study was conducted on a sample of 3091 youths aged 6-14 years in 2002; 1763 (57%) were re-interviewed in 2012-2014. A Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to assess the association between socioeconomic disparities and HSB prevalence. The adoption of HSBs significantly increased from 60% in 2002 to 75% in 2012-2014, with the increase recorded in youths with ≥1 smoking parent only (from 22% at baseline to 46% at follow-up). The presence of HSBs at baseline was more likely in families with ≥1 graduate parent compared to those with no graduate parents (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57), either in families with ≥1 smoking parent (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.17-1.58) or in families with non-smoking parents (PR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.01-2.56). Conversely, at follow-up socioeconomic disparities dropped since families with no graduate parents were 1.5-fold more likely to introduce a HSB between the two waves. The Italian ban on smoking in public places may have increased the adoption of smoke-free homes in families with smoking and non-graduate parents, causing the drop of the socioeconomic gap in smoke-free homes.

  10. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  11. Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Legislation: Did the Spanish Tobacco Control Law Affect the Economic Activity of Bars and Restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Pinilla, Jaime; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández, Esteve; López, Maria José

    2015-11-01

    The potential of smoke-free bans to negatively impact the hospitality business has been an argument of the hospitality and tobacco industry against such legislation. A partial smoke-free legislation was introduced in Spain in 2006 allowing smoking in most bars and restaurants due to the pressure of the hospitality sector. However, this partial ban was later amended in 2011 to include all the hospitality premises without exceptions. The stepped Spanish process permits to evaluate whether the entry into force of the smoke-free legislation had any effect on the economic activity of the hospitality sector. We employed a pooled time series cross-sectional design, with national data over 6 years (2006-2011). The dependent variable used was the total number of bars and restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants. The explanatory variables used were the average amount of spending per household in bars and restaurants, and the total unemployment rate in Spain by regions. For every 1% increase in the unemployment rate there was a 0.05% decrease in the number of bars and restaurants. In 2007, the number of bars and restaurants was significantly reduced by 13.06% (all others factors being held constant), 4.87% in 2008, and 10.42% in 2009. No statistically significant effect of the smoke-free legislation emerged from 2010 (6.76%) to 2011 (7.69%). The new Spanish smoke-free legislation had no effect on the number of bars and restaurants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Compliance with smoke-free legislation within public buildings: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Çarkoğlu, Asli; Ergör, Gül; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Magid, Hoda; Pollak, Jonathan; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-02-01

    To investigate public compliance with legislation to prohibit smoking within public buildings and the extent of tobacco smoking in outdoor areas in Turkey. Using a standardized observation protocol, we determined whether smoking occurred and whether ashtrays, cigarette butts and/or no-smoking signs were present in a random selection of 884 public venues in 12 cities in Turkey. We visited indoor and outdoor locations in bars/nightclubs, cafes, government buildings, hospitals, restaurants, schools, shopping malls, traditional coffee houses and universities. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between the presence of ashtrays or the absence of no-smoking signs and the presence of individuals smoking or cigarette butts. Most venues had no-smoking signs (629/884). We observed at least one person smoking in 145 venues, most frequently observed in bars/nightclubs (63/79), hospital dining areas (18/79), traditional coffee houses (27/120) and government-building dining areas (5/23). For 538 venues, we observed outdoor smoking close to public buildings. The presence of ashtrays was positively associated with indoor smoking and cigarette butts, adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 315.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 174.9-570.8 and aOR: 165.4; 95% CI: 98.0-279.1, respectively. No-smoking signs were negatively associated with the presence of cigarette butts, aOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8. Additional efforts are needed to improve the implementation of legislation prohibiting smoking in indoor public areas in Turkey, especially in areas in which we frequently observed people smoking. Possible interventions include removing all ashtrays from public places and increasing the number of no-smoking signs.

  13. [Impact of new Spanish smoke-free legislation on the business activity of bars, cafes and restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Hidalgo, Araceli; Pinilla Domínguez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the impact of Spanish smoke-free legislation (Law 42/2010) on the business activity of bars, cafés, and restaurants. we used the micro-data from the Household Budget Survey for 2010 and 2011. The linking files allowed close follow-up of the households that remained in the sample for 2 consecutive years. Taking the year 2010 as the base reference for our analyses, we quantified how levels of consumption expenses on hospitality venues have changed over the years, differentiating between smoking households and non-smoking households. the marginal effects of the first stage of the two-part model showed that the mean probability of expenditure on hospitality venues was 96% in smoking households and was 86% in non-smoking households. There were no statistically significant variations in the probability of expenditure between 2010 and 2011. The proportion of expenditure on hospitality venues in total household consumption expenditure in smoking households was 7.961% and 7.796% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These proportions were 7.25% in 2010 and 7.272% in 2011 for non-smoking households. The difference in differences estimator, which takes into account both differences between years and households, showed no statistically significant differences in levels of household consumption. the introduction of the Law 42/2010 has had no impact on the levels of household consumption expenses on hospitality venues. Changes in consumption expenses could be explained by sociodemographic characteristics (such as the number of children per household) and the impact of the economic crisis (unemployment and a decrease in household income). Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pursell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. METHODS: Setting: Public houses (pubs) in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%). Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. RESULTS: Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p < 0.001) and among non-smokers by 12.4% percentage points from 68.8% to 81.2% (p = 0.003).Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers\\' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p < 0.001). However, negative perceptions also increased, particularly for perceptions that the legislation has a negative impact on business (from 50.9% to 62.7%, p = 0.008) and that fewer people would visit pubs (41.8% to 62.7%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for relevant covariates, including responses to the attitude statements, support for the ban increased two to three-fold post-implementation. Regardless of their views on the economic impact, most participants agreed, both pre- and post-implementation, that the legislation was needed to protect bar workers\\' health. CONCLUSION: Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative

  15. Study of secondhand smoke exposure in St. Louis City and County suggests need for comprehensive smoke-free Missouri law adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham; Pulley, Deren; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study provides information about secondhand smoke exposure across the St. Louis metro area and perceptions and attitudes about tobacco and health within the local hospitality industry. Results from this study support the need for passage and implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws throughout Missouri, particularly in St. Louis City and County where efforts to pass comprehensive smoke-free laws have been unsuccessful.

  16. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rios, Monica; Fernandez, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria Jose

    2015-01-01

    A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006) and after (2011) the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010. Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old) Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change. The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76%) showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%). The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit.

  17. Impact of a partial smoke-free legislation on myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case-fatality in a population-based registry: the REGICOR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Agüero

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death, and smoking its strongest modifiable risk factor. Our aim was to determine the impact of the Spanish 2006 partial smoke-free legislation on acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence, hospitalization and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in Girona, Spain.Using a population-based registry (the REGICOR Study, we compared population incidence, hospitalization, and mortality rates, and 28-day case-fatality in the pre- and post-ban periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2008, respectively by binomial regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors. We also analyzed the ban's impact on the outcomes of interest using the AMI definitions of the American Heart Association (AHA/European Society of Cardiology (ESC and the World Health Organization (WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases (MONICA.In the post-ban period, AMI incidence and mortality rates significantly decreased (relative risk [RR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.97 and RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.71-0.94, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates decreased in both sexes, especially in women, and in people aged 65-74 years. Former and non-smokers (passive smokers showed diminished incidence rates. Implementation of the ban was not associated with AMI case-fatality. Models tended to be more significant with the WHO-MONICA than with the AHA/ESC definition.The 2006 Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was associated with a decrease in population AMI incidence and mortality, particularly in women, in people aged 65-74 years, and in passive smokers. These results clarify the association between AMI mortality and the enactment of a partial smoke-free legislation and reinforce the effectiveness of smoking regulations in preventing CHD.

  18. Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holliday Jo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free legislation was introduced in Wales in April 2007. In response to concerns regarding potential displacement of smoking into the home following legislation, this study assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure amongst non-smoking children. Methods Approximately 1,750 year 6 (aged 10-11 children from 75 Welsh primary schools were included in cross-sectional surveys immediately pre-legislation and one year later. Participants completed self-report questionnaires and provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Regression analyses assessed the impact of legislation on children's SHS exposure at the population level, and amongst subgroups defined by parental figures who smoke within the home. Results Geometric mean salivary cotinine concentrations were 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI 0.15,0.20 pre-legislation and 0.15 ng/ml (95% CI 0.13,0.17, post-legislation, although this change was not statistically significant. Significant movement was however observed from the middle (0.10-0.50 ng/ml to lower tertile, though not from the higher end (>0.51 ng/ml to the middle. Reported exposure to SHS was greatest within the home. Home-based exposure did not change significantly post-legislation. Reported exposure in cafés or restaurants, buses and trains, and indoor leisure facilities fell significantly. The proportion of children reporting that parent figures smoked in the home declined (P = 0.03, with children with no parent figures who smoke in the home significantly more likely to provide saliva with cotinine concentrations of <0.10 ng/ml post-legislation. Amongst children with no parent figures who smoke in the home, the likelihood of 'not knowing' or 'never' being in a place where people were smoking increased post-legislation. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation in Wales did not increase SHS exposure in homes of children aged 10-11. Reported SHS exposure in public places fell significantly. The home remained the main source of

  19. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed with MAXQDA software. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were applied to interpret findings. Smokers had become more self-aware and the experience of a more negative norm surrounding smoking had made them reevaluate their smoking. Smokers had also become more self-aware of their own smoking, both in HV and in general. Feelings of increased social exclusion were reported. Participants dealt with the increased awareness and feelings of social exclusion in different ways depending on their evaluation of the smoking ban, changes in attitude towards own smoking, changes in HV patronage and changes in smoking behaviour. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were useful in understanding consequences of a HV smoking ban on continuing smokers. Four different types of responses were identified, i.e. (1) actively trying to quit, (2) socially conscious smoking, (3) feeling victimised and (4) rejecting the norm. Implications for future smoke-free legislation are discussed.

  20. Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Green, Michael James

    2018-03-27

    Smoke-free public places legislation has been introduced in many countries to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. While evaluations of smoke-free policies have demonstrated major public health benefits, the impact on youth smoking and inequalities in smoking remains unclear. This project aims to evaluate how smoke-free public places legislation in the UK has impacted on inequalities in youth smoking uptake, and how much of any impact is via changes in parental smoking behaviour. The study will constitute secondary analyses of UK data (from the British Household Panel Survey and the Understanding Society study). Merging these datasets gives coverage of the period from 1994 to 2016. Missing data will be handled using multiple imputation. The primary outcomes are the rates and inequalities in initiation, experimentation, escalation to daily smoking and quitting among youths aged 11-15 years. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of smoking among parents of these youths. Discrete-time event history analysis will be conducted to examine whether changes in the probability of youth smoking transitions are associated with the implementation of the smoke-free public places legislation; and whether any observed effects differ by socioeconomic position and parental smoking. A multilevel logistic regression model will be used to investigate whether there is a step change or change in trend for the prevalence of parental smoking after the policy was implemented. The models will be adjusted for relevant factors (including cigarette taxation, the change in the legal age for purchase of cigarettes and e-cigarette prevalence) that may be associated with the implementation of the legislation. This project will use anonymised survey data which have been collected following independent ethical review. The dissemination of the study findings will adopt multiple communication channels targeting both scientific and non-scientific audiences. © Article

  1. What Are the Perceptions, Experiences, and Behaviors of Health Care Providers After Implementation of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Hospital Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kerrie E; Doucet, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of health care providers (HCPs) after the implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy. This qualitative descriptive study, using semi-structured interviews, was conducted with 28 HCPs working in a Canadian hospital. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis including (a) greater support for tobacco reduction, (b) enhanced patient care and interactions, (c) improved staff morale, and (d) some barriers still exist. The main findings suggest a comprehensive smoke-free hospital environment can strengthen the tobacco-free workplace culture within a hospital setting among HCPs where support for tobacco reduction is amplified, patient care and interactions regarding tobacco dependence are improved, and staff morale is enhanced. While there are still some challenging barriers as well as opportunities for improvements, the implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy heightened the call-to-action among HCPs to take a more active role in tobacco reduction.

  2. [Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010) on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel; Galindo, Virginia; Alayeto, Carmen; Villaverde-Royo, M A Victoria; Sanz, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5). A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average indoor PM2.5 concentration decreased by 90.88%. Only a complete ban is able to protect workers and customers against the health risks of second-hand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons Learned on the Road to a Smoke-Free Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Ivana; Muggli, Monique; Zaga, Vincenzo; Lockhart, Nikki; Ebbert, Jon; Mangiaracina, Giacomo; Hurt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the face of strong and protracted opposition by the Tobacco Industry (TI) and its allies, Italy’s national smoke-free legislation came into force in 2005 prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces including offices, bars, and restaurants. Using internal TI documents made public through US litigation, we reveal the industry’s nearly 40-year effort to influence health policy related to secondhand smoke, including attempts to block Italy’s national smoke-free legislation. Strategies included manipulating hospitality groups and establishing front organizations, manipulating journalists and media, and manipulating the science and direct lobbying against smoking restrictions. The TI’s extensive plan to thwart smoke-free efforts in Italy can be used to inform other countries about the industry’s tactics and Italy’s experience in overcoming them by ultimately implementing a comprehensive workplace smoke-free law. PMID:21770229

  4. The relationship between workers’ self-reported changes in health and their attitudes towards a workplace intervention: lessons from smoke-free legislation across the UK hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCalman Laura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers’ attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers’ attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Methods Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. Results There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910. In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042, where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. Conclusions There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects’ attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.

  5. Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: analysis of routinely collected birth data.

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    Cox, Bianca; Martens, Evelyne; Nemery, Benoit; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-02-14

    To investigate the incidence of preterm delivery in the Belgian population after implementation of smoke-free legislation in three phases (in public places and most workplaces January 2006, in restaurants January 2007, and in bars serving food January 2010). Logistic regression analyses on routinely collected birth data from January 2002 to December 2011. Flanders, Belgium. All live born singleton births delivered at 24-44 weeks of gestation (n = 606,877, with n = 448,520 spontaneous deliveries). Preterm birth (gestational age restaurants), and an annual slope change of -2.65% (-5.11% to -0.13%; P=0.04) after 1 January 2010 (ban on smoking in bars serving food). The analysis for all births gave similar results: a step change of -3.18% (-5.38% to -0.94%; P<0.01) on 1 January 2007, and an annual slope change of -3.50% (-6.35% to -0.57%; P=0.02) after 1 January 2010. These changes could not be explained by personal factors (infant sex, maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, national origin, level of urbanisation); time related factors (underlying trends, month of the year, day of the week); or population related factors (public holidays, influenza epidemics, and short term changes in apparent temperature and particulate air pollution). Our study shows a consistent pattern of reduction in the risk of preterm delivery with successive population interventions to restrict smoking. This finding is not definitive but it supports the notion that smoking bans have public health benefits from early life.

  6. The population impact of smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. Findings from a national population survey.

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    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein

    2011-04-01

    To study the impact of implementing smoke-free workplace and hospitality industry legislation on smoking behaviour. A cross-sectional population survey from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year) was used to assess trends and seasonal patterns in smoking and quitting, and to examine whether changes could be observed after the workplace smoking ban in the Netherlands in 2004 and the hospitality industry ban in 2008. Outcome measures were smoking prevalence, quit attempts and successful quit attempts. Interactions with educational level (socio-economic status) and bar visiting (exposure to the hospitality industry ban) were tested. The workplace ban was followed by a decrease in smoking prevalence (OR = 0.91, P hospitality industry ban was not (OR = 0.96, P = 0.127). Both bans, especially the workplace ban, were followed by an increase in quit attempts and successful quit attempts: workplace ban, OR = 1.31, P hospitality industry ban, OR = 1.13, P = 0.013; OR = 1.44, P hospitality industry ban had a larger effect on quit attempts among frequent bar visitors (OR = 1.48, P = 0.003) than on non-bar visitors (OR = 0.71, P = 0.014). A workplace smoking ban in the Netherlands was followed by more changes in smoking and quitting than a hospitality industry ban. The hospitality industry ban only appeared to have an impact on quit attempts, and not on smoking prevalence. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. The relationship between workers' self-reported changes in health and their attitudes towards a workplace intervention: lessons from smoke-free legislation across the UK hospitality industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCalman, Laura; Semple, Sean; Galea, Karen S; Van Tongeren, Martie; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Gee, Ivan; Ayres, Jon G

    2012-05-02

    The evaluation of smoke-free legislation (SFL) in the UK examined the impacts on exposure to second-hand smoke, workers' attitudes and changes in respiratory health. Studies that investigate changes in the health of groups of people often use self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature it is of interest to determine whether workers' attitudes towards the change in their working conditions may be linked to the change in health they report. Bar workers were recruited before the introduction of the SFL in Scotland and England with the aim of investigating their changes to health, attitudes and exposure as a result of the SFL. They were asked about their attitudes towards SFL and the presence of respiratory and sensory symptoms both before SFL and one year later. Here we examine the possibility of a relationship between initial attitudes and changes in reported symptoms, through the use of regression analyses. There was no difference in the initial attitudes towards SFL between those working in Scotland and England. Bar workers who were educated to a higher level tended to be more positive towards SFL. Attitude towards SFL was not found to be related to change in reported symptoms for bar workers in England (Respiratory, p = 0.755; Sensory, p = 0.910). In Scotland there was suggestion of a relationship with reporting of respiratory symptoms (p = 0.042), where those who were initially more negative to SFL experienced a greater improvement in self-reported health. There was no evidence that workers who were more positive towards SFL reported greater improvements in respiratory and sensory symptoms. This may not be the case in all interventions and we recommend examining subjects' attitudes towards the proposed intervention when evaluating possible health benefits using self-reported methods.

  8. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers Impacto diferencial de la legislación federal y local de espacios libres de humo de tabaco en México: un estudio longitudinal entre fumadores adultos

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    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods. Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC Policy Evaluation Suvey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results. Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions. Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la legislación federal y del Distrito Federal (DF de espacios libres de humo de tabaco (ELHT sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco y el apoyo a las leyes. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos antes y después de la ley en una cohorte de fumadores adultos de cuatro ciudades mexicanas donde se aplicó la Encuesta Internacional para Evaluar las Políticas Públicas para el Control del Tabaco (Encuesta ITC. Para cada indicador, se estimó la prevalencia, cambios en la prevalencia y diferencias entre ciudades en las tasas de cambio. Resultados. La exposición autorreportada a las campañas sobre los ELHT incrementaron dramáticamente en el DF. El apoyo para prohibir fumar en lugares regulados aumentó en general, pero aumentó más en el DF. La exposici

  9. Local smoke-free policy development in Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-04-01

    To describe the process of approval and implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, between 2005 and 2009. Review of the Santa Fe smoke-free legislation, articles published in local newspapers and documentation on two lawsuits filed against the law, and interviews with key individuals in Santa Fe. Efforts to implement smoke-free policies in Santa Fe began during the 1990s without success, and resumed in 2005 when the provincial Legislature approved the first 100% smoke-free subnational law in Argentina. There was no strong opposition during the discussions within the legislature. As in other parts of the world, pro-tobacco industry interests attempted to block the implementation of the law using well known strategies. These efforts included a controversy media campaign set up, the creation of a hospitality industry association and a virtual smokers' rights group, the introduction of a counterproposal seeking modification of the law, the challenge of the law in the Supreme Court, and the proposal of a weak national bill that would 'conflict' with the subnational law. Tobacco control advocates sought media attention as a strategy to protect the law. Santa Fe is the first subnational jurisdiction in Latin America to have enacted a comprehensive smoke-free policy following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. After 3 years of implementation, pro-tobacco industry forces failed to undermine the law. Other subnational jurisdictions in Argentina, as well as in Mexico and Brazil are following the Santa Fe example.

  10. The efficacy of different models of smoke-free laws in reducing exposure to second-hand smoke: a multi-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark; Currie, Laura M; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious public health concern and while all EU Member States have enacted some form of regulation aimed at limiting exposure, the scope of these regulations vary widely and many countries have failed to enact comprehensive legislation creating smoke-free workplaces and indoor public places. To gauge the effectiveness of different smoke-free models we compared fine particles from second-hand smoke in hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoking bans in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Scotland. Data on PM2.5 fine particle concentration levels were recorded in 338 hospitality venues across these countries before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Changes in mean PM2.5 concentrations during the period from pre- to post-legislation were then compared across countries. While a reduction in PM2.5 was observed in all countries, those who had enacted and enforced more fully comprehensive smoke-free legislation experienced the greatest reduction in second-hand tobacco smoke. Comprehensive smoke-free laws are more effective than partial laws in reducing exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Also, any law, regardless of scope must be actively enforced in order to have the desired impact. There is continued need for surveillance of smoke-free efforts in all countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cumplimiento con la legislación de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en México Compliance with the tobacco smoke free ambience legislation in Mexico

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    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries o develop classification criteria to identify smoke-free spaces using environmental monitoring, direct inspection and worker reports, comparing their agreement and deriving a proposal useful for the epidemiological surveillance of environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental nicotine monitoring, direct inspections and worker’s surveys regarding tobacco smoke presence were conducted in ten institutions. For each method, criteria were defined to classify institutions as smoke-free spaces. Results were compared to evaluate between-methods agreement. Good agreement between environmental monitoring and direct inspections were observed, although they disagreed in 20% of the cases. Worker reports were too frequent to discriminate. Combining environmental monitoring and inspection would provide the most sensitive classification. Cost-effectiveness studies are required to identify the best strategy.Este texto pretende establecer criterios para identificar espacios libres de humo de tabaco ambiental (HTA utilizando monitoreo, inspección directa y reporte de los trabajadores, comparando su capacidad de discriminación y derivando una propuesta con aplicación a un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica. En 10 instituciones se monitoreó nicotina ambiental, realizando inspecciones y obteniendo el reporte de los trabajadores sobre la presencia de HTA. Para cada método se definieron criterios para clasificar a las instituciones como espacios libres de HTA. Los resultados fueron comparados para analizar el nivel de acuerdo entre métodos. Se observó buen acuerdo entre monitoreo ambiental e inspección directa, discrepando en 20% de las decisiones. El reporte de los trabajadores fue demasiado frecuente para discriminar. La combinación del monitoreo ambiental con la inspección proporcionaría la clasificación más sensible. Se requieren estudios de costo-efectividad para identificar la mejor estrategia.

  12. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers' receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers' reactance against such cues, and with smokers' level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place.

  13. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

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    Sol Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64 were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3 in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3 in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  14. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses. PMID:26540063

  15. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM₂.₅ Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-11-02

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m³ (0-80 μg/m³) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m³ (0-36 μg/m³) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  16. Factors associated with support for smoke-free policies among government workers in Six Chinese cities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Hua, Xinwei; Solomon, Madeleine; Wu, Yiqun; Zheng, Pin Pin; Eriksen, Michael

    2014-11-04

    A certain level of public support for smoke-free environments is a prerequisite for adoption and enforcement of policies and can be used as an indicator of readiness for legislative action. This study assessed support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in a range of settings such as hotels and colleges among government workers in China and identified factors associated with support for smoke-free policies. Understanding the extent to which government workers, a large segment of the working population in China, report a smoke-free workplace and support for smoke-free policies may be important indicators of readiness for strengthened policies given their role in formulating, implementing and enforcing regulations. Data were from an evaluation of the Tobacco Free Cities initiative of Emory University's Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Control Partnership. Self-administered surveys were completed by 6,646 workers in 160 government agencies in six Chinese cities. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with support for smoke-free worksites, bars, hotels, and colleges. Over half (54.6%) of participants were male. A large percentage of the male workers smoked (45.9%,) whereas very few women did (1.9%). Fewer than 50% of government workers reported smoke-free policies at work, with 19.0% reporting that smoking is allowed anywhere. Support for smoke-free policies was generally very high, with the lowest levels of support for smoke-free bars (79.0%) and hotels (82.3%), higher levels of support for restaurants (90.0%) and worksites (93.0%), and above 95% support for hospitals, schools, colleges, public transportation and religious settings. Knowledge of the harmfulness of secondhand smoke was positively associated with support for smoke-free policies. Stricter worksite smoking policies were associated with support for smoke-free workplaces and bars, but not hotels and colleges. Women and nonsmokers were more supportive of smoke-free

  17. Children Deserve Smoke Free World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesh Kumar, R; Jayakumar, P R; Krishna Mohan, R

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases. All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. M POWER- Package by WHO is a novel global initiative taking us closer to the target of achieving tobacco free environment for children in the near future.

  18. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

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    Stefan Kohler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04. Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  19. Smoke-free laws and direct democracy initiatives on smoking bans in Germany: a systematic review and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-03

    Germany's 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens' or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman's ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  20. Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Olufajo, Olubode; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free legislations prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of workplaces, bars, and restaurants have been adopted in most of the USA; however, limited efforts have focused on regulating secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the family car. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants and national/state-specific population support for smoke-free cars, in the presence of any occupant in general, but particularly when children are present. National data of US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 164,819) were obtained from the 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.

  1. Association between being employed in a smoke-free workplace and living in a smoke-free home: evidence from 15 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton A; Arora, Monika; Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home in 15 low and middle income countries (LMICs). Country-specific individual level analyses of cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (2008-2011) from 15 LMICs was conducted using multiple logistic regression. The dependent variable was living in a smoke-free home; the independent variable was being employed in a smoke-free workplace. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, residence, region, education, occupation, current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and number of household members. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. In each country, the percentage of participants employed in a smoke-free workplace who reported living in a smoke-free home was higher than those employed in a workplace not smoke-free. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of living in a smoke-free home among participants employed in a smoke-free workplace (vs. those employed where smoking occurred) were statistically significant in 13 of the 15 countries, ranging from 1.12 [95% CI 0.79-1.58] in Uruguay to 2.29 [1.37-3.83] in China. The pooled AOR was 1.61 [1.46-1.79]. In LMICs, employment in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home. Accelerated implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies is likely to result in substantial population health benefits in these settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes of students of a health sciences university towards the extension of smoke-free policies at the university campuses of Barcelona (Spain

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    Cristina Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses.

  3. Ashtrays and Signage as Determinants of a Smoke-Free Legislation’s Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Agaku, Israel; Patelarou, Evridiki; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Ourda, Despoina; Lazuras, Lambros; Bertic, Monique; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Successful smoke-free legislation is dependent on political will, enforcement and societal support. We report the success and pitfalls of a non-enforced nationwide smoke-free legislation in Greece, as well as ways in which compliance and enforcement-related factors, including ashtrays and signage, may impact indoor secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations. Methods A follow-up study of venues (n = 150, at baseline, n = 75 at 2-year follow-up) in Greece assessed indoor particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) concentrations attributable to SHS smoke every six months for two years (n = 455 venue/measurements). Results Following the implementation of the 2010 smoke-free legislation, mean PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS fell from 175.3 µg/m3 pre-ban to 84.52 µg/m3 immediately post-ban, increasing over subsequent waves (103.8 µg/m3 and 158.2 µg/m3 respectively). Controlling for potential influential factors such as ventilation, time of day, day of week, city and venue type, all post-ban measurements were still lower than during the pre-ban period (Wave 2 beta: −118.7, Wave 3 beta: −87.6, and Wave 4 beta: −69.9). Outdoor or indoor signage banning smoking was not found to affect SHS concentrations (beta: −10.9, p = 0.667 and beta: −18.1, p = 0.464 respectively). However, ashtray or ashtray equivalents were strong determinants of the existence of indoor SHS (beta: +67 µg/m3, p = 0.017). Conclusions While the public may be supportive of smoke-free legislation, adherence may decline rapidly if enforcement is limited or nonexistent. Moreover, enforcement agencies should also focus on the comprehensive removal of ashtray equivalents that could act as cues for smoking within a venue. PMID:24023795

  4. After the smoke has cleared: evaluation of the impact of a new national smoke-free law in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; Thomson, G; Wilson, N; Waa, A; Bullen, C; O'Dea, D; Gifford, H; Glover, M; Laugesen, M; Woodward, A

    2008-02-01

    The New Zealand 2003 Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act (SEAA) extended existing restrictions on smoking in office and retail workplaces by introducing smoking bans in bars, casinos, members' clubs, restaurants and nearly all other workplaces from 10 December 2004. To evaluate the implementation and outcomes of aspects of the SEAA relating to smoke-free indoor workplaces and public places, excluding schools and early learning centres. Data were gathered on public and stakeholder attitudes and support for smoke-free policies; dissemination of information, enforcement activities and compliance; exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace; changes in health outcomes linked to SHS exposure; exposure to SHS in homes; smoking prevalence and smoking related behaviours; and economic impacts. Surveys suggested growing majority support for the SEAA and its underlying principles among the public and bar managers. There was evidence of high compliance in bars and pubs, where most enforcement problems were expected. Self reported data suggested that SHS exposure in the workplace, the primary objective of the SEAA, decreased significantly from around 20% in 2003, to 8% in 2006. Air quality improved greatly in hospitality venues. Reported SHS exposure in homes also reduced significantly. There was no clear evidence of a short term effect on health or on adult smoking prevalence, although calls to the smoking cessation quitline increased despite reduced expenditure on smoking cessation advertising. Available data suggested a broadly neutral economic impact, including in the tourist and hospitality sectors. The effects of the legislation change were favourable from a public health perspective. Areas for further investigation and possible regulation were identified such as SHS related pollution in semi-enclosed outdoor areas. The study adds to a growing body of literature documenting the positive impact of comprehensive smoke-free legislation. The scientific and public

  5. Economic effects of smoke-free laws on rural and urban counties in Kentucky and Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined the influence of smoke-free legislation on economic activity, with most finding a null effect. The influence could possibly differ in rural areas relative to urban areas due to differing rates of smoking prevalence and access to prevention and treatment programs. Furthermore, the discussion of the effectiveness of smoke-free laws has been extended to consider local ordinances relative to statewide laws. This study examines these issues using 21 local laws in Kentucky and the Ohio statewide smoke-free law. The number of employees, total wages paid, and number of reporting establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services in Kentucky and Ohio counties were documented, beginning the first quarter 2001 and ending the last quarter of 2009. A generalized estimating equation time-series design is used to estimate the impact of local and state smoke-free laws in Kentucky and Ohio rural and urban counties. There is no evidence that the economies in Kentucky counties were affected in any way from the implementation of local smoke-free laws. There was also no evidence that total employment or the number of establishments was influenced by the statewide law in Ohio, but wages increased following the implementation of the law. Furthermore, there is no evidence that either rural or urban counties experienced a loss of economic activity following smoke-free legislation. The study finds no evidence that local or state smoke-free legislation negatively influences local economies in either rural or urban communities.

  6. Strength of smoke-free air laws and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J; Robertson, Heather E; Lee, Seongjik; Vogel, Suzann L; Travers, Mark J

    2009-04-01

    Smoke-free air laws have been implemented in many Kentucky communities to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. The impact of different strengths of smoke-free air laws on indoor air quality was assessed. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in seven communities before and after comprehensive smoke-free air laws and in two communities only after partial smoke-free air laws. One community was measured three times: before any smoke-free air law, after the initial partial law, and after the law was strengthened to cover all workplaces and public places with few exemptions. Real-time measurements of particulate matters with 2.5 mum aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM(2.5)) were obtained. When comprehensive smoke-free air laws were implemented, indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased significantly from 161 to 20 microg/m3. In one community that implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law after initially passing a partial law, indoor PM(2.5) concentrations were 304 microg/m3 before the law, 338 microg/m3 after the partial law, and 9 microg/m3 after the comprehensive law. The study clearly demonstrated that partial smoke-free air laws do not improve indoor air quality. A significant linear trend indicated that PM(2.5) levels in the establishments decreased with fewer numbers of burning cigarettes. Only comprehensive smoke-free air laws are effective in reducing indoor air pollution from secondhand tobacco smoke.

  7. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  8. The effect of smoke-free policies on hospitality industry revenues in Cyprus: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talias, Michael A; Savva, Christos S; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Lazuras, Lambros

    2015-10-01

    Smoke-free policies aiming to improve quality of indoor air and significantly reduce exposure to secondhand smoke in the hospitality industry are faced with strong opposition from the tobacco industry and hospitality venue owners claiming that they lead to reductions of revenues. The objective of our study was to examine the impact of a recently introduced smoke-free legislation on the revenues of the hospitality industry in Cyprus. Anonymous information on revenues was obtained from the Cyprus government value added tax office for the entire hospitality industry in Cyprus including hotels, bars, restaurants and cafeterias between 2005 and 2011. Panel data methodology was used to examine the effect of a smoke-free legislation, on tourism, businesses' revenues adjusting for gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment rate, tourists' arrivals, seasonal variation and the economic crisis. Our study showed that the implementation of the smoke-free policy did not have negative effects on the hospitality industry profitability. We conclude that even in regions with relatively high smoking rates, pro-smoking societal attitudes and weak social norms against tobacco control, and even during periods of economic crisis, smoke-free legislation does not impact negatively on hospitality industry revenues and if anything may lead to a small positive increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Voluntary Smoke-Free Measures Among Oklahoma Nightlife Owners: Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson; McQuoid, Julia; Sheon, Nicolas; Olson, Sarah; Ling, Pamela M

    2018-03-01

    Smoke-free policies prevent exposure to secondhand smoke and encourage tobacco cessation. Local smoke-free policies that are more comprehensive than statewide policies are not allowed in states with preemption, including Oklahoma, which has the sixth highest smoking prevalence in the United States. In states with preemption, voluntary smoke-free measures are encouraged, but little research exists on venue owners' and managers' views of such measures, particularly in nightlife businesses such as bars and nightclubs. This article draws from semistructured interviews with 23 Oklahoma bar owners and managers, examining perceived risks and benefits of adopting voluntary smoke-free measures in their venues. No respondents expressed awareness of preemption. Many reported that smoke-free bars and nightclubs were an inevitable societal trend, particularly as younger customers increasingly expected smoke-free venues. Business benefits such as decreased operating and cleaning costs, improved atmosphere, and employee efficiency were more convincing than improved employee health. Concerns that voluntary measures created an uneven playing field among venues competing for customers formed a substantial barrier to voluntary measures. Other barriers included concerns about lost revenue and fear of disloyalty to customers, particularly older smokers. Addressing business benefits and a level playing field may increase support for voluntary smoke-free nightlife measures.

  10. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  11. Assessment of the smoke-free outdoor regulation in the WHO European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Guydish, Joseph; Robinson, Gillian; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose María; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the level of protection of secondhand smoke in outdoor locations among countries belonging to the WHO European Region. This cross-sectional study measures the level of protection provided by laws in outdoor locations. A protocol to evaluate the outdoor smoke-free legislation was developed according to the recommendations provided by the WHO Guidelines for implementing smoke-free outdoor places. For each law 6 main sectors and 28 outdoor locations were evaluated. 68 laws from 48 countries were reviewed, totally assessing 1758 locations. Overall 3.1% of the locations specified 100% smoke-free outdoor regulation without exceptions, 2.5% permitted smoking in designated outdoor areas, 37.5% allowed smoking everywhere, and 56.9% did not provide information about how to deal with smoking in outdoor places. In the Education sector 17.8% of the laws specified smoke-free outdoor regulation, mainly in the primary and secondary schools. Three pioneering laws from recreational locations and two from general health facilities specified 100% outdoor smoke-free regulation. Outdoor smoke-free policies among countries belonging to the WHO European Region are limited and mainly have been passed in the primary and secondary schools, which protect minors from the hazards of secondhand smoke in educational settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  13. The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Lal, Anita; Hyland, Andrew; McCaul, Kieran; Miller, Caroline

    2002-08-01

    Despite evidence to the contrary from overseas research, the introduction of smoke-free legislation in South Australia (SA), which required all restaurants to go smoke-free in January 1999, sparked concerns among the hospitality industry about loss of restaurant business. This study aimed to determine whether the law had a detrimental impact on restaurant business in SA. Using time series analysis, we compared the ratio of monthly restaurant turnover from restaurants and cafés in SA to (a) total retail tumover in SA (minus restaurants) for the years 1991 to 2001 and (b) Australian restaurant tumover (minus SA, Westem Australia and the Australian Capital Territory) for the years 1991-2000. There was no decline in the ratio of (a) SA restaurant turnover to SA retail turnover or (b) SA restaurant tumover to Australian restaurant turnover. The introduction of a smoke-free law applying to restaurants in SA did not adversely affect restaurant business in SA.

  14. Legal and political obstacles to smoke-free regulation in Minnesota regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Kerry; Forman, Carolyn

    2008-12-01

    As communities move toward statewide smoke-free regulation, progress is often stymied by legal and political challenges that arise when multiple cities and counties share regulatory power within what is, for economic purposes, a single population center. Political challenges are exacerbated by legal inconsistencies and uncertainties, such as confusing and conflicting lawmaking power in boards of health, cities or counties, and diverse procedures and timelines for adopting and amending ordinances. Surprisingly little research is available about the legal and political obstacles communities face in regulating tobacco on a regional basis. Researchers used case study methodology to analyze legal and political challenges that seven multi-jurisdictional Minnesota regions faced in smoke-free ordinance campaigns between 2000 and 2006, to examine the approaches regulatory authorities took in each of these communities, and to identify strategies to help public health advocates, health organizations, policymakers, and legal professionals anticipate, avoid, and address these obstacles. Legal impediments included confusing rules for passing smoke-free laws via ballot measures (initiatives and referenda); distracting lawsuits; and conflicts over legal jurisdiction. Political challenges included the recurrent argument for regional consistency, protracted timelines, pending legislation and elections, and mayoral vetoes. Legal and political challenges similar to those in this study appear in smoke-free campaigns across the U.S. By recognizing the risks posed by these obstacles, advocates will be better prepared to advance smoke-free policies effectively.

  15. Smoke-free signage in public parks: impacts on smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platter, Heather N; Pokorny, Steven B

    2018-07-01

    Behavioural interventions, such as smoke-free signage, are used to support air quality in public outdoor spaces that are not protected by a smoke-free policy, such as states with preemptive clause legislation. However, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. This paper is an evaluation of whether smoke-free signage posted in public parks altered smoking behaviours of park patrons. A time-series quasi-experimental design was used. Cigarette butts were collected at the same day and time every week in ten amenities within four parks in 2011. Each park completed a baseline period until a stable trend emerged at six weeks, then received smoke-free signage for the six week intervention period. There were 1684 cigarette butts collected during baseline and 1008 collected during the intervention phase. Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that smoking at seven out of ten amenities decreased and the overall decrease was significant at p=0.028. Individual parks and amenities grouped by type did not experience a statistically significant change. A neighbourhood median income trend was visually discovered, revealing that as income increased, there was a greater decrease in cigarette butts. This study provides evidence on the impact of smoke-free signage not supported by local ordinance in public parks using a reproducible measure. States, especially those with a preemptive clause legislation, may benefit from incorporating smoke-free signage in public areas to protect community members from exposure to tobacco smoke, reduce littering, and denormalise smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Smoke-free medical students' meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Colin; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years...... to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside....

  17. Effective smoke-free policies in achieving a high level of compliance with smoke-free law: experiences from a district of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Singh, Rana J; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-07-01

    Compliance survey of smoke-free law is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. They also help policy makers to take action where strengthening measures are required. India has a comprehensive tobacco control law known as Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA 2003) which prohibits smoking in public places and requires display of 'No smoking' signages with proper specifications at conspicuous points. However, its implementation and enforcement are still a matter of concern. To ascertain the level of compliance with smoke-free law in public places of a district of North India. A cross sectional study was conducted in the months of November-December 2011 in district SAS Nagar Mohali of North India. The public places including hotels/restaurants/bars/shopping malls, government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities and transit stations were surveyed. The study tool was adapted from the guide on 'Assessing compliance with smoke-free law' developed jointly by the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The overall compliance rate towards section 4 of COTPA was 92.3%. No active smoking was observed in 94.2% of the public places. In 90% of the public places 'No Smoking' signage were displayed as per COTPA. Health and educational institutions had maximum compliance with the smoke-free law while transit sites showed the least compliance. Compliance to the smoke-free law was high in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Economic evaluation of a 100% smoke-free law on the hospitality industry in an Argentinean province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Carlos; Rossini, Gustavo; Depetris de Guiguet, Edith; Costa, Oscar; Schoj, Verónica

    2012-06-01

    To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smoke-free environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.

  19. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. Economic impact of a noncomprehensive smoke-free air law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Keith, Jennifer D; Brown, Deborah P; Meyer, Joy Blankley

    2014-07-01

    Many stakeholders were interested in the potential economic impact of Pennsylvania's 2008 Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA). This study focused on the examination of economic change subsequent to CIAA and, because CIAA allows certain venue exemptions among eating and drinking establishments, if the allowance of exemptions influenced that impact. Policy analysis. Prais-Winsten regressions were employed to assess effects of CIAA and law exemptions on county-level quarterly taxable sales in restaurants and drinking establishments. Regressions controlled for general economic activity, trends in eating/drinking establishment sales, seasonality, and county characteristics. Across models, CIAA had no significant negative effects on taxable sales in full-/limited-service restaurants or drinking establishments and some positive effects. CIAA exemptions for drinking establishments do not offer a clear economic benefit. Restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales were strongly related to overall economic conditions and seasonality. After controlling for confounding factors, and consistent with the weight of the evidence from literature on the economic impact of smoke-free policies, our study concludes that the Pennsylvania CIAA had no negative effects on per capita restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales. High rates of drinking establishment exemptions were not economically beneficial. This study can inform efforts to make smoke-free laws more comprehensive. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Economic effects of Ohio's smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the Ohio statewide smoke-free law is associated with economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky counties that lie on the border between the two states. In November 2006, Ohio implemented a comprehensive statewide smoke-free law for all indoor workplaces. A feasible generalised least squares (FLGS) time series design to estimate the impact of the Ohio smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties. Six Kentucky and six Ohio counties that lie on the border between the two states. All reporting hospitality and accommodation establishments in all Kentucky and Ohio counties including but not limited to food and drinking establishments, hotels and casinos. Total number of employees, total wages paid and number of reported establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services, 6 years before Ohio's law and 1 year after. There is no evidence of a disproportionate change in economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky border counties relative to their non-border counterparts. There was no evidence of a relation between Ohio's smoke-free law and economic activity in Kentucky border counties. The law generated a positive influence on wages and number of establishments in Ohio border counties. The null result cannot be explained by low test power, as minimum changes necessary in the dependent variables to detect a significant influence are very reasonable in size. Our data add to the large body of evidence that smoke-free laws are neutral with respect to the hospitality business across jurisdictions with and without laws.

  2. Moving toward people's needs for smoke-free restaurants: before and after a national promotion program in Taiwan, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hua; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Chien, Ling-Chu; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-Yu; Han, Bor-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    In Taiwan, the Smoke-Free Restaurant Program (SFRP) was implemented from 2003 to 2005 as an initial phase before the introduction of restrictive legislation promoting smoke-free restaurants (SFRs). No studies have evaluated trends in public opinion before and after a national health promotion campaign for the introduction of SFRs on a voluntary basis. The present study investigated whether public opinion with respect to eliminating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in restaurants changed after implementation of the SFRP. Data were obtained from four large-scale, nationally representative surveys conducted in 2003-2005 before and after implementation of the SFRP. Weighted analyses were performed to obtain nationally representative results. After a series of SFRP campaigns, reported exposure to ETS in restaurants by survey participants decreased by approximately 14%. Approximately 20% more people had heard of SFRs, and approximately 25% more had chosen to dine in a smoke-free restaurant. We found consistently high community support for SFRs (ca. 95%), and approximately 80% supported smoke-free restaurant legislation, although both rates dropped slightly in 2005. People aged 60 years or more, nonsmokers, and those who had greater knowledge of ETS hazards were more likely to support smoke-free restaurant legislation. The SFRP was effective at promoting SFRs on a voluntary basis. Strong community endorsement has major implications for legislators who are considering the nature and extent of further smoke-free restaurant legislation in Taiwan and other countries.

  3. [Smoke-free environment--nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Czarnecka, Karolina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations in public places. The study population consisted of 299 nurses. Among the study population questionnaire was conducted including socio-demographic characteristic, smoking and ETS profile, knowledge about health effects of smoking and abilities for conduction of antismoking counseling. Detail information was collected about nurse opinion on smoke-free public places such as offices, other workplaces, health and educational buildings, restaurants and bars. About 18% of study participants declared current tobacco smoking and 25% were former smokers. Almost all participating in the study women (85%-98%) are in favor of smoking ban in offices, health and educational buildings. 75% supported smoking ban in workplaces but 15% of them were somewhat opposed. Most of the nurses were in favor of smoke-free restaurants (64%) but they were less likely to support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (45%). Unfortunately 63% of interview women do not accept smoking ban in private cars. The percentage of women who support total ban of smoking in the presence of pregnant women was 93% and in the presence of children 79%. It is important to conduct educational and informational activities to increase public awareness on health consequences of active and passive smoking and the ways of elimination of such exposures.

  4. Impacto de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo (Ley 42/2010 en los niveles de humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010 on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Córdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la contaminación por humo ambiental de tabaco en una muestra de locales de hostelería antes y después de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo. Métodos: Estudio evaluativo antes-después realizado en 2008 y 2011, tras la prohibición total. Medición de partículas respirables (PM2,5 mediante SidePack Aerosol Monitor en el interior de los locales y en el exterior. Se incluyeron 43 locales con mediciones antes y después de la legislación. Resultados: La concentración mediana de PM2,5 en el interior de los locales en 2008 fue 204,2μg/m³, y en 2011 fue 18,62μg/m³; en el exterior, en 2008 fue 47,04μg/m³ y en 2011 fue 18,82μg/m³. Las concentraciones más altas se encontraron en bares y cafeterías, seguidos de los locales de ocio nocturno. La contaminación en 2008 era 4,34 veces más alta en el interior de los locales que en el exterior; en 2011, la concentración de PM2,5 disminuyó un 90,88% en el interior. Conclusiones: La prohibición total de fumar en los locales de hostelería protege a trabajadores y clientes de los riesgos para la salud de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco.Objective: To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Methods: A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5. A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. Results: The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average

  5. Smoke-free air policies: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Andrew; Barnoya, Joaquin; Corral, Juan E

    2012-03-01

    Smoke-free policies have been an important tobacco control intervention. As recently as 20 years ago, few communities required workplaces and hospitality venues to be smoke-free, but today approximately 11% of the world's population live in countries with laws that require these places to be smoke-free. This paper briefly summarises important milestones in the history of indoor smoke-free policies, the role of scientific research in facilitating their adoption, a framework for smoke-free policy evaluation and industry efforts to undermine regulations. At present, smoke-free policies centre on workplaces, restaurants and pubs. In addition, many jurisdictions are now beginning to implement policies in outdoor areas and in shared multiunit housing settings. The future of smoke-free policy development depends on credible scientific data that documents the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure. Over the next 20 years smoke-free policies will very likely extend to outdoor and private areas, and changes in the types of tobacco products that are consumed may also have implications for the nature and scope of the smoke-free policies of the future.

  6. The influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke harm awareness: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; de Vries, H.; Crone, M.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign about Dutch smoke-free legislation on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke (SHS) harm awareness. Design and main outcome measures: A content analysis was conducted of 1041 newspaper

  7. Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Quan; Hammond, S Katharine; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2008-05-01

    To examine the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure. Survey of smoking policies and measurement of SHS level in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China. Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly after the policy was enacted. Enactment of a smoking policy was effective in reducing SHS exposure in the buildings. Nonsmoking office workers in China were exposed to significant levels of SHS at work; both the central and local governments should realize the need to legislate against workplace smoking.

  8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-free Policy in Philadelphia Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C; Lee, Nora L; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Ward, Rikki; Shuster, Michelle; Ogbenna, Bethany Townsend; Wade, Anita; Boamah, Maxwell; Osayameh, Olufunlayo; Rule, Ana M; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Bragg, Virginius; Mallya, Giridhar

    2017-04-01

    Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas. Average nicotine level differences across years were estimated with multi-level models. Fifty-six percent of respondents smoked. Only 37% of households were smoke-free, with another 41% restricting smoking by area or time of day. The number of locations with detectable nicotine did not differ before and after policy implementation, with approximately 20% of non-smoking homes and 70%-80% of public areas having detectable nicotine. However, public area nicotine levels were lower in 2016, after policy implementation, than in 2013 and 2014 (-0.19 μg/m 3 , p = .03). Findings suggest that initial policy implementation was associated with reduced SHS exposure in Philadelphia. As HUD strengthens smoke-free policies, SHS monitoring can be useful to educate stakeholders and build support for policy enforcement.

  9. Support for smoke-free policy, and awareness of tobacco health effects and use of smoking cessation therapy in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing an epidemic increase in smoking prevalence is a major challenge for developing countries. Ghana, has maintained a low smoking prevalence despite the presence of cigarette manufacturing for many decades. Some of this success may have been contributed by cultural factors and attitudes. We have studied public awareness of health risks, attitudes to smoke-free policy, tobacco advertising/promotion and other factors in a Ghanaian population sample. Methods We used two-stage cluster randomized sampling to study household members aged 14 and over in a representative household sample in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Results 6258 people, 88% of those eligible, took part in the study. Knowledge of health risks of smoking and passive smoking was high; radio was the main source of such information. Most people work and/or spend time in places where smoking is permitted. There was very strong support (97% for comprehensive smoke-free legislation, particularly among Christians and Muslims. Despite the advertising ban, a third of respondents (35%, particularly in urban areas, had noticed advertising of tobacco or tobacco products, on the radio (72% and television (28%. Among smokers, 76% had attempted to quit in the last 6 months, with the main sources of advice being friends and spouses. Use of nicotine replacement therapy was very rare. Low levels of health awareness were seen in females compared with males (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR; 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.69, p Conclusion Awareness of health risks and support for smoke-free policy are high in Ghana. Exposure to tobacco advertising or promotion is limited and most smokers have tried to quit. Whether these findings are cause or effect of current low smoking prevalence is uncertain.

  10. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was us...

  11. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  12. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  13. Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands*

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies consistently work to prevent and undermine smoke-free laws. The tobacco industry and its allies have funded hospitality associations and other third parties to oppose smoke-free laws, argue that smoke-free laws will economically damage hospitality venues, promote ventilation and voluntary smoker ‘accommodation’ as an alternative to smoke-free laws, and to challenge smoke-free laws in court. In 2008, the Netherlands extended its smoke-free law to hospitality venue...

  14. Population support before and after the implementation of smoke-free laws in the United States: trends from 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Wolfson, Tanya; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Gamst, Anthony; Willemsen, Marc C; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Several states implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws in workplaces (14 states), restaurants (17 states), and bars (13 states) between 2002 and 2007. We tested the hypothesis that public support for smoke-free laws increases at a higher rate in states that implemented smoke-free laws between 2002 and 2007 (group A) than in states that implemented smoke-free laws after that time or not at all (group B). The period before the implementation (1992-2001) was also considered. Data was used from the Current Population Survey (CPS) Tobacco Use Supplements (TUS), which is representative for the U.S. adult population. Respondents were asked whether they thought smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas, restaurants, and bars and cocktail lounges. Differences in trends were analyzed with binomial mixed effects models. Population support for smoke-free restaurants and bars was higher among group A than among group B before 2002. After 2002, support for smoke-free restaurants and bars increased at a higher rate among group A than among group B. Population support for smoke-free workplaces did not differ between group A and B, and the increase in support for smoke-free workplaces also did not differ between these groups. The positive association between the implementation of smoke-free restaurant and bar laws and the rate of increase in support for these laws partly supported the hypothesis. The implementation of the laws may have caused support to increase, but also states that have higher support may have been more likely to implement smoke-free laws. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. "Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to "accommodate" smokers as an alternative to smoke-free policies developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid-1990s in Latin America. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT "social reports", news reports and tobacco control legislation. Since the mid-1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke-free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke-free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second-hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

  16. Correlates of Smoke-Free Home Policies in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 63.7% of nonsmokers in China are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS in their homes. The current study documents the prevalence and correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, as well as reasons for implementing such a policy and places where smoking is most commonly allowed. Methods. We conducted in-person surveys of 500 participants using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district. Results. Overall, 35.3% had a smoke-free home policy. In the logistic regression, having higher income, not having smokers in the home, having children in the home, having fewer friends/relatives who permit smoking at home, and not being a current smoker were correlates of having a smoke-free home policy P<0.05. Concern about the health impact of SHS was reportedly the most important reason for establishing a smoke-free home. Among participants with no or partial bans, the most common places where smoking was allowed included the living room (64.2%, kitchen (46.1%, and bathroom (33.8%. Conclusions. Smoke-free home policies were in place for a minority of households surveyed. Establishing such a policy was influenced by personal smoking behavior and social factors. These findings suggest an urgent need to promote smoke-free home policies through tobacco control programs.

  17. Smoke-free laws, gender, and reduction in hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Burkhart, Patricia V; Moser, Debra K

    2011-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after the passage of a smoke-free law in Lexington, Kentucky. The initial legislation had exemptions not covering manufacturing facilities and government buildings, which may have put men at greater risk for AMI. We examined the effect of Lexington's smoke-free public places law on hospitalizations for AMI (i.e., heart attack) among men and women 40 months prior to and 32 months after enactment of the law. We used the statewide administrative database (Comp Data) for all hospital billing records for the four health-care systems in Lexington-Fayette County. Cases were included in the analysis if (1) the patient was $35 years of age; (2) the patient had a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI, with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code in the range of 410.00 to 410.99; and (3) the date of service was between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Among women, AMI hospitalizations declined 23% after the law took effect. The rate of AMI events among men did not change significantly. There was an overrepresentation of women in the hospitality industry and a disproportionate number of men working in manufacturing facilities and government worksites not mandated by the law. We found gender differences in the reduction of AMI hospitalizations following implementation of a smoke-free law that covered only some sectors of the workforce. Enacting smoke-free laws that cover all places of employment and strengthening existing partial laws may extend protection against AMIs to female and male workers.

  18. Manager Factor Associated to the Compliance of Local Smoke-Free Regulation among Star Hotels in Badung District

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    Ni Luh Putu Devhy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Smoke-free area regulation has been issued recently in Bali Province and Badung District. This study aimed to identify factors associated to the compliance of local smoke-free regulation in star hotel. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in Badung District from March to May 2014. Samples of numbered 104 hotels and the managers that selected using systematic random sampling. Compliance data collected through observation using the observation form and the data of managers through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and poisson regression. Result: The results shows that the compliance of star hotel to local smoke-free regulation was low (15.4%. The concrete support of hotel managers was significantly associated with the compliance to smoke free regulation (PR=4.25; 95%CI: 1.03-17.58. The factors that not significantly associated to the compliance were the knowledge (PR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-4.9, attitude (PR=2.5; 95%CI: 0.8-8.2, and organization support (PR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5. Furthermore the hotel compliance of managers who have smoking behavior was 0% while the managers without smoking behavior, the compliance was 19.5%. Conclusion: The compliance of star hotels in Badung District on the implementation of local smoke-free regulation was relatively low and the compliance was associated with the presence of concrete support of the hotel managers. Keywords: compliance, local smoke-free legislation, star hotel

  19. Impact of smoke-free housing policy lease exemptions on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Kaufman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants. Both types of smoke-free policies helped tenants to reduce and quit smoking. However, exempting existing tenants from the policy created challenges for monitoring compliance and enforcing the policy, and resulted in ongoing tobacco smoke exposure. Moreover, some new tenants were smoking in exempted units, which undermined the policy and maintained smoking behavior. Our findings support the implementation of complete smoke-free housing policies that do not exempt existing leases to avoid many of the problems experienced by staff and tenants. In jurisdictions where exempting existing leases is still required by law, adequate staff resources for monitoring and enforcement, along with consistent and clear communication (particularly regarding balconies, patios and outdoor spaces will encourage compliance. Keywords: Smoke-free policy, Housing, Tobacco smoke pollution, Smoking cessation, Qualitative research

  20. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults-National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-10-26

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009-2010 to 2013-2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = -10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms.

  1. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults—National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009–2010 to 2013–2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = −10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms. PMID:27792208

  2. The impact of a 100% smoke-free law on the health of hospitality workers from the city of Neuquén, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Alderete, Mariela; Ruiz, Ernesto; Hasdeu, Santiago; Linetzky, Bruno; Ferrante, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 100% smoke-free environment legislation on respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms and respiratory function among bar and restaurant workers from the city of Neuquén, Argentina. Pre-ban and post-ban studies without a comparison group in an Argentinean city were conducted. A baseline survey and spirometric measurements were performed with a total of 80 bar and restaurant workers 1 month before (October 2007) and 3 months after (March 2008) the implementation of the new 100% smoke-free legislation. A significant reduction in secondhand smoke exposure was observed after the enactment and enforcement of the new legislation, and an important reduction in respiratory symptoms (from a pre-ban level of 57.5% to a post-ban level of only 28.8%). The reduction of sensory irritation symptoms was even higher. From 86.3% of workers who reported at least one sensory irritation symptom in October 2007, only 37.5% reported the same symptoms in March 2008. Also, data obtained by spirometry showed a significant forced vital capacity increase. Consistent with other studies, 100% smoke-free legislation improved short-term health outcomes in the sample and should be implemented nationwide. Furthermore, undertaking this study has been highly important in promoting 100% smoke-free environment legislation at the workplace as a legitimate right of hospitality workers, and in reducing social acceptance of designated smoking areas in bars and restaurants.

  3. Secondhand Smoke Exposure 7 Years After an Indoor Smoke-Free Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Claire, Ann W; Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Rode, Peter; Kinney, Ann M

    2018-01-01

    To examine locations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmokers, 7 years after a statewide smoke-free policy. Data collected via statewide, random digit dial telephone survey. Response rates were 64.7% for landline and 73.5% for cell phone. Minnesota, 2014. Representative sample of 7887 nonsmoking adults. Self-reported locations of SHS exposure and opinions on smoke-free restrictions. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 35.5% of nonsmokers reported SHS exposure in the past 7 days. The greatest proportion of exposure occurred in community settings (31.7%) followed by cars (6.9%) and in the home (3.2%). Young adults were more likely to be exposed in a home or car than older adults. Nonsmokers living with a smoker were 39.6 (20.6-75.8) times more likely to be exposed to SHS in their home and 5.3 (4.1-6.8) times more likely to be exposed in a car, compared to those who did not live with a smoker. SHS exposure continues after comprehensive smoke-free policies restricted it from public places. Disparities in exposure rates exist for those who live with a smoker, are young, and have low incomes. Findings suggest the need for additional policies that will have the greatest public health benefit.

  4. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  5. Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-07-01

    While there is increasing support for restricting smoking in restaurant and bar patios, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of this policy. This study examined the effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on adult second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Data were drawn from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=89,743), a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth and adult. Regression analysis, a quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of provincial smoke-free patio policy on self-reported exposure to SHS. Analyses suggest that exposure to SHS on patios of bars and restaurants declined following the adoption of provincial smoke-free patio policy. Relative to pre-policy SHS exposure, regression results showed a reduction in the probability of SHS exposure of up to 25% in Alberta. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, the probability of SHS exposure declined by up to 21%. Analyses stratified by smoking status found similar significant effect on both smokers and non-smokers. Findings suggest that provincial patio smoking ban on bars and restaurants had the intended effect of protecting non-smokers from SHS exposure. This study is consistent with a large body of evidence showing that a strong smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  7. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Homes and Vehicles Among US Adults, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Homa, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of US states and localities have implemented comprehensive policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in all indoor areas of public places and worksites. However, private settings such as homes and vehicles remain a major source of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for many people. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of voluntary smoke-free rules and SHS exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults. Methods We obtained data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular-telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older residing in the 50 US states or the District of Columbia. We calculated national and state estimates of smoke-free rules and past-7-day SHS exposure in homes and vehicles and examined national estimates by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results The national prevalence of voluntary smoke-free home rules was 81.1% (state range, 67.9%–92.9%), and the prevalence of household smoke-free vehicle rules was 73.6% (state range, 58.6%–85.8%). Among nonsmokers, the prevalence of SHS exposure was 6.0% in homes (state range, 2.4%–13.0%) and 9.2% in vehicles (state range, 4.8%–13.7%). SHS exposure among nonsmokers was greatest among men, younger adults, non-Hispanic blacks, and those with a lower level of education. Conclusion Most US adults report having voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules; however, millions of people remain exposed to SHS in these environments. Disparities in exposure also exist among certain states and subpopulations. Efforts are needed to warn about the dangers of SHS and to promote voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules. PMID:23680508

  8. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The

  9. Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon. Existing data indicate a tobacco epidemic of the first order in Africa, but the rapid increase in tobacco consumption continues. This situation justifies the current project by Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC), an initiative of IDRC and the Bill and Melinda ...

  10. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Compliance and Support for Smoke-Free School Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, D. R.; Gilpin, E. A.; Pierce, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to examine factors associated with compliance and support for a smoke-free campus before and after a 1995 campus-wide smoking ban for everyone, including teachers and visitors, in California. Adolescent (12-17 years) data from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 (N approximately 6000 each year) California Tobacco Surveys…

  12. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

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    Maria Fátima Reis

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law.Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression.Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%. Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17. Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001. Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83.Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  13. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Maria Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Aguiar, Pedro; Precioso, José; Nunes, Baltazar; Veloso, Luís; Santos, Sandra; Miguel, José Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH) sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas) adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law. Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression. Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%). Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17). Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001). Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83). Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  14. Restaurant volatility and the Iowa City, Iowa, smoke-free restaurant ordinance.

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    Sheffer, Megan A; Squier, Christopher A; Gilmore, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the economic impact of the Iowa City, Iowa, smoke-free restaurant ordinance (IC-SFRO) using an immediate and novel approach. In this retrospective study, food permit licensure served as the measure to assess the IC-SFRO impact. The Iowa City experience provided an excellent experimental setting, as the ordinance was enacted March 1, 2002, and repealed May 7, 2003, because of preemption. The city of Coralville served as a natural control, as it is contiguous to Iowa City, has similar population demographics, and has never enacted a smoke-free restaurant ordinance. Food permit licensure data for all Iowa City and Coralville restaurants were obtained from the Johnson County Health Department. Differences in restaurant volatility were assessed using Fisher's exact probability test. The number of restaurants increased in both Iowa City and Coralville throughout the ordinance period. The ratio of the total number of restaurants in Iowa City to the total number of restaurants in the Iowa City-Coralville metropolitan area remained stable. The proportion of restaurants for each city did not differ significantly during the preordinance, ordinance, and postordinance periods. The IC-SFRO did not adversely impact the restaurant industry in terms of restaurant closures. The Iowa legislature was urged to draft evidence-based legislation, such as amending preemption of the IC-SFRO, to protect and promote the health of its communities.

  15. Use of electronic cigarettes in smoke-free environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Cummins, Sharon E; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Although most US states prohibit cigarette smoking in public places and worksites, fewer jurisdictions regulate indoor use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Given the dramatic increase in e-cigarette use and concern about its impact on non-users, there is a need to examine the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments and related attitudes and perceptions. Recruited from a nationally representative adult panel (GfK's KnowledgePanel), 952 current users of e-cigarettes completed a cross-sectional online survey in 2014. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine the factors associated with ever using e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments. Overall, 59.5% of e-cigarette users had vaped where cigarette smoking was not allowed. Young adults (18-29 years) were most likely to do so, 74.2%. The places of first-time use most often mentioned were service venues (bar, restaurant, lounge and club), 30.7%, followed by worksites, 23.5%. Daily e-cigarette users were more likely to have vaped in smoke-free environments than non-daily users (OR=2.08, p=0.012). Only 2.5% of those who used e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments reported negative reactions from other people. Most e-cigarette users did not think e-cigarettes are harmful to themselves or to by-standers, and thus should not be banned where smoking is; those who had used e-cigarettes where smoking is banned were even more likely to hold these views. E-cigarette use in smoke-free environments was common, suggesting that most e-cigarette users do not consider smoke-free laws to apply to e-cigarettes. Explicit laws should be considered if jurisdictions want to prohibit e-cigarette use in public places. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India.

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    Nichter, Mimi; Padmajam, Sreedevi; Nichter, Mark; Sairu, P; Aswathy, S; Mini, G K; Bindu, V C; Pradeepkumar, A S; Thankappan, K R

    2015-05-10

    Results of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Kerala, India found that 42 % of adults were exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) inside the home. Formative research carried out in rural Kerala suggests that exposure may be much higher. Numerous studies have called for research and intervention on SHS exposure among women and children as an important component of maternal and child health activities. Community-based participatory research was carried out in Kerala. First, a survey was conducted to assess prevalence of SHS exposure in households. Next, a proof of concept study was conducted to develop and test the feasibility of a community-wide smoke free homes initiative. Educational materials were developed and pretested in focus groups. After feasibility was established, pilot studies were implemented in two other communities. Post intervention, surveys were conducted as a means of assessing changes in community support. At baseline, between 70 and 80 % of male smokers regularly smoked inside the home. Over 80 % of women had asked their husband not to do so. Most women felt powerless to change their husband's behavior. When women were asked about supporting a smoke free homes intervention, 88 % expressed support for the idea, but many expressed doubt that their husbands would comply. Educational meetings were held to discuss the harms of second hand smoke. Community leaders signed a declaration that their community was part of the smoke free homes initiative. Six months post intervention a survey was conducted in these communities; between 34 and 59 % of men who smoked no longer smoked in their home. The smoke free homes initiative is based on the principle of collective efficacy. Recognizing the difficulty for individual women to effect change in their household, the movement establishes a smoke free community mandate. Based on evaluation data from two pilot studies, we can project that between a 30 and 60 % reduction of smoking in the home may be achieved, the

  17. Attitudes of students of a health sciences university towards the extension of smoke-free policies at the university campuses of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Méndez, Carlos; Sánchez, María; Martínez-Sánchez, José María

    To assess attitudes towards the extension of outdoor smoke-free areas on university campuses. Cross-sectional study (n=384) conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical and nursing students in Barcelona in 2014. Information was obtained pertaining to support for indoor and outdoor smoking bans on university campuses, and the importance of acting as role models. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine agreement. Most of the students agreed on the importance of health professionals and students as role models (74.9% and 64.1%, respectively) although there were statistically significant differences by smoking status and age. 90% of students reported exposure to smoke on campus. Students expressed strong support for indoor smoke-free policies (97.9%). However, only 39.3% of participants supported regulation of outdoor smoking for university campuses. Non-smokers (OR=12.315; 95% CI: 5.377-28.204) and students ≥22 years old (OR=3.001; 95% CI: 1.439-6.257) were the strongest supporters. The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  19. The economic impact of Mexico City's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carlos Manuel Guerrero; Ruiz, Jorge Alberto Jiménez; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Waters, Hugh R

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of Mexico City's 2008 smoke-free law--The Non-Smokers' Health Protection Law on restaurants, bars and nightclubs. We used the Monthly Services Survey of businesses from January 2005 to April 2009--with revenues, employment and payments to employees as the principal outcomes. The results are estimated using a differences-in-differences regression model with fixed effects. The states of Jalisco, Nuevo León and México, where the law was not in effect, serve as a counterfactual comparison group. In restaurants, after accounting for observable factors and the fixed effects, there was a 24.8% increase in restaurants' revenue associated with the smoke-free law. This difference is not statistically significant but shows that, on average, restaurants did not suffer economically as a result of the law. Total wages increased by 28.2% and employment increased by 16.2%. In nightclubs, bars and taverns there was a decrease of 1.5% in revenues and an increase of 0.1% and 3.0%, respectively, in wages and employment. None of these effects are statistically significant in multivariate analysis. There is no statistically significant evidence that the Mexico City smoke-free law had a negative impact on restaurants' income, employees' wages and levels of employment. On the contrary, the results show a positive, though statistically non-significant, impact of the law on most of these outcomes. Mexico City's experience suggests that smoke-free laws in Mexico and elsewhere will not hurt economic productivity in the restaurant and bar industries.

  20. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules in Maine before and after passage of a smoke-free vehicle law, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Madden, Patrick; Maines, Dorean; Coles, Carol

    2014-01-16

    This is the first study to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoke-free rules for private cars and homes before and after the passage of a smoke-free vehicle law. Data were examined for 13,461 Maine adults aged 18 or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey covering health topics. Self-reported smoke-free car and home rules, smoking behavior, and demographic variables of age, sex, education, income, and children in household were analyzed for prevalence before and after the state's smoke-free vehicle law was passed. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules was significantly higher after Maine's smoke-free vehicle law was passed in the state (P = .004 for car rules and P = .009 for home rules). Variations in smoking rules differed by smoking and demographic variables. People with household incomes of less than $20,000 saw an increase of 14.3% in smoke-free car rules; overall, those with annual incomes of less than $20,000 and those with less than a high school education reported a lower prevalence of smoke-free car rules both before and after the law was passed than did people with higher incomes and higher education levels. The prevalence of smoke-free home rules after the law was implemented was higher among those with 4 or more years of college education than among those with lower levels of education (P = .02). The prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules among Maine adults was significantly higher after the passage of a statewide smoke-free vehicle law. This apparent change in smoke-free rule prevalence may be indicative of changing social norms related to the unacceptability of secondhand smoke exposure.

  1. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  2. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  3. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  4. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  5. Building on the success of ten years of comprehensive smokefree legislation in England

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    Ailsa Rutter

    2018-03-01

    The success of the smokefree law has led the way in increasing public support for existing and potential tobacco control measures. It has provided the opportunity to go beyond the scope of the law by introducing new smokefree areas. Further legislation to make all private vehicles smokefree would be welcome. It has been important to place this work within an overall programme where quitting tobacco remains the goal. Overall smoking in the NE has declined by 41% in this decade.

  6. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

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    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws.

  7. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-06-10

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-free rules among all South Africans, and prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at work, at home, and at hospitality venues among non-smokers. Overall, 70.6% of all South African adults had 100% smoke-free rules in their private cars, 62.5% in their homes, while 63.9% worked in places with 100% smoke-free policies. Overall, 55.9% of all non-smokers reported exposure to SHS from at least one source (i.e., in the home, workplace or at a hospitality venue). By specific source of exposure, 18.4% reported being exposed to SHS at work, 25.2% at home, 33.4% in a restaurant, and 32.7% at a bar. Presence of work bans on indoor smoking conferred lower likelihood of SHS exposure at work among non-smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.60). Similarly, smoke-free home rules decreased the odds of being exposed to SHS at home among non-smokers (aOR =0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.30). Over half of South African adults reported SHS exposure in the home or at public places such as the workplace and at hospitality venues. This underscores the need for comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all public indoor areas without exemptions.

  9. Impact of the implementation of a smoke free law in Serbia on exposure to tobacco smoke in different settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosic Bibic Nada

    2017-05-01

    Results indicate that the implementation of the Smoke Free Law in Serbia led to a decrease in exposure to tobacco smoke in all places where smoking is banned. Legislation should be improved to protect customers and workers from exposure to tobacco smoke in the hospitality sector. It is necessary to improve compliance with the law as 23% of the population is exposed to tobacco smoke at work despite the ban. High exposure to tobacco smoke in citizens’ homes calls for implementation of campaigns aimed at the general population.

  10. The impact of a 100% smoke-free law on the health of hospitality workers from the city of Neuquén, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Mariela; Ruiz, Ernesto; Hasdeu, Santiago; Linetzky, Bruno; Ferrante, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 100% smoke-free environment legislation on respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms and respiratory function among bar and restaurant workers from the city of Neuquén, Argentina. Methods Pre-ban and post-ban studies without a comparison group in an Argentinean city were conducted. A baseline survey and spirometric measurements were performed with a total of 80 bar and restaurant workers 1 month before (October 2007) and 3 months after (March 2008) the implementation of the new 100% smoke-free legislation. Results A significant reduction in secondhand smoke exposure was observed after the enactment and enforcement of the new legislation, and an important reduction in respiratory symptoms (from a pre-ban level of 57.5% to a post-ban level of only 28.8%). The reduction of sensory irritation symptoms was even higher. From 86.3% of workers who reported at least one sensory irritation symptom in October 2007, only 37.5% reported the same symptoms in March 2008. Also, data obtained by spirometry showed a significant forced vital capacity increase. Conclusions Consistent with other studies, 100% smoke-free legislation improved short-term health outcomes in the sample and should be implemented nationwide. Furthermore, undertaking this study has been highly important in promoting 100% smoke-free environment legislation at the workplace as a legitimate right of hospitality workers, and in reducing social acceptance of designated smoking areas in bars and restaurants. PMID:20378587

  11. Passing a smoke-free law in a pro-tobacco culture: a multiple streams approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, Lisa W; Hahn, Ellen J; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Warnick, Todd A; Riker, Carol A

    2005-08-01

    This article describes a case study of the policy development and political decision-making process involved in the enactment of Lexington, Kentucky's smoke-free law. The multiple streams framework is used to analyze the development of the law in a seemingly unlikely and challenging political environment. Proponents developed a dissemination research plan targeted at policy makers and the public to demonstrate the need for a comprehensive law. The existence of a strong coalition of health care providers and health care systems including the board of health, as well as long-standing tobacco control expertise and a strong legal team, were essential ingredients for success. A deliberate strategy to expose the tobacco industry was effective in preparing policy makers for the opponents' policy arguments. As expected, a hospitality industry association was formed to oppose the ordinance, resulting in a legal challenge that delayed enactment of the law.

  12. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-05

    This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 µg/m 3 ) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 µg/m 3 ) in smoke-free establishments. In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the

  13. Smoke-free policies in New Zealand public tertiary education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A; Marsh, L

    2015-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process. Stage one comprised an audit and content analysis of smoke-free policies. In stage two, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the process of developing and implementing policies. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken on interview notes. Policies were identified for most institutions (n = 26/29), though varied widely in nature. Only nine mandated 100% smoke-free campuses without exceptions and few prohibited the sale of tobacco on campus, or connections with the tobacco industry. During interviews (n = 22/29), cited barriers to developing a 100% smoke-free policy included enforcement challenges and anticipated opposition from staff and students. However, participants from institutions with 100% smoke-free policies reported having encountered few challenges. Varying levels of compliance with 100% smoke-free policies were reported yet, overall, these policies were viewed as being effective. Smoke-free campus policies could be strengthened to better reflect a completely tobacco-free organization. Other institutions and workplaces could use these findings to develop 100% smoke-free policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The economic impact of a smoke-free bylaw on restaurant and bar sales in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Rita; Ferrence, Roberta; Gmel, Gerhard

    2006-05-01

    On 1 August 2001, the City of Ottawa (Canada's Capital) implemented a smoke-free bylaw that completely prohibited smoking in work-places and public places, including restaurants and bars, with no exemption for separately ventilated smoking rooms. This paper evaluates the effects of this bylaw on restaurant and bar sales. DATA AND MEASURES: We used retail sales tax data from March 1998 to June 2002 to construct two outcome measures: the ratio of licensed restaurant and bar sales to total retail sales and the ratio of unlicensed restaurant sales to total retail sales. Restaurant and bar sales were subtracted from total retail sales in the denominator of these measures. We employed an interrupted time-series design. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis was used to test for three possible impacts that the bylaw might have on the sales of restaurants and bars. We repeated the analysis using regression with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) errors method to triangulate our results. Outcome measures showed declining trends at baseline before the bylaw went into effect. Results from ARIMA intervention and regression analyses did not support the hypotheses that the smoke-free bylaw had an impact that resulted in (1) abrupt permanent, (2) gradual permanent or (3) abrupt temporary changes in restaurant and bar sales. While a large body of research has found no significant adverse impact of smoke-free legislation on restaurant and bar sales in the United States, Australia and elsewhere, our study confirms these results in a northern region with a bilingual population, which has important implications for impending policy in Europe and other areas.

  15. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  16. Who Smokes in Smoke-Free Public Places in China? Findings from a 21 City Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included…

  17. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  18. Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-02-01

    Tobacco companies consistently work to prevent and undermine smoke-free laws. The tobacco industry and its allies have funded hospitality associations and other third parties to oppose smoke-free laws, argue that smoke-free laws will economically damage hospitality venues, promote ventilation and voluntary smoker 'accommodation' as an alternative to smoke-free laws, and to challenge smoke-free laws in court. In 2008, the Netherlands extended its smoke-free law to hospitality venues. We triangulated news articles, government documents, scientific papers, statistical reports and interviews to construct this case study. Despite widespread public support for smoke-free hospitality venues, opponents successfully represented these laws as unpopular and damaging to small bars. These challenges and related smokers' rights activities resulted in non-compliance among all bars and reinstating an exemption for small, owner-run venues. This policy reversal was the result of a weak implementing media campaign (which failed to present the law as protecting nonsmokers), smoking room exemptions and reactive (vs. proactive) measures by the Ministry of Health and civil society. The policy failure in the Netherlands is the result of poor implementation efforts and the failure to anticipate and deal with opposition to the law. When implementing smoke-free laws it is important to anticipate opposition, used the media to target non-smokers to reinforce public support, and actively enforce the law.

  19. Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies consistently work to prevent and undermine smoke-free laws. The tobacco industry and its allies have funded hospitality associations and other third parties to oppose smoke-free laws, argue that smoke-free laws will economically damage hospitality venues, promote ventilation and voluntary smoker ‘accommodation’ as an alternative to smoke-free laws, and to challenge smoke-free laws in court. In 2008, the Netherlands extended its smoke-free law to hospitality venues. Methods: We triangulated news articles, government documents, scientific papers, statistical reports and interviews to construct this case study. Results: Despite widespread public support for smoke-free hospitality venues, opponents successfully represented these laws as unpopular and damaging to small bars. These challenges and related smokers’ rights activities resulted in non-compliance among all bars and reinstating an exemption for small, owner-run venues. This policy reversal was the result of a weak implementing media campaign (which failed to present the law as protecting nonsmokers), smoking room exemptions and reactive (vs. proactive) measures by the Ministry of Health and civil society. Conclusion: The policy failure in the Netherlands is the result of poor implementation efforts and the failure to anticipate and deal with opposition to the law. When implementing smoke-free laws it is important to anticipate opposition, used the media to target non-smokers to reinforce public support, and actively enforce the law. PMID:22143826

  20. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  1. Support for smoke-free restaurants among Massachusetts adults, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D R; Mucci, L A

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined trends and predictors of public support for smoke-free restaurants in Massachusetts. Since 1992, the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System has asked survey respondents about their attitudes toward smoking in restaurants. Analyses using data from 1992 to 1999 characterized changes over time in support for smoke-free restaurants and the role of demographic and smoking-related factors in predicting support. During 1992 to 1999, the rate of support for smoke-free restaurants increased from 37.5% to 59.8%, with similar increases among current, former, and never smokers. After adjustment for smoking status, support was associated with socioeconomic characteristics, race/ethnicity, and household smoking rules. Among current smokers, lighter smokers and those who were trying to quit were more likely to endorse smoke-free restaurants. There has been a substantial increase in support for smoke-free restaurants among both smokers and nonsmokers in Massachusetts.

  2. [Perception over smoke-free policies amongst bar and restaurant representatives in central Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Gimeno, David; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Amick, Benjamin C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the perceptions and appreciations over smoke-free environments of restaurant and bar managers from four cities in central Mexico. Managers from 219 restaurants and bars from Mexico City, Colima, Cuernavaca and Toluca were surveyed about smoke-free environments opinions and implementation. Simultaneously, environmental nicotine was monitored. The majority of surveyed managers considered public places should be smoke-free, although more than half were concerned with potential economic loses. Implementation of smoke-free environments was more frequent in Mexico City (85.4%) than in the other cities (15.3% overall), with consequently lower environmental nicotine concentrations. Managers acknowledge the need to create smoke-free environments. Concerns over economic negative effects derived from the prohibition could explain, at least partially, the rejection of this sector towards the implementation of this type of policy.

  3. Smoke-Free Workplaces Are Associated with Protection from Second-Hand Smoke at Homes in Nigeria: Evidence for Population-Level Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence suggests that smoke-free workplace policies may change social norms towards exposing others to second-hand smoke at home. The aim of the study was to assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace (SFWP is associated with living in a smoke-free home (SFH. We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Nigeria in 2012, in which 9,765 individuals were interviewed including 1,856 persons who worked indoors. The percentage of Nigerians employed in SFWP that reported living in a SFH was higher compared to those employed in a workplace where smoking occurred (95% versus 73%. Working in a SFWP was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of living in a SFH (OR = 5.3; p<0.001. Urban inhabitants indicated more frequently that they lived in SFH compared to rural residents (OR = 2.0; p=0.006. The odds of living in a SFH were significantly higher among nonsmokers and nonsmokeless tobacco users compared to smokers and smokeless tobacco users (OR = 28.8; p<0.001; OR = 7.0; p<0.001. These findings support the need for implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies in Nigeria that result in substantial health benefits.

  4. Legislators' beliefs on tobacco control policies in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nancy L; Pritsos, Chris A; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Nevada legislators' views on comprehensive smoke-free (SF) policy development. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) is a weak law that prohibits smoking in most indoor public places, excluding stand-alone bars and casino gaming areas. Nevada's state senators and assembly members were contacted to participate in the study. A literature review guided modifications of an instrument previously used to measure county-level officials' policy views in Kentucky. Descriptive statistics were conducted for selected variables, while independent t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences between various groups. 23 of 63 legislators participated. Even though the majority of officials recognized smoking as a health hazard and nicotine as addictive, there was not overwhelming support for strengthening the NCIAA, raising cigarette excise taxes or providing cessation benefits to citizens. Officials believed that the NCIAA was having a negative economic impact on smaller gaming businesses, but not on the casino industry. Democrats were more likely than Republicans to agree that raising the excise tax by $1 is important for needed state revenues. 63% of legislators believed that they would be persuaded to strengthen the NCIAA regardless of its financial impact on small businesses, if their constituents supported such a move. No other state relies on gaming revenues as much as Nevada. Given that legislators are strongly influenced by their constituents' views, policy advocates need to establish grassroots support for strengthening the current NCIAA and also tobacco control laws in general.

  5. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  6. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  7. Reactions to smoke-free public policies and smoke-free home policies in the Republic of Georgia: results from a 2014 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Topuridze, Marina; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Shishniashvili, Maia; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-05-01

    We examined receptivity to public smoke-free policies and smoke-free home status among adults in the Republic of Georgia. In Spring 2014, we conducted a national household survey of 1163 adults. Our sample was on average 42.4 years old, 51.1 % male, and 43.2 % urban. Current smoking prevalence was 54.2 % in men and 6.5 % in women. Notably, 42.2 % reported daily secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Past week SHSe was 29.9 % in indoor public places and 33.0 % in outdoor public places. The majority reported no opposition to public smoke-free policies. Correlates of greater receptivity to public policies included being older, female, and a nonsmoker. Past week SHSe in homes was 54.2 %; 38.8 % reported daily SHSe at home. Only 14.3 % reported complete smoke-free home policies; 39.0 % had partial policies. The only correlate of allowing smoking in the home was being a smoker. Among smokers, correlates of allowing smoking in the home were being male and lower confidence in quitting. SHSe is prevalent in various settings in Georgia, requiring efforts to promote support for public smoke-free policies and implementation of personal policies.

  8. Sociodemographic Disparities in Local Smoke-Free Law Coverage in 10 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; King, Brian A; Babb, Stephen D; Xu, Xin; Hallett, Cynthia; Hopkins, Maggie

    2015-09-01

    We assessed sociodemographic disparities in local 100% smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in all indoor areas of nonhospitality worksites, restaurants, and bars in 10 states. We obtained data on local 100% smoke-free laws (US Tobacco Control Laws Database) and subcounty characteristics (2006-2010 American Community Survey) for Alabama, Alaska, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. Outcomes included (1) 100% smoke-free law covering restaurants, bars, and workplaces; (2) 100% smoke-free law covering restaurants, bars, or workplaces; and (3) number of venue types covered by 100% smoke-free laws (0-3). Sociodemographics included total population, urban status, percentage racial/ethnic minority, per capita income, percentage with high-school diploma, percentage with blue-collar jobs, and percentage of workers who live and work in the same locality. Across states, localities with less-educated residents, smaller proportions of workers living and working in the same locality, or both generally had lower odds of being covered by 100% smoke-free laws. Coverage varied across states for other sociodemographics. Disparities exist in local smoke-free law coverage. Identifying patterns in coverage can inform state efforts to address related disparities.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of France's Indoor Smoke-Free Law 1 Year and 5 Years after Implementation: Findings from the ITC France Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Geoffrey T; Craig, Lorraine V; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E; Tait, Megan K; Driezen, Pete; Kennedy, Ryan David; Boudreau, Christian; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Deutsch, Antoine; Beck, François

    2013-01-01

    France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law in two phases: Phase 1 (February 2007) banned smoking in workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals, and schools; Phase 2 (January 2008) banned smoking in hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs). This paper evaluates France's smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project), which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation (Waves 2 and 3). Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near-total elimination of observed smoking in key venues such as bars (from 94-97% to 4%) and restaurants (from 60-71% to 2-3%) at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later (6-8% in bars; 1-2% in restaurants). The reduction in self-reported smoking by smoking respondents was nearly identical to the effects shown in observed smoking. Observed smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 41-48% to 18-20%), which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 14-15%). Support for the smoke-free laws increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (plaws, smoking in the home did not increase after the law was implemented and prevalence of smoke-free homes among smokers increased from 23.2% before the law to 37.2% 5 years after the law.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of France’s Indoor Smoke-Free Law 1 Year and 5 Years after Implementation: Findings from the ITC France Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Craig, Lorraine V.; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Tait, Megan K.; Driezen, Pete; Kennedy, Ryan David; Boudreau, Christian; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Deutsch, Antoine; Beck, François

    2013-01-01

    France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law in two phases: Phase 1 (February 2007) banned smoking in workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals, and schools; Phase 2 (January 2008) banned smoking in hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs). This paper evaluates France’s smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project), which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation (Waves 2 and 3). Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near-total elimination of observed smoking in key venues such as bars (from 94–97% to 4%) and restaurants (from 60–71% to 2–3%) at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later (6–8% in bars; 1–2% in restaurants). The reduction in self-reported smoking by smoking respondents was nearly identical to the effects shown in observed smoking. Observed smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 41–48% to 18–20%), which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 14–15%). Support for the smoke-free laws increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (plaws, smoking in the home did not increase after the law was implemented and prevalence of smoke-free homes among smokers increased from 23.2% before the law to 37.2% 5 years after the law. PMID:23805265

  11. Attitudes of School Administrators and Teachers towards the "Smoke-Free Air Zone" Policy in Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoglu, Köksal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Schools are likely to be better able to achieve compliance with smoke-free regulations if principals and teachers perceive the importance of a smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to measure teacher and administrator attitudes towards the smoke-free policy in Turkish schools, which promotes a total smoking ban. Method: The…

  12. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and Multifamily Housing: Reopening of Public... smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. HUD was seeking information from... implementing smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. In the October 4, 2012 notice...

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of France's Indoor Smoke-Free Law 1 Year and 5 Years after Implementation: Findings from the ITC France Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T Fong

    Full Text Available France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law in two phases: Phase 1 (February 2007 banned smoking in workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals, and schools; Phase 2 (January 2008 banned smoking in hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs. This paper evaluates France's smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project, which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1 and two waves after the implementation (Waves 2 and 3. Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near-total elimination of observed smoking in key venues such as bars (from 94-97% to 4% and restaurants (from 60-71% to 2-3% at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later (6-8% in bars; 1-2% in restaurants. The reduction in self-reported smoking by smoking respondents was nearly identical to the effects shown in observed smoking. Observed smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 41-48% to 18-20%, which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 14-15%. Support for the smoke-free laws increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (p<.001 among smokers for bars and restaurants; p<.001 among smokers and p = .003 for non-smokers for workplaces. The findings demonstrate that smoke-free policies that are implemented in ways consistent with the Guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC lead to substantial and sustained reductions in indoor smoking while also leading to high levels of support by the public. Moreover, contrary to arguments by opponents of smoke-free laws, smoking in the home did not increase after the law was implemented and prevalence of smoke-free homes among smokers increased from 23.2% before the law to 37.2% 5 years after the law.

  14. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  15. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  16. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M.; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Methods: Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Results: Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Conclusions: Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Implications: Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing

  17. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen M; Wiggins, Amanda T; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing: gain-framed messages (ie, benefits of smoke-free environments) to

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with smoke-free laws but not urban/rural status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.

  19. Smoke-Free School Policy and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  20. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  1. Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Zhang, Mei; Dignan, Mark; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2006-09-01

    Bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and 3 and 6 months after implementation of a smoke-free ordinance. Hair nicotine, self-reported exposure to SHS, and respiratory symptoms were assessed on 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly selected establishments in Lexington, Kentucky. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers with more than half smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes per day. Workers provided a hair sample at baseline and at the 3-month interview. There was a significant decline in hair nicotine 3 months postlaw when controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. The only significant decline in SHS exposure was in the workplace and other public places. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly postlaw. Hospitality workers demonstrated significant declines in hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms after the law. Comprehensive smoke-free laws can provide the greatest protection to bar workers who are the most vulnerable to SHS exposure at work.

  2. Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Zlatev, Martin; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2012-10-01

    Identify the psychosocial variables that predict smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies at work, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free rights in Greek and Bulgarian workplaces. Data were collected from employees in Greece and Bulgaria. The main outcome measures were smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness intentions. Demographic variables, tobacco use and dependence, as well as beliefs about second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking at work were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies was predicted by age, perceived health risks of smoking, and beliefs related to the benefits of smoking at work. Non-smokers’ assertiveness was predicted by annoyance from exposure to SHS at work, and assertiveness-related social cognitions (e.g., attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy). Interventions to promote support for tobacco control policies at work in Greece and Bulgaria may benefit from targeting smokers’ beliefs about the actual effects of tobacco use on health and job performance. Accordingly, efforts to promote non-smokers assertiveness should build stronger assertiveness-related attitudes, convey anti-smoking normative messages, and strengthen self-efficacy skills.

  3. A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Y W

    2015-11-26

    A community-wide school health project for the promotion of smoke-free homes was launched in June 2010 with the aim of promoting the benefits of smoke-free homes to all school-aged children (aged 6-18), and indirectly to their parents and family members. The 1-year project included health talks on a smoke-free life; the distribution of educational leaflets; slogan and visual art competitions; and a health fair held in June 2011. Two sets of questionnaires were developed to solicit a resolution and action from the participants regarding the establishment of a smoke-free home, and their decision to stay smoke-free. This is a paper to report on the activities of this project, the attempts to reach out to school-aged children, and their indications of agreement with, support for, and commitment to promoting smoke-free homes. The project reached an estimated 12,800 school-aged children in Hong Kong. A large proportion of those received educational leaflets (69.6-88.2 %). Of those who participated in the health fair, 69.7-87.6 % agreed to promote the concept of smoke-free homes to friends and family. More primary than secondary students pledged to not take up smoking (90.8 vs 85.8 %). About 82 % of those who had experimented with smoking pledged to stop. A small proportion of them reported already having established a smoke-free policy at home (14.9 %), placed a 'No Smoking' sign at home (16.4 %), informed visitors of their smoke-free policy at home (12.9 %), and asked visitors to dispose of lit cigarettes before entering their home (15.9 %). This community-wide school health project on the benefits of smoke-free homes reached a large number of students, and indirectly to family members, and home visitors. Public health efforts of this kind should be continued to reach younger generations and the general public.

  4. Smoke-Free Policies Among Asian-American Women: Comparisons by Education Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754

  5. Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S

    2009-08-01

    California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.

  6. The solicitation of an undue advantage: theoretical and practical problems caused by the legislative virus, and their comprehensive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Миколайович Киричко

    2018-03-01

    The solution to the theoretical and practical problems caused by the specified virus is possible only by introducing several changes to the system of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Projects of such changes are developed by the author and reflected in the publication. In case of their adoption, the specified legislative virus will be completely eliminated.

  7. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments. PMID:27589779

  8. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6% and noncombustible-only users (30.0% than any combustible users (21.3%. The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments.

  9. Support for smoke-free policies in the Cyprus hospitality industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Savva, Christos S; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2015-12-01

    The present study used attitudinal and behavioural indicators to measure support for smoke-free policies among employers and employees in the hospitality industry in Cyprus. A representative sample of 600 participants (95 % response rate) completed anonymous structured questionnaires on demographic variables, smoking status, exposure to second-hand smoke at work and related health beliefs, social norms, and smoke-free policy support. Participants were predominantly males (68.3 %), with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 12.69), and 39.7 % were employers/owners of the hospitality venue. Analysis of variance showed that employers and smokers were less supportive of smoke-free policies, as compared to employees and non-smokers. Linear regression models showed that attitudes towards smoke-free policy were predicted by smoking status, SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and social norm variables. Logistic regression analysis showed that willingness to confront a policy violator was predicted by SHS exposure, perceived prevalence of smoker clients, and smoke-free policy attitudes. SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and normative factors should be targeted by interventions aiming to promote policy support in the hospitality industry in Cyprus.

  10. Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Campion

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder.

  11. Pilot Study Results from a Brief Intervention to Create Smoke-Free Homes

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    Michelle C. Kegler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few community-based intervention studies have examined how to effectively increase the adoption of smoke-free homes. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term outcomes of a brief, four-component intervention for promoting smoke-free home policies among low-income households. We recruited forty participants (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers to receive the intervention at two-week intervals. The design was a pretest-posttest with follow-up at two weeks after intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported presence of a total home smoking ban. At follow-up, 78% of participants reported having tried to establish a smoke-free rule in their home, with significantly more nonsmokers attempting a smoke-free home than smokers (P=.03. These attempts led to increased smoking restrictions, that is, going from no ban to a partial or total ban, or from a partial to a total ban, in 43% of the homes. At follow-up, 33% of the participants reported having made their home totally smoke-free. Additionally, smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Results suggest that the intervention is promising and warrants a rigorous efficacy trial.

  12. Do smoke-free environment policies reduce smoking on hospital grounds? Evaluation of a smoke-free health service policy at two Sydney hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Natasha; Carroll, Therese; Wallace, Cate; Hua, Myna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the compliance of hospital staff, inpatients and visitors with Sydney South West Area Health Service's Smoke-free Environment Policy. Six sites were observed at two Sydney hospitals 2 weeks before implementation of the policy and at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 2 years after implementation. There was an overall significant 36% (P≤0.05) reduction in observed smoking incidents on hospital grounds 2 years after implementation. Two years after implementation, observed smoking incidents reduced by 44% (P≤0.05) in staff, 37% (P≤0.05) in visitors and remained unchanged among inpatients. The Smoke-free Environment Policy was effective in reducing visitors and staff observed smoking on hospital grounds, but had little effect on inpatients' smoking. Identifying strategies to effectively manage nicotine addiction and promote cessation amongst hospital inpatients remains a key priority.

  13. The Effect of a "Class Smoke Free Pledge" on Breath Carbon Monoxide in Arabic Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Khader, Yousef S; Shah, Smita; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Gallagher, Robyn

    2018-04-02

    Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan. Schools were randomly assigned to receive either TAJ (Triple A in Jordan, n = 218) or TAJ-Plus (with added class smoke-free pledge, n = 215). We hypothesized that students receiving TAJ-Plus would have greater reduction in BCO levels than those only receiving the TAJ intervention. Asthma and smoking status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Smoking outcomes were collected using a BCO Monitor. Both groups had significant reductions in BCO levels post-intervention (p smoking status (p = .085), asthma status (p = .602), or a combination of the two (p = .702). An added smoke-free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma education program appears to be a promising approach to motivate adolescents to abstain from smoking in Jordan. Future research is required to determine if these results can be extended to Jordanian adolescent females. A commitment by students via a "class smoke-free" pledge can be an added incentive to motivate adolescents in Arabic-speaking countries to abstain from smoking. Social influence approaches in schools can be useful in countering the aggressive tobacco marketing campaigns targeting Jordanian and other Arabic-speaking youth. The combination of "class smoke-free" pledges and an evidence-based peer-led asthma and smoking education can be implemented in schools to influence adolescents with asthma to abstain from smoking.

  14. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  15. Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokenleg, Isaiah Shaneequa; Barber, Teresa K; Bennett, Nancy L; Peart Boyce, Simone; Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie

    2014-09-01

    Tribal sovereignty exempts tribal casinos from statewide smoking bans. To conduct a tribally-led assessment to identify the characteristics of casino patrons at Lake of the Torches Resort Casino in Lac du Flambeau WI and their preferences for a smoke-free casino. A survey was administered from April to August 2011 to a stratified random sample of 957 members of the casino players club to assess their preferences for a smoke-free casino. These members were categorized into three groups: those who reported being likely to (1) visit more; (2) visit less; or (3) visit the same if the casino prohibited smoking. They were characterized by age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, annual income, players club level, and reasons for visiting the casino. Statistical analyses were conducted on weighted data in October to December 2011. Weighted logistic regression was calculated to control for potential confounding of patron characteristics. Of the 957 surveyed patrons, 520 (54%) patrons were likely to visit more; 173 (18%) patrons to visit less; and 264 (28%) patrons were indifferent to the smoke-free status. Patrons more likely to prefer a smoke-free casino tended to be white, elderly, middle class and above, and visit the casino restaurants. Patrons within the lower tiers of the players club, almost half of the players club members, also showed a higher preference for a smoke-free casino. This tribal casino would likely realize increased patronage associated with smoke-free status while also contributing to improved health for casino workers and patrons. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

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    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  17. Relapse to smoking following release from smoke-free correctional facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljević, Cheneal; de Andrade, Dominique; Coomber, Ross; Kinner, Stuart A

    2018-06-01

    Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with reduced post-release smoking levels compared to pre-incarceration levels. 94% of participants relapsed to smoking within two months of release; 72% relapsed on the day of release. 62% of participants smoked significantly less per day after compared with before incarceration. Living with a partner (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.77, 95%CI 1.02-7.52), expressing support for smoke-free prison policies (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.12-5.32), intending to remain abstinent post-release (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.88-9.82), and intending to quit in the future (OR 3.88, 95%CI 1.66-9.07) were associated with reduced smoking post-release. Use of illicit drugs post-release was negatively associated with reduced smoking post-release (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.79). In multivariate analyses, pre-release intention to remain smoke-free was associated with reduced smoking post-release (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.01-7.14). Relapse to smoking after release from smoke-free prisons is common, but many who relapse smoke less than before incarceration, suggesting that smoke-free prison policies may reduce post-release tobacco smoking. There is a need for tailored, evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions for people recently released from prison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoke-free environments: age, sex, and educational disparity in 25 Argentinean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela

    2012-10-01

    There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR  = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more

  19. Evaluation of a smoke-free law on indoor air quality and on workers' health in Portuguese restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Mendes, Ana; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bans on smoking are interventions to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) to try to prevent harmful health effects. The Portuguese Government on January 1, 2008, introduced the first national law banning smoking in public workplaces, including restaurants. The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of this law on indoor air quality (IAQ) in restaurants and on the respiratory and sensory health of restaurant workers. Concentrations of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in 10 restaurants were measured and compared before and after the ban. Benzene (C6H6) concentrations were also measured in all restaurants. Fifty-two and twenty-eight restaurant workers, respectively, answered questionnaires on exposure to SHS, and respiratory and sensory symptoms in the pre- and post-ban phases. There was a statistically significant decrease in RSP, CO, TVOC, and C6H6 concentrations after the ban. Additionally, in both phases the monitored CO2 concentrations greatly exceeded 1800 mg x m(-3), suggesting inefficient ventilation of the indoor spaces. Between pre- and post-ban phases a significant reduction in self-reported workplace SHS exposure was also observed after the enforcement of the law, as well as a significant marked reduction in dry, itching, irritated, or watery eyes, nasal problems, sore or dry throat, cough, wheeze, and headache. This study provides, in a single investigation, comparison of IAQ and respiratory health in Portugal before and after the introduction of the smoke-free law, the first data reported in the literature to our knowledge. Our findings suggest that a total workplace smoking ban results in a significant reduction in indoor air pollution and an improvement in the respiratory health of restaurant workers. These observations may have implications for policymakers and legislators currently considering the nature and extent of their

  20. Coaching to Create a Smoke-Free Home in a Brief Secondhand Smoke Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Mullen, Patricia; Genkin, Brooke; Bundy, Lucja; Owolabi, Shade; Haardörfer, Regine; Williams, Rebecca; Savas, Lara; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Few community interventions exist to reduce secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. This study presents the coaching process of a larger intervention to promote smoke-free homes across an efficacy and 2 effectiveness trials. It furthers assesses the coaching call's reach and participants' satisfaction with the call across three…

  1. Barriers Associated with Implementing a Campus-Wide Smoke-Free Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Philip Adam; Whitman, Marilyn V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the barriers associated with implementing a campus-wide smoke-free policy as perceived by the American Cancer Society's Colleges against Cancer (CAC) Program chapter representatives. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group sessions were conducted at the annual CAC National Leadership Summit in…

  2. Immediate impact of smoke-free laws on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J; Riker, Carol; Head, Sara; Seithers, Peggy

    2007-09-01

    Smoke-free laws significantly impact indoor air quality. However, the temporal effects of these laws on indoor air pollution have not been determined. This paper assesses the temporal impact of one smoke-free law on indoor air quality. This quasi-experimental study compared the indoor air quality of nine hospitality venues and one bingo hall in Georgetown, Kentucky, before and after implementation of a 100% smoke-free workplace law. We made real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5). Among the nine Georgetown hospitality venues, the average indoor PM2.5 concentration was 84 microg/m3 before the law took effect. The average indoor PM2.5 concentrations in nine compliant venues significantly decreased to 18 microg/m3 one week after the law took effect. Three venues having 82 microg/m3 before the law had significantly lower levels from the first day the law was implemented, and the low level was maintained. Compliance with the law is critical to achieving clean indoor air. Indoor air pollution in the bingo hall was not reduced until the establishment decided to comply with the law. The smoke-free law showed immediate impact on indoor air quality.

  3. No association of smoke-free ordinances with profits from bingo and charitable games in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Glantz, S; Wilson-Loots, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Because it is widely played, claims that smoking restrictions will adversely affect bingo games is used as an argument against these policies. We used publicly available data from Massachusetts to assess the impact of 100% smoke-free ordinances on profits from bingo and other gambling sponsored by charitable organisations between 1985 and 2001.

  4. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Götschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brändli, O

    2003-09-01

    In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p cafe. In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies.

  5. A smoke-free medical campus in Jerusalem: data for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Itamar; Donchin, Milka; Levine, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    Establishing smoke-free environments is a major component of tobacco control policy. The introduction of a smoke-free policy in medical campuses may serve as a role model for other educational and health institutions but little has been published about their prevalence or impact. In 2012, the Faculty of Medicine at Hebrew University-Hadassah in Jerusalem, Israel launched a smoke-free Medical Campus initiative. This study examined smoking behaviours, cigarette smoke exposure and attitudes towards the smoke-free campus policy among students and employees. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from medical, dental and pharmacy students, as well as employees of the school of pharmacy. We approached the entire target population in 2013 (N = 449), with a response rate of 72.5 % (N = 313). The rate of smoking was 8.3 % (95 % CI 5.5-11.9 %). Most participants reported daily exposure or exposure several times a week to cigarette smoke (65.8 %). Overall, 98.0 % had reported seeing people smoke in open campus areas and 27.2 % indoors. Most participants supported the smoking ban inside buildings (94.2 %) but fewer supported (40.8 %) a complete ban of smoking throughout the campus, including outside areas. Only 18.4 % agreed that a policy prohibiting smoking was unfair to smokers. A multivariable analysis showed that support for a complete ban on smoking on campus was higher among non-smokers than for smokers (OR = 9.5, 95 % CI 2.2-31.5, p = 0.02). The smoke-free policy does not have total compliance, despite the strong support among both students and employees for a smoke-free medical campus. The data collected will assist policy makers move towards a total smoke-free medical campus and will aid tobacco control efforts in Israel and other countries.

  6. Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in Olmsted County, Minnesota, before and after smoke-free workplace laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Weston, Susan A; Ebbert, Jon O; McNallan, Sheila M; Croghan, Ivana T; Schroeder, Darrell R; Roger, Véronique L

    2012-11-26

    Reductions in admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) have been reported in locales where smoke-free workplace laws have been implemented, but no study has assessed sudden cardiac death in that setting. In 2002, a smoke-free restaurant ordinance was implemented in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and in 2007, all workplaces, including bars, became smoke free. To evaluate the population impact of smoke-free laws, we measured, through the Rochester Epidemiology Project, the incidence of MI and sudden cardiac death in Olmsted County during the 18-month period before and after implementation of each smoke-free ordinance. All MIs were continuously abstracted and validated, using rigorous standardized criteria relying on biomarkers, cardiac pain, and Minnesota coding of the electrocardiogram. Sudden cardiac death was defined as out-of-hospital deaths associated with coronary disease. Comparing the 18 months before implementation of the smoke-free restaurant ordinance with the 18 months after implementation of the smoke-free workplace law, the incidence of MI declined by 33% (P trends in other risk factors do not appear explanatory, smoke-free workplace laws seem to be ecologically related to these favorable trends. Secondhand smoke exposure should be considered a modifiable risk factor for MI. All people should avoid secondhand smoke to the extent possible, and people with coronary heart disease should have no exposure to secondhand smoke.

  7. Accelerated Adoption of Smoke-Free Laws After Ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the effect of ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on countries enacting smoke-free laws covering indoor workplaces, restaurants, and bars. Methods. We compared adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the FCTC and for countries’ World Bank income group. Results. Ratification of the FCTC significantly (P restaurants and bars. Compared with high-income countries, upper-middle–income countries had a significantly higher probability of smoke-free indoor workplace laws. Conclusions. The FCTC accelerated the adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws, with the greatest effect in the years immediately following ratification. The policy implication is that health advocates must increase efforts to secure implementation of FCTC smoke-free provisions in countries that have not done so. PMID:26562125

  8. Four-year follow-up of smoke exposure, attitudes and smoking behaviour following enactment of Finland's national smoke-free work-place law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, Antero; Jaakkola, Maritta S

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluated the possible impact of national smoke-free work-place legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), employee smoking habits and attitudes on work-place smoking regulations. Repeated cross-sectional questionnaire surveys and indoor air nicotine measurements were carried out before, and 1 and 3 years after the law had come into effect. Industrial, service sector and office work-places from the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. A total of 880, 940 and 659 employees (response rates 70%, 75% and 75%) in eight work-places selected from a register kept by the Uusimaa Regional Institute of Occupational Health to represent various sectors of public and private work-places. Reported exposure to ETS, smoking habits, attitudes on smoking at work and measurements of indoor air nicotine concentration. Employee exposure to ETS for at least 1 hour daily decreased steadily during the 4-year follow-up, from 51% in 1994 to 17% in 1995 and 12% in 1998. Respondents' daily smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption diminished 1 year after the enforcement of legislation from 30% to 25%, and remained at 25% in the last survey 3 years later. Long-term reduction in smoking was confined to men. Both smokers' and non-smokers' attitudes shifted gradually towards favouring a total ban on smoking at work. Median indoor airborne nicotine concentrations decreased from 0.9 micro g/m3 in 1994-95 to 0.1 micro g/m3 in 1995-96 and 1998. This is the first follow-up study on a nationally implemented smoke-free work-place law. We found that such legislation is associated with steadily reducing ETS exposure at work, particularly at work-places, where the voluntary smoking regulations have failed to reduce exposure. The implementation of the law also seemed to encourage smokers to accept a non-smoking work-place as the norm.

  9. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden--before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz; Boëthius, Göran; Axelsson, Sara; Montgomery, Scott M

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation. A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the pre-ban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out. The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk ( <0.5 microg/m3) while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest pre-ban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers. The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  10. Secondhand smoke assessment in the first African country adopting a comprehensive smoke-free law (Mauritius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María José; Burhoo, Premduth; Moussa, Leelmanee; Nebot, Manel

    2011-11-01

    A new smoking regulation came into force in Mauritius in March 2009. Environmental nicotine and particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were measured in 60 hospitality venues and shopping malls on December 2009. There was presence of secondhand smoke in 69% of the samples. The overall median [IQR] nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were 0.05 [

  11. State preemption of local smoke-free laws in government work sites, private work sites, and restaurants - United States, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    Smoke-free policies (i.e., policies that completely eliminate smoking in indoor workplaces and public places) result in health benefits, including preventing heart attacks. Preemptive legislation at the state level prohibits localities from enacting laws that vary from state law or are more stringent. A Healthy People 2010 objective (27-19) is to eliminate state laws that preempt stronger local tobacco control laws. A 2005 CDC review found that little progress was being made toward reducing the number of state laws preempting local smoking restrictions in three indoor settings: government work sites, private-sector work sites, and restaurants. These three settings were selected for analysis because they are settings that often are addressed by state and local smoking restrictions and because they are major settings where nonsmoking workers and patrons are exposed to secondhand smoke. This report updates the previous analysis and summarizes changes that occurred from December 31, 2004, to December 31, 2009, in state laws that preempt local smoke-free laws for the same three settings. During that period, the number of states preempting local smoking restrictions in at least one of these three settings decreased from 19 to 12. In contrast with the 2005 findings, this decrease indicates progress toward achieving the goal of eliminating state laws preempting local smoking restrictions. Further progress could result in additional reductions in secondhand smoke exposure.

  12. Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe trends in the number of restaurants and restaurant employees two years before and two years after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act took effect in April, 1995. Between April 1993 and April 1997, New York City added 19,347 new restaurant jobs (18% increase) while the rest of the state outside the immediate metropolitan area added 7,423 new jobs (5% increase). The rate of growth in the number of restaurants was comparable among New York City, neighboring counties, and the rest of the state. The data suggest that the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act did not result in job losses for the city's restaurant industry.

  13. Changes of Attitudes and Patronage Behaviors in Response to a Smoke-Free Bar Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Cowling, David W.; Lloyd, Jon C.; Rogers, Todd; Koumjian, Kristi L.; Stevens, Colleen M.; Bal, Dileep G.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We examined patron responses to a California smoke-free bar law. Methods. Three telephone surveys measured attitudes and behavior changes after implementation of the law. Results. Approval of the law rose from 59.8% to 73.2% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58, 2.40). Self-reported noncompliance decreased from 24.6% to 14.0% (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.85). Likelihood of visiting a bar or of not changing bar patronage after the law was implemented increased from 86% to 91% (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.29, 2.40). Conclusions. California bar patrons increasingly support and comply with the smoke-free bar law. PMID:12660206

  14. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total b...

  15. The reduction of radon hazard in smoke-free working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Guan, Z.J.; Liu, X.W.

    1996-01-01

    The variations in a number of properties related to radon as a result of the presence of cigarette smoke have been investigated in an unventilated room. These properties include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters, the equilibrium factor and the fraction of unattached radon daughters. From the data collected, a sample calculation of the reduction of the radon dose in smoke-free working environments has been carried out. (Author)

  16. Clearing the air: improving smoke-free policy compliance at the national oncology hospital in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Petrosyan, Diana; Stillman, Frances

    2014-12-13

    Smoke-free policies shown to reduce population exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are the norm in hospitals in many countries around the world. Armenia, a transition economy in the South Caucasus, has one of the highest male smoking rates in the European region. Although smoking in healthcare facilities has been banned since 2005, compliance with this ban has been poor due to lack of implementation and enforcement mechanisms and social acceptability of smoking. The study aimed to develop and test a model intervention to address the lack of compliance with the de jure smoking ban. The national oncology hospital was chosen as the intervention site. This study used employee surveys and objective measurements of respirable particles (PM2.5) and air nicotine as markers of indoor air pollution before and after the intervention. The intervention developed in partnership with the hospital staff included an awareness campaign on SHS hazards, creation of no-smoking environment and building institutional capacity through training of nursing personnel on basics of tobacco control. The survey analysis included paired t-test and McNemar's test. The log-transformed air nicotine and PM2.5 data were analyzed using paired t-test. The survey showed significant improvement in the perceived quality of indoor air, reduced worksite exposure to SHS and increased employees' awareness of the smoke-free policy. The number of employees reporting compliance with the hospital smoke-free policy increased from 36.0% to 71.9% (p Armenia that have failed to implement the adopted smoke-free policies.

  17. Smoke-free-home rules among women with infants, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Falicia A; Tong, Van T; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Babb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk for infant illness and death. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of complete smoke-free-home rules (smoking not allowed anywhere in the home) among women with infants in the United States. We analyzed 2004-2008 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System on 41,535 women who had recent live births in 5 states (Arkansas, Maine, New Jersey, Oregon, and Washington). We calculated the prevalence of complete smoke-free-home rules and partial or no rules by maternal smoking status, demographic characteristics, delivery year, and state of residence. We used adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) to estimate associations between complete rules and partial or no rules and variables. During 2004-2008, the overall prevalence of complete rules was 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.4-94.9), ranging from 85.4% (Arkansas) to 98.1% (Oregon). The prevalence of complete rules increased significantly in 3 states from 2004 to 2008. It was lowest among women who smoked during pregnancy and postpartum, women younger than 20 years, non-Hispanic black women, women with fewer than 12 years of education, women who had an annual household income of less than $10,000, unmarried women, and women enrolled in Medicaid during pregnancy. The prevalence of complete smoke-free-home rules among women with infants was high overall and increased in 3 of 5 states, signifying a public health success. Sustained and targeted efforts among groups of women who are least likely to have complete smoke-free-home rules are needed to protect infants from exposure to secondhand smoke.

  18. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Effect of smoke-free policies on the behaviour of social smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Philpot, S.; Ryan, S.; Torre, L.; Wilcox, H.; Jalleh, G.; Jamrozik, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that proposed amendments to the Occupational Safety and Health Act making all enclosed workplaces in Western Australia smoke free would result in a decrease in cigarette consumption by patrons at nightclubs, pubs, and restaurants without adversely affecting attendance.
DESIGN—Cross sectional structured interview survey.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING—Patrons of several inner city pubs and nightclubs in Perth were interviewed while queuing for admission to these venu...

  20. Lack of sustainable prevention effect of the "Smoke-Free Class Competition" on German pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexander; Mons, Ute; Edler, Lutz; Pötschke-Langer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign "Smoke-Free Class Competition" as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to evaluate the effects of the intervention, we compared the smoking behavior in the intervention and the control group at two points in time, shortly before, and 18 months after the intervention, on an individual case basis. (1) Stabilization of never-smoking rates: the proportion of pupils remaining a never-smoker at the follow-up is 62.1% in the intervention group and 61.5% in the control group (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.83-1.24); (2) Lowering of relapse rates among ex-smokers: the proportion of former smokers who had not started smoking again in the follow-up is 45.1% in the intervention group and 41.4% in the control group (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49). The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" did not prevent smoking among adolescents and does not appear to be an effective substitute to the complete ban of tobacco advertising, the abolition of vending machines and the creation of smoke-free environments in German schools.

  1. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total ban to protect children from secondhand smoke and protect family members if they got sick. Few described difficulties in enforcement with over half of smokers accepting the rules. Situations that made it hard to enforce restrictions were if there was a visitor who smoked, a smoker who had cravings, and bad weather outside when the smoker desired to smoke. Smokers explained that family members could assist them in quitting by talking to them, not purchasing cigarettes for them, not smoking around them, and supporting them. Ideas for promoting smoke-free homes were having a no smoking sign, saying no to visitors who want to smoke, removing ashtrays, and creating a place outside for smokers. These findings can inform interventions designed to create and maintain smoke-free households.

  2. Smoke-free restaurants in Shanghai: should it be mandatory and is it acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua; Li, Guangyao

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to describe secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants in Shanghai and to explore the impact on the health of restaurant workers. Attitude to smoke-free restaurants among restaurant workers and customers was also determined in this study. A random sample of 242 workers, 284 customers, and 46 restaurant owners participated in face-to-face questionnaire interviews. A total of 219 (90.7%) restaurant workers surveyed were found to be exposed to SHS during working hours with 24.2+/-18.6h of exposure on average per week. Exposure time each week was significantly associated with the symptoms of dyspnea and irritated eyes. Among the customers surveyed 73.9% supported the concept of a 100% smoke-free law in restaurants and 49.6% expressed that they would be more likely to eat in restaurants if smoking was banned in restaurants. And 58.6% of the restaurant owners surveyed regarded smoke-free laws banning smoking in restaurant as feasible and 56.5% estimated such bans would decrease the profit. Both restaurant workers and customers are substantially exposed to SHS. Although some restaurant owners are concerned about a decrease in profits, the fear of losing business is not supported by the response among customers. Therefore, introducing a law-banning smoking in restaurants appears to be feasible and acceptable in Shanghai.

  3. Effect of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions and revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Moor, Gregg; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Leischow, Scott J

    2018-01-19

    As part of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act, smoking on the gambling floors of all commercial casinos in Illinois became prohibited. This study examined the effects of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions per-capita and real per-capita adjusted gross receipts using 18 years of data (10 years before and 8 years after the Illinois law went into effect). We employed a difference-in-difference regression technique using monthly data for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa and Missouri and control for numerous determinants expected to affect casino admissions and revenue. The Smoke-free Illinois Act was found not to be a statistically significant determinant of per-capita casino admissions and of real per-capita gross adjusted receipts in all the models we estimated. The estimates from this study clearly indicated that the Illinois law that banned smoking in casinos has had no significant negative economic consequences for casinos in terms of per-capita admissions or revenues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Potential unintended consequences of smoke-free policies in public places on pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong

    2009-08-01

    Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (ppolicies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.

  5. Environmental and economic evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Carrie M; Travers, Mark J; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-08-01

    An environmental and economic evaluation of the smoke-free law in Massachusetts provides a broad appreciation of how a state-wide smoking ban affects the health of patrons and workers as well as the industries that are commonly concerned about the effects of smoking bans on business. The aim of this study is to evaluate environmental and economic effects of the statewide Massachusetts statewide Smoke-Free Workplace Law. Before and after the smoking ban, air quality testing was conducted in a sample (n = 27) of hospitality venues and state-wide economic changes were assessed. Compliance, in terms of patronage was measured by person-counts. Environmental outcomes were respirable suspended particles (RSP) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). Economic outcomes were meals tax collections, employment in the food services and drinking places and accommodations industries. On average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) decreased 93% in these venues after the Massachusetts Smoke-free Workplace Law went into effect. No statistically significant changes were observed among the economic indicators. This evaluation demonstrates that the state-wide Massachusetts law has effectively improved indoor air quality in a sample of Massachusetts venues and has not negatively affected several economic indicators.

  6. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  7. Smoke-Free Homes and Home Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS in China. This study aimed to document: (1 the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers in Shanghai, and (2 enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining smoke-free homes in Shanghai. A total of 500 participants were recruited using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district to complete a survey. Among the total 355 nonsmokers, 127 (35.8% participants reported being exposed to SHS in the past 7 days. Participants living with smokers in the home, with no smoking restriction at home, and having children younger than 18 were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home. Higher self-efficacy in maintaining a smoke-free home was negatively associated with home SHS exposure. Having visitors who smoke was the greatest policy enforcement challenge. Ineffective measures such as opening windows were more commonly used in homes with partial bans. Educational initiatives to protect against SHS exposure in the home should promote smoke-free homes, address challenges to implementing such policies, and address misconceptions regarding the effectiveness of supposed harm reduction behaviors.

  8. Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS. The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work, and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (r(sp. Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35 and the UK had the highest one (93. The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (r(sp = -0.42, p = 0.03 and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (r(sp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; r(sp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and r(sp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces. The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces. TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS.

  9. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  10. [Impact of the legislation for smoke-free workplaces on respiratory health in hospitality workers--review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) is a significant risk factor for the development of many diseases, including lung cancer, lower respiratory tract infections, asthma and eye, throat and nasal irritations. Hospitality workers form an occupational group with high exposure to ETS in their workplace. Taking into account the health consequences of ETS exposure and high prevalence of exposure in public places, including workplaces, many countries have implemented the smoking ban that prohibits or restricts smoking in workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The epidemiological studies have indicated a significant reduction in the exposure level after implementation of the smoking ban. Most studies have also indicated a significant reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms. The impact of the smoking ban on the lung function measurements is still not clear.

  11. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, M; Nonnemaker, J; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K; Bauer, U

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities.

  12. Individual, social, and environmental factors associated with support for smoke-free housing policies among subsidized multiunit housing tenants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Ferketich, Amy K; Klein, Elizabeth G; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Pirie, Phyllis

    2013-06-01

    Mandatory smoke-free policies in subsidized, multiunit housing (MUH) may decrease secondhand smoke exposure in households with the highest rates of exposure. Ideally, policies should be based on a strong understanding of factors affecting support for smoke-free policies in the target population to maximize effectiveness. A face-to-face survey was conducted from August to October 2011 using a stratified random sample of private subsidized housing units in Columbus, OH, without an existing smoke-free policy (n = 301, 64% response rate). Lease holders were asked to report individual, social, and environmental factors hypothesized to be related to support for smoke-free policies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with policy support. Most tenants supported smoke-free policies in common areas (82.7%), half supported policies inside units (54.5%), and one third supported a ban outside the building (36.3%). Support for smoke-free policies in units and outdoors was more common among nonsmokers than smokers (71.5% vs. 35.7%, p social, but no environmental, factors were independently associated with policy support. Smokers who intended to quit within 6 months or less were more likely than other smokers to support in-unit policies (45.3% vs. 21.1%; p = .003). More than half of subsidized MUH tenants supported smoke-free policies inside their units. Strategies to address individual- and social-level barriers to behavior change should be implemented in parallel with smoke-free policies. Policies should be evaluated with objective measures to determine their effectiveness.

  13. Smoke-free law associated with higher-than-expected taxable retail sales for bars and taverns in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia; Maher, Julie E; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry

    2010-07-01

    Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions.

  14. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-25

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants--two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia.

  15. Attitudes and experiences with secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies among subsidised and market-rate multiunit housing residents living in six diverse communities in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzke, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew; Kiviniemi, Marc; Travers, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Given that higher smoking rates persist among lower socioeconomic populations, multiunit housing (MUH) environments may result in higher secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures among subsidised MUH residents. This cross-sectional assessment compares experiences with SHS and smoke-free policies among subsidised and market-rate MUH residents living in six US communities. MUH residents (n=1565) were surveyed regarding their smoke-free rules (home and building), SHS exposures and preferences towards smoke-free policies. Binary logistic regression identified predictors of each outcome, focusing on differences by subsidised housing status (subsidised vs market rate). Among residents enforcing smoke-free home rules (76%, overall), 50% reported SHS incursions into their unit. Only 23% reported living in a smoke-free building; 56% of those living in smoking-allowable buildings reported preferences towards smoke-free building policies. Among market-rate housing residents, smoke-free home (OR=4.18) and building (OR=2.26) rules were significantly higher when children were present. Smoke-free building rules reduced the odds of SHS incursions among market-rate housing residents (OR=0.50), but no association was observed among subsidised housing residents. Non-smoking subsidised housing residents exhibited stronger preferences for smoke-free policies compared with those in market-rate housing. Smoke-free home rules may not protect MUH residents from SHS exposures, particularly in subsidised MUH. Although strong preferences towards smoke-free policies were present overall, subsidised MUH residents may have fewer alternative smoke-free housing options available. Therefore, all publicly funded housing should be smoke free to protect these vulnerable populations. However, continued efforts to encourage privately owned MUH operators to adopt smoke-free policies are also necessary. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights

  16. Toward smoke-free homes: A community-based study on initiatives of rural Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Srabani; Das, Samiran

    2011-05-01

    Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS), measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children's exposure to SHS at home. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7%) was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Women's initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.

  17. Toward smoke-free homes: A community-based study on initiatives of rural Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srabani Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.

  18. Effect of smoke-free policies on the behaviour of social smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, S J; Ryan, S A; Torre, L E; Wilcox, H M; Jalleh, G; Jamrozik, K

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that proposed amendments to the Occupational Safety and Health Act making all enclosed workplaces in Western Australia smoke free would result in a decrease in cigarette consumption by patrons at nightclubs, pubs, and restaurants without adversely affecting attendance. Cross sectional structured interview survey. Patrons of several inner city pubs and nightclubs in Perth were interviewed while queuing for admission to these venues. Current social habits, smoking habits; and how these might be affected by the proposed regulations. Persons who did not smoke daily were classified as "social smokers." Half (50%) of the 374 patrons interviewed were male, 51% currently did not smoke at all, 34.3% smoked every day, and the remaining 15.7% smoked, but not every day. A clear majority (62.5%) of all 374 respondents anticipated no change to the frequency of their patronage of hospitality venues if smoke-free policies became mandatory. One in five (19.3%) indicated that they would go out more often, and 18.2% said they would go out less often. Half (52%) of daily smokers anticipated no change to their cigarette consumption, while 44.5% of daily smokers anticipated a reduction in consumption. A majority of social smokers (54%) predicted a reduction in their cigarette consumption, with 42% of these anticipating quitting. One in nine (11.5%) of smokers say that adoption of smoke-free policies would prompt them to quit smoking entirely without a significant decrease in attendance at pubs and nightclubs. There can be few other initiatives as simple, cheap, and popular that would achieve so much for public health.

  19. Smoke-free hospital site conversations: how nurses can initiate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackereth, Peter; Finchett, Charlotte; Holt, Melody

    2016-11-24

    Smoking tobacco continues to be the world's most preventable cause of death and disability with over six trillion cigarettes sold each year. Patients, visitors and health professionals who smoke on hospital sites present a challenge to the effectiveness of public health messages. Health professionals who ignore 'No smoking' hospital/clinic signage, and avoid smoking-cessation activity, help to sustain the perception that smoking is tolerated. Case studies, with a focus on lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are used to illustrate how nurses can 'seed' the idea of hospitals becoming smoke-free, provide brief interventions and support patients, carers and colleagues to make that change.

  20. Factors that influence attitude and enforcement of the smoke-free law in Turkey: a survey of hospitality venue owners and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherrera, Angela; Çarkoğlu, Asli; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergör, Gül; Eirüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Zheng, Laura; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, Turkey extended the smoke-free legislation to hospitality venues. Compliance, however, remains low in some hospitality venues. We identified characteristics associated with knowledge of health effects that can be prevented by the smoke-free law, the attitude towards and enforcement of the law. In 2014, we conducted 400 interviews with hospitality venue owners and employees in 7 cities in Turkey. The venues were identified based on a random sampling strategy in a previous phase of the study. Over one-third (37.3%) of hospitality owners and employees had adequate knowledge of the health effects from secondhand smoke (SHS), 71.3% had a positive attitude towards the law and 19.5% had personally enforced the law. Participants who worked 70 hours or more per week were more likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Older individuals, women, participants working in bars/nightclubs, venue owners receiving fines for non-compliance and current smokers were less likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Participants working in traditional coffee houses, former smokers, and participants with a high school education or greater were more likely to enforce the law. Smokers who quit or reduced smoking because of the law were more likely to enforce the law compared with those who were not influenced by the law. Although the attitude towards the law was positive, interventions are needed to increase knowledge on the health effects of SHS and facilitate enforcement of the law, particularly among subgroups less likely to have a positive attitude and enforce the law. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Evaluation of community and organizational characteristics of smoke-free ordinance campaigns in 15 Wisconsin cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, David; Uebelher, Paul; Remington, Patrick L

    2005-07-01

    Smoke-free restaurant ordinance campaigns were conducted in 15 Wisconsin cities during 1992 through 2002. Community and health coalition organizational characteristics varied with each campaign; nine campaigns were successful in enacting ordinances, and six campaigns failed. Data on community and coalition characteristics were analyzed. Community characteristics included adjusted gross income, percentage of Democratic voters in recent elections, and county smoking prevalence. Coalition characteristics included the number of supporters identified, leadership experience, level of print news media coverage, and editorial position of local newspaper. Successful campaigns were more likely to have leadership with high levels of political experience; eight of nine successful campaigns had leadership with high levels of experience, and two of six unsuccessful campaigns had leadership with high levels of experience. Every successful campaign had high levels of newspaper coverage and strong editorial support. None of the unsuccessful campaigns had high levels of news coverage or strong editorial support. Characteristics controlled or influenced by coalitions are associated with successful outcomes. Community characteristics were not associated with outcomes. These results should assist communities planning to implement smoke-free ordinances or other health policy campaigns.

  2. No association of smoke-free ordinances with profits from bingo and charitable games in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, S A; Wilson-Loots, R

    2003-12-01

    Because it is widely played, claims that smoking restrictions will adversely affect bingo games is used as an argument against these policies. We used publicly available data from Massachusetts to assess the impact of 100% smoke-free ordinances on profits from bingo and other gambling sponsored by charitable organisations between 1985 and 2001. We conducted two analyses: (1) a general linear model implementation of a time series analysis with net profits (adjusted to 2001 dollars) as the dependent variable, and community (as a fixed effect), year, lagged net profits, and the length of time the ordinance had been in force as the independent variables; (2) multiple linear regression of total state profits against time, lagged profits, and the percentage of the entire state population in communities that allow charitable gaming but prohibit smoking. The general linear model analysis of data from individual communities showed that, while adjusted profits fell over time, this effect was not related to the presence of an ordinance. The analysis in terms of the fraction of the population living in communities with ordinances yielded the same result. Policymakers can implement smoke-free policies without concern that these policies will affect charitable gaming.

  3. Do smoke-free laws affect revenues in pubs and restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E

    2012-02-01

    In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue.

  4. Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Fortmann, Addie L; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Romero, Romina A; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-05-01

    Some car rental companies in California and other states in the USA have established non-smoking policies for their vehicles. This study examined the effectiveness of these policies in maintaining smoke-free rental cars. A stratified random sample of 250 cars (non-smoker, smoker and unknown designation) was examined in San Diego County, California, USA. Dust, surfaces and the air of each vehicle cabin were sampled and analysed for residual tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke (THS)), and each car was inspected for visual and olfactory signs of tobacco use. Customer service representatives were informally interviewed about smoking policies. A majority of putative non-smoker cars had nicotine in dust, on surfaces, in air and other signs of tobacco use. Independent of a car's smoking status, older and higher mileage cars had higher levels of THS pollution in dust and on surfaces (pcars, non-smoker cars had lower levels of nicotine on surfaces (pcars was associated with lower levels of THS pollutants in dust and air (pcars compared with smoker cars. However, policies failed in providing smoke-free rental cars; THS levels were not as low as those found in private cars of non-smokers with in-car smoking bans. Major obstacles include inconsistent communication with customers and the lack of routine monitoring and enforcement strategies. Strengthening policies and their implementation would allow car rental companies to reduce costs, better serve their customers and make a constructive contribution to tobacco control efforts.

  5. Impact of a smoke-free hospital campus policy on employee and consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J Gary; Pulley, LeaVonne; Felix, Holly C; Bursac, Zoran; Siddiqui, Nadia J; Stewart, M Kathryn; Mays, Glen P; Gauss, C Heath

    2007-01-01

    Although smoke-free hospital campuses can provide a strong health message and protect patients, they are few in number due to employee retention and public relations concerns. We evaluated the effects of implementing a clean air policy on employee attitudes, recruitment, and retention; hospital utilization; and consumer satisfaction in 2003 through 2005. We conducted research at a university hospital campus with supplemental data from an affiliated hospital campus. Our evaluation included (1) measurement of employee attitudes during the year before and year after policy implementation using a cross-sectional, anonymous survey; (2) focus group discussions held with supervisors and security personnel; and (3) key informant interviews conducted with administrators. Secondary analysis included review of employment records and exit interviews, and monitoring of hospital utilization and patient satisfaction data. Employee attitudes toward the policy were supportive (83.3%) at both institutions and increased significantly (89.8%) at post-test at the university hospital campus. Qualitatively, administrator and supervisor attitudes were similarly favorable. There was no evidence on either campus of an increase in employee separations or a decrease in new hiring after the policy was implemented. On neither campus was there a change in bed occupancy or mean daily census. Standard measures of consumer satisfaction were also unchanged at both sites. A campus-wide smoke-free policy had no detrimental effect on measures of employee or consumer attitudes or behaviors.

  6. Impact of U.S. Smoke-free Air Laws on Restaurant and Bar Employment, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul

    2017-12-23

    Secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for an estimated 50,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers in the U.S. Smoke-free air laws reduce secondhand smoke exposure but often encounter opposition over concerns about their economic impact. Expansion of these laws has stagnated and efforts to weaken existing laws may exacerbate existing disparities in exposure. Studies at the state and local levels have found that smoke-free air laws do not generally have an adverse effect, but there are no recent estimates of the impact of these laws nationally. Employment and sales are two measures commonly used to estimate the economic impact of smoke-free air laws. Sales data are gathered by state and local taxing authorities but not uniformly across jurisdictions. Dynamic panel models are used to estimate a population-weighted national average treatment effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurant and bar employment using data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 1990 to 2015. A one-percentage point increase in population covered by a restaurant smoke-free air law is associated with a small increase (approximately 0.01%) in restaurant employment (b=0.0001, Plaw was not associated with bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are a powerful tool for protecting hospitality workers and patrons from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Using data over more than two decades, these results suggest that smoke-free air laws in the U.S. do not generally have any meaningful effect on restaurant and bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are associated with reductions in negative health outcomes and decreased smoking prevalence. Despite this clear public health argument and strong public support, passage of new laws has stagnated and exemptions are being used to weaken existing laws. The ability to make both a health and business case in support of existing laws may also bolster the case for expansion. This study provides an updated look at the economic impact of smoke-free air laws

  7. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  8. Compliance to the smoke-free law in Guatemala 5-years after implementation

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    Joaquín Barnoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free environments decrease smoking prevalence and consequently the incidence of heart disease and lung cancer. Due to issues related to poor enforcement, scant data is currently available from low/middle income countries on the long-term compliance to smoke-free laws. In 2006, high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS were found in bars and restaurants in Guatemala City. Six months after a smoking ban was implemented in 2009, levels significantly decreased. However, in 2010, poor law compliance was observed. Therefore, we sought to assess long-term compliance to the ban using SHS measurements. Methods In 2014 we assessed SHS exposure using airborne nicotine monitors in bars (n = 9 and restaurants (n = 12 for 7 days using the same protocol as in 2006 and in 2009. Nicotine was measured using gas-chromatography (μg/m3 and compared to levels pre- (2006 and post-ban (2009. Employees responded to a survey about SHS exposure, perceived economic impact of the ban and customers’ electronic cigarette use. In addition, we estimated the fines that could have been collected for each law infringement. Results Most (71 % venues still have a smoking section, violating the law. The percentage of samples with detectable nicotine concentrations was 100, 85 and 43 % in 2006, 2009 and 2014, respectively. In bars, median (25th and 75th percentiles nicotine concentrations were 4.58 μg/m3 (1.71, 6.45 in 2006, 0.28 (0.17, 0.66 in 2009, and 0.59 (0.01, 1.45 in 2014. In restaurants, the corresponding medians were 0.58 μg/m3 (0.44, 0.71, 0.04 (0.01, 0.11, and 0.01 (0.01, 0.09. Support for the law continues to be high (88 % among bar and restaurant employees. Most employees report no economic impact of the law and that a high proportion of customers (78 % use e-cigarettes. A total of US$50,012 could have been collected in fines. Conclusions Long-term compliance to the smoking ban in Guatemala is decreasing. Additional research that

  9. Compliance to the smoke-free law in Guatemala 5-years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquín; Monzon, Jose C; Briz, Paulina; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-04-12

    Smoke-free environments decrease smoking prevalence and consequently the incidence of heart disease and lung cancer. Due to issues related to poor enforcement, scant data is currently available from low/middle income countries on the long-term compliance to smoke-free laws. In 2006, high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) were found in bars and restaurants in Guatemala City. Six months after a smoking ban was implemented in 2009, levels significantly decreased. However, in 2010, poor law compliance was observed. Therefore, we sought to assess long-term compliance to the ban using SHS measurements. In 2014 we assessed SHS exposure using airborne nicotine monitors in bars (n = 9) and restaurants (n = 12) for 7 days using the same protocol as in 2006 and in 2009. Nicotine was measured using gas-chromatography (μg/m(3)) and compared to levels pre- (2006) and post-ban (2009). Employees responded to a survey about SHS exposure, perceived economic impact of the ban and customers' electronic cigarette use. In addition, we estimated the fines that could have been collected for each law infringement. Most (71 %) venues still have a smoking section, violating the law. The percentage of samples with detectable nicotine concentrations was 100, 85 and 43 % in 2006, 2009 and 2014, respectively. In bars, median (25(th) and 75(th) percentiles) nicotine concentrations were 4.58 μg/m(3) (1.71, 6.45) in 2006, 0.28 (0.17, 0.66) in 2009, and 0.59 (0.01, 1.45) in 2014. In restaurants, the corresponding medians were 0.58 μg/m(3) (0.44, 0.71), 0.04 (0.01, 0.11), and 0.01 (0.01, 0.09). Support for the law continues to be high (88 %) among bar and restaurant employees. Most employees report no economic impact of the law and that a high proportion of customers (78 %) use e-cigarettes. A total of US$50,012 could have been collected in fines. Long-term compliance to the smoking ban in Guatemala is decreasing. Additional research that evaluates the determinants of non

  10. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Policy Support Among Public Housing Authority Residents in Rural and Tribal Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.

  11. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yujiao; Leonardo, Selena; Soulakova, Julia N

    2018-03-01

    We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18) based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010-11 ( n  = 6474) and 2014-15 ( n  = 6114). The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010-11 and 86% in 2014-15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH) Asian (94%) and Hispanic (92%) parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010-11 and 82% in 2014-15) in both survey periods. However, 2014-15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66). The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010-11 and 2014-15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010-11 decreased by 2014-15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014-15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.

  12. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n=6474 and 2014–15 (n=6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR=0.46, 99% CI=0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes. Keywords: Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, Single mother, Single father, Healthy home environment

  13. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Cost-effective smoke-free multiunit housing media campaigns: connecting with local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modayil, Mary V; Consolacion, Theodora B; Isler, Jonathan; Soria, Sandra; Stevens, Colleen

    2011-11-01

    Presented are cost-effective paid media strategies to educate Californians to advocate for stronger smoke-free multiunit housing (SF-MUH) policies between 2006 and 2008. Included is a summary of general market and specific ethnic market costs that correspond to SF-MUH attitudes and home smoking bans. Statewide questionnaires indicated that half of the intended general market saw an antitobacco TV ad and half of the intended ethnic markets heard radio ads. Analyses indicated that it cost $0.67 and $0.78 per person to see Caution Tape and Apartment TV ads, respectively. Slightly higher per capita costs corresponded with positive attitudes toward SF-MUH: $0.87 for Caution Tape and $1.00 for Apartment. Lessons learned from this campaign included effectiveness of specific ads in ethnic markets, impact on SF-MUH work plan policy objectives, and the need for collaborations among state and local partners throughout the message development process.

  15. [Social marketing and public policies for health: campaign to promote smoke-free spaces in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Víctor; Ramírez, Olivia Ortiz; Thrasher, James F; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Hernández, Rosaura Pérez; Cedillo, Claudia; González, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    "Porque todos respiramos lo mismo" is a mass media campaign to promote smoke-free places (SFP). The development stages were: strategic planning; formative research; message development; media plan; and impact evaluation. Development involved formation of a coalition of key actors in various sectors. The target population was smokers and nonsmokers, with the aim of changing social norms around SFP. Nonsmokers were targeted because they comprised the majority and were most likely to appreciate the benefits of SFPs. Campaign materials were aired on television, radio, print and on billboards. One key limitation was the lack of evidence for previous campaigns, which increased the importance of formative research and of including a rigorous evaluation for this one. The campaign evaluation indicates a significant impact, which suggests that future campaigns use similar strategies in their development.

  16. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  17. [Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Presman, Sabrina; Gigliotti, Analice; Muggli, Monique; Hurt, Richard

    2010-04-01

    To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100% smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100% smoke-free places. It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.

  18. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  19. Noncompliance to smoke-free law: which hospitality premises are more prone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, P; Evrengil, E; Guner, M; Dagli, E

    2016-12-01

    In Turkey, smoking has been banned in hospitality establishments since July 2009. The objective of this study was to determine noncompliance to the smoke-free law and its change in 2 consecutive years in enclosed spaces of hospitality venues and also to evaluate the factors associated with noncompliance. This is an observational study. Hospitality venues in Istanbul were visited, and data were collected through direct observation and interviews. Observation of smoking, cigarette butts or existence of ashtrays were defined as noncompliance. The survey was repeated in 2 consecutive years; the venues were visited both in 2013 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with noncompliance. In 2013, 450 establishments were visited, and in the next year, 367 (81.6%) were revisited. Noncompliance for 2013 and 2014 were 49.0% and 29.7%, respectively. The highest violation was observed in bars and traditional coffeehouses. There was a significant decrease in noncompliance from 2013 to 2014 among restaurants and cafés, while such a change was not observed among bars and traditional coffeehouses. In the multivariate analysis, venues other than restaurants, venues that did not have no-smoking signs and venues which had been issued fines previously had increased probability of noncompliance. While compliance to smoke-free law had increased significantly within 1 year, almost one third of the venues were still violating the law in 2014. The venues which were issued fines continued to violate the law. There is a need to strengthen enforcement efforts and revise the methods of enforcement and penalties in hospitality establishments. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative Assessment of Smoke-Free Policy Implementation in Low-Income Housing: Enhancing Resident Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jodi; Goldman, Roberta; Rees, Vaughan W; Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Davine, Jessica; Keske, Robyn R; Brooks, Daniel R; Geller, Alan C

    2018-01-01

    As public housing agencies and other low-income housing providers adopt smoke-free policies, data are needed to inform implementation approaches that support compliance. Focused ethnography used including qualitative interviews with staff, focus groups with residents, and property observations. Four low-income housing properties in Massachusetts, 12 months postpolicy adoption. Individual interviews (n = 17) with property staff (managers, resident service coordinators, maintenance, security, and administrators) and focus groups with resident smokers (n = 28) and nonsmokers (n = 47). Informed by the social-ecological model: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community factors relating to compliance were assessed. Utilized MAXQDA in a theory-driven immersion/crystallization analytic process with cycles of raw data examination and pattern identification until no new themes emerged. Self-reported secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) was reduced but not eliminated. Challenges included relying on ambivalent maintenance staff and residents to report violations, staff serving as both enforcers and smoking cessation counsellors, and inability to enforce on nights and weekends. Erroneous knowledge of the policy, perception that SHSe is not harmful to neighbors, as well as believing that smokers were losing their autonomy and being unfairly singled out when other resident violations were being unaddressed, hindered policy acceptance among resident smokers. The greatest challenge to compliance was the lack of allowable outdoor smoking areas that may have reduced the burden of the policy on smokers. Smoke-free policy implementation to support compliance could be enhanced with information about SHSe for smokers and nonsmokers, cessation support from external community partners, discussion forums for maintenance staff, resident inclusion in decision-making, and framing the policy as part of a broader wellness initiative.

  1. Factors associated with smoke-free homes in NSW: results from the 1998 NSW Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, D; Rissel, C

    2001-08-01

    To examine the sociodemographic characteristics associated with smoke-free homes (SFHs) in NSW and specify high-risk groups with a low prevalence of household smoking restrictions. Data were drawn from the 1998 NSW Health Survey, a computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 17,494 randomly selected respondents aged > or = 16 years across NSW (response rate = 70%). Logistic regression analyses, stratified by smoking status, were used. Overall, 72% of adults reported having a SFH; 87% of never-smokers, 81% of ex- and 35% of current smokers. The highest percentages of SFHs were reported in households with young children (78%) and with older children (72%) or with adults only (72%). For smokers, SFHs were independently associated with the presence of young children (OR=3.8, 95% CI 3.1-4.7) compared with those who lived alone, but the odds of living in a SFH were only slightly increased for smokers living with older children (aged 6-15) and for those living with adults only (OR=1.9, OR=1.8 respectively). Speaking a language other than English at home, having more than 10 years' education, and being homes have restrictions on smoking inside, but more than half the households with children and at least one smoker adult are not smoke free. Interventions to shape parents' smoking behaviour around older children are warranted. Strategies need to address never-smokers in communities with high prevalence of smoking and adults with lower levels of education. A continued commitment to workplace smoking bans is important as they may affect household smoking restrictions.

  2. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  3. Impact of tobacco control policies in hospitals: Evaluation of a national smoke-free campus ban in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: After the law, particulate matter < 2.5 µm concentrations were much below the values obtained before the law and below the annual guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization for outdoor settings (10 μg/m3. Our data showed the feasibility of implementing a smoke-free campus ban and its positive effects.

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Acceptability and Effectiveness of University Smoke-Free Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Joshua R.; Townsend, Joy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Systematically review studies of support for, and effectiveness of, university campuses' smoke-free policies. Participants/Methods: A search was carried out for studies in English related to campus smoking bans through June 2013. Eligible studies had outcomes for student or faculty attitudes, or measures of smoking prevalence or…

  5. Five Years After the Hawai‘i Smoke-free Law: Tourism and Hospitality Economic Indicators Appear Unharmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Cheryl; Lipsher, Julian; Hyland, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Opponents of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law argued that such a law would lead to a decrease in tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is evidence of an adverse impact of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law on tourism utilizing data obtained from Hawai‘i's Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism website for tourists from the United States. Descriptive statistics were reported before and after the law and linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the implementation of the law and changes in indicators of tourism while adjusting for underlying economic factors. The most pronounced fluctuations observed with all tourism indicators occurred around the time the US entered the recession (December 2007), with steady increases following the end of the US recession. While controlling for economic and seasonal trends, the presence of the smoke-free law was associated with an increase in arrivals (β= 42847.9; 95% CI: 16303.3, 69392.5), accommodation employees (β= 969.0; 95% CI: 351.1, 1586.8) and food services & beverage places employees (β=3390.8; 95% CI: 2326.9, 4454.7). Fluctuations in tourism indicators are likely to be associated with greater economic forces, such as decreasing GDP and consumer confidence in the United States and greater global economic trends, rather than the smoke-free law. PMID:24167770

  6. Five years after the Hawai'i smoke-free law: tourism and hospitality economic indicators appear unharmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Amato, Katharine A; Rivard, Cheryl; Lipsher, Julian; Hyland, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Opponents of Hawai'i's smoke-free law argued that such a law would lead to a decrease in tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is evidence of an adverse impact of Hawai'i's smoke-free law on tourism utilizing data obtained from Hawai'i's Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism website for tourists from the United States. Descriptive statistics were reported before and after the law and linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the implementation of the law and changes in indicators of tourism while adjusting for underlying economic factors. The most pronounced fluctuations observed with all tourism indicators occurred around the time the US entered the recession (December 2007), with steady increases following the end of the US recession. While controlling for economic and seasonal trends, the presence of the smoke-free law was associated with an increase in arrivals (β= 42847.9; 95% CI: 16303.3, 69392.5), accommodation employees (β= 969.0; 95% CI: 351.1, 1586.8) and food services & beverage places employees (β=3390.8; 95% CI: 2326.9, 4454.7). Fluctuations in tourism indicators are likely to be associated with greater economic forces, such as decreasing GDP and consumer confidence in the United States and greater global economic trends, rather than the smoke-free law.

  7. Impact of a smoke-free policy in a large psychiatric hospital on staff attitudes and patient behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voci, Sabrina; Bondy, Susan; Zawertailo, Laurie; Walker, Louise; George, Tony P; Selby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to examine changes over time in degree of staff support for the implementation of a smoke-free policy in Canada's largest public mental health and addiction teaching hospital and to assess the impact of the policy on patient behavior. Staff completed an anonymous survey, which assessed views toward the smoke-free policy and perceived change in patient behavior, 2-7 and 31-33 months after an indoor smoke-free policy was implemented (September 21, 2005). Objective indicators of patient behavior were also collected in the form of number of emergency code whites (aggressive behavior) and that of code reds (fire) called 1 year prior to and 2 years following policy implementation. Survey response rates were 19.0% (n=481) and 18.1% (n=500) at 2-7 and 31-33 months, respectively. The proportion of staff who supported the policy increased from pre-implementation (82.6%) to post-implementation (89.1%), and a high level of support was maintained 2 years after policy enactment (90.1%). The number of emergency codes did not significantly change after policy implementation, and staff did not perceive a change in most forms of patient behavior. A smoke-free policy can be implemented in a large psychiatric hospital with a high degree of support from staff and no substantial negative impact on patient behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities...

  9. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (pconvenience stores per million people in a state. State-level SFA policies do not correlate with convenience store density in a state, regardless whether gas stations were included. These results are robust across different model specifications. In addition, they are robust with regard to the inclusion/exclusion of other state-level tobacco control measures and gasoline prices. Contrary to tobacco industry and related organisations' claims, higher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  10. Courtesy and the challenges of implementing smoke-free policies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko; Stillman, Frances

    2006-04-01

    For decades, the tobacco companies have developed a worldwide campaign to oppose the creation of smoke-free environments. Public health efforts to promote clean indoor air have been uneven throughout the world, and in few places have such efforts faced as many challenges as in Japan. The Japanese market is dominated by Japan Tobacco, which is partly owned by the government, and Philip Morris International is also present in Japan. Japan Tobacco and Philip Morris International have developed campaigns promoting courtesy and tolerance that, until recently, seem to have resonated well with the public. The companies also have supported research promoting ventilation and have funded consultants to act as experts in the area of second-hand smoke exposure. Japan is a critical country to study, partly because of the strength of Japan Tobacco in the country and the growth of Japan Tobacco International in Southeast Asia and the rest of the world, and partly because of Japan's ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to provide an overview of the tobacco industry's scientific and political efforts to stifle the development of clean indoor measures in Japan. Learning past industry strategies may assist policymakers and advocates in the development of future public health activities.

  11. Cessation and reduction in smoking behavior: impact of creating a smoke-free home on smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, R; Kreuter, M; Berg, C J; Escoffery, C; Bundy, L T; Hovell, M; Mullen, P D; Williams, R; Kegler, M C

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a creating a smoke-free home (SFH) on cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking on low-income smokers. This secondary data analysis uses data from study participants who were originally recruited through 2-1-1 information and referral call centers in Atlanta (Georgia, 2013), North Carolina (2014) and the Texas Gulf Coast (2015) across three randomized controlled trials testing an intervention aimed at creating SFHs, pooling data from 941 smokers. Participants who reported adopting a SFH were more likely to report quitting smoking than those who did not adopt a SFH. This was true at 3-month follow-up and even more pronounced at 6-month follow-up and persisted when considering only those who consistently reported no smoking at 3 and 6 months. Among those who did not stop smoking, the number of cigarettes per day declined significantly more and quit attempts were more frequent for those who created a SFH compared with those who did not. Findings suggest that creating a SFH facilitates cessation, reduces cigarette consumption and increases quit attempts. Future studies should assess the long-term impact of SFHs on sustaining cessation.

  12. Influence of religious organisations' statements on compliance with a smoke-free law in Bogor, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M Justin; Cohen, Joanna E; Gittelsohn, Joel; Frattaroli, Shannon; Nuryunawati, Ramadhani; Jernigan, David H

    2015-12-14

    To explore the Bogor public's perspective on Muslim organisations' pronouncements against smoking and the effect of these pronouncements on compliance with a new smoke-free law in the context of a prosmoking social norm. Semistructured focus group discussions were conducted, transcribed, coded using ATLAS.ti software, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Photo elicitation was also used during the focus groups. Bogor, Indonesia. 11 focus groups (n=89), stratified by age, gender and smoking status, with members of the public (46 male, 43 female, ages 18-50). There was limited knowledge of and compliance with both the smoke-free law and the religious pronouncements. In most of the focus groups, smoking was described as a discouraged, but not forbidden, behaviour for Muslims. Participants described the decision of whether to follow the religious pronouncements in the context of individual choice. Some participants felt religious organisations lacked credibility to speak against smoking because many religious leaders themselves smoke. However, some non-smokers said their religion reinforced their non-smoking behaviour and some participants stated it would be useful for religious leaders to speak more about the smoke-free law. Religious organisations' pronouncements appear to have had a small effect, primarily in supporting the position of non-smokers not to smoke. Participants, including smokers, said their religious leaders should be involved in supporting the smoke-free law. These findings suggest there is potential for the tobacco control community to partner with sympathetic local Muslim leaders to promote common goals of reducing smoking and public smoke exposure. Muslim leaders' views on smoking would be perceived as more credible if they themselves followed the smoke-free law. Additionally, public health messaging that includes religious themes could be piloted and tested for effectiveness. These findings may also inform similar efforts in other Muslim

  13. Parental Practices and Attitudes Related to Smoke-Free Rules in Homes, Cars, and Outdoor Playgrounds in US Households With Underage Children and Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Rhoads, Natalie

    2015-06-18

    A smoke-free environment protects children from exposure to involuntary smoke and also can reduce or prevent future smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine levels and correlates of parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor children's play areas among US households with underage children and 1 or more smoking parents. We used data from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey and logistic regressions to model behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in 3 settings. Overall, 60.1% of households with children and at least 1 smoking parent had voluntary smoke-free home rules. Approximately 84.6% and 71.5% of parents thought that smoking should not be allowed inside cars with children present and in outdoor play areas, respectively. Positive parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules were more likely among households with 2 parents, parents of higher education and household income, Hispanic parents, and parents of infants (P prevention efforts are needed to promote the voluntary adoption of smoke-free rules in homes, private cars, and outdoor children's play areas. Most parents from smoker households with underage children were supportive of smoke-free laws for cars and outdoor children's play areas, providing evidence and encouragement to policy makers to take action to restrict smoking in these locations.

  14. "You Want Your Guests to Be Happy in This Business": Hoteliers' Decisions to Adopt Voluntary Smoke-Free Guest-Room Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-01-01

    To explore why some hotels have implemented 100% smoke-free policies voluntarily, the perceived consequences of doing so, and media responses. Qualitative study of hotel management and quantitative content analysis of media coverage of smoke-free hotels. Hotels and media based in the United States. Eleven representatives of 5 independent and 4 chain hotels. Other data included 265 news items about smoke-free hotels. We conducted 30-minute semi-structured interviews with hotel representatives and analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. We also searched 3 online news databases for news items about hotels in our study, and collaboratively coded retrieved items; we analyzed the content and slant of news items. Business considerations, including guest requests, competitor action, and cost savings, were the primary motivations for implementing 100% smoke-free guest-room policies. Health concerns played a minimal role. Hotels received positive feedback from customers and employees. Media coverage was favorable, emphasizing positive aspects of going smoke-free; the overall slant of news items was positive or neutral. However, few hotels marketed the change. Since hotel customers and employees are likely to experience long periods of smoke exposure and smoke-free hotels appear to be so well received, it may be timely to pursue policies making all hotels smoke-free.

  15. Analysis of taxable sales receipts: was New York City's Smoke-Free Air Act bad for restaurant business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M; Nauenberg, E

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the results of a study to determine if the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act has had an adverse economic impact on the taxable sales receipts from the city's restaurant and hotel industries. The study found that real taxable sales from eating and drinking places and hotels in New York City increased by 2.1 percent and 36.9 percent, respectively, compared with levels two years before the smoke-free law took effect. During the same period, real taxable sales for eating and drinking establishments and hotels in the rest of the state experienced a 3.8 percent decrease and a modest 2.4 percent increase in sales, respectively.

  16. Smoke-free policies and non-smokers’ reactions to SHS exposure in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calliopi Sivri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-smoker employees can significantly improve the existing smoke-free policies in the workplace by asserting their right for smoke-free air and confronting smoker colleagues. The aim of the study was to assess the psychological and social drivers of non-smokers' readiness to assert their right for smoke-free air in the workplace. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six small-and-medium enterprises (SME with diverse background were randomly selected, and 284 employees agreed to participate in the study. Our study focused on the responses of 85 non-smokers (M age = 34 years, SD = 7.98, 84.2% worked in indoor offices. A cross-sectional design was used and participants completed a structured anonymous questionnaire assessing background and demographic characteristics, and psychosocial predictors of assertiveness intentions. Results: Although more than half of non-smokers reported they were often/almost always bothered by exposure to SHS, roughly one third of them reported having asked their colleagues not to smoke at work. Regression analysis showed that the effects of distal predictors (i.e. annoyance due to SHS exposure were mediated by past behaviour, attitudes (protection motivation beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Health beliefs related to SHS exposure, and concerns about workplace health and job performance, social norms and self-efficacy can increase the assertiveness of non-smokers in workplace settings. Related campaigns should focus on communicating normative messages and self-efficacy training to empower non-smoker employees to act assertively towards protecting their smoke-free rights.

  17. Potential for smoke-free policies in social venues to prevent smoking uptake and reduce relapse: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Cameron, Melissa; Murphy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand the utility of smoking in pubs/bars and nightclubs and explore perceptions of how smoke-free policies might influence smoking behavior. Qualitative focus group methodology was used involving young social smokers and older regular smokers. Pubs/bars and nightclubs were valued as the few remaining indoor public places where people could relax and smoke. These venues were perceived to provide encouragement for smoking more cigarettes by increasing smoking rate and facilitating smoking relapse. For young social smokers, smoking provided an opportunity to be part of a "cool" in-group. Older regular smokers felt pubs/bars provided strong cues for smoking relapse. Smokers felt they would adapt to smoke-free policies and expected these policies to reduce their smoking or assist quitting. Smoke-free policies in pubs/bars and nightclubs may assist smokers to quit and make it less likely that young social smokers will progress to regular smoking.

  18. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  19. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  20. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    Full Text Available This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9% of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  1. Use of Internet viral marketing to promote smoke-free lifestyles among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.

  2. Use of Internet Viral Marketing to Promote Smoke-Free Lifestyles among Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR  = 0.95, p-value non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010

  3. Use of Internet viral marketing to promote smoke-free lifestyles among Chinese adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ip

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. RESULTS: The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.

  4. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  5. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kehagias, Martha; Vardavas, Constantine; Connolly, Gregory N

    2013-01-27

    Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation's effect on revenue and employment. Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in the year following the ban, the hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  6. Indoor particulate matter measurement as a tool in the process of the implementation of smoke-free hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, S; Cagnin, R; Invernizzi, G; Ruprecht, A; Boffi, R; Formentini, S

    2004-01-01

    There are International and National standards that requires hospitals and health premises to be smoke-free. According to recent data from Italy and other European Countries, smoking is a widespread habit in hospitals. To get smoke-free hospitals in an Italian region, we have adopted the European Code for smoke-free hospitals, which sets standards and provides instruments for its implementation. According to the Code, whenever possible, each step towards a smoke-free hospital, should be shared by all staff. As a mean for achieving this goal, in our region the certification of single units as smoke-free units has been chosen. For getting the certification, besides implementing the Code, we planned to use ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) monitoring, as ETS should not be present in hospitals. As a marker of ETS we have chosen Particulate Matter (PM), as it can easily be measured in real-time with a portable instrument and, when other even outdoor--sources of combustion can be ruled out, it is an accurate detector of cigarette smoke. Here the first experience of measuring PM in hospitals for monitoring ETS and certificating smoke-free health premises, is described. PM measurements were carried out without any previous notification in different areas of two Network hospitals of the Veneto Region, during a single working day. A real time laser-operated aerosol mass analyser was used. Several classes of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, TSP Total Suspended Particles) were measured. Outdoor PM levels were found to be repeatedly lower than the annual official limits of 65 mcg/m3 and around the 24 hour official limits of 15 mcg/m3 [15 to 20 mcg/m3, with an overall mean (+/-SD) of 17.8 (1.9)] throughout the whole day. Very good indoor air quality was found in the operating theaters and isolation department, where PM2.5 concentrations were much lower than outdoor levels [1.6 (0.9) and 5.9 (0.6) mcg/m3, respectively]. No increase in PM pollution was found in the surveyed medical

  7. Smoke free: for a new generation of non-smokers: an educational resource for teachers and educators of children ages 3 to 6: teacher's guide [kit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ...; to encourage them to adopt positive attitudes towards not smoking; and to make key adults, particularly parents, aware of their influence as role models and of the importance of a smoke-free environment for their children...

  8. Tax revenue in Mississippi communities following implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Robert; Shackelford, Signe

    2012-10-01

    There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. More than 60 Mississippi communities have passed smoke-free ordinances in the past six years. Opponents claim that these ordinances harm local businesses. Mississippi law allows municipalities to place a tourism and economic development (TED) tax on local restaurants and hotels/motels. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of these ordinances on TED tax revenues. This study applies a pre/post quasi-experimental design to compare TED tax revenue before and after implementing ordinances. Descriptive analyses indicated that inflation-adjusted tax revenues increased during the 12 months following implementation of smoke-free ordinances while there was no change in aggregated control communities. Multivariate fixed-effects analyses found no statistically significant effect of smoke-free ordinances on hospitality tax revenue. No evidence was found that smoke-free ordinances have an adverse effect on the local hospitality industry.

  9. An Exploration of the Perspectives of Associate Nurse Unit Managers Regarding the Implementation of Smoke-free Policies in Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Tania D; Cross, Wendy; Munro, Ian

    2018-04-01

    In Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units, it is not unexpected that leadership of Associate Nurse Unit Managers contributes to successful implementation of smoke-free policies. In light of challenges facing mental health nursing, and limited research describing their leadership and the role it plays in addressing smoke-free policy implementation, the aim of this study is to explore Associate Nurse Unit Managers perspectives' regarding the implementation of smoke-free policies, which were introduced on 1 July, 2015. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken six months post the implementation of smoke-free policies. In this qualitative descriptive study, six Associate Nurse Unit Managers working in a Victorian public Adult Mental Health Inpatient Unit, were asked eight questions which targeted leadership and the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free policies. Associate Nurse Unit Managers provide leadership and role modeling for staff and they are responsible for setting the standards that govern the behavior of nurses within their team. All participants interviewed believed that they were leaders in the workplace. Education and consistency were identified as crucial for smoke-free policies to be successful. Participants acknowledged that the availability of therapeutic interventions, staff resources and the accessibility of nicotine replacement therapy were crucial to assist consumers to remain smoke-free while on the unit. The findings from this research may help to improve the understanding of the practical challenges that Associate Nurse Unit Manager's face in the implementation of smoke-free policies with implications for policies, nursing practice, education and research.

  10. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Bleymann, Kayleigh; Lyall, Elaine; Aslam, Fouad; Bam, Tara Singh; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Daouda, Elhadj Adam; Espinosa, Mariana; Romo, Jonathan; Singh, Rana J; Semple, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high. Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day. Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P hospitality venues in LMICs. Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  11. Results from unannounced visits to check compliance with smoke-free regulations in three types of indoor places in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Beijing Tobocco control regulation come into force in 2015. According to the regulation, all indoor areas are smoke free. To assess compliance with the Beijing Regulations, identify weaknesses and problems, and provide scientific evidence for policy making by the government and other authorities. Methods on site, unannounced visits. We conducted unannounced visits to a sample of 821 places in three types of places across the sixteen districts of Beijing, including medical and health facilities (including health and family planning commissions, CDCs, health inspection institutes and a variety of hospitals, colleges (including vocational schools and taxis (including Shouqi Group vehicles booked online. Results Among medical and health facilities, all posted smoke-free signage, and no cigarette end or smoking paraphernalia was found indoors, except in private hospitals, community health service centers and few maternal and child care centers. Among colleges, 96.9% of them posted smoke-free signage, cigarette end was found indoors in 9.9% of colleges, smell of smoking was detected indoors in 1.9% of colleges, and ashtray was found indoors in 0.6% of colleges. Among taxies, 6% of drivers of online booked vehicles permit passengers to smoke inside their car, and no smell of smoking, container of cigarette ends/ashes, or driver smoking was detected in these online booked vehicles. Among the conventional cruising taxis, 48.4% of taxi drivers permit passengers to smoke inside their car, smell of smoking was found in 9.6% of taxies, and 1.6% of taxi drivers smoke in their car. Conclusions Smoking in violation of the Regulations is serious in the taxi sector, and targeted stronger supervision and administration are needed.

  12. Smoking cessation interventions from health care providers before and after the national smoke-free law in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Smoking cessation advice from health care providers (HCP) is well-known to be associated with increased quitting. This study sought to understand the extent to which smokers in France who visited a HCP around the time of the implementation of the national ban on smoking received encouragement to quit from a HCP and what kinds of intervention were provided. HCP may have a unique opportunity during the implementation phase of smoke-free laws to address their patients' smoking behaviours to increase the likelihood of success at a time when smokers' readiness and interest in quitting may be higher. Telephone interviews were conducted among adult smokers (n = 1067) before and after the two-phase (2007 and 2008) national ban on indoor smoking as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. In the survey, smokers were asked whether they had visited a HCP in the past 6 months and, if so, whether they had received cessation encouragement, and/or other interventions to support quitting such as prescriptions for stop-smoking medication. Most smokers (61%) reported visiting a HCP in the 6 months prior to the first phase of the national smoke-free ban, and 58% after the time of the hospitality ban. Of these, most reported they did not receive any assistance from a HCP before (54%) or after (64%) the smoke-free law. Among those who reported an intervention, the most common were only encouragement to quit (58% in Wave 1 and 49% in Wave 2), or receiving both encouragement and a pamphlet (31% in both Wave 1 and 2). The combination of prescriptions for stop-smoking medicine and encouragement to quit increased from 8% in 2007 to 22% in 2008. The smokers who received an intervention were more likely (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) to report that they were thinking about quitting. This study demonstrates that HCP in France are well positioned to provide smoking cessation encouragement and other interventions to a majority of smokers and thus the importance of taking

  13. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  14. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the “Reducing Social Inequalities in Health” program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence (p < 0.0001. Complete smoke-free rules were adopted by 22.1% of the study participants. Two factors, smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes—a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  15. No smoking here: examining reasons for noncompliance with a smoke-free policy in a large university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine; Bowser, Nicole; Burns, Sharyn; Crawford, Gemma; Portsmouth, Linda; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    A large Australian university introduced a campuswide smoke-free policy in 2012. Almost 1 year after implementation, reasons for noncompliance among people observed smoking on campus were examined. Six smoking locations on campus were identified after a campuswide audit of smoking indicators (i.e., discarded cigarette butts packets and people observed smoking). At these locations, those observed smokers were interviewed. Interview responses were examined to elicit underlying themes. Fifty people were seen smoking during the observation period. Those smokers interviewed comprised staff (27%) and students (73%) aged between 18 and 24 (45.9%). The majority of the students were international students (51.8%). All respondents acknowledged their awareness of the smoke-free policy. Five explanatory themes for noncompliance emerged: defiance against the policy's perceived threat to self-governance; inconvenience to travel off campus to smoke; smoking as a physiological necessity; unintentional noncompliance through unawareness or confusion of policy boundaries; and ease of avoidance of detection or exposing others to cigarette smoke. Creating a culture of compliance at the university remains a significant challenge, especially considering the size of the campus, the high proportion of international students, and the logistics associated with monitoring smoking behavior in outdoor areas and on-campus student housing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 'It's about the smoke, not the smoker': messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2014-02-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were conducted. Participants reviewed and rated a collection of print media advertisements and branding materials used by rural communities to promote smoke-free policies. Findings reveal that negative emotional tone, loss framing, appeals to religiosity, and shifting focus away from smokers are effective strategies with rural audiences. Potential pitfalls were identified. Attacks on smokers may not be a useful strategy. Health risk messages reinforced beliefs of secondhand smoke harm but some argued that the messages needed to appeal to smokers and emphasize health hazards to smokers, rather than to non-smokers only. Messages describing ineffectiveness of smoking sections were understood but participants felt they were only relevant for restaurants and not all public spaces. Emphasis on religiosity and social norms shows promise as a culturally sensitive approach to promoting smoke-free environments in rural communities.

  17. Views about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies among North Carolina restaurant owners before passage of a law to prohibit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnan, Laura A; Weiner, Bryan J; Bowling, J Michael; Bunger, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies among North Carolina restaurant owners and managers before passage of House Bill 2, which prohibited smoking in most restaurants and bars. A random sample of North Carolina restaurants was selected to participate. A 15-minute telephone survey was completed by 523 restaurant owners and managers (one per participating restaurant) who spoke English and operated a restaurant that had seating for guests and was not a corporate headquarters for a restaurant chain (response rate, 36.7%). Bivariable analyses using chi2 tests of association were conducted. Multivariable modeling with logistic regression was used to examine relationships among several predictor variables and current smoking policies at participating restaurants, support among owners and managers for a statewide ban on smoking in restaurants, and beliefs among owners and managers about the economic impact of smoke-free policies. Restaurant owners and managers were aware that secondhand smoke causes cancer and asthma (79% and 73% or respondents, respectively) but were less aware that it causes heart attacks (56%). Sixty-six percent of restaurants did not permit any smoking indoors. Sixty percent of owners and managers supported a statewide smoke-free law. Owners and managers who were current smokers, those who worked at a restaurant with an employee smoking prevalence of more than 25%, and those who worked in a restaurant without a 700% smoke-free policy were significantly less likely to support a statewide law requiring smoke-free public places. Only owner and manager smoking status and no current smoke-free indoor policy were significant independent predictors of the belief that instituting a smoke-free policy would have negative economic consequences for the restaurant. Although participating establishments were a representative sample of North Carolina restaurants, an overall survey response rate of 36

  18. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Klepeis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting. The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  19. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  20. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  1. Exposure to particulate matters (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine in computer game rooms after implementation of smoke-free legislation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Sohn, Jongryeul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-12-01

    In South Korea, computer game rooms are subject to regulations mandating a designated nonsmoking area pursuant to Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the National Health Promotion Act; nonsmoking areas must be enclosed on all sides by solid and impermeable partitions. Using PM(2.5) monitors (SidePak AM510) and airborne nicotine monitors, we measured concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas to examine whether separation of the nonsmoking areas as currently practiced is a viable way to protect the nonsmoking area from secondhand smoke exposure. Convenient samplings were conducted at 28 computer game rooms randomly selected from 14 districts in Seoul, South Korea between August and September 2009. The medians (interquartile range) of PM(2.5) concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas were 69.3 μg/m(3) (34.5-116.5 μg/m(3)) and 34 μg/m(3) (15.0-57.0 μg/m(3)), while those of airborne nicotine were 0.41 μg/m(3) (0.25-0.69 μg/m(3)) and 0.12 μg/m(3) (0.06-0.16 μg/m(3)), respectively. Concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM(2.5) in nonsmoking areas were substantially positively associated with those in smoking areas. The Spearman correlation coefficients for them were 0.68 (p = .02) and 0.1 (p = 0.7), respectively. According to our modeling result, unit increase of airborne nicotine concentration in a smoking area contributed to 7 (95% CI = 2.5-19.8) times increase of the concentration in the adjacent nonsmoking area after controlling for the degree of partition left closed and the indoor space volume. Our study thus provides evidence for the introduction of more rigorous policy initiatives aimed at encouraging a complete smoking ban in such venues.

  2. Parental Practices and Attitudes Related to Smoke-Free Rules in Homes, Cars, and Outdoor Playgrounds in US Households With Underage Children and Smokers, 2010?2011

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Rhoads, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A smoke-free environment protects children from exposure to involuntary smoke and also can reduce or prevent future smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine levels and correlates of parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor children?s play areas among US households with underage children and 1 or more smoking parents. Methods We used data from the 2010?2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population S...

  3. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Methods: Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-f...

  4. Smoke-Free Policies at Home, Church, and Work: Smoking Levels and Recent Quit Attempts Among a Southeastern Rural Population, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Swan, Deanne W.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Fredrick, George; Daniel, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of smoke-free policies and social support for smoking cessation in the home, at church, and at work on smoking levels and quit attempts in the context of a community-based study of rural African Americans and whites in the Southeast. Methods We conducted a baseline survey to assess sociodemographics, smoking behavior, level of social support for smoking cessation, and smoke-free policies at home, church, and work. W...

  5. Review of the quality of studies on the economic effects of smoke-free policies on the hospitality industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, M; Lal, A; Hyland, A; Glantz, S

    2003-03-01

    To compare the quality and funding source of studies concluding a negative economic impact of smoke-free policies in the hospitality industry to studies concluding no such negative impact. Researchers sought all studies produced before 31 August 2002. Articles published in scientific journals were located with Medline, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Current Contents, PsychInfo, Econlit, and Healthstar. Unpublished studies were located from tobacco company websites and through internet searches. 97 studies that made statements about economic impact were included. 93% of the studies located met the selection criteria as determined by consensus between multiple reviewers. Findings and characteristics of studies (apart from funding source) were classified independently by two researchers. A third assessor blind to both the objective of the present study and to funding source also classified each study. In studies concluding a negative impact, the odds of using a subjective outcome measure was 4.0 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 9.6; p = 0.007) and the odds of not being peer reviewed was 20 times (95% CI 2.6 to 166.7; p = 0.004) that of studies concluding no such negative impact. All of the studies concluding a negative impact were supported by the tobacco industry. 94% of the tobacco industry supported studies concluded a negative economic impact compared to none of the non-industry supported studies. All of the best designed studies report no impact or a positive impact of smoke-free restaurant and bar laws on sales or employment. Policymakers can act to protect workers and patrons from the toxins in secondhand smoke confident in rejecting industry claims that there will be an adverse economic impact.

  6. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nonnemaker, J M; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K K; Bauer, U E

    2005-08-01

    To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities. Pre-post longitudinal follow up design. Restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities in New York State. At baseline, 104 non-smoking workers in restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities were recruited with newspaper ads, flyers, and radio announcements. Of these, 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen at baseline. At three, six, and 12 month follow up studies, 47, 38, and 32 workers from the baseline sample of 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. The smoke-free law went into effect 24 July 2003. Self reported sensory and respiratory symptoms and exposure to secondhand smoke; self administered saliva cotinine specimens. Analyses were limited to subjects in all four study periods who completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. All analyses were limited to participants who completed both an interview and a saliva specimen for all waves of data collection (n = 30) and who had cotinine concentrations hospitality jobs decreased from 12.1 hours (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0 to 16.3 hours) to 0.2 hours (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5 hours) (p law had its intended effect of protecting hospitality workers from exposure to secondhand smoke within three months of implementation. One year after implementation, the results suggest continued compliance with the law.

  7. Should Any Workplace Be Exempt from Smoke-Free Law: The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McCaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2004, the Irish Government introduced national legislation banning smoking in workplaces; with exemptions for “a place of residence”. This paper summarises three Irish studies of exempted premises; prisons, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes. Methods. PM2.5 and nicotine were measured in nursing homes and psychiatric hospitals, in addition to ultrafine particles in the hospitals. In the prisons, officers (=30 completed exhaled breath Carbon Monoxide (CO measurements. Questionnaires determined officers’ opinion on introducing smoking prohibitions in prisons. Nursing home smoking policies were examined and questionnaires completed by staff regarding workplace secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. Findings. Ultrafine particle concentrations in psychiatric hospitals averaged 130,000 per cm3, approximately 45% higher than Dublin pub levels (85,000 per cm3 pre ban. PM2.5 levels in psychiatric hospitals (39.5 μg/m3 were similar to Dublin pubs (35.5 μg/m3 pre ban. In nursing homes permitting smoking, similar PM2.5 levels (33 μg/m3 were measured, with nicotine levels (0.57 μg/m3 four times higher than “non-smoking” nursing homes (0.13 μg/m3. In prisons, 44% of non-smoking officers exhibited exhaled breath CO criteria for light to heavy smokers. Conclusions. With SHS exposure levels in some exempted workplaces similar to Dublin pubs levels pre ban, policies ensuring full protection must be developed and implemented as a right for workers, inmates and patients.

  8. Using the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Understand Compliance with a Smoke-Free Law in a Middle-Income Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, M. J.; Cohen, J. E.; Frattaroli, S.; Gittelsohn, J.; Jernigan, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-free laws, which ban smoking in public venues, can be effective in protecting public health, but it has been difficult to achieve compliance with these laws in low- and middle-income countries. This study was conducted to understand the social norms around public smoking and learn how to improve compliance in Bogor, the first Indonesian city…

  9. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  10. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  11. An examination of smoking behavior and opinions about smoke-free environments in a large sample of sexual and gender minority community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin D; Zaniletti, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking rate and support for smoke-free policies in private and public environments from a large sample of self-identified sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. A targeted sampling strategy recruited participants from 4 Missouri Pride Festivals and online surveys targeted to SGM populations during the summer of 2008. A 24-item survey gathered information on gender and sexual orientation, smoking status, and questions assessing behaviors and preferences related to smoke-free policies. The project recruited participants through Pride Festivals (n = 2,676) and Web-based surveys (n = 231) representing numerous sexual and gender orientations and the racial composite of the state of Missouri. Differences were found between the Pride Festivals sample and the Web-based sample, including smoking rates, with current smoking for the Web-based sample (22%) significantly less than the Pride Festivals sample (37%; p times more likely to be current smokers compared with the study's heterosexual group (n = 436; p = .005). Statistically fewer SGM racial minorities (33%) are current smokers compared with SGM Whites (37%; p = .04). Support and preferences for public and private smoke-free environments were generally low in the SGM population. The strategic targeting method achieved a large and diverse sample. The findings of high rates of smoking coupled with generally low levels of support for smoke-free public policies in the SGM community highlight the need for additional research to inform programmatic attempts to reduce tobacco use and increase support for smoke-free environments.

  12. Promoting smoke-free environments in Latin America: a comparison of methods to assess secondhand smoke exposure Promoción de ambientes libres de humo en América Latina: una comparación de métodos para evaluar la exposición a humo de tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Avila-Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS contains toxicants and carcinogens that are known to cause premature death and disease. Objectively measuring SHS exposure can support and evaluate smoke-free legislations. In Latin America, the most commonly used methods to measure SHS exposure are airborne nicotine and respirable suspended particles (PM2.5. Here we present results from studies conducted in public places and homes across Latin American countries. Airborne nicotine was detected in most locations between 2002-2006, before the implementation of 100% smoke-free legislation in Uruguay, Panama, Guatemala and other large cities within Latin America. Between 2006 and 2008, PM2.5 levels were found to be five times higher in places where smoking was present at the time of sampling compared to those without smoking. Measuring SHS exposure across Latin America has increased our understanding of the magnitude of exposure in this region and results have been used to effectively promote smoke-free legislation.El humo de tabaco (HT contiene tóxicos y carcinógenos que causan muerte prematura y enfermedades. La medición objetiva de la exposición en el ambiente a HT puede apoyar y evaluar las legislaciones que prohiben fumar. Aquí presentamos resultados de estudios realizados en lugares públicos y hogares latinoamericanos usando los métodos más comunes para esta exposición: nicotina y partículas respirables (PM2.5. Se detectó nicotina en el aire de la mayoría de los lugares muestreados entre 2002-2006, antes de la ejecución de la legislación 100% libre de humo en Uruguay, Panamá, y Guatemala. Entre 2006-2008, los niveles de PM2.5 resultaron ser cinco veces mayores en lugares donde personas fumaban comparado con lugares sin fumadores. Medir la exposición al HT en América Latina ha aumentado nuestra comprensión de la magnitud de la exposición en esta región y ha servido para promover eficazmente legislación libre de humo de tabaco.

  13. Development and evaluation of the See Me Smoke-Free multi-behavioral mHealth app for women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Judith S; Armin, Julie; D Hingle, Melanie; Giacobbi, Peter; Cunningham, James K; Johnson, Thienne; Abbate, Kristopher; Howe, Carol L; Roe, Denise J

    2017-06-01

    Women face particular challenges when quitting smoking, especially those with weight concerns. A multi-behavioral smoking cessation intervention addressing these concerns and incorporating guided imagery may assist women to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. An mHealth app can easily disseminate such an intervention. The goals of this pilot study were to develop and test the feasibility and potential of the See Me Smoke-Free ™ mHealth app to address smoking, diet, and physical activity among women smokers. We used pragmatic, direct-to-consumer methods to develop and test program content, functionality, and the user interface and conduct a pre-/post-test, 90-day pilot study. We enrolled 151 participants. Attrition was 52%, leaving 73 participants. At 90 days, 47% of participants reported 7-day abstinence and significant increases in physical activity and fruit consumption. Recruitment methods worked well, but similar to other mHealth studies, we experienced high attrition. This study suggests that a guided imagery mHealth app has the potential to address multiple behaviors. Future research should consider different methods to improve retention and assess efficacy.

  14. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Katarzyna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-04-21

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the "Reducing Social Inequalities in Health" program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence ( p smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes-a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  15. Multimodal e-Health Services for Smoking Cessation and Public Health: The SmokeFreeBrain Project Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Spachos, Dimitris; Billis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the largest avoidable cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. It causes most of the cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to the development of other lung diseases. SmokeFreeBrain aims to address the effectiveness of a multi-level variety of interventions aiming at smoking cessation in high risk target groups within High Middle Income Countries (HMIC) such as unemployed young adults, COPD and asthma patients, and within the general population in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The project addresses existing approaches aimed to prevent lung diseases caused by tobacco while developing new treatments and evaluating: (i) Public Service Announcement (PSA) against smoking, (ii) the use of electronic cigarettes, (iii) neurofeedback protocols against smoking addiction, (iv) a specifically developed intervention protocol based on behavioral therapy, social media/mobile apps and short text messages (sms) and (v) pharmacologic interventions. Emphasis in this paper, however, is placed on the e-heath, m-health, open (big) data, mobile game and neuroscientific challenges and developments upon facilitating the aforementioned interventions.

  16. Smoke-free workplace ballot campaigns: case studies from Missouri and lessons for policy and media advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Laura E; Shelton, Sarah C; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Israel, Kendre

    2013-01-01

    To assess the key components of smoke-free campaigns that may have influenced voting outcomes in three communities. Community case studies with content analysis of tobacco-related newspaper articles. Three semiurban Missouri communities. One hundred eighty-one articles referencing tobacco published during the campaigns and five key informant interviews. Articles were coded for type, community referenced, tobacco control position, source of quotations, use of evidence, and frame. Semistructured interviews with key informants collected additional information. Descriptive statistics were utilized to examine media coverage in each community. Key themes and events for each campaign were identified from qualitative interviews. The only community that failed to pass its initiative had the highest proportion of letters to the editor (81.1%), anti-tobacco control articles (34.2%), use of a rights frame (28.8%), no evidence used (36.9%), no neighboring communities with policies, strong Tea Party presence, and no support from the chamber of commerce. Across all communities, more articles incorporating health frames were pro-tobacco control (70.7%) and more articles with a rights frame were anti-tobacco control (62.0%), compared to other positions. Several factors can influence the policy process. Tobacco control policy advocates facing strong opposition should consider the many factors (demographics, proximity to other adopting localities, politics) driving the debate and use media as an avenue to influence the discussion, connect with the public and policymakers, and mobilize proponents.

  17. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  18. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  19. The Support for Smoke Free Policy and How It Is Influenced by Tolerance to Smoking – Experience of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking. PMID:25338116

  20. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants’ Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Stillman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%. Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n = 240 were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n = 346 (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value < 0.01. Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places.

  1. Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Longman, Jo M; Robinson, Jude; Wiggers, John; Jones, Laura L

    2016-03-17

    To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies of the barriers, motivators and enablers of smoke-free homes (SFHs). Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Searches of MEDLINE, EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, Informit and EMBASE, combining terms for families, households and vulnerable populations; SFH and secondhand smoke; and qualitative research, were supplemented by searches of PhD theses, key authors, specialist journals and reference lists. We included 22 articles, reporting on 18 studies, involving 646 participants. peer-reviewed; English language; published from 1990 onwards (to week 3 of April 2014); used qualitative data collection methods; explored participants' perspectives of home smoking behaviours; and the barriers, motivators and enablers to initiating and/or maintaining a SFH. 1 of 3 authors extracted data with checking by a second. A thematic synthesis was performed to develop 7 core analytic themes: (1) knowledge, awareness and risk perception; (2) agency and personal skills/attributes; (3) wider community norms and personal moral responsibilities; (4) social relationships and influence of others; (5) perceived benefits, preferences and priorities; (6) addiction and habit; (7) practicalities. This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. CRD42014014115. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  3. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  4. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  5. Process evaluation of a sport-for-health intervention to prevent smoking amongst primary school children: SmokeFree Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna A; Ussher, Michael; Garnham-Lee, Katy; Knowles, Zoe R; Foweather, Lawrence

    2015-04-10

    SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness. Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n = 95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n = 20) and SFS coaches (n = 7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n = 1097; teachers, n = 50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n = 50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n = 125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range = 126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions = 58%) and optional components (no adaptions made = 51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided. SFS was considered

  6. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  7. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  9. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, John H; Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-08-18

    During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. We conducted a pretest-posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers' indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F1,144 = 22.69, P exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing.

  10. Characterization of urinary cotinine in non-smoking residents in smoke-free homes in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghoon Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine urinary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes and to establish the relationship of urinary cotinine with housing type and other socio-demographic and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure factors. Methods We used data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey I (2009–2011. The study included 814 non-smoking adult residents living in apartments, attached, and detached housing. Residents who lived with smokers were excluded. Urinary cotinine concentration was used as a biomarker for SHS exposure. The factors associated with urinary cotinine levels in non-smoking residents were determined using multivariate regression analysis. Results Urinary cotinine was detected in 88 % of the 814 non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes. The urinary cotinine concentrations of residents living in attached [1.18 ng/mg creatinine (Cr] and detached housing (1.23 ng/mg Cr were significantly higher than those of residents who lived in apartments (0.69 ng/mg Cr. Urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in residents who were men, those with a household income ≤1000 USD/month, those who were former smokers with >1 year and ≤1 year of not smoking, and those who experienced SHS odor every day. In the multivariate regression analysis, housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were associated with urinary cotinine concentrations (R 2 = 0.14. Conclusions The majority of non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes had detectable urinary cotinine. Housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were predictors for urinary cotinine concentrations in the study participants.

  11. The study protocol of women′s education to create smoke-free home on the basis of family ties in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable death world-wide. Unfortunately, the risk is not limited to smokers. It is dangerous for non-smokers particularly women, kids and elderly. Despite the remarkable reduction of tobacco exposure in public places, it is still continuing at homes as the most common places. Interventions to create a smoke-free home are needed, but little is known about them. The aim of this study is to explain the field randomized controlled trial that is designed to examine the role of non-smoker women to create a smoke-free home through establishing complete agreement on ban smoking at home. Methods: In this field randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of women′s education will be evaluated in primary health-care centers. A total of 136 non-smoker women who exposed to second-hand smoke by their husbands at home will be included (68 intervention/non-intervention group. The intervention arm will receive an educational package including a consultation visit individually, a peer group session, a booklet, a "no smoking" sign. The primary outcome is the frequency of smoke-free home (no exposure to second-hand smoke at home. Mediator outcomes include a complete agreement to ban smoking at home, second-hand smoke exposure rate and self-assertiveness rate. All measurements will be conducted on baseline, 1 and 3 months after intervention. Conclusions: Outcomes will present the effects of implementing multi-component women′s education intervention program to ban smoking at home. If the effectiveness of the trial is confirmed, it will be suggested to merge this package to routine care in primary health-care centers.

  12. Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Bruno; Mackenbach, Johan P; Eikemo, Terje A; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2005 smoke-free law on smoking prevalence, cessation and intensity both in the overall population and separately by educational level. Interrupted time-series analyses of 11 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys. Italy, 1999-2010. Adults aged 20-64 years. For each year we computed the prevalence of current smoking, the quit ratio and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. All measures were standardized by age. Segmented linear regression analyses were performed for each smoking variable separately by sex. Among males, smoking prevalence decreased by 2.6% (P = 0.002) and smoking cessation increased by 3.3% (P = 0.006) shortly after the ban, but both measures tended to return to pre-ban values in the following years. This occurred among both highly and low-educated males. Among low-educated females, the ban was followed by a 1.6% decrease (P = 0.120) in smoking prevalence and a 4.5% increase in quit ratios (P educated females, trends in smoking prevalence and cessation were not altered by the ban. Among both males and females, long-term trends in the daily number of cigarettes, which were already declining well before the implementation of the policy, changed to a minor extent. The impact of the Italian smoke-free policy on smoking and inequalities in smoking was short-term. Smoke-free policies may not achieve the secondary effect of reducing smoking prevalence in the long term, and they may have limited effects on inequalities in smoking. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  14. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchy Leslie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex

  15. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  16. Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy.

  17. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  18. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  20. Working with Your Legislative Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to work with legislative delegation to get positive legislation passed. Most school districts have a person who is responsible for working with the legislators and informing them of the district's position on bills and issues that arise in each legislative session. Even if one has a full-time or part-time…

  1. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants' Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-06-04

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n=240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n=346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-valuesmoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places.

  2. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  3. ‘It’s about the smoke, not the smoker’: messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were conducted. Participants reviewed and rated a collection of print media advertisements and branding materials used by rural communities to promote smoke-free policies. Findings reveal that negative emotional tone, loss framing, appeals to religiosity, and shifting focus away from smokers are effective strategies with rural audiences. Potential pitfalls were identified. Attacks on smokers may not be a useful strategy. Health risk messages reinforced beliefs of secondhand smoke harm but some argued that the messages needed to appeal to smokers and emphasize health hazards to smokers, rather than to non-smokers only. Messages describing ineffectiveness of smoking sections were understood but participants felt they were only relevant for restaurants and not all public spaces. Emphasis on religiosity and social norms shows promise as a culturally sensitive approach to promoting smoke-free environments in rural communities. PMID:23969628

  4. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  5. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  6. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  7. Economic evaluation of a 100% smoke-free law on the hospitality industry in an Argentinean province Evaluación económica sobre las ventas del sector gastronómico después de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo en una provincia argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Candioti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smokefree environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. RESULTS: Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en una provincia argentina. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de serie temporal sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en Santa Fe, 31 meses antes y 29 meses después de la ley. Se utilizó a la provincia vecina de Entre Ríos, sin ley en el momento del estudio, como provincia control. RESULTADOS: El promedio de ventas post-ley tanto en la provincia de Santa Fe como en sus dos ciudades más importantes fue mayor al compararse con el promedio provincial total pre-ley. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las ventas totales al ser comparadas con la provincia de Entre Ríos. CONCLUSIONES: No se demostró evidencia estadísticamente significativa sobre el impacto negativo de la legislación de ambientes 100% libres de humo sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en la provincia de Santa Fe.

  8. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  10. The introduction of smoke-free hospitality venues in Norway. Impact on revenues, frequency of patronage, satisfaction and compliance. Evaluation of public tobacco control work in Norway 2003 - 2007 Report 8 from HEMIL/SIRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2006-01-01

    - 1.1 Background After 16 years of exceptions from §6 of the Act relating to prevention of the harmful effects of tobacco, the so-called Tobacco Act, a smoke-free regime was introduced at all hospitality venues from 1 June 2004. The previous regulations regarding smoke- free areas in bars, pubs, cafés and restaurants were thereby superseded by an absolute ban on smoking indoors. The authorities' most important reason for revoking the exception was to afford employees in t...

  11. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  12. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  13. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  14. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  16. Ethiopia's New Cybercrime Legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinfe Micheal Yilma

    Ethiopia introduced the first set of cybercrime rules with the enactment of the ... Information Network Security Agency (INSA)– released a draft comprehensive .... attention to the importance of cooperation with law enforcement bodies of other.

  17. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  18. The legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States Congress has only recently become interested in the issue of ballistic missile proliferation. It was primarily as a result of the outcome of the debate over chemical weapons legislation that Congress joined the issue of ballistic missile proliferation in the matter of restraints on foreign countries, particularly those based in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) countries. This paper addresses the following questions: Is it Congress's place to enforce compliance with international agreements? More importantly, will such measures have the desired effect?

  19. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  20. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  1. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  2. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  3. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  4. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  6. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  7. Iniciativas para el control del tabaquismo: la Red Catalana de Hospitales Libres de Humo Initiatives for smoking control: The Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Méndez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La Red Catalana de Hospitales Libres de Humo, promovida por el Instituto Catalán de Oncología (ICO y en funcionamiento desde el año 2000, cuenta en la actualidad (diciembre, 2003 con 45 de los 66 hospitales de utilización pública de Cataluña. El funcionamiento organizativo mediante una red favorece y refuerza el intercambio de experiencias en tiempo real, el apoyo mutuo respecto a instrumentos educativos, de formación y evaluación, y posibilita la realización de una formación continuada común. Iniciativas de este tipo, a partir de un trabajo consensuado y en red, facilitan el avance en el control del consumo de tabaco.The Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals was created by the Catalan Institute of Oncology in 2000. Currently (December 2003, 45 of the 66 hospitals of the Public Health System in Catalonia are members of this network. Organization through a network promotes and strengthens the exchange of experiences in real time. It provides mutual support in education, training and evaluation and enables common continuing training. Such an initiative, based on consensual work through a network, facilitates progress in tobacco control.

  8. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  9. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  10. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  11. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  12. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  13. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  14. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  15. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  16. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  17. Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Grant, Kristy; Robertson, Jan; Wrigley, Matthew; Nichols, Nina; Fitzgibbon, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a ‘smoke-free home’ rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of conducting a health-driven intervention to encourage community members to make their homes a smoke-free zone. Methods and analysis This study uses mixed-methods exploratory evaluation design to obtain data from key informants and community householders to assess their willingness to implement a ‘smoke-free’ rule in their homes. Initial focus groups will provide guidance on intervention content and deliver evaluation procedures and community requirements. A rapid survey will be conducted to ascertain interest from community members in having the project team visit to discuss study objectives further and to have a particle meter (with consent) placed in the house. Focus groups recordings will be transcribed and analysed thematically. Rapid surveys will be analysed using frequency distributions and tabulations of responses. Ethics and dissemination The National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines on ethical research approaches to indigenous studies will be adhered to. The James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee has provided ethics approval. PMID:29500205

  18. 'Excuse me, sir. Please don't smoke here'. A qualitative study of social enforcement of smoke-free policies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Merritt, Alice Payne; Rimbatmaja, Risang; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-10-01

    District policies were recently put into place in Indonesia prohibiting smoking in public spaces. This study sought to (1) assess participants' general knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) dangers; (2) assess participants' awareness of and specific knowledge of smoke-free (SF) policies; and (3) assess the extent to which such policies are socially enforced and gather examples of successful social enforcement. Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Bogor and Palembang cities with both community members and key informants such as government officials, non-government agency staff, religious leaders and health workers. Participants in both Palembang and Bogor find SF policy important. Although there was awareness of SHS dangers and SF policies, accurate knowledge of the dangers and an in-depth understanding of the policies varied. There was a high level of support for the SF policies in both cities among both smokers and non-smokers. Many participants did have experience asking a smoker not to smoke in an area where it was restricted, even if their comfort in doing so varied. There was, however, a higher level of comfort in telling smokers to stop or to move away from pregnant women and children. Hesitation to socially enforce the policies was especially present when asking men of status and/or community leaders to stop smoking, but overall participants felt they could comfortably ask someone to obey the law. Palembang and Bogor may be evolving towards creating social norms in support of prohibiting smoking in public spaces. If provided with more support from government and law officials, such as government officials themselves promoting the policies and demonstrating compliance, and renewed efforts to promote and enforce policies in general were made, Indonesians in these cities may feel more confident protecting non-smokers from SHS. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and

  19. ‘Excuse me, sir. Please don’t smoke here’. A qualitative study of social enforcement of smoke-free policies in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Merritt, Alice Payne; Rimbatmaja, Risang; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Objective District policies were recently put into place in Indonesia prohibiting smoking in public spaces. This study sought to (1) assess participants’ general knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) dangers; (2) assess participants’ awareness of and specific knowledge of smoke-free (SF) policies; and (3) assess the extent to which such policies are socially enforced and gather examples of successful social enforcement. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Bogor and Palembang cities with both community members and key informants such as government officials, non-government agency staff, religious leaders and health workers. Results Participants in both Palembang and Bogor find SF policy important. Although there was awareness of SHS dangers and SF policies, accurate knowledge of the dangers and an in-depth understanding of the policies varied. There was a high level of support for the SF policies in both cities among both smokers and non-smokers. Many participants did have experience asking a smoker not to smoke in an area where it was restricted, even if their comfort in doing so varied. There was, however, a higher level of comfort in telling smokers to stop or to move away from pregnant women and children. Hesitation to socially enforce the policies was especially present when asking men of status and/or community leaders to stop smoking, but overall participants felt they could comfortably ask someone to obey the law. Conclusion Palembang and Bogor may be evolving towards creating social norms in support of prohibiting smoking in public spaces. If provided with more support from government and law officials, such as government officials themselves promoting the policies and demonstrating compliance, and renewed efforts to promote and enforce policies in general were made, Indonesians in these cities may feel more confident protecting non-smokers from SHS. PMID:25244917

  20. Assessing the effect of Michigan's smoke-free law on air quality inside restaurants and casinos: a before-and-after observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamo, Farid; Wilson, Teri; Kiley, Janet; Repace, James

    2015-07-16

    To assess the effect of Michigan's smoke-free air (SFA) law on the air quality inside selected restaurants and casinos. The hypothesis of the study: if the SFA law is effectively implemented in restaurants and casinos, there will be a significant reduction in the particulate matter PM2.5 measured in the same establishments after the law is implemented. Prelaw and postlaw design study. 78 restaurants in 14 Michigan cities from six major regions of the state, and three Detroit casinos. We monitored the real-time PM2.5 in 78 restaurants and three Detroit casinos before the SFA law, and again monitored the same restaurants and casinos after implementation of the law, which was enacted on 1 May 2010. Concentration measurements of secondhand smoke (SHS) fine particles (PM2.5) were compared in each restaurant in the prelaw period to measurements of PM2.5 in the same restaurants during the postlaw period. A second comparison was made for PM2.5 levels in three Detroit casinos prelaw and postlaw; these casinos were exempted from the SFA law. Prelaw data indicated that 85% of the restaurants had poor to hazardous air quality, with the average venue having 'unhealthy' air according to Michigan's Air Quality Index for PM2.5. Postlaw, air quality in 93% of the restaurants improved to 'good'. The differences were statistically significant (prestaurants after implementation of the SFA law indicates that the law was very effective in reducing exposure to SHS. Since the Detroit casinos were exempted from the law, the air quality was unchanged, and remained unhealthy in both prelaw and postlaw periods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Theoretical impacts of a range of major tobacco retail outlet reduction interventions: modelling results in a country with a smoke-free nation goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Cobiac, Linda; Blakely, Tony

    2015-03-01

    To inform endgame strategies in tobacco control, this study aimed to estimate the impact of interventions that markedly reduced availability of tobacco retail outlets. The setting was New Zealand, a developed nation where the government has a smoke-free nation goal in 2025. Various legally mandated reductions in outlets that were phased in over 10 years were modelled. Geographic analyses using the road network were used to estimate the distance and time travelled from centres of small areas to the reduced number of tobacco outlets, and from there to calculate increased travel costs for each intervention. Age-specific price elasticities of demand were used to estimate future smoking prevalence. With a law that required a 95% reduction in outlets, the cost of a pack of 20 cigarettes (including travel costs) increased by 20% in rural areas and 10% elsewhere and yielded a smoking prevalence of 9.6% by 2025 (compared with 9.9% with no intervention). The intervention that permitted tobacco sales at only 50% of liquor stores resulted in the largest cost increase (∼$60/pack in rural areas) and the lowest prevalence (9.1%) by 2025. Elimination of outlets within 2 km of schools produced a smoking prevalence of 9.3%. This modelling merges geographic, economic and epidemiological methodologies in a novel way, but the results should be interpreted cautiously and further research is desirable. Nevertheless, the results still suggest that tobacco outlet reduction interventions could modestly contribute to an endgame goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The smoking ban next door: do hospitality businesses in border areas have reduced sales after a statewide smoke-free policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Hood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating no significant economic effects on hospitality businesses following a statewide smoke-free (SF) policy, regional concerns suggest that areas near states without SF policies may experience a loss of hospitality sales across the border. The present study evaluated the impact of Ohio's statewide SF policy on taxable restaurant and bar sales in border and non-border areas. Spline regression analysis was used to assess changes in monthly taxable sales at the county level in full-service restaurants and bars in Ohio. Data were analyzed from four years prior to policy implementation to three years post-policy. Change in the differences in the slope of taxable sales for border (n = 21) and non-border (n = 67) counties were evaluated for changes following the statewide SF policy enforcement, adjusted for unemployment rates, general trends in the hospitality sector, and seasonality. After adjusting for covariates, there was no statistically significant change in the difference in slope for taxable sales for either restaurants (β = 0.9, p = 0.09) or bars (β = 0.2, p = 0.07) following the SF policy for border areas compared to non-border areas of Ohio. Border regions in Ohio did not experience a significant change in bar and restaurant sales compared to non-border areas following a statewide SF policy. Results support that Ohio's statewide SF policy did not impact these two areas differently, and provide additional evidence for the continued use of SF policies to provide protection from exposure to secondhand smoke for both workers and the general public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    - International co-operation: Law ratifying the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Greece in the area of education and training; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Ministerial decision establishing requirements for nuclear safety and regulatory control of research reactors; Moldova - General legislation: New comprehensive law governing nuclear and radiological activities; United States - Issuance of the 'Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste'; - Ongoing activities: The Blue Ribbon Commission noted the need for near-term actions that can lay the groundwork for the next generation of nuclear waste policies and programmes included in its recommendations; - Physical protection of by-product material final rulemaking: On 19 March 2013, the NRC published a final rule amending its regulations to establish security requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material; - Update on the NRC's response to the events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear site regarding filtered vents and consideration of economic consequences

  4. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  5. Legislative coalitions with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Laver, Michael

    2017-03-14

    In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions typically make the "common knowledge" assumption that the preferences of all politicians are public information. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to investigate which legislative coalitions form when politicians' policy preferences are private information, not known with certainty by the other politicians with whom they are negotiating over what policies to implement. The model we develop has distinctive implications. It suggests that legislative coalitions should typically be either of the center left or the center right. In other words our model, distinctively, predicts only center-left or center-right policy coalitions, not coalitions comprising the median party plus parties both to its left and to its right.

  6. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  7. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  9. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  11. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  13. Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Comprehensive Care Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Comprehensive Care Understand the importance of comprehensive MS care ... In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a ...

  14. Towards a smoke-free hospital: how the smoking status of health professionals influences their knowledge, attitude and clinical activity. Results from a hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, E; Marani, A; Salvati, O; Mangiaracina, G; Prestigiacomo, C; Osborn, J F; Cattaruzza, M S

    2015-01-01

    dangers related to smoking both in their knowledge and in their behavior, and try to socially "normalize" smoking. All this and the evidence of cigarette butts in hospital rooms and clinics, notwithstanding the good quality of the air thanks to the modern ventilation system, imply that there is still a long way to go towards a smoke-free hospital.

  15. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  16. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  17. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  18. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  19. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  20. ACHP | News | Legislation Passes Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton. "Bipartisan approval of this legislation by an overwhelming margin reflects the Bingaman, former Senator Pete Domenici, and Senators Hillary Clinton and Richard Burr." At a Capitol , who introduced the House version; Sen. Hillary Clinton and former Sen.Pete Domenici, who introduced

  1. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  2. The Impact of FEP Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arvil

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, had three express focuses: (1) on urban poverty among blacks in the non-south; (2) on the enforcement of Fair Employment Practice (FEP) legislation and its effect on the economic position of blacks and other minority groups; and, (3) on guidelines…

  3. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  4. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  5. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  6. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights the issues to be dealt with during the 96th Congress including the establishment of a Department of Education, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and related programs, and funding for fiscal 1980 and 1981. (JMF)

  7. Compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian legislation with the legislation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author focuses on compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian law with the provisions of the European legislation. Analysing, on one hand, the treatment that experimental animals have under the law of European Union, and on the other hand, the treatment that they have in the law of Serbia, in accordance with the relevant acts and subordinate legislation acts, this article seeks to answer the question whether the degree of legal protection of experimental animals in domestic law is satisfactory, as well as whether and to what extent the relevant national legislation complies with the European standards. At the same time, the article attempts to point out the appropriate measures necessary to be taken in the future in order to achieve as high quality and comprehensive protection of experimental animals as possible in Serbian law.

  8. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  9. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  10. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    for the renovation of the Cannon House Office Building and the condition of the Rayburn building, the effect of the sequester on overtime work, plans...provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177...Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation , the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2012

  11. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  12. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  13. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  14. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  15. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  16. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  17. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  18. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  19. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  20. Failure of hospital employees to comply with smoke-free policy is associated with nicotine dependence and motives for smoking: a descriptive cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Kenrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free policy aims to protect the health of the population by reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and World Health Organisation (WHO guidance notes that these policies are only successful if there is full and proper enforcement. We aimed to investigate the problem of resistance to smoking restrictions and specifically compliance with smoke-free policy. We hypothesised that an explanation for non-compliance would lie in a measurable difference between the smoking behaviours of compliant and non-compliant smokers, specifically that non-compliance would be associated with nicotine dependence and different reasons for smoking. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study of hospital employees. Seven hundred and four members of staff at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, completed the questionnaire, of whom 101 were smokers. Comparison between compliant and non-compliant smokers was made based on calculated scores for the Fagerström test and the Horn-Waingrow scale, and level of agreement with questions about attitudes. For ordinal data we used a linear-by-linear association test. For non-parametric independent variables we used the Mann-Whitney test and for associations between categorical variables we used the chi-squared test. Results The demographic composition of respondents corresponded with the hospital's working population in gender, age, job profile and ethnicity. Sixty nine smokers reported they were compliant while 32 were non-compliant. Linear-by-linear association analysis of the compliant and non-compliant smokers' answers for the Fagerström test suggests association between compliance and nicotine dependence (p = 0.049. Mann-Whitney test analysis suggests there is a statistically significant difference between the reasons for smoking of the two groups: specifically that non-compliant smokers showed habitual smoking behaviour (p = 0.003. Overall

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  3. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  4. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries.

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  6. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsson, Christian; Andersen, Per Conradi

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  7. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  8. Association between Smokefree Legislation and Hospitalizations for Cardiac, Cerebrovascular and Respiratory Diseases: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Crystal E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smokefree legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Methods and Results Random effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smokefree legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 using Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified papers. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smokefree law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smokefree laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range 2–57 months) were included. Comprehensive smokefree legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (RR .848, 95% CI .816–.881), other heart disease (RR .610, 95% CI .440–.847), cerebrovascular accidents (RR .840, 95% CI .753–.936), and respiratory disease (RR .760, 95% CI .682–.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smokefree laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Conclusions Smokefree legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk. PMID:23109514

  9. Impacto de la implantación de una política de trabajo libre de humo en una empresa Impact of a smoke-free workplace policy in a company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Artazcoz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la implantación de una política integral de trabajo libre de humo en una empresa. Método: Se evaluó el impacto de la implantación de una política integral de trabajo libre de humo entre octubre de 2001 y febrero de 2003 en un centro de 184 trabajadores mediante dos encuestas dirigidas a toda la plantilla, una al comienzo y otra 14 meses después. Resultados: Se redujo tanto la exposición pasiva al humo del tabaco como el consumo de cigarrillos entre las personas que continuaban fumando. La proporción de personas no expuestas al humo del tabaco ambiental en el trabajo aumentó del 32 al 84% (p Objective: To assess the impact of a smoke-free workplace policy in a company. Method: The impact of the implementation of a smoke-free workplace policy was assessed between October 2001 and February 2003 in a company with 184 employees. Two surveys of the entire staff were performed, one before the implementation of the new policy and the other 14 months after. Results: Both passive exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco consumption among smokers decreased. The proportion of workers free of tobacco smoke exposure at their workplace increased from 32% to 84% (p < 0.001 and, among smokers, the mean daily consumption of cigarettes was reduced by 7.3 cigarettes (p = 0.049. Conclusions: Demarkation of areas where smoking is allowed not only reduces passive exposure to tobacco smoke at the workplace but also seems to encourage smokers to quit smoking or to reduce tobacco consumption.

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  12. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  13. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  14. Invalidity of contract: legislative regulation and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Іванович Крат

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invalidity contracts always attracted attention researchers. Without regard to it, in modern conditions there is an enormous layer of the problems related to invalidity contract, that to require a doctrine and utilitarian comprehension. The article is sanctified to research invalidity contract. In the article analyses problems of the legislative regulation and types of invalidity contract through the prism of judicial practice. In the Civil code of Ukraine, a voidable contract sets as a common rule. A voidable of the contract is incarnated in the so-called «virtual» invalidity when only the most typical grounds are enumerated. However, even such approach does not allow to overcome all possible cases that arise up in practice. Such situation touches possibility of voidable contracts concluded with the purpose of to shut out the appeal of claim to the property of the debtor. Therefore it follows to set general rules in relation to voidable contracts of the debtor. A nullity of the contract takes place only in the case when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity. The nullity of contract in the Civil code of Ukraine is constructed by means of «textual» invalidity. There are no single attempts to use the construction of «virtual» invalidity in judicial practice when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity, that is impermissible. Methodologically incorrectly to carry out identifying of invalidity contract and obligation with the aim of providing of application of different after the rich in content filling norms.

  15. Model Legislation for GAAP and GASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by all state and local governments may require legislation. Findings from a survey of states to get data on current accounting and financial reporting practices are summarized. Model legislation to provide uniformity in accounting and reporting is presented. (MLF)

  16. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  17. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  18. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  19. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  20. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  1. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  2. How restaurant and bar owners view clean indoor air legislation five years after implementation in North Carolina, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Houston Staples

    2017-08-01

    This study reveals successes of North Carolina’s smoke-free law. The majority of respondents reported experiencing at least one benefit of the law and some reported that they had implemented additional voluntary policies. Learning more about how hospitality businesses experience smoke-free laws can help other states and communities deal with similar policy changes in the future.

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reviews the recent National legislative and regulatory activities: Algeria (Establishment of a nuclear security centre); Armenia (Amendment to the Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes); Brazil (creation of a Support Centre for Safety and Radiation Protection - Centro de Apoio a Seguranca Fisica Nuclear e Radiologica - CENASF); Canada (enacting of the Nuclear Terrorism Act,4 which amends the Criminal Code, creating four new Criminal Code offences related to nuclear terrorism; proposal to replace the existing Nuclear Liability Act with the increase of the amount of compensation available to address civil nuclear damage); France (National plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste - PNGMDR; Law No.2013-580 of 4 July 2013 authorising approval of the agreement between France and Monaco on the management of Monegasque radioactive waste in the French territory; Decree No.2013-675 of 25 July 2013 publishing an agreement of co-operation between France and Saudi Arabia for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes); Germany (Act for retrieving radioactive waste from and decommissioning the Asse II Mine); Greece (Decree transposing Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom); Ireland (Adoption of European Communities Regulations on Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment); Luxembourg (Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste); Poland (New requirements for employees concerning radiological protection; New detailed requirements for nuclear facility siting, design, commissioning and operation, organisational unit commissioning, periodical safety assessment, decommissioning and fund contributions; New regulation on subsidies related to nuclear safety and radiological protection; New requirements on transparency of

  4. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  5. Tradition and change in power industry legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.; Boerner, B.; Friauf, K.H.; Salzwedel, J.; Selmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    On September 24-25, 1985 the 15th conference of the Institute for Energy Law took place in Cologne. This book contains five of the lectures held at the conference. They deal with the following subjects: Constitutional restrictions of autonomous energy policy of the Land governments; compulsory connection to and use of district heating; is there any necessity for amending the anti-trust law for reasons of energy policy; environmental law - planning law - gaps in the legislation concerning the energy sector; Energy Industry Law - are there legislative deficiencies, or is it an adequate, correct legislative instrument. (HSCH) [de

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  7. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This section gathers several amendments, rules and acts published in 2010 and sorted by country: 1 - Bulgaria: Amendment to the Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (2010); 2 - France: Law on the new organisation of the electricity market (2010); 3 - Germany: Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants (2010); Amendment to the Reliability Assessment Ordinance (2010); Amendment to the Ordinance on Persons Responsible for Nuclear Safety and on Reportable Events (2010); Amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (2010); 4 - Greece: Decree transposing European Council Directive 2006/117/EURATOM (2010); 5 - India: Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010); 6 - Romania: Amendment to Article 35 of Law 111/1996 regarding new tasks of CNCAN (2010); Order approving norms regarding the radiological monitoring or recyclable metal materials (2010); 7 - Serbia: Establishment of the Agency for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2009); 8 - Slovenia: Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities (2009); Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors (2009); Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (2010); 9 - Sweden: Abolishment of the Act on phasing out of nuclear energy (2010); Act on Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2010); 10 - United States: Final rule on the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel (2010); Status of the high-level waste repository programme (2010); Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (2010); Final rule on the export and import of nuclear equipment and material (2010)

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    provided in this update, an increase of eight countries from the original review. The nature of the intervention precludes randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies used an interrupted time series study design, 23 studies use a controlled before-and-after design and 18 studies are before-and-after studies with no control group; six of these studies use a cohort design. Seventy-two studies reported health outcomes, including cardiovascular (44), respiratory (21), and perinatal outcomes (7). Eleven studies reported national mortality rates for smoking-related diseases. A number of the studies report multiple health outcomes. There is consistent evidence of a positive impact of national smoking bans on improving cardiovascular health outcomes, and reducing mortality for associated smoking-related illnesses. Effects on respiratory and perinatal health were less consistent. We found 24 studies evaluating the impact of national smoke-free legislation on smoking behaviour. Evidence of an impact of legislative bans on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption is inconsistent, with some studies not detecting additional long-term change in existing trends in prevalence. Since the first version of this review was published, the current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to improved health outcomes through reduction in SHS for countries and their populations. The clearest evidence is observed in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence of reduced mortality from smoking-related illnesses at a national level. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

  9. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  11. The Emerging Legislative Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the capacity, internal distribution of power, habits of work, and composition of state legislators have increased their involvement and assertiveness in educational policy formation, oversight, and control. (Author/MLF)

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  14. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  17. Page | 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    NAUJILJ 9 (2) 2018. Page | 133 ... Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. ... Representatives is led by a Speaker.6 The election of the leadership of the senate is entirely the affair of.

  18. The economic impact of merger control legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

  19. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  20. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  1. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    model texts, recognizing that they provide only a starting point and basic outline of necessary provisions that will need to be shaped to be consistent with each State's national approach to legislative drafting, cultural and social norms, economic structure, and the nature of its nuclear programme. It contains the most up to date and comprehensive guidance for Member States in enhancing their legal and regulatory frameworks for nuclear energy development

  2. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  4. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  5. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara E. McGee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. Methods A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0, and at 8 months (T1 and one year post-intervention (T2. Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student, adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18 were conducted at T1. Results 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08–0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02–0.17 or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11–0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07–0.52. At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21–1.23. Intervention participants were more likely to ‘definitely’ believe that: ‘it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07–1.33, ‘it is difficult to quit smoking once started’ (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38–1.76, ‘smoke from other peoples’ cigarettes is harmful’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20–2.08, ‘smoking affects sports performance’ (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59–1.88 and ‘smoking makes ‘no difference

  6. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-05-26

    Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0), and at 8 months (T1) and one year post-intervention (T2). Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student), adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18) were conducted at T1. 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08-0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02-0.17) or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11-0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07-0.52). At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21-1.23). Intervention participants were more likely to 'definitely' believe that: 'it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.33), 'it is difficult to quit smoking once started' (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38-1.76), 'smoke from other peoples' cigarettes is harmful' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.08), 'smoking affects sports performance' (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59-1.88) and 'smoking makes 'no difference' to weight' (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.86-2.44). At T2, significant between

  7. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  9. An Overview of Pending Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Nezer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no significant legislation related to the asylum process enacted in Congress in nearly a decade.  In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA became law, rolling back protections for asylum seekers by including a one-year deadline for filing asylum applications, subjecting asylum seekers to “expedited removal” procedures, and expanding the detention of asylum seekers. In 2005, Congress enacted the REAL ID Act, which created additional legal barriers to asylum, including new requirements for proving an asylum claim. During the past several sessions of Congress, bills have been introduced that would make significant changes to the country’s asylum laws and refugee admissions program. This paper provides an overview of the pending legislation and the changes proposed.  This overview is instructive in understanding (1 which members of Congress have demonstrated interest and leadership in refugee and asylum issues; (2 which refugee and asylum reform issues have been of most interest to members of Congress in recent years; (3 the different approaches to refugee and asylum issues by members of Congress who have shown leadership on these issues; and (4 which provisions have been enacted, which have gained traction, and which remain pending without significant movement through the legislative process.While it is difficult to imagine in the current partisan climate how any asylum or refugee legislation could be enacted into law, some legislative provisions have been reintroduced over a number of sessions of Congress and some have a history of bipartisan support.  Legislation focused on a group of particular interest or concern to members of Congress could gain traction.  A more comprehensive legislative approach framed by the need generally to improve the system could be less effective, particularly in the context of the years-long stalemate on comprehensive immigration reform

  10. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs

  11. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among....... Particular attention will be paid to the evolution of legislation and to the experiences of both EU and non-EU countries. In recent years, a number of different stakeholders have supported the legalization of edible insect consumption in Europe, but market permission is just the first step towards a new...

  12. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  13. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  14. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  15. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  16. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  17. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  18. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  19. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  20. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  1. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact

  2. Guidelines for the Review of Environmental-Related Legislation Regarding the Realisation of the Right to Access to Sufficient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO proposes a three-level strategy for the implementation of the right to food on a national legislative level, namely through: constitutional recognition, the implementation of a food framework law and the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation. This contribution focuses on the last level of legislative provisioning, namely the reviewing of relevant sectoral legislation which influences, or possibly can, influence the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The right to access to sufficient food has multidimensional, interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral characteristics and consequently various sectors are involved in the realisation of the right to access to sufficient food. The FAO determines that the intended purpose will be to identify and review all sectoral legislation that might influence the availability, stability, access and adequacy of food, by means of a proposed reviewing process. The suggested reviewing process of the FAO is comprehensive and diverse; therefore the focus of this contribution is based on the reviewing of relevant environmental-related legislation only. The FAO does not make recommendations with regard to the specific aspects that need to be incorporated in environmental-related legislation to contribute to the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food (in other words the aspects against which environmental-related legislation can be evaluated. Therefore this

  3. Philosophocal and legislation aspects of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariadze, A

    2011-06-01

    Among current bioethical issues one of the most dilemmatic is an issue of surrogacy. It causes great moral, ethical and legal debate. The article aims to show philosophical and legislation aspects of surrogacy. The meaning of "motherhood", "kinship", "liberty" in connection with surrogacy is analyzed. The article provides an overview of Georgian Orthodox Church on surrogate motherhood.

  4. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  5. Colombian mining legislation; Legislacion minera colombiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-07-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001.

  6. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  7. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  8. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several